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The present research study was American Journal of Educational Lot of studies have been conducted

design to investigate the factors Research. 2013, 1(8), 283-289. DOI: in the area of students achievement
affecting academic performance of 10.12691/education-1-8-3 and these studies identify and
Received June 22, 2013; Revised analyze the number of factors that
graduate students of Islamia
July 30, 2013; Accepted August 01, affect the academic performance of
University of Bahawalpur Rahim Yar 2013 the student at school, college and
Khan Campus. The variables under even at university level. Their finding
consideration were the academic tudents academic gain and learning identify students’ effort, previous
performance (student’s performance is affected by schooling, parent’s educational
grades/marks) as a dependent numerous factor including gender, background, family income, self
age, teaching faculty, students motivation of students, age of
variable and the gender, age, faculty
schooling, father/guardian social student, learning preferences and
of study, schooling, father/guardian economic status, residential area of entry qualification of students as
social economic status, and students, medium of instructions in important factors that have effect on
residential area, medium of schools, tuition trend, daily study student’s academic performance in
schooling; tuition trend, daily study hour and accommodation as different setting. The utility of these
hours and accommodation trend hostelries or day scholar. Many studies lies in the need to undertake
researchers conducted detailed corrective measures that improve the
were independent variables. The
studies about the factors contributing academic performance of graduate
data were collected from 100 student performance at different students.
students through separate structured study levels. Graetz (1995)
questionnaire from different suggested “A student educational It is generally assumed that the
departments of Islamia University of success contingent heavily on social students who showed better or
Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan status of student’s parents/ higher performance in the starting
Campus using the simple random guardians in the society. Considine classes of their studies also
and Zappala (2002) noticed the performed better in future academic
sampling technique. For analysis,
same that parent’s income or social years at degree level. Everyone can
linear regression model, correlation status positively affects the student be surprised with this assumption if it
analysis, and descriptive analysis test score in examination. According could be proved scientifically. From
were used. The findings revealed to Minnesota (2007) “the higher the last two decades it has been
that age, father/guardian social education performance is depending noticed significantly that there is
economic status and daily study upon the academic performance of great addition in research literature
hours significantly contribute the graduate students. Durden and Ellis and review material relating to
quoted Staffolani and Bratti, (2002) indicators of academic achievement
academic performance of graduate
observed that “the measurement of with much emphasis on this
students. A linear model was also students previous educational dialogue, whether traditional
proposed that will be helpful to outcomes are the most important achievement measures of academic
improve the academic performance indicators of students future performance are best determinants
of graduate students at University achievement, this refers that as the of future
level. higher previous appearance, better
the student’s academic performance
in future endeavours.

academic gain at university or higher graduate admissions that normal revenue and occupational affiliation,
level or innovative measures. measures of educational potential is also associated with academic
However, it is also observed that and academic performance such as gain of students. The results of many
many of the researchers are not high school GPA (Grade Point studies confirmed that academic
agree with this view point or Average) scores showed only 30% achievement of students is
statement. Reddy and Talcott (2006) of the deviation in initial or starting contingent upon parent’s socio-
looks disagree with these (first) year at college. It is important economic condition. So the students
assumptions that future academic to note that even these studies do belonging from higher social
gains are resolute by preceding not agree with the former studies economical backgrounds will perform
performance. In their research on the who explored that previous better than other students associated
relationship between previous achievement affect the future with low social economic
academic performance and performance of the students in backgrounds. “Social and
subsequent achievement at studies, they confirmed that the economical status of student is
university level, they found that admission scores are related to generally determined by combining
students learning or studying at academic performance at university parents’ qualification, occupation and
graduate level and the score secured level but to a very minimal extent. income standard” (Jeynes, 2002).
did not predict any academic McDonald (2001) also Among many research studies
achievement at university level. They suggested that the scores of conducted on academic
also cited Pearson and Johnson graduate level studies still out achievement, it is not very surprising
(1978) who observed that on the perform any other single measure of to observe that Socio-economic
whole grade association of only 0.28 cognitive aptitude in predicting status is one of the main elements
between graduate level marks and success at university level. studied while predicting academic
university degree achievement. performance.
Parent’s socio-economic condition,
It is also confirmed in the study of which includes parents’ academic Graetz (1995) conducted a study on
Oregon State University (2003) on and professional qualification, socio-economic status of the parents
of students and concluded that the outcomes; low literacy level, low of resources in school is an
socio economic background has a retention rate, problems in school important structural component of
great impact on student’s academic behaviour and more difficulty in their the school. Private schools due to
performance, main source of studies and mostly display negative the better funding, small sizes,
educational imbalance among attitude towards studies and school. serious ownership, motivated faculty
students and student’s academic The view point of Considine and and access to resources such as
success contingent very strongly on Zappala is more strengthen by this computers perform better than public
parent’s socio economic standard. statement of Eamon, According to schools. These additional funding
Considine and Zappala (2002) also Eamon (2005) “Those students resources and facilities found in
having the same views as Graetz usually come out from low socio- private schools enhance academic
(1995), in their study on the influence economic status or area show low performance and educational
of social and economic disadvantage performance in studies and obtained attainment of their students. It is also
in the academic performance of low scores as compared to the other very pleasing that students from
school students noticed, where the students or their counter parts”. Govt schools colleges and
parents or guardians have social, universities in Punjab Pakistan are
educational and economical It is also assumed that children providing the laptops by the Punjab
advantage definitely strengthen the learning outcome and educational Government, so that the students
higher level success in future. But it performance are strongly affected by could interact with the whole world
is also noted that these parents the standard and type of educational and know about the latest
make available sufficient institution in which students get their developments and innovations.
psychological and emotional shore education. The educational
up to their children by providing good environment of the school one It is concluded that the type of
educational and learning attends sets the parameters of schools in which students studies
environment that produce confidence students’ learning outcomes. greatly influence the educational
and the improvement of skills Considine and Zappala (2002) performance and academic
needed for success. quoted Sparkles (1999) showed that achievement of the students. Miller
schools environment and teachers and Birch (2007) summarized the
On other hand Pedrosa (2006) expectations from their students also views of many researcher and
in their study on social and have strong influence on student educationist in their study on the
educational background pointed out performance. Most of the teachers influence of high school attended on
those students who mostly come working in poor schools or schools university performance. This study
from deprived socio-economic and having run short of basic facilities let the research scholars to
educational background performed often have low performance hypothesize that the background to
relatively better than others coming expectations from their students and the students positively correlates
from higher socio-economic and when students know that their with the academic attainment of
educational area. They named this teachers have low performance graduate students.
phenomena educational elasticity. It expectations from them, hence it
is obvious and true that the criteria leads to poor performance by the
for categorizing socio-economic students. Kwesiga (2002) approved
standard in different countries are that performance of the students is
different depending of their norms also influenced by the school in
and values. The criteria for low which they studied but he also said
socio-economic status for developed that number of facilities a school
country will be different from the offers usually determine the quality
criteria of developing nations and of the school, which in turn affect the
same will be in the case of performance and accomplishment of
developing and under developing its students. Sentamu (2003) argue
countries. “The total income of that schools influence educational
families, monthly or annually and process in content organization,
their expenditures also put a great teacher and teaching learning and in
effect on the learning and academic the end evaluation of the all. All
opportunities accessible to these educationists and researchers
youngsters and their chances of agreed with this principle that
educational success. Furthermore, schools put strong effect on
he also pointed that due to academic performance and
residential stratification and educational attainment of students.
segregation, the students belonging
to low-income backgrounds usually Students from elite schools are
attend schools with lower funding expected to perform good because
levels, and this situation reduced they attend these elite schools and
achievement motivation of the the main reason behind is that these
students and high risk of educational schools are usually very rich in
malfunction in future life endeavors” resources and facilities. Some
(Escarce, 2003). researchers have the view that
school ownership and the funds
Considine & Zappala (2002) available in schools do indeed
observed that children comes from influenced the performance of the
those families having low income student. Crosne and Elder (2004)
make known more subsequent noticed that school ownership,
models in terms of learning provision of facilities and availability