Sei sulla pagina 1di 24







Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses,

fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally
harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause
Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are
transmitted by bites from insects or animals. And others are acquired by infection
of pathogens directly through mediums (air and water) and vectors (mosquito and

Signs and symptoms vary depending on the organism causing the infection, but
often include fever and fatigue. Mild infections may respond to rest and home
remedies, while some life-threatening infections may require hospitalization.

Many infectious diseases, such as measles and chickenpox, can be prevented by

vaccines. Frequent and thorough hand-washing also helps protect you from most
infectious diseases.


 Japanese encephalitis
 Measles
 Cholera

What is Japanese encephalitis?

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a disease spread through mosquito
bites. Symptoms usually take 5-15 days to develop and include fever, headache,
vomiting, confusion, and difficulty moving. Symptoms that develop later include
swelling around the brain and coma. JE is a serious disease that may cause death.


1. Before you travel, be vaccinated against diseases prevalent at your
destination. vaccines exist for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and
tick-borne encephalitis.

2. consult your doctor, 4–6 weeks before departure if possible, to discuss how
you can protect yourself (for example, what antimalarial medicines you
should take if malaria is endemic at your destination).

3. Wear light-coloured, long-sleeved shirts and long trousers, tucked into

socks or boots, and use insect repellent on exposed skin and clothing to
protect yourself from being bitten by mosquitoes, sandflies or ticks.
temperature, humidity and the time of day affect the likelihood of being
bitten, so know when you need extra protective clothing and insect

4. Use window screens, if available, to keep mosquitoes outside the place

where you are staying.

5. sleep under an insecticide-treated bed net, requesting one if necessary, if

you are staying in an area with malaria risk.

6. check your body regularly for ticks. if you find one, remove it with tweezers
and apply a skin disinfectant. in tick-infested areas, examine your clothing,
luggage and other belongings thoroughly before entering the place where
you are staying.

7. Avoid contact with blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of

infected people or animals.

8. Make sure you keep strict hygiene control of food, and avoid unpasteurized
dairy products in areas where tick-borne encephalitis can be transmitted.

9. if you are bitten and receive care abroad, remember to complete your course
of treatment at home.

10.if you become ill upon your return, tell your doctor where you have been, as
you may have brought a disease back with you.
11.Get rid of stagnant water (for example, in containers, flower pots and used
tyres) in areas where mosquitoes breed.



Measles is a childhood infection caused by a virus. Also called rubeola, measles can
be serious and even fatal for small children. While death rates have been falling
worldwide as more children receive the measles vaccine, the disease still kills more
than 100,000 people a year, most under the age of 5. Measles signs and symptoms
appear around 10 to 14 days after exposure to the virus. Signs and symptoms of
measles typically include:

 Fever
 Dry cough
 Runny nose
 Sore throat
 Inflamed eyes (conjunctivitis)
 Tiny white spots with bluish-white centers on a red background found inside
the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek — also called Koplik's spots
 A skin rash made up of large, flat blotches that often flow into one another


Measles is a highly contagious illness caused by a virus that replicates in the nose
and throat of an infected child or adult. Then, when someone with measles coughs,
sneezes or talks, infected droplets spray into the air, where other people can inhale

The infected droplets may also land on a surface, where they remain active and
contagious for several hours. You can contract the virus by putting your fingers in
your mouth or nose or rubbing your eyes after touching the infected surface.

About 90 percent of susceptible people who are exposed to someone with the virus
will be infected.


Isolation. Because measles is highly contagious from about four days before to
four days after the rash breaks out, people with measles shouldn't return to
activities in which they interact with other people during this period.
It may also be necessary to keep nonimmunized people — siblings, for example
— away from the infected person.
Vaccinate. Be sure that anyone who's at risk of getting the measles who hasn't
been fully vaccinated receives the measles vaccine as soon as possible. This
includes anyone born after 1957 who hasn't been vaccinated, as well as infants
older than 6 months.
The first dose for infants is usually given between 12 and 15 months, with the
second dose typically given between ages four and six years. If you'll be traveling
abroad before your child is a year old, talk with your child's doctor about getting
the measles vaccine earlier.


Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water

contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera remains a global threat to
public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development. Researchers
have estimated that every year, there are roughly 1.3 to 4.0 million cases, and 21 000
to 143 000 deaths worldwide due to cholera.Cholera is an extremely virulent disease
that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea. It takes between 12 hours and 5 days for
a person to show symptoms after ingesting contaminated food or water (2). Cholera
affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated.
Most people infected with V. cholerae do not develop any symptoms, although the
bacteria are present in their faeces for 1-10 days after infection and are shed back into
the environment, potentially infecting other people.

Among people who develop symptoms, the majority have mild or moderate
symptoms, while a minority develop acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration.
This can lead to death if left untreated.


A person can become infected by drinking water or eating food contaminated by the
bacterium. Common sources of foodborne infection include raw or poorly cooked
seafood, raw fruit and vegetables, and other foods contaminated during preparation
or storage.

Bacteria present in the faeces of an infected person are the main source of
contamination. The bacterium can also live in the environment in brackish rivers and
coastal waters. The disease can thus spread rapidly in areas where sewage and
drinking water supplies are inadequately treated.

Sterilization: Proper disposal and treatment of all materials that may have come
into contact with cholera victims' feces (e.g., clothing, bedding, etc.) are essential.
These should be sanitized by washing in hot water, using chlorine bleach if possible.
Hands that touch cholera patients or their clothing, bedding, etc., should be
thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with chlorinated water or other effective
antimicrobial agents.

Sewage and fecal sludge management: In cholera-affected areas, sewage and fecal
sludge need to be treated and managed carefully in order to stop the spread of this
disease via human excreta. Provision of sanitation and hygiene is an important
preventative measure. Open defecation, release of untreated sewage, or dumping of
fecal sludge from pit latrines or septic tanks into the environment need to be
prevented. In many cholera affected zones, there is a low degree of sewage
treatment.Therefore, the implementation of dry toilets that do not contribute to
water pollution, as they do not flush with water, may be an interesting alternative to
flush toilets.

Sources: Warnings about possible cholera contamination should be posted around

contaminated water sources with directions on how to decontaminate the water
(boiling, chlorination etc.) for possible use.

Water purification: All water used for drinking, washing, or cooking should be
sterilized by either boiling, chlorination, ozone water treatment, ultraviolet light
sterilization (e.g., by solar water disinfection), or antimicrobial filtration in any area
where cholera may be present. Chlorination and boiling are often the least
expensive and most effective means of halting transmission. Cloth filters or sari
filtration, though very basic, have significantly reduced the occurrence of cholera
when used in poor villages in Bangladesh that rely on untreated surface water.
Better antimicrobial filters, like those present in advanced individual water
treatment hiking kits, are most effective. Public health education and adherence to
appropriate sanitation practices are of primary importance to help prevent and
control transmission of cholera and other diseases.

Handwashing with soap or ash after using a toilet and before handling food or

A non-infectious disease is a disease that is not transmissible directly from one

person to another. Examples of non infectious diseases are:

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential
to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors,
which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal
bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel


1. Don't use tobaccoUsing any type of tobacco puts you on a collision course with
cancer. Smoking has been linked to various types of cancer — including cancer of the
lung, mouth, throat, larynx, pancreas, bladder, cervix and kidney. Chewing tobacco
has been linked to cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Even if you don't use
tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke might increase your risk of lung cancer.
Avoiding tobacco — or deciding to stop using it — is an important part of cancer
prevention. If you need help quitting tobacco, ask your doctor about stop-smoking
products and other strategies for quitting.
2. Eat a healthy diet
Although making healthy selections at the grocery store and at mealtime can't
guarantee cancer prevention, it might reduce your risk. Consider these guidelines:

 Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Base your diet on fruits, vegetables and
other foods from plant sources — such as whole grains and beans.
 Avoid obesity. Eat lighter and leaner by choosing fewer high-calorie foods,
including refined sugars and fat from animal sources.
 If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderationThe risk of various
types of cancer — including cancer of the breast, colon, lung, kidney and liver —
increases with the amount of alcohol you drink and the length of time you've been
drinking regularly.
 Limit processed meats. A report from the International Agency for Research
on Cancer, the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, concluded that
eating large amounts of processed meat can slightly increase the risk of certain
types of cancer.
In addition, women who eat a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin
olive oil and mixed nuts might have a reduced risk of breast cancer. The
Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables,
whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose
healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat.
3. Maintain a healthy weight and be physically active
Maintaining a healthy weight might lower the risk of various types of cancer,
including cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and kidney.
Physical activity counts, too. In addition to helping you control your weight, physical
activity on its own might lower the risk of breast cancer and colon cancer.
Adults who participate in any amount of physical activity gain some health benefits.
But for substantial health benefits, strive to get at least 150 minutes a week of
moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic activity. You can
also do a combination of moderate and vigorous activity. As a general goal, include at
least 30 minutes of physical activity in your daily routine — and if you can do more,
even better.
4. Protect yourself from the sun
Skin cancer is one of the most common kinds of cancer — and one of the most
preventable. Try these tips:

 Avoid midday sun. Stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the
sun's rays are strongest.
 Stay in the shade. When you're outdoors, stay in the shade as much as
possible. Sunglasses and a broad-brimmed hat help, too.
 Cover exposed areas. Wear tightly woven, loose fitting clothing that covers
as much of your skin as possible. Opt for bright or dark colors, which reflect more
ultraviolet radiation than do pastels or bleached cotton.
 Don't skimp on sunscreen. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at
least 30, even on cloudy days. Apply sunscreen generously, and reapply every two
hours — or more often if you're swimming or perspiring.
 Avoid tanning beds and sunlamps. These are just as damaging as natural
7. Get regular medical care
Regular self-exams and screenings for various types of cancers — such as cancer of
the skin, colon, cervix and breast — can increase your chances of discovering cancer
early, when treatment is most likely to be successful. Ask your doctor about the best
cancer screening schedule for you.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement.
Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just
one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or
slowing of movement.

In the early stages of Parkinson's disease, your face may show little or no expression.
Your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred.
Parkinson's disease symptoms worsen as your condition progresses over time.

Although Parkinson's disease can't be cured, medications might significantly improve

your symptoms. Occasionally, your doctor may suggest surgery to regulate certain
regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.


Because the cause of Parkinson's is unknown, proven ways to prevent the disease also
remain a mystery.

Some research has shown that regular aerobic exercise might reduce the risk of
Parkinson's disease.

Some other research has shown that people who drink caffeine — which is found in
coffee, tea and cola — get Parkinson's disease less often than those who don't drink it.
However, it is still not known whether caffeine actually protects against getting
Parkinson's, or is related in some other way. Currently there is not enough evidence to
suggest drinking caffeinated beverages to protect against Parkinson's. Green tea is
also related to a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's disease.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people
worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears
down over time.

Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint in your body, the disorder most
commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine.

Osteoarthritis symptoms can usually be effectively managed, although the underlying

process cannot be reversed.

Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include:

 Pain. Your joint may hurt during or after movement.

 Tenderness. Your joint may feel tender when you apply light pressure to it.
 Stiffness. Joint stiffness may be most noticeable when you wake up in the
morning or after a period of inactivity.
 Loss of flexibility. You may not be able to move your joint through its full
range of motion.
 Grating sensation. You may hear or feel a grating sensation when you use the
 Bone spurs. These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard lumps, may form
around the affected joint.


Low-impact exercise can improve joint health. Look for activities that include

strength training and stretching in addition to aerobic exercise. Regular exercise can

help slow down, or even prevent, OA. Exercise helps people by:

 maintaining healthy joints

 relieving stiffness
 reducing pain and fatigue
 increasing muscle and bone strength

Maintain a healthy weight

Excess weight is one of the biggest risk factors of OA, as it puts extra stress on your
joints, which can speed up the deterioration of joint cartilage. Overweight and obese
individuals are at high risk of developing OA. Losing weight can help reduce pain and
improve symptoms.


Exercise can help people develop healthy joints and muscles, but overuse of joints can
increase the risk of developing OA. The key is balance. If your joints are swollen or
achy, give them a break. Try to avoid using a swollen joint for at least 12 to 24 hours.
Letting an injured joint heal helps reduce the risk of developing OA there in the

In addition, for those who have OA, fatigue can increase pain. Make sure you get
enough sleep every night.

Control blood sugar

According to the Arthritis Foundation, diabetes may be a significant risk factor for
developing osteoarthritis. High glucose levels can speed up the formation of
molecules that make cartilage stiff, and diabetes can also trigger inflammation that
can accelerate cartilage loss. Keeping diabetes under control and regulating your
glucose levels can help prevent OA.

Eat like a champion

For good health, avoid saturated fats, cholesterol, refined carbs and sugars and trans fats. These
foods can cause chronic inflammation — a normal bodily process gone awry that can contribute to
heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. Also, choose good cooking oils and read food labels carefully.
Even so-called “diet foods” can be bad for you.

Get your cholesterol checked

A little-known fact: diet isn’t the most important factor in determining your cholesterol level. Only 20
percent of your body’s cholesterol comes from your diet, while the other 80 percent is made by your
liver. That’s why it is so hard to lower cholesterol through diet alone and why you need to get it
checked. It should be 200 mg/DL or lower. Learn how cholesterol works.

Watch your blood pressure

Do you have high blood pressure? Even if you don’t think so, keep reading. One out of three American
adults has high blood pressure, diagnosed with a reading above 140/90. However, experts say if you
are consistently over 120/80, you also have high blood pressure. Help your heart by keeping your
weight and salt intake down and your activity level up.

Pursue an ideal body mass

Dare to be different from the average American, who is more likely to be obese than adults in any
other developed nation. To see if you are at a good weight for your height, calculate your Body Mass
Index (BMI) and check out this BMI calculator from the BBC to see how your BMI stacks up against
people from around the world. Need to lose? Find tips for losing weight.

Keep safe blood sugar levels

For good preventive health, cut back on soda, candy and sugary desserts, which can cause blood
sugar to rise. If you have diabetes, this can damage your heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves over time.
Managing blood sugar is one of seven metrics for heart health, according to the American Heart
Association. These same metrics make it less likely to be diagnosed with cancer.

Get moving

Exercise doesn’t have to be in a gym or structured environment. Experts say frequency (how often),
intensity (how hard) and time (how long) are what matter. Find just 30 minutes, which don’t have to
be consecutive minutes. You could take short and brisk walks two to three times a day. Or do three
10-minute spurts (or two 15-minute spurts) of activity that make your heart happy.

Quit smoking
If you smoke, there is probably no other single choice you can make to help your health more than
quitting. While a recent study found that smokers lose at least 10 years of life expectancy compared
with people who never smoked, it also found that people who quit by age 40 reduce their risk of
smoking-related death by 90 percent. See what happens to your body when you quit.

Sleep well

Sleep restores us and has a huge effect on how we feel. Have trouble sleeping? Your diet may be a
culprit. Food relates directly to serotonin, a key hormone that — along with Vitamin B6, B12, and folic
acid — promotes healthy sleep. For more restful sleep, focus your diet on the “big three”: complex
carbohydrates, lean proteins and unsaturated fats. Exercise like yoga, can also help. Find other sleep