Sei sulla pagina 1di 15

1. Specify a unit vector extending from the origin to point A (2,-2,1).

𝐴 = 2𝑎𝑥 − 2𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧

/A/ = √(2)2 + (−2)2 + (1)2

= √9
/A/ = 3

2𝑎𝑥 2𝑎𝑦 𝑎𝑧
𝑎𝐴 = − +
3 3 3

𝑎𝐴 = 0.667𝑎𝑥 − 0.667𝑎𝑦 + 0.333𝑎𝑧

2. Determine the unit vector that extends from the origin to point B (-2,3,-5).
𝐴 = −2𝑎𝑥 = 3𝑎𝑦 − 5𝑎𝑧

/A/ = √(−2)2 + (3)2 + (−5)2

= √38
/A/ = 6.164

−2𝑎𝑥 3𝑎𝑦 5𝑎𝑧


𝑎𝐴 = + −
6.164 6.164 6.164

𝑎𝐴 = −3.24𝑎𝑥 + 0.487𝑎𝑦 − 0.811𝑎𝑧

3. A drone travel making a vector of A=3ax +2ay-3az then it travel again making a vector
of B=4bx+2by-3bz what is vector if it travels back to the origin in a straight path?
A+B=(3 + 4)𝑎𝑥 + (2 + 2)𝑎𝑦 + (−3 − 3)𝑎𝑧

=−(7𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑎𝑦 − 6𝑎𝑧 )

4. Determine the vector AB directed from A(3,2,-4) to B(-4,-2,-5).


AB=(𝐵𝑥 − 𝐴𝑥 )𝑎𝑥 + (𝐵𝑦 − 𝐴𝑦 )𝑎𝑦 + (𝐵𝑧 − 𝐴𝑧 )𝑎𝑧

=(−4 − 3)𝑎𝑥 + (−2 − 2)𝑎𝑦 + (−5 − (−5))𝑎𝑧

=−7𝑎𝑥 − 4𝑎𝑦 − 𝑎𝑧
5. Find the vector A directed from (2,-4,1) to (0,-2,0) determine also the unit vector A.
A=(0 − 2)𝑎𝑥 + (−2 − (−4))𝑎𝑦 + (0 − 1)𝑎𝑧

A=−2𝑎𝑥 + 2𝑎𝑦 − 𝑎𝑧

/A/ = √(−2)2 + (2)2 + (−1)2

= √9
/A/ = 3

−2𝑎𝑥 2𝑎𝑦 1𝑎𝑧


𝑎𝐴 = + −
3 3 3

=−0.667𝑎𝑥 + 0.667𝑎𝑦 − 0.333𝑎𝑧

6. For two points P(1,4,3) and Q(4,1,2). Express ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑃𝑄 .
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ . = (4 − 1)𝑎𝑥 + (1 − 4)𝑎𝑦 + (2 − 3)𝑎𝑧
𝑃𝑄

= 3𝑎𝑥 − 3𝑎𝑦 − 𝑎𝑧

1
7. For three points A(0,-1,4), B(2,4,1) and C(3,0,2). Express ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) + 1 ( ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
(𝐴𝐵
1
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) .
𝐵𝐶 ) + (𝐴𝐶
2 3 6

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐴𝐵 = (2 − 0)𝑎𝑥 + (4 − (−1))𝑎𝑦 + (1 − 4)𝑎𝑧

= 2𝑎𝑥 + 5𝑎𝑦 − 3𝑎𝑧

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = (3 − 2)𝑎𝑥 + (0 − 4)𝑎𝑦 + (2 − 1)𝑎𝑧


𝐵𝐶

= 𝑎𝑥 − 4𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = (3 − 0)𝑎𝑥 + (0 − (−1))𝑎𝑦 + (2 − 4)𝑎𝑧


𝐴𝐶

= 3𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 − 2𝑎𝑧

1 1 1 1 1 1
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
( 𝐴𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) + ( 𝐴𝐶
) + 3 (𝐵𝐶 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) = (2𝑎𝑥 + 5𝑎𝑦 − 3𝑎𝑧 ) + (𝑎𝑥 − 4𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 ) + (3𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 − 2𝑎𝑧 )
2 6 2 3 6

5 3 1 4 1 1 1 1
=𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 − 𝑎𝑧 + 𝑎𝑥 − 𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 + 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 − 𝑎𝑧
2 2 3 3 3 2 6 3

=1.833𝑎𝑥 + 1.333𝑎𝑦 − 1.5𝑎𝑧


8. The three vertices of triangle ABC are located at A(6,-1,2), B(-2,3,-4) and C(-3,1,5).
Find:
a) 𝑅𝐴𝐵
𝑅𝐴𝐵 = (−2 − 6)𝑎𝑥 + (3 − (−1))𝑎𝑦 + (−4 − 2)𝑎𝑧

=−8𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑎𝑦 − 6𝑎𝑧

b) 𝑅𝐴𝐶
𝑅𝐴𝑐 = (−3 − 6)𝑎𝑥 + (1 − (−1))𝑎𝑦 + (5 − 2)𝑎𝑧

=−9𝑎𝑥 + 2𝑎𝑦 + 3𝑎𝑧

c) The angle BAC


𝑅𝐴𝐵 ∙ 𝑅𝐴𝐶 = (−8)(−9) + (4)(2) + (−6)(3)
= 62
𝑅𝐴𝐵 ∙𝑅𝐴𝐶
𝜃 = cos −1 /𝑅𝐴𝐵 / = √(−8)2 + (4)2 + (−6)2 = 10.77
/𝑅𝐴𝐵 //𝑅𝐴𝐶 /

62
= cos −1 /𝑅𝐴𝐶 / = √(−9)2 + (2)2 + (3)2 = 9.695
(10.77)(9.695)

=53.6°

d) The vector projection of 𝑅𝐴𝐵 𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝐴𝐶


−9𝑎𝑥 +2𝑎𝑦 +3𝑎𝑧
𝑅𝐴𝐵 𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝐴𝐶 = 10.77 ( ) (cos 53.6)
9.695
−9𝑎𝑥 +2𝑎𝑦 +3𝑎𝑧
= 6.39 ( )
9.695

=−5.93𝑎𝑥 + 1.315𝑎𝑦 + 1.97𝑎𝑧

9. Transform the vector 𝐵 = 𝑦𝑎𝑥 − 𝑥𝑎𝑦 + 𝑧𝑎𝑧 to cylindrical coordinates.

𝐵𝜌 = 𝐵 ∙ 𝑎𝜌

= (𝑦𝑎𝑥 − 𝑥𝑎𝑦 )𝑎𝜌

= 𝜌 sin ∅ 𝑎𝑥∙ 𝑎𝜌 − 𝜌 cos ∅ 𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎𝜌

=0

𝐵∅ = 𝐵 ∙ 𝑎∅
= (𝑦𝑎𝑥 − 𝑥𝑎𝑦 )𝑎∅

= 𝜌 sin ∅ 𝑎𝑥∙ 𝑎∅ − 𝜌 cos ∅ 𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎∅


= 𝜌 sin ∅ (− sin ∅) − 𝜌 cos ∅ (cos ∅)
= −𝜌 sin2 ∅ − 𝜌 cos 2 ∅
= −𝜌
𝐵𝑧 = 𝑧𝑎𝑧 ∙ 𝑎𝑧
=𝑧
Ans. 𝐵 = −𝜌𝑎∅ + 𝑧

10.
a. Give the Cartesian coordinates of the pt. C (𝜌 = 4.4 , ∅ = −115° , 𝑧 = 2).

𝑥 = 𝜌𝑐𝑜𝑠∅ = 4.4 cos(−115) = −1.859


𝑦 = 𝜌𝑠𝑖𝑛∅ = 4.4 sin(−115) = −3.988
z=2

b. Give the cylindrical coordinates of pt. D (x=-3.1 , y=2.6 , z=-3).

𝜌 = √(−3.1)2 + (2.6)2 = 4.046


2.6
∅ = tan−1 = −40° = 140°
−3.1
z=-3

c. Determine the distance from pt. C to D.

𝐷 = √(𝑥𝐷 − 𝑥𝑐 )2 + (𝑦𝐷 − 𝑦𝐶 )2 + (𝑧𝐷 − 𝑍𝐶 )2

= √(−3.1 + 1.895)2 + (2.6 + 3,988)2 + (−3 − 2)2

𝐷 = 8.363

11. Transform to cylindrical coordinates.

a. F=10𝑎𝑥 − 8𝑎𝑦 + 6𝑎𝑧

𝐹𝜌 = √(10)2 + (−8)2 = 12.806


8
∅ = tan−1 (− ) = −38.66 = 141.3°
10
𝑧=6

𝐹 = 12.806𝑎𝜌 − 38.66𝑎∅ + 6
b. 𝐺 = (2𝑥 + 𝑦)𝑎𝑥 − (𝑦 − 4𝑥)𝑎𝑦

𝐺𝜌 = (2𝑥 + 𝑦)𝑎𝑥 ∙ 𝑎𝜌 − (𝑦 − 4𝑥)𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎𝜌


= 2𝜌 cos 2 ∅ + 𝜌 sin ∅ cos ∅ − 𝜌 sin2 ∅ + 4𝜌𝑐𝑜𝑠∅𝑠𝑖𝑛∅
𝐺𝜌 = 2𝜌 cos 2 ∅ + 5𝜌 sin ∅ cos ∅ − 𝜌 sin2 ∅

𝐺∅ = (2𝑥 + 𝑦)𝑎𝑥 ∙ 𝑎∅ − (𝑦 − 4𝑥)𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎∅


= −2𝜌 cos ∅ sin ∅ − 𝜌 sin2 ∅ − 𝜌 sin ∅ cos ∅ + 4𝜌 cos 2 ∅
𝐺∅ = 4𝜌 cos 2 ∅ − 3𝜌 sin ∅ cos ∅ − 𝜌 sin2 ∅

𝐺𝑧 = 0

𝐺 = (2𝜌 cos 2 ∅ + 5𝜌 sin ∅ cos ∅ − 𝜌 sin2 ∅)𝑎𝑥 + ( 4𝜌 cos 2 ∅ − 3𝜌 sin ∅ cos ∅ − 𝜌 sin2 ∅)𝑎𝑦

12. Given two pt. C (-3,2,1) and D(𝑟 = 5 , 𝜃 = 20° , ∅ = −70°).


Find:
a.) the spherical coordinates of C.

𝑟 = √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2 = √32 + 22 + 12
𝑟 = 3.742

1
𝜃 = cos −1
3.742
𝜃 = 74.5°

2
∅ = tan−1
−3
∅ = −33.69° (146.31°)

𝐶( 𝑟 = 3.742 , 𝜃 = 74.5° , ∅ = −33.69 (146.31)

b.) the Cartesian coordinates of D.

𝑥 = 5 sin 20 cos −70 = 0.585


𝑦 = 5 sin 20 sin −70 = −1.61
𝑧 = 5 cos 20 = 4.698

𝐷 ( 𝑥 = 0.585 , 𝑦 = −1.61 , 𝑧 = 4.698 )


c.) distance from C to D.

𝑅𝐶𝐷 = (0.585 + 3)𝑎𝑥 + (−1.61 − 2)𝑎𝑦 + (4.71 − 1)𝑎𝑧


= 3.585𝑎𝑥 − 3.61𝑎𝑦 + 3.7𝑎𝑧
𝑅𝐶𝐷 = √(3.585)2 + (−3.61)2 + (3.7)2
𝑅𝐶𝐷 = 6.291

13. Transform the following vectors to spherical coordinates:

a) 10𝑎𝑥 @P(x=3, y=2, z=4)


𝑟 = √32 + 22 + 42 = 5.39

4
𝜃 = cos −1 = 42.093°
5.39

2
∅ = tan−1 = 33.69°
3

𝑎𝑟 = 10𝑎𝑥 ∙ 𝑎𝑟
𝑎𝑟 = 10 sin 42.09 cos 33.69
𝑎𝑟 = 5.577

𝑎𝜃 = 10𝑎𝑥 ∙ 𝑎𝜃
𝑎𝜃 = 10 cos 42.09 cos 33.69
𝑎𝜃 = 6.175

𝑎∅ = 10𝑎𝑥 ∙ 𝑎∅
𝑎∅ = 10(− sin 33.69)
𝑎∅ = −5.547

𝑃 = 5.577𝑎𝑟 + 6.175𝑎𝜃 − 5.547𝑎∅

b) 10𝑎𝑦 @Q(𝜌 = 5, ∅ = 30°, 𝑧 = 4)


𝑟 = √𝜌2 + 𝑧 2 = √52 + 42 = 6.403

4
𝜃 = cos −1 = 51.339°
6.403

4
∅ = tan−1 = 30°
6.403

𝑎𝑟 = 10𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎𝑟
𝑎𝑟 = 10 sin 51.339 sin 30
𝑎𝑟 = 3.904
𝑎𝜃 = 10𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎𝜃
𝑎𝜃 = 10 cos 51.339 sin 30
𝑎𝜃 = 3.124
𝑎∅ = 10𝑎𝑢 ∙ 𝑎∅
𝑎∅ = 10 cos 30
𝑎∅ = 8.66

𝑄 = 3.904𝑎𝑟 + 3.124𝑎𝜃 + 8.66𝑎∅

14. At pt. P(-3,4,-5) express a vector that extends from P to Q(2,0,1) in:
a. Cartesian
RPQ = Q − P = (2+3) ax + (0-4) ay + (-1+5) az
= 5ax − 4ay + 4az

b. Cylindrical
RPQ ・ aρ = (5ax − 4ay −4az) ・ aρ
= 5 cos 141.34− 4 sin 141.34
= -6.403

RPQ ・ aØ = (5ax − 4ay − 4az) ・ aØ


= −5 sin 141.34− 4 cos 141.34
= −2𝑥10−5

RPQ ・ az = (5ax − 4ay − 4az) ・ az


= 5(0) − 4(0) + 4
=4

RPQ = -6.4030aρ −2𝑥10−5 aØ +4az

c. Spherical

𝑟 = √52 + 42 + 42 = 7.55
4
𝜃 = cos −1 = 58.01
7.55
−1 −4
∅= tan = −38.66° (141.34°)
5

RPQ ・ ar = (5ax − 4ay +4az) ・ ar


= 5 sin 58.01 cos 141.34 − 4 sin 58.01 sin 141.34 + 4 cos 58.01
= -3.11

RPQ ・ aθ = (5ax − 4ay − 6az) ・ aθ


= 5 cos 141.34 cos 58.01 − 4 cos θ sin 141.34 + (−4) sin 58.01
= -6.78
RPQ ・ aØ = (5ax − 4ay + 4az) ・ aØ
= −5 sin 141.34 − 4 cos 141.34
= -2.143𝑥10−5
RPQ = -3.11ar – 6.78𝑎𝜃 - 2.143𝑥10−5 𝑎∅

15. a. Find the vector component of vector 𝐹 = 10𝑎𝑥 − 6𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 that is parallel to
𝐺 = 0.1𝑎𝑥 + 0.2𝑎𝑦 + 0.3𝑎𝑧 .

𝐹∙𝐺
𝐹||G = (𝐺)
/𝐺/2
(10,−6,5)・ (0.1,0.2,0.3)
= (10𝑎𝑥 − 6𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 )
0.01 + 0.04 + 0.09
= 0.929𝑎𝑥 + 1.866𝑎𝑦 + 2.781𝑎𝑧

b. Find the vector component of F that is perpendicular to G.

FpG = F − F||G
= (10𝑎𝑥 − 6𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 ) −(0.929𝑎𝑥 + 1.866𝑎𝑦 + 2.781𝑎𝑧 )
=9.071𝑎𝑥 − 7.86𝑎𝑦 + 2.214𝑎𝑧

c. Find the vector component of G that is perpendicular to F.

𝐺∙𝐹
GpF = G−G||F = G− (𝐹)
/𝐹/2
(0.1,0.2,0.3)∙(10,−6,5)
= 0.1𝑎𝑥 + 0.2𝑎𝑦 + 0.3𝑎𝑧 − (10𝑎𝑥 − 6𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 )
100 + 36 + 25
= (0.1𝑎𝑥 + 0.2𝑎𝑦 + 0.3𝑎𝑧 ) − (0.081𝑎𝑥 − 0.048𝑎𝑦 + 0.04𝑎𝑧
= 0.019𝑎𝑥 + 0.248𝑎𝑦 + 0.26𝑎𝑧

16. Find the force exerted on 𝑄2 by 𝑄1 if 𝑄2 = −10−4 𝐶 is at (2,0,5) and 𝑄1 = 3𝑥10−4 at


(1,2,3).
𝑄1 𝑄2
𝐹2 = 𝑎12
4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑅12

(2−1)𝑎𝑥 +(0−2)𝑎𝑦 +(5−3)𝑎𝑧


𝑎12 =
√12 +22 +22
= 0.33𝑎𝑥 − 0.667𝑎𝑦 + 0.667𝑎𝑧

𝑅12 = √12 + 22 + 22
= 3𝑚

(3𝑥10−4 )(−10−4 )
𝐹2 = (0.33𝑎𝑥 − 0.667𝑎𝑦 + 0.667𝑎𝑧 )
4𝜋(8.854𝑥10−12 )(3)2
= −29.959(0.33𝑎𝑥 − 0.667𝑎𝑦 + 0.667𝑎𝑧 )
= −9.89𝑎𝑥 + 19.983𝑎𝑦 − 19.983𝑎𝑧
17. Point P is located at coordinates (R=4, θ=35°, φ=215°) in a spherical coordinate system.
Point Q is located at (p=4, φ=45°, z=2) in a cylindrical coordinate system. Find

a. the coordinates of points P and Q in a Cartesian coordinate system


For point P
𝑥 = 4 sin 35 cos 215 = −1.879
𝑦 = 4 sin 35 sin 215 = −1.316
𝑧 = 4 cos 35 = 3.277

𝑃 = −1.879𝑎𝑥 − 1.316𝑎𝑦 + 3.277𝑎𝑧

For point Q
x=4cos45=2.828
y=4sin45=2.828
z=2

𝑄 = 2.828𝑎𝑥 + 2.828𝑎𝑦 + 2𝑎𝑧

b. a unit vectors from point P to point Q

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝑄 − 𝑃 = (2.828 + 1.879)𝑎𝑥 + (2.828 + 1.316)𝑎𝑦 + (2 − 3.277)𝑎𝑧


𝑃𝑄
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃𝑄 = 4.707𝑎𝑥 + 4.144𝑎𝑦 − 1.277𝑎𝑧

18. Transform the vector 𝐴 = 𝑦𝑎𝑥 − 𝑥𝑎𝑦 + 𝑧𝑎𝑧 at point ( 3, 4, 6 ) to cylindrical


coordinates.

4
∅ = tan−1 = 53.130°
3
p=√32 + 42 =5
𝐴𝜌 = 𝐴 ∙ 𝑎𝜌

= (𝑦𝑎𝑥 − 𝑥𝑎𝑦 )𝑎𝜌

= 5 sin 53.130 𝑐𝑜𝑠53.130 − 5 cos 53.130 𝑠𝑖𝑛53.130


=0

𝐴 ∅ = 𝐴 ∙ 𝑎∅
= (𝑦𝑎𝑥 − 𝑥𝑎𝑦 )𝑎∅

= 5 sin ∅ 𝑎𝑥∙ 𝑎∅ − 5 cos ∅ 𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎∅

= 5 sin 53.130 (− sin 53.130) − 5 cos 53.130 (cos 53.130)


= -10.40
𝐴𝑧 = 𝑧𝑎𝑧 ∙ 𝑎𝑧
=6

𝐴 = −10.40𝑎∅ + 6𝑎𝑧

19. Calculate the unit vector that extends from the origin to point C (-5,7,-9).

𝐶 = −5𝑎𝑥 + 7𝑎𝑦 − 9𝑎𝑧

/C/ = √(−5)2 + (7)2 + (−9)2

= √155
/C/ = 12.45

−5𝑎𝑥 7𝑎𝑦 9𝑎𝑧


𝑎𝐶 = + −
12.45 12.45 12.45

𝑎𝐶 = −0.402𝑎𝑥 + 0.562𝑎𝑦 − 0.723𝑎𝑧

20. Transform 15𝑎𝑥 − 12𝑎𝑦 @Q(x=4, y=7, z=2) to spherical coordinates


𝑟 = √42 + 72 + 22 = 8.307

7
𝜃 = cos −1 = 32.578°
8.307

7
∅ = tan−1 = 60.255°
4

𝑎𝑟 = 15𝑎𝑥 − 12𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎𝑟
𝑎𝑟 = 15 sin 32.578 cos 60.255 − 12 sin 32.578 sin 60.255
𝑎𝑟 = −1.603

𝑎𝜃 = 15𝑎𝑥 − 12𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎𝜃
𝑎𝜃 = 15 cos 32.578 cos 60.255 − 12 cos 32.578 sin 60.255
𝑎𝜃 = −2.508

𝑎∅ = 15𝑎𝑥 − 12𝑎𝑦 ∙ 𝑎∅
𝑎∅ = 15(− sin 60.255) − 12 cos 60.255
𝑎∅ = −18.98

𝑄 = −1.603𝑎𝑟 − 2.508𝑎𝜃 − 18.98𝑎∅


21. Three vectors are given by A = 6𝑎𝑥 − 5𝑎𝑦 + 2𝑎𝑧 , B = 4𝑎𝑥 − 7𝑎𝑦 − 6𝑎𝑧
and C = −2𝑎𝑥 + 5𝑎𝑦 + 8𝑎𝑧 , respectively. Determine the magnitude of

a. Ra = B – C
Ra= (4 + 2)𝑎𝑥 + (−7 + 5)𝑎𝑦 + (−6 + 8)𝑎𝑧
Ra= 6𝑎𝑥 − 2𝑎𝑦 + 2𝑎𝑧

|Ra|=√(6)2 + (−2)2 + (2)2


|Ra|= 6.633

b. Rs = A+B
Rs =(6 + 4)𝑎𝑥 (−5−7)𝑎𝑦 + (2 − 6)𝑎𝑧
Rs = 10𝑎𝑥 − 12𝑎𝑦 − 4𝑎𝑧

|Rs|= √(10)2 + (−12)2 + (−4)2


|Rs|=16.125

22. A unit vector is parallel to the resultant (addition) vector of A = 2𝑎𝑥 + 5𝑎𝑦 + 8𝑎𝑧 and
B =7𝑎𝑥 − 2𝑎𝑦 − 4𝑎𝑧 . Determine the unit vector.

Ra = A + B
Ra =(2 + 7)𝑎𝑥 + (5 − 2)𝑎𝑦 + (8 − 4)𝑎𝑧
Ra=9𝑎𝑥 + 3𝑎𝑦 + 4𝑎𝑧

𝑅𝑎
𝑎𝑅 =
|𝑅𝑎 |

9𝑎𝑥 +3𝑎𝑦 +4𝑎𝑧


𝑎𝑅 =
√92 +32 +42

𝑎𝑅 = 0.874𝑎𝑥 + 0.291𝑎𝑦 + 0.389𝑎𝑧

23. Convert the coordinates (𝑟 =6, 𝜃 =π/4, ∅ = π/6) from spherical to Cartesian.

𝑥 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃 cos ∅
𝑥 = 6 sin 45 cos 30
𝑥 = 3.674

𝑦 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛∅
𝑦 = 6 sin 45 𝑠𝑖𝑛30
𝑦= 2.121

𝑧 = 𝑟 cos 𝜃
𝑧 = 6𝑐𝑜𝑠45
𝑧 = 4.243

Ans. 3.674𝑎𝑥 + 02.121𝑎𝑦 + 4.243𝑎𝑧


24. Convert from cylindrical to spherical coordinates where (𝜌 =4, ∅ =π/3, z=3).

𝑥 = 4 cos 60 = 2
𝑦 = 4 sin 60 = 3.464
z=3

𝑟 = √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2
𝑟 = √22 + 3.4642 + 32
𝑟=5

𝜋
∅=
4
∅ = 60°

𝑧
𝜃 = cos −1
𝑟
−1 3
𝜃= cos
5
𝜃 = 53.13°

𝐴𝑛𝑠. 5𝑎𝑟 + 60𝑎𝜃 + 53.13𝑎∅

25. Given the points W (3,2,-5) in Cartesian coordinates and Q (4,8,-1) in cylindrical
coordinates. Find:

a. The spherical coordinates of W.


𝑟 = √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2
𝑟 = √32 + 22 + (−5)2
𝑟 = 6.164

𝑧
𝜃 = cos −1
𝑟
−1 −5
𝜃= cos
6.164
𝜃 = 144.21°

𝑦
∅ = tan−1
𝑥
−1 2
∅= tan
3
∅ = 33.69°

𝑊 = 6.614𝑎𝑟 + 144.21𝑎𝜃 + 33.69𝑎∅

b. The magnitude of the vector connecting W to Q.


For Q
𝑥 = 𝜌 cos ∅
𝑥 = 4 cos 8
𝑥 = 3.961
𝑦 = 𝜌 sin ∅
𝑦 = 4 sin 8
𝑦 = 0.557

𝑧 = −1

W to Q =(3.961 − 3)𝑎𝑥 + (0.557 − 2)𝑎𝑦 + (−1 + 5)𝑎𝑧

26. A vector field A in two dimensional space is given as A(3𝑥 2 𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑥𝑦 2 𝑎𝑦 ). Find the
unit vectors of A at (2, –3) and (–3,3)

A @ (2, −3) = 3(2)2 𝑎𝑥 + 4(2)(−3)2 𝑎𝑦


= 12𝑎𝑥 + 72𝑎𝑦

A @ (−3,2) = 3(−3)2 𝑎𝑥 + 4(−3)(2)2 𝑎𝑦


= 9𝑎𝑥 − 48𝑎𝑦

12𝑎𝑥 +72𝑎𝑦
𝑎A @ (2,−3) = = 0.164𝑎𝑥 + 0.986𝑎𝑦
√122 +722

9𝑎𝑥 −48𝑎𝑦
𝑎A @ (−3,2) = = 2.496𝑎𝑥 − 13.313𝑎𝑦
√32 +22

27. Given two vectors A=–3ax+3ay+4az, B =4ax+3ay+6az compute :


a. the scalar product A • B

A • B = (−3)(4) + (3)(3) + (4)(6)


= 12 + 9 + 24
A • B = 45

b. the angle between A and B

A•B
𝜃 = cos −1 |A ||𝐵|

45
𝜃 = cos −1
5.831 𝑥 7.81

𝜃 = 8.833°
28. The point (3, 𝜋/2, 𝜋/3) is given in spherical coordinates. Find its cartesian coordinates.

𝑥 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃 cos ∅
𝑥 = 3 sin 90 cos 60
𝑥 = 1.5

𝑦 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛∅
𝑦 = 3 sin 90 𝑠𝑖𝑛60
𝑦= 2.598

𝑧 = 𝑟 cos 𝜃
𝑧 = 3𝑐𝑜𝑠90
𝑧=0

Ans. 1.5𝑎𝑥 + 2.598𝑎𝑦

29. A vector field in three dimensional space is given as 𝑁 = 3𝑥𝑦 2 𝑧𝑎𝑥 + 2𝑦𝑥𝑧𝑎𝑦 −
4𝑧 2 𝑦𝑎𝑧
Given two points D(3,1,-2) and C(4,-2,3). Find:

a. N at C

N = 3(4)(−2)2 (3)𝑎𝑥 + 2(−2)(4)(3)𝑎𝑦 − 4(3)2 (−2)𝑎𝑧


N = 144𝑎𝑥 − 48𝑎𝑦 + 72𝑎𝑧

b. Unit vector of N at D

N = 3(3)(1)2 (−2)𝑎𝑥 + 2(1)(3)(−2)𝑎𝑦 − 4(−2)2 (1)𝑎𝑧


N = −18𝑎𝑥 − 12𝑎𝑦 + 8𝑎𝑧

−18𝑎𝑥 −12𝑎𝑦 +8𝑎𝑧


𝑎𝑁 =
√(−18)2 +(−12)2 +(8)2

𝑎𝑁 = −0.78𝑎𝑥 − 0.52𝑎𝑦 + 0.347𝑎𝑧

30. There are four points A(2,4,3), B(3,3,5), C(4,-2,7) and D(1,5,7) in Cartesian
coordinate system. Find:
a. RAB , RAC and RAD
RAB=(3 − 2)𝑎𝑥 + (3 − 4)𝑎𝑦 + (5 − 3)𝑎𝑧
= 𝑎𝑥 − 𝑎𝑦 + 2𝑎𝑧

RAC=(4 − 2)𝑎𝑥 + (−2 − 4)𝑎𝑦 + (7 − 3)𝑎𝑧


= 2𝑎𝑥 − 6𝑎𝑦 + 4𝑎𝑧
RAD=(1 − 2)𝑎𝑥 + (5 − 4)𝑎𝑦 + (7 − 3)𝑎𝑧
= −𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 + 4𝑎𝑧

b. the area of triangle ABC

𝑎𝑥 𝑎𝑦 𝑎𝑧
RAB X R AC = 1 −1 2
2 −6 4

RAB X R AC = −4𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑎𝑦 − 6𝑎𝑧 − 2𝑎𝑧 − 12𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑎𝑦


RAB X R AC = −16𝑎𝑥 + 8𝑎𝑦 − 8𝑎𝑧

1
𝐴 = /RAB X R AC/
2
1
𝐴 = (√(−16)2 + 82 + (−8)2
2
𝐴 = 9.798