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Polytechnic University of the Philippines


Bansud Campus
Bansud, Oriental Mindoro

Foundation of Educations MEM 640



1. Based on the reading text that was given to you, define Foundations of Education. Cite the rationale for
studying this subject/course.

Let’s start by this quote: “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” cited by
George Santayana. This explains why there’s a need to study the grounds of our education as a whole. As I define
it, foundation of education is the history of our literacy. Having a clear analysis of the past events gives us the eye
view of what we need to focus on the near future. It is the basis of our plan to improve our educational system
to cope with the needs of the society and the world.

2. As discussed in the prelude article about the subject, give the prime indicators of the foundations of
education of our Filipino ancestors' education. What do you think are the implications of the foundations of
our Filipino ancestors to the current educational system and views of other nationalities about it?

Filipino ancestors' way of educating young people is informal. Knowledge and skills were acquired
through informal observation, imitation communication and participation. It is unplanned and experimental. And
this set of educational activities was done in small area. There is no national extent.

3. Which race among the Filipino ancestors' invaders has created the strongest impact in the early Philippine
education? Explain thoroughly.

When invaders came, they had given us formal education which I think is the good influence to us.
Spaniards were heavily religious oriented while Japanese on the other hand emphasized on vocational education
and the dignity of manual labor. I think American invaders affected us more positively. Americans soldiers, who
were the teachers, taught early Filipinos using English as medium of instruction and also during this time UP and
Philippine Normal School were established to train elementary teachers. You see, Americans wasn’t selfish about
literacy. They opened the backbone on Filipino education.

4. According to Ronald Meinardus, what are the effects of the crisis in Philippine Education? How do you think
the current administration is addressing the problem?

According to Ronald Meinardus, brain drain, social division and population growth are the crisis in
Philippine education. As an effect, deprivation of quality education severe that leads to chains of problems. Our
poor country suffers for the lost of skilled professional which in turn result to a low productivity and progress.
When facing these problems, people often blame the rulers for this fact. Budget cutting for higher education and
promoting K-12 were the government’s way of addressing this problem. Still the question is how people accept
these solutions if even in population policy that our government was eyeing to were condemned by Catholic
5. How can our knowledge in Foundations in Education can help us analyze the system of education that we
have in our country? Suggest ways on how the government can further improve the system and performance
in education that we currently have.

Our knowledge in foundations of education is one step ahead towards full understanding of our
(1)human race, (2)the educational system and also the (3)path to progress of the country. These are my
suggestions to improve the system and performance in education: continue studying and planning for
educational reforms. K-12, I believe is a good move of the government to deal with the educational problem.
Developing new ways on how we can increase our resources is also vital. If only government is confident enough
on Filipino inventors, some of our demands like oil and diesel will be solved. And last, discipline is crucial for our
country to become better.


1. Discuss the linkage of principles of Psychology to that of the principles of education. In your opinion, which
among the systems or schools of Psychology created the strongest impact to the olden and current education
in the country and in the world? Point out three tangible proofs to your claim.

Learner is the center of the educational system for without them the whole system will not exist, thus
education relies much on Psychology because it studies human behavior onto how the person/ learner gain
knowledge or adapt in some certain situations in his life. Talking about the system of psychology, Behaviorism
created the strongest impact to the educational system, these is because of 3 stunning reasons 1. Learners are of
different packages(individual differences in short) to address this, there are formal and non formal education for
variety of learners like SPED for learners with special abilities, ALS for out of school youth and the teachers using
variety of teaching strategies to cause learning.2. traditional classroom set up where teacher is the one who
discuss the lesson while the learners just sit and listen to the teacher, but now as studies says, pupils learn more
by actually engaging himself or doing it by himself and the teacher will act as his facilitator. 3. The existence of
Day Care centers and Pre School for children makes them ready for school. Pupils who are ready for school, has a
big opportunity to acquire knowledge.

2. Explain the best approach for a teacher to deal with individual differences in the classroom and in the
professional groups. How should he/she define the boundary of dealing with naughty and notorious pupils or
students? Give concrete examples.

In dealing with people, one should have a boundary. A boundary that set him to act in manner that he
could be respected by other people. In the school, we can be friends with our pupils but we should be vigilant
with our words and act so that respect won’t be lost and same is true with our colleagues.

3. Give situations which you have already tried in the classroom for each of the six methods of eradicating
undesirable emotional behavior. Justify each of these situations on the view point of attaining better learning
performance in the classroom.

One common problem of the first grade teacher like me on the first day of school is the pupils with
tantrums especially when their mothers are in sight. Usually I deal pupils like this using verbal appeal and disuse.
I give so many reasons to them on how important is to be in the school through story telling. Taking their parents
out of their sight during class hours also helped a lot in maintaining their concentration and good manners in the
classroom. Another problem is the bully pupils who always cause fights. To deal with this problem I use reverse
psychology method, I call them and make them fight, if they don’t, it’s the time to talk to them about their
misbehavior if they fight again then they should have a separate seats.

4. How should an educator teach or influence learners to effectively and consistently manage their
temperament inside and outside the school premises? Expound on this adage, "Values are caught, not
taught." Agree or disagree with this. Explain your stand.

We as teachers have a great edge to other people when it comes from influencing the youth especially
those in the school. There is also a subject Like Edukasyong Pagpapakatao that gives as an active opportunity to
spread the Filipino values to the pupils. Other than that as teachers we should serve as a role model of the good
deeds that we teach them. As being said in the adage, Values are caught, not taught which means that pupils will
acquire good attitudes if they are surrounded by people who do, teach and tells good deeds.

5. Do you agree with the observation that the youth of today have almost unlearned their values? What could
have caused them to retain or unlearn these values? What can you effectively do as an educator in order to
improve students’ values? Prove the context of each of your claims.

Some students and not all have almost unlearned their values. This is maybe because of their lifestyle. In
this generation, many parents work abroad that sometimes lead to unhealthy upbringing of their child physically,
emotionally and mentally. Most children nowadays have an easy access to internet and computer games which
leads to cyber addiction and irresponsible act in schools and at home. It is really a hard task for us teachers to
improve our pupils’ values, but as an educator, we really have to live what we teach, so that learners in one way
or another will live what they learn.


1. What are the major concerns that society has to cope with?

The major concerns that society needs to cope with are: 1) conservation, development and
improvement of human resources. 2) conservation, development and utilization of natural resources 3)
production, distribution and consumption of economics 4) land, water and air transportation and
communication 5) communication of facts and ideas 6) utilization of leisure time 7) expression of ethical
impulses 8) expression of aesthetic impulses 9) organization and administration of government and 10) changes
in the society

2. How does each concern affect society and how does society cope with it?

1) Conservation, Development And Improvement Of Human Resources

When we conserve our society, the man power will be strengthen that is beneficial to the whole society. It leads
to the development of the talents, skills and knowledge of the people which make them productive and efficient

2) Conservation, Development And Utilization Of Natural Resources When we concern our natural resources, it
still is available for the next generation. The next generation will also make use of these for daily needs.

3) Production, Distribution And Consumption Of Economics Proper production, distribution and consumption of
resources will lead to harmonious relationship within the society. But this situation seldom achieved because of
selfish desire of some people.
4) Land, Water And Air Transportation And Communication Fast and convenience are the effects of modern
transportation and communication today. In the contrast, the more we have a convenient way of
communicating, the less we communicate because of the high cost. In transportation, safety is sometimes

5) Communication Of Facts And Ideas The modern world now is full of lies and some misleads the public because
of some hidden desire other than fame and social recognition. In these situations, we should be cautious of our
words and the things or information that we acquire around us.

6) Utilization Of Leisure Time We are living in an instant world, everything comes on packages that are easy and
convenient to use, even in leisure time. Some children neglect to play outdoors and prefer to play in front of the
computer. In these situations, the health of the people especially the children are at stake because of lack of

7) Expression Of Ethical Impulses The exercise of ethical values is sometimes neglected due to lack of formal
human relations.

8) Expression Of Aesthetic Impulses The aesthetic appeals of human today are far more different from those in
the past, maybe because of modernization and conformity of the new society. Some fads in music especially are
extremely opposite of what is in the past, the older generation sometimes dislike which leads to clash among the
younger generation today.

9) Organization And Administration Of Government The government is the equalizer of the society. Through the
government’s programs and projects, people are served better if there is no corruption.

10) Changes In The Society the changes Due to the increasing needs and high cost of commodities and little
opportunity to afford it, some people neglect the true meaning of living. Spiritual needs are taken for granted. It
is indeed a sad fact to know that as we strive for a good future we sometimes forget to thank God.

3. Suggest three ways on how a teacher can better help his/her learners in dealing with various society
concerns. Explain your suggestions thoroughly.

For me the best way on how teacher can better help his/her learners in dealing with various society
concerns are: A. consistent integration of values in the lessons so that learners are exposed in good values (law
of exercise) B. be a good example for the pupils in dealing the various society concerns (learning by imitation) C.
discipline the pupils properly with correct guide in order for them to understand the meaning of responsibility
and accountability for their actions.


1. What are the determinants of social status? How do they determine social status?

The determinants of social status are occupational and Income sale, education, house type and dwelling
area. People always look for the occupation or income of a person to determine its status in the society. More
money means high distinction within the society. Also the educational attainment sometimes becomes a basis of
social class if a person attains high educational level he is in the highest status. Often rich people are those who
can attain highest education in exclusive schools. House type and dwelling area are also determinants in social
status, if the house type is made of costly materials or light materials depends on the social status of the
dwellers, which is usually based on their income.

2. What should be the role of the teacher in preserving the dignity of each social status amidst alleged
discriminations against the lower classes? Cite real/practical examples.

As I always tell, teachers should always be a consistent and good exemplar of proper social behavior
inside and most especially outside the school. It is the best thing to show the pupils on how to deal everyone
whatever their status may be. Respect is important to everyone, though it is a thing to be earned, but not
always, it should be given to everyone! Let’s start with the natives of Mindoro, some Mangyans are considered
the lowest among the low kind of people within the society. They say that if you are idiot like person, with dirty
clothes walking during holiday seasons you are a “Mangyan” kind. It is not proper to treat our natives like that.
They too have the right to live in dignity and peace without any discrimination from fellow Filipinos.

3. How can an individual move from one social status to another? Discuss the means.

The first one is by effort making capacity, if you are industrious, hardworking and being resourceful and
you have a good job, you can uplift your social status. Like Manny Pacquio who is a multi billionaire because of
his hardwork and strength too as a boxer. You can do it by gaining high education, that’s the reason why parents
do everything just to send their children to school and finish their studies. Some people join reality show like
PBB, Pilipinas Got talent and the like just to be instant famous and rich. Sometimes circumstances can change
our social status, it’s either upward or downward. But let’s take a look of the upward mobility, we know that
Americans are rich that is why some Filipinas choose to marry foreigners. Some persons are lucky enough to
have their life from rags to riches in joining a lottery! Money and fame is the measure of social status in this


1. Discuss the differences between the involuntary from voluntary groups. How should learners be aided
by the teacher in the first four kinds of voluntary associations or groups? Explain each of your ways for the
four groups asked.

Involuntary groups are groups which members are born into it or due to circumstance in their lives such
as family, neighborhood, baranggay, town, province, region and nation; while voluntary groups are groups which
members have the freedom to join or not or even select from the groups he/she wanted like peers, work group,
school, church and other organizations. Nowadays, people must be cautious about the kind of friends or group
they would engage with. “Tell me who your friends are and I will tell you who you are”, this is the adage that
reminds me of the people whom I go with. Groups are beneficial while some are not, so pupils should be given
proper guidance by the parents, guardians and teacher onto what kind of persons they will mingle with. It is
good also to be friend with your parents and your pupils or students so that they will feel comfortable and open
to what they want to say.

2. As educators, do you believe that the current Filipino youth are unlearning their values? What should
be done by the government in order to revive the practice of good values? What should be done by teachers in
order to do the same?

Yes, I believe that some young Filipinos today have unlearned their values especially in those urban
areas. This is because some parents today lose their guidance towards their children. Some parents went abroad
so their children are left with other relatives who look for them. The government should strengthen the social
control through programs that will revive the good values of Filipinos. As teachers we will support these
programs and also encourage pupils to join recreational groups in which they can enhance their talents, avoid
themselves from drugs and other unbeneficial activities. In a simple club organization within the school, pupils’
behavior and values will be mold appropriately.

3. Why are groups important? Give their functions.

Groups are important because they are the ultimate source of the feeling of belongingness for
humans. In the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, after the person satisfies his basic needs, the next needs are to be
satisfied which are: safety, love and belongingness, esteem and self-actualization. We cannot deny the fact that
these other needs are satisfied by the groups we belong whether it is voluntary or involuntary groups. We learn
as we mingle with other people so our self esteem develops. We learn to interact our thoughts and feelings. We
are able to relax and enjoy the beauty that life may bring with companions that completes our lives.


1. being an educator, suggest four ways in order for the pupils or students to avoid being fallen to the traps of
social problems. Defend the strength or efficiency of each of your suggestions.
These are my suggestions on how students are able to avoid being trapped in the problems in the
a. Encourage pupils to engage themselves in beneficial hobbies such as playing sports, arts and music and
the like.
b. Broaden the knowledge of pupils in the consequences of engaging different social problems most
specially drugs, sex and pregnancy, gambling, alcoholism and others.
c. Integrate the love of God on lessons I teach so that pupils will feel their importance and uniqueness.
d. Incorporate group activities in pupils learning procedures to monitor the pupils’ communication skills
and behavior. In this way, the teacher will notice the pupils’ misbehavior and to attend the needs of the
pupils as early as possible.
2. Discuss the adverse effects of unemployment. How will you help the pupils or students understand the
value of work?
Unemployment is a very serious problem. The adverse effects of these are:
a. poverty- a person cannot meet his needs because he has no means of achieving it;
b. then he might go to abroad in search of job with high salary, thus, this feat might not be lucky for some, for
they sometimes find it hard to find jobs abroad and also it will cause brain drain to the country;
c. low educational attainment and low quality of life will also be its tremendous effect which will also that leads
to squatting.
I will help the pupils in building sense of responsibility in completing their daily task in the classroom. I
will teach them how to become responsible by assigning doable task for them to accomplish.

3. Enumerate the purposes of Anthropology. How should the different nationalities of the world view
Anthropology's ways of uncovering the past? What can that possibly do to the future?

Anthropology is the study of human races. It helps us to viewpoint the differences and similarities of
each race to one another and also the reason behind this diversity of human cultures and lifestyles. By this
manner, we are able to understand other countries’ culture and lifestyle which in one way or another we can
learn from their examples. Anthropologists uncover the past though digging remains in some historical places.
The evidences or remains are carbon dated to calculate the epoch where it exists. From here, they hypothesize
the significance of each remains on the intelligence or way of coping to the environment of the early human