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UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST – CALOOCAN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Electronics Engineering Department

EXPERIMENT # 1: SWITCH HOOK AND


HANDSET

NAME: CULABRES, JERICK C.


SUBJECT AND SECTION: NEC 512 – 1EC
DATE OF SUBMISSION: JULY 15, 2019
PROFESSOR: ENGR. EDELITO A. HANDIG
INTRODUCTION

Telephony is commonly referred to as the construction or operation or operation


of telephones and telephonic systems and as system of telecommunications in which
telephonic equipment is employed in the transmission of speech or other sound between
points, with or without the use of wires. The term is also used frequently to refer to
computer hardware, software, and computer network systems, that perform functions
traditionally performed by telephone equipment. The technology is specifically referred to
as internet telephony, or voice over internet protocol (VoIP). The first telephones were
connected directly in pairs. Each user had a separate telephone wired to each location to
be reached. This quickly became inconvenient and unmanageable when users wanted to
communicate with more than a few people. Until the 1970s, most telephones were
permanently wired to the telephone line installed at customer premises. In the second
half of the 20th century, fax and data became important secondary applications of the
network created to carry voices and late in the century, parts of network were upgraded
with ISDN and DSL to improve handling of such traffic.

The field of technology available for telephony has broadened with the advent of
new communication technologies. Telephony now includes the technologies of internet
service and mobile communication, including video conferencing. The new technologies
based on internet protocol concepts are often referred to separately as voice over IP
telephony, also commonly referred to as IP telephony or internet telephony.
DISCUSSION

In this experiment called “The Telephone Switch hook and Handset” has to deal
with its subject, which is the telephony and mobile communications. Also, in this
experiment we’d learned the basic communication of a telephone system. So, we first
make sure that the equipments are ready to use, same with the application that we’ll use
in the experiment. So, this application is Lab-volt. Next, is the setting up the central office.
The reconfigurable training module and model 9431 are already connected to the TTS
power supply model 9408, since the past generation didn’t remove each connected wire.
Next, we check the network connection on the pc if its available for connection. The IP
address was set to 192.168.000.201 and the subnet mask was set to 255.255.255.000,
next is for the RTM. We set the IP to 192.168.000.200 and the subnet mask to
255.255.255.000, and reset the RTM. On the same host, we opened telephony training
system, the co-program configures the reconfigurable training module that can operate
as a central office. On the host computer, we zoomed in the analog line interface A, then
the probe 1 has been connected to TP1. On the oscilloscope, we set the mode to normal,
sensitivity to 10v/div, input coupling to DC, time base to 1ms/div, and display refresh to
manual. When we refresh the oscilloscope the DC voltage becomes -44.8 volts. The
result of -44.8 volts, that’s the voltage on the telephone line. The -44.8 volts comes from
the central office or RTM. Next, when the handset is lifted off, the DC current flow
becomes 36 mA, that’s the current when the cradle is lifted off. Next, the sensitivity of
channel 1 is changed, on the oscilloscope we changed it to 2 volts/div. The handset was
lifted off and noticing that the DC current decreased. Next, is the handset and speech
circuit, we set the oscilloscope’s sensitivity to 0.5v/div, input coupling to AC, time base to
5 ms/div. The trigger was set source’s channel to 1, level is 0 voltage, slope is positive,
display refresh is continuous. When the cradle was lifted off and was dialed from A to B.
when the two persons was on communication, we observe the signed at TP3 on
oscilloscope screen. When the two persons was talking, observing that the voltage is
repeated and observing also on the scope screen as TP3. Next, on the host computer,
we increased the resistance of the telephone line by steps until it is equal to 1 k-ohm.
They had a telephone conversation and observing at the same time the signal at TP3 on
the scope. Next, we reset it and close the application, since the experiment was finished.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Therefore, I conclude that, every voice there is a corresponding frequency to deal


with and there is a signal also that corresponds to every pitch that has sent to the
transmitter. Having a telephone conversation is not simple conversation that everyone
thought. Now, I learned that a telephone conversation is entering a corresponding
process. Also, we cannot see the signals without the software. So, the Lab-volt software
is the one who is responsible for this experiment. It has a lot of features that can use while
doing the telephone switch hook and handset experiment. Also, dial tone is important,
because it’s indicated whether the telephone communication is working or not. So, the
dial tone is the one who can say that the telephone is available for communication.
Handset is the one who lifted or not. When it’s lifted, it’s on the closed loop. When not,
it’s on the open loop or open circuit that no current flowing on the circuit.

SUMMARY

This experiment showed the students like us, how the telephone communication
works and how the telephone use by using an application that can show the signals of
our voice depending on the pitch level and how it was formed by changing the pitch level.
Then, what are the telephone specs or features to know and its function. Also, how the
signals are forms when its in DC or AC voltage. The main purpose of telephone is to
communicate the other side to the telephone. But there is a process to deal with it. Voice
signals are from transmitter to medium to receiver, from the receiver, the other side can
hear what’s gonna be the voice from starting terminal.

GLOSSARY

Dial Pulses – pulse dialing is the method originally used to transfer digits from the
telephone set to the local switch, which is done by rotating a mechanical dialing
mechanism and then letting it return to its rest position, as the rotary switch returns to its
rest position, output a series of pulses corresponding to the digit dialed.

Dialing Circuit – it enables the subscriber to output signals representing digits, and this
enables the caller to enter the destination telephone number.

Dual-Tone-Multi-Frequency (DTMF) – tone dialing is more efficient means that pulse


dialing for transferring telephone numbers from a subscriber’s location to the central office
switching machine.

Microphone – it is the transmitter for the telephone which converts acoustical signals
from the caller to electrical signals that are transmitted into the telephone network through
the local loop.

Ringer Circuit – it was originally an electromagnetic bell that is placed across the tip and
ring of the local loop (in modern telephones, the bell has been replaced with an electronic
oscillator connected to the speaker).

Speaker – it is the receiver for the telephone which converts electrical signals received
from the local loop to acoustical signals that can be heard and understood by a human
being.

Switch Hook – it is a simple STDP (single throw, double pole) switch placed across the
tip and ring, and is mechanically connected to the telephone handset so that when
telephone is idle (on hook), the switch is open; when the telephone is in use (off hook),
the switch is closed completing an electrical path through the microphone between the tip
and ring of the local loop.

Telephone – comes from the Greek word “tele” means “from afar” and “phone”, meaning
“sound”, “voice”, or “voiced sound”.

Telephony – it is a system of communications employing an apparatus that transform a


sound wave into an electrical wave, transmits the electrical wave over a suitable medium,
and then transforms the electrical wave back into a sound wave at the receiver.
REFERENCES

Telephony was retrieved from:

1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephony
2. https://www.antiquetelephonehistory.com/telworks.php
3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/telephony-system

The terms in glossary was retrieved from:

1. Fajardo, F.A. (2019), Electronic Systems and Technologies, EST Essentials