Sei sulla pagina 1di 112

Lesson 1

Musculo-Skeletal System

Q2, Week 1
Day 1
Duration: 1 day
I. Objective:
Explain how the organs of each organ system work together
(S6LT-IIa-b-1)

Value Focus: Being healthy is not all about keeping the body physical fit.
II. Subject Matter
A. Skill: Identifying, Observing, Explaining
B. Reference: Science for Daily Use Textbook in Grade 4 pp. 3-13
Ang Skeletal System
Musculo –Skeletal System
C. Pictures of a Muscolo-Skeletal System
III. Instructional Procedure:
A. Engagement:
1. Ask the pupils:
Have you ever made a kite with a
shape? What did you use as its
frame? Where did you paste the paper
to complete the kite? When the kite
was finished, did it have a shape
similar to its frame?

Have you see n a house being built?


What did the carpenters build first?
Does the framework make the house
stand? Does it also give a definite
form to the house?

How will you compare that to the human body?


Is there a framework that provides structure to the
human body?

2. Let the pupils connect the cut out pictures of the


human skeletal system and label the parts

B. Exploration
Group pupils into three. Each group will be
given the following activity.
1. Observe the picture of Musculo-Skeletal System and Bone Structure
 Identify the different parts of Musculo-Skeletal System
 How do skeleton functions? Refer to Science for Daily Use pp.3-8
EXPLANATION:

Let each group post their work in the board.


Ask:
What are the parts & functions of the Musculo-Skeletal System?

Mix and match activity:


Identify the Parts and functions of Skeletal System using the picture (group work)
Each group will be provided with a metacard
For the parts use green color of metacard
For the function use yellow color of metacard
After writing the parts and function each group should present their output

ELABORATION:
Assign each group
Group 1 connect the different parts,
Group 2 identify the different parts,
Group 3 explain the different function

Background information:

The Musculo-Skeletal System is like a frame. It gives your body shape and
support. It support your body as you move. Some bones protect some vital
parts or internal organs of your body. Some bones enable the body to make
different movement. The bones in the head. The bone forming the head is
the skull or cranium. It is like a built-in helmet is made up of eight bones that
have grown together. You have about 206 bones in your body. As a baby you
had more than 300 bones. The skull protects the brain. It is hard and strong
but it can be cracked if it receives a severe blow. The jawbones support the
teeth and gums enabling us to bite and chew our food. The backbones or the
spinal column holds your head and body straight. It consist of 26 separate
bones called vertebrae with disk made of cartilage. The cartilage prevents
these bones from hitting each other when you move. The vertebrae protect
the spinal cord. There are 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar 1 sacrum and 1
coccyx vertebrae. If you look closely at one vertebra you will see a hole in its
center through which the spinal cord passes. The vertebrae are separated by
cartilage which prevents these bones from hitting each other when you move.
The backbone protects the spinal cord. Your backbone is your main support.
The vertebrae in your backbone let you move in different ways. The skeletal
system serves many important functions; it provides the shape and form for
the body, support and protection, allows bodily movement, produces blood
for the body, and stores minerals.[5] The number of bones in the human
skeletal system is a controversial topic. Humans are born with over 300
bones; however, many bones fuse together between birth and maturity. As a
result, an average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones. The number of bones
varies according to the method used to derive the count. While some consider
certain structures to be a single bone with multiple parts, others may see it
as a single part with multiple bones.[6] There are five general classifications
of bones. These are long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and
sesamoid bones. The human skeleton is composed of both fused and
individual bones supported by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It
is a complex structure with two distinct divisions; the axial skeleton, which
includes the vertebral column, and the appendicular skeleton
E. EVALUATION:
Matching type: Match the parts of the skeletal system in column A with the
functions in column B.
Column A Column B
1. Skull a. the inner layer of the bone that contains yellowish
substance which
manufacture blood cells in the body.
2. Spinal column b. protects the spinal cord
3. Bones c. a rigid case that protects the brain
4. Hinge joint d. allows movement in all direction
5. Ball and socket e. allows movement in one direction

IV. ASSIGNMENT:
How will you take care of your bones?
Lesson 2
Musculo-Skeletal System

Q2, Week 1
Day 2
Duration: 1 day
I. Objective:
Expain how the organs of each organ system work together
(S6LT-IIa-b-1)
Value Focus: Learning to Value Health and Clean Surrounding
II. Subject Matter:
Explain how the organs of Musculo-Skeletal System work together
A. Skill: observe, identify,
B. Reference: Science for Daily Use Textbook in Grade 4 pp. 3-13
Science and Health Textbook in Grade 4 pp. 22-44
Science Link
C. Pictures of a Muscolo-Skeletal System
III. Instructional Procedure:
A. Engagement :
1. Review on Skeletal System
2. Touch your cheek, legs, arms, palms, fingers, and stomach.
Can you feel the fleshy parts?
How do they feel?
Are they hard or soft? Your bones are covered with muscles.
Can you imagine yourself without the muscles that cover your bones and
other internal organs?
3. Rearrange the jumbled letters inside the box to from the correct word
being described by the group of words at the right.

Do it in your notebook.

1. H B O N S E I P – located just below the waist

2. S P I L A N C O M N L U – consists of 26 vertebrae

3. R B I G A C E – consists of 12 ribs on each side of the body


4. K U L S L – it is the top of the spine
B. EXPLORATION:
Group Activity
1. Setting of standards/Safety Tips
2. Activity #1: Observing Tendons of Muscles
Problem: How are the muscles connected to the bones?
Refer to Science Links page 150 /Science and Health 4 page 24
C. EXPLANATION:
How are muscles connected to bones?
What are the types of muscles?
Explain how the organs of Musculo-Skeletal System work together

Activity #2: Observing Movement of Muscles


Problem: How do muscles work? Refer to New Science Links p.116
Safety Tips: Do not overstretch your muscles.
Picture analysis: Group work.

The teacher show pictures of the different types of muscles maybe:


a. skeletal muscles
b. smooth muscles
c. cardiac muscles
Guide Questions:
1. What can you see/observe in the pictures given?
2. How do these muscles move or work?
3. Compare and contrast the three kinds of muscles:

Background Information for Teachers

The skeletal system serves as a framework for tissues and organs to


attach themselves to. This system acts as a protective structure for vital
organs. Major examples of this are the brain being protected by
the skull and the lungs being protected by the rib cage.
Located in long bones are two distinctions of bone marrow (yellow and
red). The yellow marrow has fatty connective tissue and is found in the
marrow cavity. During starvation, the body uses the fat in yellow
marrow for energy.[8] The red marrow of some bones is an important site
for blood cell production, approximately 2.6 million red blood cells per
second in order to replace existing cells that have been destroyed by
the liver.[5] Here all erythrocytes, platelets, and most leukocytes form in
adults. From the red marrow, erythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes
migrate to the blood to do their special tasks.
Another function of bones is the storage of certain
minerals. Calcium and phosphorus are among the main minerals being
stored. The importance of this storage "device" helps to
regulate mineral balance in the bloodstream. When the fluctuation
of minerals is high, these minerals are stored in bone; when it is low it
will be withdrawn from the bone. A tendon is a tough, flexible band
of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones.[13] The extra-
cellular connective tissue between muscle fibers binds to tendons at the distal
and proximal ends, and the tendon binds to the periosteum of individual
bones at the muscle's origin and insertion. As muscles contract, tendons
transmit the forces to the relatively rigid bones, pulling on them and causing
movement. Tendons can stretch substantially, allowing them to function as
springs during locomotion, thereby saving energy.

D. ELABORATION:
1. Why don’t we overstretch our muscles?
If we do, what will happen?
2. Why handicapped person should be treated with kindness and respect?
3. Explain how the bones and muscles work together?
4. How will you know that a muscle is contracting?
5. Why do muscles need rest?
E. EVALUATION:
Completion Type.
Supply the missing words. Choose your answers in the box .
Muscles Smooth Muscular
Cardiac Pairs

The ______system consist of all muscles in the body. Muscles have three
kinds:______,______ and skeletal. Muscles always work in _____.If one muscle
contracts the opposite relaxes. _______help the body move and do work. Good
food, exercise, rest, and good posture are necessary to make muscles strong and
healthy.

IV. Assignment:
Write SM if the statement pertains to smooth muscles, CA if cardiac muscles and
SK if skeletal muscles.
_____1. These are muscles found only in heart.
--------2. They are striated and involuntary.
--------3. They are striated and voluntary.
--------4. They are muscles of internal organs.
--------5. The muscle cell of this type contains only one nucleus.
Lesson 3
Integumentary System

Q2, Week 1
Day 3
Duration: 1 day
I. Objective:
Expain how the organs of each organ system work together
(S6LT-IIa-b-1)
Value Focus: Giving Importance to one’s Health
II. Subject Matter:
A. Skill: Identify, observe,
B. Reference: Science for Daily Use Textbook in Grade 5 p.50
Science Links p.125
The Integumentary and Excretory System
C. Pictures of the organs integumentary System
III. Instructional Procedure:
A. ENGAGEMENT:
1. Checking of Assignments. / Review about the Musculo-Skeletals System.
2. Have the pupils perform their exercise routine.
Then ask” How do you feel after the exercise? Why do we need to exercise? What
do you think will happen to those people who do not exercise?
3. Try to do this simple activities. Get two oranges. One of them is peeled off while
the other is not. Throw and squeeze both of them. What might happen to each of the
fruit?
B. EXPLORATION:
Picture analysis:
Showing pictures of the integumentary system
Question: look at the diagram
It is a cross-section of the skin. There are sweat gland
located in the
Subcutaneous tissue located in the inner skin. The sweat
ducks spiral
Up through the epidermis to the surface. That why your
sweat can go out through your pores
C. EXPLANATION:
 What are organs of integumentary system?
 What are their function?

Try to recall the parts of the skin as numbered below.

Our skin is next to the kidneys in importance as an organ of excretion. It eliminates


fluid daily in the form of sweat or perspiration. Sweat is ninety-nine percent (99%)
water. The remaining 1 percent is sodium chloride and a small amount of organic
wastes, giving it a characteristic smell. The sweat glands of the skin get rid of sweat
as waste product. Each sweat gland has a much-twisted section observed to be in
close contact with the blood vessels. Wastes diffuse from the capillaries into the sweat
glands. Here they find their way out through the pores as sweat.Sweat helps in the
regulation of our body temperature. The body functions well at the normal body
temperature of 37C. Twenty percent (20%) of the excess body heat is lost as a result
of the evaporation of sweat.
Background information
There are five organs in the integumentary system. They are the hair, nails,
skin, sebaceous glands, and sudoriferous glands.

Skin

The skin is the largest organ in the human body and accounts for about
15% of your total body weight. The skin is made of three main layers, the
epidermis, the dermis, and subcutaneous tissue.

Integumentary system

Your body is like a factory, constantly building new materials and


producing waste products such as smoke, solid garbage, and dirty water.
Waste products must be removed if a factory is to continue operating

Your body makes and excretes waste products similar to those in a


factory. First, carbon dioxide waste is removed by the respiratory system.
Second, the solid waste, or feces, is excreted by the digestive system. It is
the third type of waste that is especially dangerous to the body--chemical
waste products. Most of the body’s chemical waste products come from the
chemical reactions of proteins. These waste products contain nitrogen.
Wastes with nitrogen in them are poisonous and must be removed from the
body as quickly as possible.

The epidermis is a thin outer layer and is made up of many small layers.
One of them is called the basale stratum and is the only one that can
complete a process called cell division. Cell division is when a already
existing cell divides into two new cells. The skin is always shedding dead
cells so it's important to always have new cells. The epidermis also contains
a pigment called melanin, which gives skin its colour. African Americans
contain more melanin in their skin than Caucasians. People with a disorder
call Albinism contain very little to none melanin in their skin giving them
almost pure white skin and very light blond hair. The epidermis is non-
vascular meaning it doesn't contain any blood vessels. There are many
different types of cells within the epidermis.
Squamous Cells- A squamous cell is one type of a epithelial cell that covers
almost everywhere. They are flat and scaly and are on the surface of the
skin.
Melanocytes- Produce melanin which is the pigment that gives skin its color.
Langerhans Cells- Are created in bone marrow and move into the epidermis
and help protect the body against infection.
The dermis is the thicker inner layer of the skin. It contains blood vessels,
connective tissue, nerves, receptors, sebaceous and sudoriferous glands,
hair shafts and lymph vessels. There are two main layers of the dermis, the
upper papillary layer and the lower reticular layer. The upper papillary layer
consist of ridges that cause finger prints, and receptors that sense heat, pain,
pressure, cold, and touch. These communicate with the central nervous
system so that you can react to these feelings. Your fingertips and your lips
are more sensitive than other parts of your body because there are more
receptors in these parts. The reticular layer is made of connective tissue and
contains, hair follicles, certain glands and nerves.
The subcutaneous tissue is the lowest layer and is made mostly of fat and
stores nutrients.
Sebaceous Glands
The sebaceous gland is a very small gland that can only be seen under a
microscope. You can find it anywhere on your skin, but mainly where it's
hairy. It connects to the hair follicle on top of the skin and also helps protect
the skin. It stops any foreign objects from entering through a hair follicle. The
sebaceous gland also produces an oily secretion on hairs called sebum.
Sebum lubricates the hair and allows it to stay healthy and shiny, but when
large quantities of sebum are created, it protects the skin and hair from water
by reducing the growth of microorganisms. Sebum prevents skin from
cracking, turning dry, and brittle. The main function of the sebaceous gland
is to protect the skin.
Sudoriferous Glands
The sudoriferous gland is a scientific word for sweat gland. They have a
small tubular structure in and under the skin. It's located in the subcutaneous
tissue and under the dermis layer(skin). There are tiny openings in your skin
that allow the sweat to come up. One of its functions is to produce sweat to
regulate your body temperature. Sweat glands (sudoriferous glands) collect
water and waste in your bloodstream and discharge or expel it through the
epidermis pores. There are 2 types of sudoriferous glands, the eccrine and
apocrine gland. The eccrine sudoriferous gland is spread across your entire
body. The apocrine sudoriferous gland is found in the armpit and other
areas.The glands produce mainly water and a variety of salts. Their main
function is to regulate the temperature of your body. They also cause odour
in sweat because of bacteria. Sweat produced from the glands,
generally contain mostly fatty materials.
Nails
Nails are created when epidermal tissues hardens because of a protein
called keratin.

They are made of keratinized epidermal cells. Keratin is also used to


form hair and the top layer of your skin. The place where nails grow from is
called the "NAIL MATRIX", but are located in nail beds. The nail root is where
the nail starts, which is hidden under your cuticle. Nails grow when new cells
are created at the root, which push the old cells out. At the same time keratin
hardens and flattens them. It moves across the nail bed (flat part under nails)
where you can see it. Nails protect the sensitive tips of our fingers and toes
and aid us when picking up objects, but cuticles (found where your nail meets
your skin) protect the new cells as it's growing out from the nail bed.

Hair
Hair is an altered type of skin that grows everywhere on your body except
on your lips, eyelids, palms of your hands, and the soles of your feet.
Although, it grows faster in the summer and during the day, then at night in
the winter. Hair grows from follicles that are hair shafts and roots of your hair.
The base of your hair root is known as the hair bulb, which is where nutrients
are received and new cells are formed. Follicles are found in the
dermis. There are also tiny muscles that are attached to hair follicles and in
certain occasions tighten together to form "goose pimples" or " goose bumps"
and make the hair stand up straight. Hair contains 3 coverings: outer layer is
overlapping keratin scales (cuticle), center layer is keratinized protein fiber
(cortex) and generally a central core of round cells (medulla). Medulla is
usually found in coarse hair, but not likely in natural blonde hair and fine hair.

D. ELABORATION:
Function of the Integumentary System
 It protects the body’s internal living tissues and organs.
 It protects the body against microorganisms and invasion by infectious
organisms.
 It protect the body from dehydration and against abrupt changes in
temperature.
 It helps dispose of waste materials.
 It acts as a receptor for touch, pressure, pain, heat and cold.
 It stores water and fat.
 It help in the production of vitamin D.

E. EVALUATION:
Matching type: Match the parts of the Integumentary system in column A with the
functions in column B.
Column A Column B
1. Skin a. altered type of skin that grows everywhere on your body
2. Nails b. they are made of keratinized epidermal cells
3. Hair c. the largest organ in the human body
4. Melanocytes d. is one type of a epithelial cell that covers almost
everywhere
5. Squamous cell e. produce melanin which is the pigment that gives skin
its color

IV. Assignment:
Identify the organs of digestive system
Lesson 4
Integumentary System

Q2, Week 1
Day 4
Duration: 1 day
I. Objective:
Expain how the organs of each organ system work together
(S6LT-IIa-b-1)
Value Focus: Patience and Perseverance in doing one’s work
II. Subject Matter:
A. Skill: Identify, observe,
B. Reference: Science for Daily Use Textbook in Grade 5 p.50
Science Links p.125, Science for Active Mindsp.144
The Integumentary and Excretory System
C. Pictures of the organs integumentary System
III. Instructional Procedure:
A. ENGAGEMENT:
Read the situation and Discuss
You and your friend are playing basketball. In your team you exerted more effort
than the other members.
Your teammates said “Your”re sweating a lot. You must be abnormal.”

Answer these
1. Do you think your friend are right? Why?
2. Is it natural for a person to perspire more when you exert much effort?
3. Do you agree that sweating helps cool your body when it is hot?
4. Does perspiring help the body stay heathy?

B. Explore:

Do these
Study the diagram of the skin. Look at the following parts of Integumentary System
Give the function of Integumentary System
Explain how the organs of integumentary System work together?
C. Explain
Organs that make up the human body work together harmoniously. Although
located in various parts of the boby, they function as one, thus sustaining the life of
the organism. When all organs function well, the body operates normally: however,
when one organ is injured or damages, the other organs can negatively affected.
An Organ system is group of organs that work together to perform one or more
function.
Integumentary system (skin,nails hair, sweat glands ) protect the internal structures
of the body from damages prevents dehydration, stores fat, serves as the first line of
defense of the body from the environment.
Skeletal system (bones) Supports and protects the body while giving it shape and form
Muscular system (Muscle) Enables movement through the contraction of muscle.
Background Information for Teachers
The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis. All body
systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal
conditions essential to the function of the body. The skin has an important
job of protecting the body and acts as the body’s first line of defense
against infection, temperature change, and other challenges to
homeostasis. Functions include:
 Protect; the body’s internal living tissues and organs, against
invasion by infectious organisms, the body from dehydration, the
body against abrupt changes in temperature and protect the body
against sunburns
 Help excrete waste materials through perspiration
 Act as a receptor for touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold
 Generate vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light
 Store water, fat, glucose, and vitamin D
 Participate in temperature regulation

The integumentary system protects the body, regulates temperature and


functions in water transfer. It is also an important sensory organ that
transmits information about the surrounding world.
Organs that make up the human body work together harmoniously.
Although located in various parts of the boby, they function as one, thus
sustaining the life of the organism. When all organs function well, the body
operates normally: however, when one organ is injured or damages, the
other organs can negatively affected.
Lesson 1. Integumentary system
Your body is like a factory, constantly building new materials and
producing waste products such as smoke, solid garbage, and dirty water.
Waste products must be removed if a factory is to continue operating

Your body makes and excretes waste products similar to those in a


factory. First, carbon dioxide waste is removed by the respiratory system.
Second, the solid waste, or feces, is excreted by the digestive system. It is
the third type of waste that is especially dangerous to the body--chemical
waste products. Most of the body’s chemical waste products come from the
chemical reactions of proteins. These waste products contain nitrogen.
Wastes with nitrogen in them are poisonous and must be removed from the
body as quickly as possible.
What you will do
Self-Test 1.1

Complete the table below with the correct answer.

The Three Major Types of Body Wastes

Type Example System used


Gaseous wastes _______________ _______________
Solid wastes _______________ _______________
Chemical wastes _______________

The two major organs that remove chemical waste are the skin and the kidneys.
The skin is part of the integumentary system while the kidneys are part of the excretory
system.

1. Name the three major types of body wastes


2. What kind of wastes result from the chemical reactions of protein?
3. Why must the body remove waste products?
4. Name the two major organs of excretion. To what systems do these organs
belong?

Your First Impression

When you meet people for the first time, what do you notice? Chances are you
notice their appearance. You don’t just see their special features; you also see how
they take care of their skin, hair, nails, and teeth. You may also notice their clothes,
facial expressions, and posture. When others meet you, what impressions do they
form about you? Do you make the best impression about yourself?
Your Skin

Figure 1. The Human Skin


http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/skin.html
The skin is the largest and the most visible organ of your body. It measures
over 19, 000 square centimeters (3,000 square inches). The condition of the skin is
an important part of your appearance. Do you know how to keep your skin looking its
best? If you understand the structure and function of the skin, then you can apply the
basics of proper skin care.

Now, take a look at the structure of the skin and its importance.

The skin has two main layers sitting on top of a layer of fatty tissue. The outer
layer is called the EPIDERMIS. The epidermis forms an outer covering that prevents
evaporation of body fluids. The epidermis also protects the body from bacteria and
other foreign matter.

Under the epidermis is a much thicker layer of cells, the dermis. Located deep
in the dermis are the sweat glands. The SWEAT GLANDS help the body excrete
waste and control body temperature. The sweat gland collects waste chemicals and
mix them with a fluid made in the gland. These chemicals are then secreted as
SWEAT. Sweat travels up a twisting tube and leaves the body through a pore.

The skin, together with its accessory organs, constitutes the integumentary
system. It is composed of different types of membranes – the serous membranes,
mucous membranes, the cutaneous membrane and the synovial membranes.

It functions as a protective covering, aids in regulating body temperature,


houses sensory receptor, synthesizes various chemicals, and excretes waste. The
skin is composed of an epidermis and a dermis, and has a subcutaneous layer
beneath.

The skin is also called the integument, which means “covering” but it is much
more than external covering. It plays a key role in a number of body processes. It
keeps water and other precious molecules in the body from drying out. It also keeps
water like perspiration out.

It is possible for an adult to lose half a liter of water each day through the skin
without noticing it.

Does this loss of water through the skin help the body? Yes, it does. This water
loss is one way for the body to cool itself. You usually sweat more when the weather
is warm. Water moving onto the skin from the sweat glands evaporates, which helps
lower the body’s temperature.

You may not think of your skin as a sense organ. It does, however, have many
different kinds of nerve cells that detect changes around the body. Each nerve cell
detects a different condition. The nerve cells detect pain, pressure, touch, heat and
cold. Note that most nerve cells are found in the dermis. Only nerve cells that detect
pain are found in both the epidermis and the dermis.

Like messages from other sense organs, messages from the nerve cells in the
skin also travel to the brain. There they are decoded as hot, cold, pain, pressure or
touch messages. The sense of touch is located on the skin. Many nerves end at the
skin.

The skin provides people with information about their surroundings. The skin,
hair, and nails make up the integumentary system.

Try this:

Look at your forefinger. It will show you the marvelous wonders

in your body. Notice the flawless skin that covers it. What is

found at its tip? Observe the hard structure, the fingernails.

Your forefinger is a part of your hand where tiny hair grows out

of the skin.

Parts and Functions

The
Touchskin proper is Feel
your forefinger. composed of Bend
its hardness. two itmain layers-the
and straighten it. outer layer, called
epidermis (an outermost protective tissue), and an inner layer or dermis which is
thicker subcutaneous region, made up of fatty tissues. The dermis provides insulation
and supports reserve of calories in times of need. Both the epidermis and the dermis
alert us to tissue injuries, and make us feel the cold air and feel a hug.

Look at the cross section of the skin in Figure 1. Study it carefully and analyze
its parts. Can you relate these parts to the functions mentioned earlier?

Exposure of the skin to sunlight stimulates the production of more melanin


pigment which results in a tan. The melanin has a protective effect but excessive sun
exposure damages the skin, causing leathery skin or worse, skin cancer.

The Epidermis

The epidermis is the outer skin layer. The skin’s surface has many ridges and
valleys. The ridges are called papillae. The eye can detect small openings in the skin
surface called the pores. A pigment called melanin is made in the inner layer of the
epidermis.

The Dermis

The dermis connects the epidermis to the underlying tissues. It is composed


largely of nerve endings, blood vessels and muscle fibers. Oil glands and sweat
glands are found in the dermis. The sebaceous glands found around the hair shafts
secrete oil known as sebum. Sebaceous glands are found almost everywhere on the
surface of the body except on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Sebum
moves up through the duct around the hair shaft and out of the pore at the surface the
skin. It coats and lubricates the carotene layer of the epidermis and makes the skin
more waterproof. It also helps prevent water loss from the body. Cone-like elevations
on the surface of the dermis, or papillae, are the structures that are responsible for
fingerprints.

Elastic fibers in the dermis allow for extensibility and elasticity of the skin. There
are considerably more elastic fibers in the dermis of the youth than an elderly person.
This fact and the disappearance of fat from the subcutaneous layer result in the
characteristic wrinkled appearance of the skin in elderly people.

The Subcutaneous layer

The deepest of the skin layer is the subcutaneous. It supplies fat to our body.
It insulates the body against heat and cold and also acts as an inner cushion to protect
the body against injuries.
What you will do
Activity 1.2

Do you eat pork chop? Which part do you eat? What do you notice about the
outer covering? Is it tough? Why it is so? Now, look at the diagram of the human
skin and compare its layers to those in the pork chop. Are there similarities?

The hair and nails are structures related to the skin. Both are made of keratin
and grow from the epidermal layer of skin.

Hair

Hair is a special structure of the skin. Look at the structure of the hair on the
next page. Hair is formed by epidermal cells that line a pocket called follicle, which
lies deep within the dermis. The outside layer of the hair and the skin are both
composed of transparent keratin cells. If you look at Figure 1, you will see these cells
overlap like scales on a fish. When these cells lie flat, they reflect light, giving hair its
shine. The melanin pigments give hair as well as skin its color. Whether hair is curly
or straight depends on the angle of the hair follicle and the shape of the hair shaft.
Curly hair has a flat shaft; straight hair has a round one. Hair fullness depends on the
number of shafts and the diameter of each one.

Hair is present on most of the skin surfaces. However, it is most abundant on


the scalp. The hair grows from a follicle deep in the dermis. Because the hair that
you see is not a living tissue, cutting or shaving the hair has no effect on its growth.

Figure 2. Parts of the Hair

http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/skin.html
Nails

The nail is another special structure of the skin. To give you a clear idea of
how the nail looks like see the illustration below. The hard part of the nail is made of
skin tissue. The nail grows from the epidermal cells below it. The skin around the
nail forms a hardened margin called the cuticle.

Figure 3. The Parts of a Nail


http//www.sirinet.ml/~jgjohnso/biologyII.html

Fingernails and toenails protect the distal parts of your fingers and toes. The
nails are most firmly attached to the base of the nail. This crescent-shaped area is
called the lunula.

Teeth

Your teeth play an obvious role in appearance. They also have important
functions. Teeth are helpful for clear speech. Certain sounds cannot be pronounced
without the front teeth. Teeth are also important for grinding food into small particles.

Elaborate:
Organs that make up the human body work together harmoniously. Although located
in various parts of the body, they function as one, thus sustaining the life of the
organism. When all organs function well, the body operates normally: however, when
one organ is injured or damages, the other organs can negatively affected.
An Organ system is group of organs that work together to perform one or more
function.
Integumentary system (skin,nails hair, sweat glands ) protect the internal structures
of the body from damages prevents dehydration, stores fat, serves as the first line of
defense of the body from the environment.

Evaluation:
Explain how organs of the Integumentary System work together?

Assignment:
Describe the functions of the Digestive System
Lesson No. 5 & 6
Organs of the Digestive System

Quarter 2- Week 1
Day 4

I. Objectives:

Identify and describe the functions of the organs of the
digestive system
 Explain how the organs of Digestive System work together.
S6LT-II-a-b-1
A. Materials :
Activity cards, video clip, chart, Manila Paper

B. References :

- The New Science Links – Evelyn Castante Padpad, pp. 129-138


- Science for Daily Use – Grade 4 pp.30 – 33
- The World of Science- 4 – pp. 27-33
- Science and Health – 4 – pp. 75 - 82
- https://youtu.be/_exsrs0STtU
- https://youtu.be/i5MH6ddyi74

C. Process Skills : Observing , describing ,demonstrating,


inferring, performing

D. Values Integration:
 Importance of proper eating

II. Learning Tasks:


A. Engagement
1. Show a picture of the digestive system
Ask the following questions:

1. What is the picture about?


2. What are the organs you see?
3. What are the functions of these organs?
4. Are these organs play a great role to our daily life? How?

2. Get something to eat from your baon. Observe what you are doing
and answer the following questions below :
 What did you do with the food in your mouth?
 What changes occur in the mouth?
 Where does the food go from the mouth?
 Into what organ will the food go from the esophagus?
 What do you think will happen to the food in the
stomach?
 From the stomach where do you think the food go?
 What do you think will be the changes of the food in the
small intestine?

B. Exploration:

1. Group Work: Pupils will be grouped into three. Give each


group an Activity Card.
Group I
Identify the organs of digestion being described. Select your
answer from the list.

Description
Organs
a long coiled connected from the stomach.

a long muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the


throat to the stomach
a large J-shaped organ at the end of the esophagus, on
the left side of the body

a large J-shaped organ at the end of the esophagus, on


the left side of the body

a large coiled tube attached to the end of the small


Mouth esophagus stomach

Large intestine small intestine


intestine
Group II
Describe the organs of digestion by writing the function of
each organ at the right column.. Choose your answer from the
list.
Organs Description
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine

a. It tears and grind the food into pieces


b. Absorbed the food in its wall
c. Collect undigested food and form feces
d. A narrow tube that allows the food to push down to the stomach
e. Changed the food into chyme

Group II

Problem: Explain the function of the digestive system

Materials: Manila paper, pentel pen

Fill in the blanks with the right word

Digestion starts in the __________. The food is changed into ______ form. The __
___ softens the food. The partially digested food enters the _______. It then goes to
the _______ .The food is further changed into _______form in the ________ so that
the ______can carry it into the different parts of the body. Undigested parts of the
food are pushed into the _ __, where they remain until the feces are expelled by a
_ ____.

C. Explanation:
1. Reporting of Output

Ask the following questions:


 What is digestion?
 What are the organs of digestive system?
 How does each organ differ from one another?
 What changes take place during digestion?
BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS
Digestion –is the process of breaking down food into nutrients, which the
body uses for energy, growth and cell repair. It consists mainly of a long
muscular tube called the digestive tract. This starts at the mouth,
continues via esophagus and stomach, to the intestines and ends at the
anus. The system also relies on the pancreas, liver and gall bladder to help
digest the food. .Accessory organs of the digestive system include the
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
Organs of Digestion:
1. Mouth – it is the first part of the digestive system composed of teeth
and the tongue. The tongue and the teeth are involved in the digestion
of food in the mouth. There are different kinds of teeth and performs
different functions in the digestion
 Incisors – front teeth with sharp edges for biting and cutting the food.
 Canines – pointed teeth which grip and tear the food.
 Premolars – crush and grind the food
 Molars – flat teeth used for chewing the food.

2. Esophagus – is a long muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the


throat to the stomach. The walls of the esophagus is lined with smooth
muscles that contracts rhythmically to move the food through the
digestive system in the process of peristalsis.
3. Stomach – is a large J-shaped organ at the end of the esophagus, on the
left side of the body. The capacity of the stomach is 50ml when empty
and can expand up to 2 to 4 liters when full.The end of the stomach has
a sphincter muscle that closes and opens to allow the flow of from the
esophagus to the stomach.
4. Small intestine- is the long coiled connected from the stomach. If it is
stretched, it is about seven meters long. It has villi, small like finger
projections that protrude in the lining of the intestinal wall to increase
the absorptive area. The absorption of the nutrients occurs in the small
intestine with the help of villi.
There are three parts of the Small Intestine:
 Duodenum – the upper 20 cm. connected to the stomach
 Jejunum – is about 2.5 meters long.
 Ileum – is the longest half coiled through the abdominal cavity
 The last 20 or 30 centimeters of the colon are called rectum.
5. Large intestine or colon – is a large coiled tube attached to the end of the
small intestine. It is only about 1.5 meters long, which includes the colon,
rectum, and appendix and twice as wide as the small intestine. The last 20 or
30 centimeters of the colon are called rectum.

Steps of Digestion Process:

1. The process of digestion begins when we put a morsel of food in our mouth.
2. The softened food is rolled into a ball called the bolus and is pushed by the
tongue into the throat.
3. Movement of the food occurs due to a wave-like contraction known as
peristalsis.
4. A sphincter known as the lower esophageal sphincter, relaxes and the food
enters the stomach.
5. The hydrochloric acid present in the stomach converts the food into chyme.
6. The chyme enters the part of the small intestine known as the duodenum.
7. The bile helps in breaking down fats and the pancreatic juice breaks down
other food particles.
8. Most of the nutrients from the food are absorbed in a part of the small
intestine known as the jejunem. The food particles are further broken down
inside the jejunem.
9. The larger food particles that cannot be absorbed move through the ileo-
cecal valve and enter the large intestine or colon.
10. The colon absorbs water, manufactures minerals and produces mucus. This
food is considered as waste formed into feces.
11. The waste or feces moves into the last part of the large intestine known as
the rectum

D. Elaborate:
Group 1
Paste the function or description in a sentence strip with the
pictures of each organ
It is compose of teeth and tongue
that tears the food into pieces

It pushes the food down to the


esophagus

It is a large coiled attached to the


small intestine

A narrow coiled tube about seven


meters long connected to the
stomach.
Forms and store feces

It is composed of duodenum, jejunum


and ileum

It makes digestion complete

It is the organ where digestion begins

Group 2

Arrange the following statements according to the process of digestion and


absorption in the body .number each of the steps according to the sequence it
occurs.
________ water is absorbed

________food is broken into smaller pieces


________ nutrients pass through the blood stream
________ waste are removed from the body
________ food is liquefied and digested into forms that cell can use
Group 3

Using the picture or chart of the digestive system. Explain the changes of food as it
passes from one organ to another.

1. Reporting of outputs:
 Name the different organs of digestive system
 Name the different food changes took place in each organ

E. Evaluation:
Multiple choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer

1. When is the body able to use the food it takes?


a. When it reaches the stomach
b. When it reaches the intestine
c. When it reaches the blood
d. When it reaches the cells
2. It is the organ where digestion starts
a. Mouth c, stomach
b. Small intestine d. large intestine
3. What happens to the food during digestion?
a. It is changed to liquid
b. It disappears
c. It is separated from water
d. It is removed from the body.
4. In which part of the digestive system are proteins digested
completely?
a. Stomach c. small intestine
b. Large intestine d. esophagus
5. In which part of the digestion system does digestion end?
a. Mouth c. stomach
b. Small intestine d. large intestine

V. Assignment: Label each part and explain the process of digestion in 5


sentences
Lesson No. 7 & 8
Organs of the Respiratory System
Week 2 Quarter 2
Day 1

I. Objectives:
 Identify and describe the functions of the organs of the respiratory system
 Explain how the organs of Respiratory System work together.
S6LT – Iia – b -1

II. A. Materials :
Activity cards, video clip, chart, Manila Paper
https://youtu.be/gtt-aX5Y8HA
https://youtu.be/UTR1IsX55dc
https://youtu.be/6eFVHKfAw-E
B. References :

- The New Science Links – Evelyn Castante Padpad, pp.


142-148
- The World of Science – 5 – pp. 19 – 27
- Integrated Science for Young Explorers – 5 – pp. 20 - 29

C. Process Skills : Observing , describing , demonstrating, inferring,


performing
D. Values Integration:
 Importance of breathing
 Appreciate proper care of the lungs
III. Learning Tasks:
A. Engagement
1. Let pupils perform inhale and exhale.

Ask the following questions;


 What organs are involved in breathing?
 Why do you breathe?
 What do you call the activity of breathing?

2. Rearrange the letters to form the correct words

a. ENOS -
b. PXNHARY -
c. LRYANX -
d. ATCHRAE -
e. UNGLS -
f. IBORHCN -
g. MDAPIHRGA -

B. Exploration
1. Video presentation
a. Group pupils into 3
b. Let them fill the chart after watching the video

2. Give each group an activity card and fill up the chart.

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3


Organs Description Function

C. Explanation
1. Reporting of output
a. What are the different organs of the respiratory system?
b. How does each organ distinct from the other?
c. what are the function of each organ in respiration?

2. Group pupils into three. Give each group an activity card.


Group 1: Path of air in the upper respiratory tract
Group 2: Path of air in the lungs
Group 3: Path of air in the blood

3. Reporting of output:
 What are the organs of the upper respiratory tract?
 Trace how the air in the upper respiratory tract travel.
 What are the organs found in the lungs which help in
breathing
 Present the path of the air in the lungs using picture
 What happened to the air in the blood?
 What are the changes of air take place in the blood?
BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHER

Respiration is the process of exchanging gases with the environment. It includes the intake
of oxygen and its delivery to the cells of the different parts of the body and its removal and release
of carbon dioxide.
Main Parts of the Respiratory System
1. Nasal Cavity
The nostrils are the opening into the nasal passages that are lined with hairs called cilia.
The cilia filter the dust and other particles present in the air. They also protect the nasal
passages and other regions of the respiratory tract. The blood vessels inside the lining of
the nose warms and humidifies the air.
2. Pharynx and Larynx
The pharynx is also called the throat. It is the common passageway for both food, water
and air. Below the epiglottis is the larynx or voice box. The larynx contain two vocal chords
that vibrate when air passes by them. With our tongue and lips, we convert these vibrations
into speech. The larynx is the main site for sound production. Two ligaments called vocal
chords can be stretched in varying extents across the opening of the larynx. To prevent
food from entering the windpipe or trachea, the epiglottis closes the larynx when
swallowing. This prevents food and water to enter the passage.
3. Trachea- is known as windpipe. It is made up of muscles and elastic fibers with rings of
cartilage lined with cilia. The trachea filters the air we inhale and branches into the bronchi.
4. Bronchi- are two tubes that carry air into the lungs. Bronchial tubes also branch into smaller
tubes called bronchioles. Bronchioles branch off into alveoli. Alveoli are grape-like
structures at the end of bronchioles. The alveoli have thin walls that are surrounded by
blood vessels. The bronchioles and the alveoli together make up the lungs. The alveoli
increase the surface of the lungs for greater exchange of gases to collect more oxygen. It
also protects the lungs from bacteria and other harmful microorganisms.
5. Lungs – the lungs are located in the chest cavity surrounded by the rib cage. The lungs are
the main organ of the respiratory system. This is where exchange of gases occurs. This is
the site where oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is expelled out. Each lung is covered
with pleural membrane. This membrane produces slippery fluid that allow the lungs to
glide freely during breathing.
6. Diaphragm –is a dome shaped muscle that controls breathing, which located at the bottom
of the lungs. During respiration, the diaphragm flattens out and pulls upward, making more
space for the lungs. When we inhale or breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and pulls
downward. This movement increases the space in the lungs, which pulls air into it. When
we exhale or breathe out, the diaphragm expands. This movement reduces the amount of
space for the lungs and forces air out.

The Path of Air


A. Air in the Upper Respiratory Tract
 As you inhale, air enters the nose or mouth. The air is filtered, warmed, and
humidified in the different parts of the upper respiratory tract.
 The air passes through the pharynx, larynx, then into the trachea and into the
lungs.
B. Air in the Lungs
 Inside the lungs, air enters through the bronchial tubes and to the alveoli.
 When air goes into the air sacs, oxygen goes to the wall of the air sacs then through
the walls of the blood vessels and to the blood.
C. Air in the Blood
 Oxygen is now in the blood and the same time carbon dioxide carried by the
blood goes through the blood vessel walls and into the air sacs.
 The carbon dioxide in the blood is exchanged or traded with the oxygen in the air
sacs.
 The blood then takes the oxygen to the rest of the body cells while carbon
dioxide that passes in the air sacs leaves the body when you exhale
D. Elaboration:
1. Perform the following activities by group:
Group A -------- Present the organs of respiration through a song-
Group B --------- Describe the functions of respiration using rap
Group C --------- Explain the flow of air in breathing using poem

2. Below is the step-by-step path of air through the respiratory system,


but the steps are not in correct sequence. Put them in order,
numbering them from 1 to 8.

______ Air enters the alveoli.


______ Carbon dioxide passes out of the blood stream, and is
eventually exhaled.
______Cilia and mucus trap tiny particles found in the air, and
warm and moisten the air.
______ Air moves through smaller and smaller passageways
called bronchi.
______ The trachea, or windpipe, then carries the air to the lungs.
______ Air enters the nose.
______ Oxygen passes into the blood stream.
______ Air moves down the throat, or pharynx.

IV. Evaluation:
Multiple choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer:
1. Contains two openings lined with cilia where air passes in and out of the
body
a. Nose b. mouth c. diaphragm d. lungs
2. The organ where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur
a. diaphragm c. lungs
b. bronchial tubes d. trachea
3. It is also known as the voice box and is the main site for sound
production
a. Pharynx b. larynx c. lungs d. trachea
4. It is located at the bottom of the lungs which expands when we exhale
and contracts when we inhale.
a. Lungs b. trachea c. diaphragm d. larynx
5. What system is responsible for the exchange of carbon dioxide between
the atmosphere and between the blood and the body cells.
a. Digestive system c. respiratory system
b. Circulatory system d. immune system

V. Assignment:
Group Pupils into three. Let each group make a lung model.
Lung Model Apparatus

Materials:
Clear plastic jar or big soft drink bottle
1 big round balloon
2 rubber bands
Glass or plastic tubing (empty ballpoint pen case)
2 small round balloons
Pair of scissors
Cutter

Procedure:
1. Make a hole at the bottom of the jar or plastic bottle.
2. Prepare two empty ballpoint pen cases. Insert a small balloon at one end of
the plastic tubing.
Fasten the balloon tightly using a rubber band. Push the plastic tubing
halfway to the hole. See to it that the small balloon will not touch the lid of
the jar.
3. Seal the side of the plastic tubing with clay or plasticine so that the air can
only enter through the opening of plastic tubing.
4. Get the big balloon and cut a circular sheet to a size fitted to the opening of
the jar or bottle.
5. Stretch and fasten the balloon to the mouth of the bottle using the rubber
bands.
6. When the model is ready, pull the balloon at the base of the bottle. Observe
what happens to the small balloons inside the bottle.
Lesson 9
The Circulatory System

Quarter 2 – WEEK 2
DAY 2
I. Objective :
Identify and describe the function of the organs of the circulatory
system.
S6LT – IIa – b - 1

II. A. Materials :
Activity cards, charts, pictures, manila paper, pentel pen

B. References :
 Science 6 - p. 118
 Science Link (System of the Human Body )
 Into The Future : Science and Health – p. 2
 Facebook.com – CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

C. Process Skills : describing and identifying

D. Values Integration:
 eating the right kind of food

III. Learning Tasks:


A. Engagement
1. Arrange the jumble letter to form the correct word

(bearth ) 1. Respiratory system consist of organs that help us


__________
(lugsn ) 2. The ____________ are the main organ of the
respiratory system.

2. Arrange the pieces of puzzle to form the picture.


(You may use the picture below as the puzzle)

3. Ask the following Questions:


 What organs of the body is shown in the puzzle?
 What system do you think these organs belong?
 Do you have any idea about this body system?
 Can you give a brief description on the body system?
B. Exploration

A . Look at the multimedia compare the picture on the slide with


the puzzle that you have . What system is the one in the puzzle and
the slide.

1. Arrange the letter to form the name of the organ of the


circulatory system.

EVESSELS BLDOO

EAHTR

DLOOB

2. By looking at the organ choose the sentence on the strip charts


that best describe the organs of the circulatory system.

HEART BLOOD BLOOD VESSEL

1. The red fluid that flows all through a human body .


2. The organ that pumps blood to the different parts of the
body.
3. It is the road and highway systems of the blood .
4. It transports gases , nutrient and other substances
different parts of the body.
5. It is the called the “, river of life”.
6. The tubular passageways of the blood .
7. It beats 70 – 80 times per minute so as to distribute blood
to the different parts of the body .
8. It has an alternating contraction and relaxation movement
to send blood to all parts of the body .
9. They are classified as vien , capillary and artery .

C. Explanation:
1. Allow the pupils to post their work on the board.
2. Let them present their answers.
3. Teacher will process the pupils output.
Follow – up questions:
 What are the major organs of a circulatory system?
 What are the functions of each organ? Describe.
D. Elaboration:

Group activity

Group I & II

Fill in with the correct word to complete the dialogue .

Heart : Hello , everyone ! I am your dearest heart , I pump b_______ into the
different parts of your b______

How are you blood vessel?


Blood vessel : I am fine my dear heart. I work every now and then because I am the
p_______way of the blood.
I am a t______organ of the body.
Blood : Yes , b________ vessel I am always thankful of you for making a way for me
every minute and every second all through out.
Blood vessel : You’re welcome blood. Is it true that you are called the r_______ of
life?
Blood : Yes , I am ! And we are the organs of the c__________ system.

Group III & IV

Fill in with the correct word to form the concept of the selection

Circulatory ___________

The __________system is made up of the _________ the blood and


the__________vessels . The _________ is a pear – shaped muscular organ that pumps
__________ to the different parts of the body. The __________ is a red fluids that
flows through the blood ___________so as to reach to the different part.

Ask the following questions:


1. What are the different organs of the circulatory system?
2. What is the main function of the circulatory system?
3. How is it important in our body?
4. What do you think will happen if one organ of the circulatory system
will not be functional?
5. How are we going to take care of our organs?
6. What kind of food should we take in so that we will have a healthy
body systems?
BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS

The Circulatory System is composed of three powerful organs which


are the heart , blood and blood vessels .

It is a system that is responsible in the distribution of oxygen, water and


food nutrient needed by the body One, organ that in the Circulatory
System is the heart. It is a pear – shaped like organ that pumps blood to
the different parts of the body. Its alternating and contracting movement
causes the blood to circulate in the body. This also makes the beating of
70 – 80 per minute. Another , organ is the red fluid that flows all through
the body and as such it called the ,” the river of life .” And another organ
that comprise the Circulatory System is the blood vessels. Blood vessels
are tube like highways and roads that serve as the passageways of the
blood.

E. Evaluation
Identify what organ is being describe
________1 . The tubes through which the blood flows.
________2 . The red fluid that flows inside the blood vessels .
________3. The organ that pumps blood to the different parts of the body
________4. The three major organs of the circulatory system.
________5. Known as the transport system of the body.

Assignment
Draw the circulatory system and label each part.
Lesson 10
How Circulatory System Works

Quarter 2 – WEEK 2
DAY 3
IV. Objective :
Explain how the organs of the circulatory system work together.
S6LT – IIa – b - 1

V. A. Materials :
chart , pictures , multi media

B. References :
Into The Future : Science and Health – p. 6
SCIENCELINK , Science 6 – p. 119
FACEBOOK – Human Circulatory System ( Farkon Education )

C. Process Skills : explaining and demonstrating


D. Values Integration:
 proper care for the circulatory system

VI. Learning Tasks:


F. Engagement
1. Read the following sentences.
 They are the tubular passageways of the blood.
 They circulate around the body.
 It pumps blood to the different parts of the body.

2. Identify and describe the organs of the circulatory system.

_________________________

__________________________

__________________________

G. Exploration
A . RESEARCH ACTIVITY
Let pupils use the textbook in Science pages 6-18.

Fill in with the correct word to complete the form the concept of the
selection
Group I

HEART
The________ is a hollow muscular organ .Its size is the
same as your _______ and located in middle of the chest cavity.
It contracts so as to push________ out of the heart to every
parts of the body.
The heart is a powerful organ of the __________ system . It
continues pumping blood as long as the person is alive.
It pumps _______ passing through its passageway called
the blood __________.

Group II

BLOOD
The ________ is the red liquid substance that flows
out of a cut in the body whenever one is wounded . The ________ carries
substance which help regulate body function . Without the pumping action
of the _________ the blood would not be able to reach the different parts
of the __________. Thus, it passes through the blood __________ for
circulation.
Group III

BLOOD VESSELS
The _________ vessels are the passageways of the
_________ . They are all found all over the body of a person. There are three
kinds blood vessels in the body these are the _________ , the veins and the
_________.
The arteries carry blood away from the _________ . The veins are
blood ________ that carry bright red blood with oxygen from the lungs into the
_______ .The _________ are the smallest blood ________ which is
responsible in the exchange of water , gases , _________ and waste materials
that takes place between the _________ and the tissues ..

H. Explanation:
4. Allow the pupils to post their work on the board.
5. Let them present their answers.
6. Teacher will process the pupils output.
Follow – up questions:
 What are the major organs of a circulatory system?
 How does each organ works? The heart? The blood? The blood
vessels?
 How do organs of the circulatory system work together? Explain.
I. Elaboration:

Activity 1

Group I & II

Make a short poem telling how organs in the circulatory system work together.

Group III & IV


Make a short song composition about how organs in the circulatory system work
together . Use the tune of a song that is familiar to you .

Activity 2

Using the picture, let pupils explain how the organs in the circulatory system work
together.

Ask:
 Does our circulatory system plays a vital role in our body?
 How do we care for our circulatory system?
BACKGROUD INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS
The circulatory system is an important system .It comprises the
heart , blood and blood vessels .Each organs function relatedly so as to help
each other in working responsibly .The organs work like a team work .It means
that without the other , part the body would not be able to survive.
The blood depends on the heart so it could circulate and could
reach to the different parts of the body . The blood vessels likewise becomes the
road or the passageway of the blood .And without the heart the blood would not
be purified , eventually the body parts will not get the needed oxygen and
nutrients.

Evaluation
Explain in a short paragraph how the organs in the circulatory
system work together. ( 5 POINTS )

RUBRICS:
5 - well – explained ,with correct grammar and spelling
4 - well – explained , with misspelled words and with mistakes in
grammar
3 - poorly - explained , more than ten misspelled and wrong
grammars
2 - attempted to explains

Assignment
Group pupils into three.
Choose from the three selection presented a while ago and present it in a rap
song tomorrow.
.
Lesson 11 & 12
The Nervous System Parts and Functions

Quarter 2 – WEEK 2
DAY 4
VII. Objective :
 Identify and describe the function of the organs of the Nervous
System .
 Explain the how the organs of the Nervous System work together.
S6LT – IIa – b - 1

VIII. A. Materials :
chart , multimedia , picture
B. References :
Into The Future : Science and Health – p. 6
SCIENCELINK , Science 6 – p. 119
FACEBOOK – Human Circulatory System ( Farkon Education )

C. Process Skills : describing , identifying


D. Values Integration:
 proper care for the circulatory system

IX. Learning Tasks:


J. Engagement
3. Form the correct word by replacing the number with the
corresponding letter . This a brain game.

r–1 n–2 a–3 b–4 e–5

1. The control system of the body .


4 13i2
2. It is also called the nerve cells .
2e u1o2
3. The system that enables the body to coordinate bodily
activities . 251vo66y6t5

4. Presentation of the assignment.

K. Exploration
a. Guessing Game
Group pupils into three. Each group will be given the same
activity.
Label the parts of the Nervous
System

b. Group Work
Group pupils into three. Each group will do the activity given.
Fill in the table with information needed. Use your book in
gathering information.
PARTS DESCRIBE FUNCTIONS
Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerve Cells

L. Explanation:
7. Allow the pupils to post their work on the board.
8. Let them present their answers.
9. Let them compare their answers.
10. Teacher will process the pupils output.
Follow – up questions:
 What are the major organs of the nervous system?
 What is the function of each organ?
 How do organs of the nervous system work together? Explain.

M. Elaboration:

Activity 1

Give each pupil the selection and let them answer the follow-up questions.
The Nervous System and its Function
The Nervous System is the control unit of the
body . Its function is to integrate and coordinate bodily activities. It
coordinates the activities and communicates with the sense organs and
the other body systems through the wire like nerve cells or neurons that
transmits messages passing through spinal cord to the brain and back to
the nerve cells or neurons for the interpretation of the senses .
The brain is an amazing organ that performs
different functions such as processing memory , judgement , and
reasoning. It controls body movement, emotions , feelings and vital sign of
life such as breathing. The brain has three main parts : cerebrum ,
cerebellum and the brainstem or the medulla oblongata
Another organ in the nervous system is the spinal cord . It
a cord like material inside the backbone . It bridges impulse between the
brain and the body .This means all the signals that go to and from the brain
pass through the spinal cord and deliver it to the right muscles and senses
.
Neuron is also another organ in the nervous system . It is a
wire like organ that is found all over the body. Its main function is to deliver
messages within the nervous system and between other body system .It is
divided into three parts : axon , cell body and dendrites .Neurons can be
classified based on the direction in which they send information .These can
be sensory neurons , motor neuron and inter neuron .

Follow up questions:
o What is a nervous system?
o What is the function of the nervous system?
o What are the organs in the nervous system?
o How does the spinal cord, brain and nerve cells work ?
o How does each organs act and work with the other?
Activity 2
Answer with true or false . If it is false replace the underlined word with the correct
word to make the statement correct . Discuss the answers while checking .
__________1. The nervous system is the control system of the body.
_________ 2. The spinal cord is responsible for the breathing and controlling our
speech .
_________ 3. The nerve cells is the basic unit of the nervous system.
_________ 4. The brain is found all over your body .
_________ 5. The brain has three main parts : cerebrum , cerebellum and the
medulla oblongata
_________6. The spinal cord is a cord like material within the backbone .
_________7. The spinal cord serves as the bridge that connects the brain and the
neuron .
_________8. The spinal cord is divided into three parts – axon , cell body and
dendrite .

BACKGROUD INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS


The nervous system is the coordinating system of the body . It consist
of the brain , neurons or the nerve cells and the spinal cord .
The brain is responsible for the different vital activities such as
memory , speech and learning . It also coordinates muscle movements of
the heart , stomach diaphragm and esophagus .Without which the one
cannot maintain one ‘s sense of balance .
The nerve cells or neurons carry stimuli and impulse to the different
parts of the body . Nerve cells are found all throughout body to carry
impulses and commands from one part of the body to another.
The spinal cord is a cord like material in the backbone that carry
the messages from the nerve cells to the brain for interpretation and sends
back again passing again through this cord to the nerve cells again for
impulses.

Evaluation
Identify the correct answer that describes and explains the function of the
organs in the circulatory system . Encircle the correct letter .
1. The __________system is composed of the brain , neurons and the spinal
cord .
a. circulatory b. nervous c. respiratory
2. What organ in the nervous system controls the bodily activities such as
breathing , moving , walking and talking /
a. brain b. spinal cord c. neurons
3. What is the usual path of the messages received by the body from the
environment ?
a. brain ::::::::> nerves::::::::> spinal cord ::::::::::> sense organ
b. spinal cord::::::::::::> sense organ ::::::::::::> brain ::::::::::::> nerves
c. sense organ :::::::::::> nerves ::::::::::> spinal cord :::::::::::> brain
4. Why is the spinal cord an important part of the nervous system ?
a. It protects the sense organ .
b. It receives and relay messages to the different parts of the body
c. It controls the movement and the action of the human body .
5. The ________ consist of dendrites , axon and cell body .
a. neurons b. brain c .spinal cord

X. Assignment
Copy the selection about the Nervous System in your notebook.
Try to study it at home. Tomorrow be ready because you will relay it orally
through your own understanding.
Lesson 13
Human Body Systems Working Together

Week 3,
Day 1 and 2
Duration: 2 days

Day 1
I. Objective: Explain how the Musculo-Skeletal System and Integumentary System
work
together

S6LT-llc-d-2

II. A. Materials: Multimedia (optional), Manila paper, pentel pen

B. References:
- Science for Active Learning, pp. 68-71
- Science Links 6, pp.
-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Futnu_6NmQo&list=PLq5d_eDIEJB90v7D
WpZJ PE4UapMzaN83A
C. Process Skills: Observing, inferring, identifying, differentiating,
performing, communicating, explaining

D. Value Integration:

 Engage in healthy physical activities


 Respecting one’s view

III. Learning Tasks

A. Engagement

1. Let pupils view “Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems”.


Ask the following questions:
a. How does the Integumentary System help the Skeletal System?
b. What protects the Skeletal System?

2. Let pupils walk around the oval for 3-5 minutes(if multimedia is not
available).
Ask the following questions:
a. How do you feel?
b. What organs of the body work together as you walked in the
oval?
c. What system protects another system?
d. What other physical activities help make our body healthy?
Today, we are going to study how the Musculo-Skeletal System and
Integumentary System work together.

B. Exploration

Group the class into three. Give each group Activity Card.
Remind the pupils on the standards before, during, and after in doing any activity.

Activity Card

Problem : Identify physical activity that involves Musculoskeletal and Integumentary


Systems

Materials :
Manila paper, pentel pen

Procedure :

1. Gather in a group. Think of a physical activity that requires


involvement of Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Systems.

2. Perform the said activity.

Questions :

1. What physical activity did your group identify?


2. Are the Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Systems involved? How?
3. What are its steps?
4. Explain.

C. Explanation
1. How does each system complement each other?

2. Why are these systems important to the body?

3. What are we going to do to keep these systems healthy?

Day 2

D. Elaboration

1. Let each group compose the following on the coordination of


Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Systems.

A -------------------- Song
B -------------------- Hugot Lines
C -------------------- Poem
D--------------------- Poster Making

2. Group presentation
3. Ask: How do Musculo-Skeletal and Integumentary Systems work in
the human body?

Background Information for Teachers

The Skeletal System and Interrelationships with the Muscular, and Integumentary
Systems

Our skeleton supports us, protects our “innards” (the protection our
brain gets from the skull is indispensable), gives us stature (for some reason, tall
people get more respect), contributes to our shape (women are shaped differently
than men), and allows us to move. Obviously, the skeletal system has important
interactions with many other body systems, not the least of which are the endocrine
and integumentary systems. However, its most intimate and mutually beneficial
relationship is with the muscular system, so we will consider that first.

E. Evaluation

Explain in three to five sentences how the Musculo-Skeletal System and


Integumentary System work together in the human body.

Scoring Guide
Points Description

Written 3-5 sentences with correct grammar and concept


5
is emphasized.

4 Written 3-5 sentences with error in grammar, but


concept is emphasized.

3 Written 1-2 sentences with error in grammar and


concept is
not clear.

F. Extend (Assignment)
How could a runner manifest coordination of Musculo-skeletal and
Integumentary Systems as he/she runs?
Lesson 14
Human Body System Working Together

Week 3,
Day 3 and 4
Duration: 2 days

Day 1
I. Objective: Explain how the Digestive System, Respiratory System and Circulatory
System
work together

S6LT-llc-d-2

II. A. Materials: Multimedia, Manila paper, pentel pen

B. References:
- Science for Active Learning 6, pp. 87-136
- Science Links 6, pp.
- https://www.enkimd.com/how-do-the-digestive-respiratory-and-
circulatory-work-together.html
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Futnu_6NmQo&list=PLq5d_eDI
EJB90v7DWpZJPE4UapMzaN83A
C. Process Skills: Observing, inferring, identifying, differentiating,
performing, communicating, explaining

D. Value Integration:

 Practice healthy physical activities


 Respecting one’s view

III. Learning Tasks

A. Engagement

1. Let pupils view “They Might Be Giants.”


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Futnu_6NmQo&list=PLq5d_eDIEJB90v7DWpZJ
PE4UapMzaN83A
Ask the following questions:
 How do the Digestive, Respiratory, and Circulatory Systems work
together?
 What daily activities involve the three systems?
2. Let pupils run across the plaza 3-5 minutes (If multimedia is not
available).
Ask the following questions:
a. How do you feel?
b. What systems of the body work together as you ran?
c. What other physical activities help make our body healthy?
Today, we are going to study how the Digestive System, Respiratory System
and Circulatory System work together.

B. Exploration
Group the class into three. Give each group Activity Card.
Remind the pupils on the standards before, during, and after in doing
any activity.

Activity Card

Problem : Identify physical activities which involve Digestive, Respiratory, and


Circulatory Systems

Materials :
Manila paper, pentel pen

Procedure :

1. Gather in group. Think of a physical activity which requires involvement of


the Digestive, Respiratory, and Circulatory Systems.

2. Perform the activity.

Questions :

1. What physical activity did your group identify?

2. Are the Digestive, Respiratory, and Circulatory Systems involved? How?

3. What are its steps?

4. Explain.

C. Explanation
1. Let each group report their findings.
Ask: How important are the systems in the body?

Day 2

D. Elaboration

1. With the same grouping, let each use their report or findings for the
following activities.
I. Poster Making
II. Rap
III. Song
IV. Poem
2. Presentation

Background Information

How Do the Digestive, Respiratory and Circulatory Work Together?


https://www.enkimd.com/how-do-the-digestive-respiratory-and-circulatory-work-
together.html
The human body is designed to function in a manner that every part works
cooperatively. In fact, no organ or body system is superior over the others, and each
system just supports one another to keep you healthy. Circulatory system, respiratory
system, digestive system, excretory system, immune system…so many systems are
there and you may be wondering how they work together. Well, how the digestive,
respiratory, and circulatory work together will be mainly discussed here to help
understand your body better.

Digestive and Respiratory Systems


Your digestive system is responsible for breaking down food to allow your body to
absorb the nutrients from what you ate. During the process of digestion, your body
breaks down nutrient molecules, which will then be absorbed by your intestines then
into the bloodstream. These molecules will not only help in building new ones but also
provide you the energy you need to function.
On the other hand, your respiratory system is responsible for taking in and circulating
oxygen into your bloodstream and to the rest of your cells. Circulatory system is also
responsible for picking up carbon dioxide waste and helps you exhale these wastes.
How are these two systems related?
Your digestive tract needs smooth muscles to break down food into liquid and for better
contractions to help move them throughout your system. Oxygen helps maintain the
smoothness of muscles and to make sure that your digestive tract is in tiptop condition.
Consequently, your respiratory system cannot function well without the nutrients
broken down by your digestive system. You use respiratory muscles including
intercostal muscles and diaphragm to inhale. These muscles need nutrients in the form
of fat and carbohydrates to contract and allow you to breathe properly.
In other words, your digestive system metabolizes food to provide your body with
nutrients and at the same time, fuel your respiratory system so that it can produce
enough oxygen in your body. This keeps you energized too.

Respiratory and Circulatory Systems


Now you know how your body’s ability to digest food helps you breathe properly. That's
just part of answer to question "How do the digestive, respiratory and circulatory work
together". Here’s the next question: how does the breathing process affect your
circulatory system?
First, you need to understand the difference between the two.
Keep in mind that the circular system is composed of your heart and blood vessels,
which are also divided into veins, arteries, and capillaries. The primary role of the heart
is to pump blood throughout your blood vessels. In return, the blood vessels, which
are divided into four chambers, move highly oxygenated blood into your body through
your arteries. This oxygenated blood is responsible for supplying your body’s tissues
with oxygen.
As to your respiratory system, this system is composed of airways, your lungs, and
other structures that move air in and out of your lungs. Breathing starts with your nose
or mouth and then goes down to through you throat then head straight to the bronchi.
Apart from this mechanism, your respiratory system also uses muscles, specifically
intercostal muscles between your ribs, causing your lungs to contract and expand.

How are the two systems related?


In fact, your circular and respiratory systems work for the same goal: to provide oxygen
to your tissues and get rid of carbon dioxide in your body.
The respiratory system supplies oxygen to your blood and help remove carbon
dioxide. Every time your heart receives low oxygen blood, it starts to pump to the lungs
through pulmonary arteries. As a result, your lungs expand to get fresh air, thereby
transferring oxygen into low oxygenated blood. This gives your blood fresh oxygen
once again, which then returns to your heart, and your heart will pump again.

Digestive and Circulatory Systems


For the question "How do the digestive, respiratory and circulatory work together",
here is the last relationship needed to be discussed.
The primary role of digestive system is to break down the food you ate and absorb all
the nutrients your body needs to function properly as mentioned above. On the other
hand, your cardiovascular system moves oxygen and other important compounds
throughout your body.
How are the two systems related?
When it comes to digestive and circulatory systems, they both process and transport
essential nutrients your cells need to fuel your body.
After you eat, your digestive system breaks carbohydrates into simple sugars like
glucose. The bloodstream absorbs glucose, which your circulatory system distributes
throughout the body. This provides your body enough energy then.
That’s not all. When it comes to fats digested, the circulatory system carries them all
over your body to make them available. The fats will be converted into energy, which
can help you last longer during workouts. When combined with the right kind of
carbohydrates, this could power your muscles as well.
Protein, another food sources broken down by your digestive tract, helps in
maintaining your cells and tissues’ health. The digestive system breaks them down
into amino acids, which cells and tissues use to make new and healthy cellular
proteins. This will be used for energy to help you get through the day, especially if you
are not getting enough calories, fats, and carbohydrates.
The next time someone asks you, “how do the digestive,
respiratory and circulatory work together?” you know the
answer. And now you know the human body works in
amazing ways that keep every system related and
supportive of each other. In fact, one system cannot exist
alone, as evidenced by the relationship among digestive,
circulatory, and respiratory systems.

E. Evaluation
How do Digestive, Respiratory, and Circulatory Systems work together? Give
your answer through an example of a physical activity (in 3-5 sentences) showing
coordination of the three systems.

Points Description
 Identified a physical activity (3-5 sentences) F.
with a clear concept on the coordination of the
5 three systems.
 Correct grammar
 Identified a physical activity (3-5 sentences)
with a not so clear concept on the coordination
4 of the three systems.
 2-3 errors in grammar

 Identified a physical activity (2-3 sentences)


with a not so clear concept on the coordination
3 of the three systems.
 More than 3 errors in grammar

2  Had started but not able to finish


Extend (Assignment)
Make/ Write a feature story of how the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory
systems work together of your typical day at home.
Lesson 15
Human Body Systems

Q2, Week 4
Day 1
Duration: 1 day

I. Objective: Explain how the major organs of the nervous system work with the
musculo-
skeletal, digestive, respiratory, and circulatory system.

S6LT-llc-d-2

II. A. Materials: Multimedia, flash drive, speaker, piece of chocolate, Worksheet,


chocolate,
Manila paper, pentel pen

B. References:
- Science for Active Learning 6, pp. 87-136
- Science Links 6, pp. 130-168
- http://anatomyandphysiologyi.com/human-body-organ-systems-an-
orientation/
- http://science.jrank.org/pages/4908/Organs-Organ-Systems.html
- http://www.studyvillage.com/attachments/Resources/3028-9839-
solution-human-body.jpg.pdf
C. Process Skills: Observing, inferring, identifying, differentiating,
performing,
communicating, explaining

D. Value Integration:

 Performing healthy physical activities


 Respecting one’s view

III. Learning Tasks

A. Engagement

1. Let pupils view “They Might Body Systems: The 11 Champions”


http://anatomyandphysiologyi.com/human-body-organ-systems-an-
orientation/
https://wordmint.com/public_puzzles/228308
https://wordmint.com/public_puzzles/147980

Ask the following questions:


 What system controls all body activities?
 If one system malfunctions, what would happen?
2. (If multimedia is not available) Let the pupils open the wrapper of their
chocolate. “Close your eyes as you chew the piece of chocolate. Feel
the process of digestion as you chew the chocolate and undergo
changes…
Ask the following questions:
a. What did you observe?
b. Where does the chocolate go from the mouth?
3. Let them stand and dance with the music.
Ask the following questions:
a. Feel your heartbeat. What did you observe? Why?
b. How about the way you inhale and exhale? What did you notice?
c. What systems of the body were involved when you danced?

Today, we are going to study how the major organs of the Nervous system work
with the Musculo-skeletal, digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems.

B. Exploration
Group the class into four. Give each group Activity Card.
Remind the pupils on the standards before, during, and after in doing
any activity.

Activity Card

Problem : Identify any activity that requires involvement of the nervous


system with the musculo-skeletal, digestive, respiratory, and circulatory
systems.

Materials :
Cellphone (music), Manila paper, pentel pen

Procedure :

1. Gather in group. Think of a physical activity which requires involvement of


the nervous system with the musculo-skeletal, digestive, respiratory, and
circulatory systems.

2. Perform the activity.

Questions :

1. What physical activity did your group perform?


2. What are its steps?
3. Are the Nervous, Digestive, Respiratory, and Circulatory Systems involved?
How?
4. Explain.

C. Explanation
1. Let each group report their findings and observations.
Ask: How important are the systems in the body?
D. Elaboration
Let each group answer the puzzle.

Group I
Human Body Organ Systems

I C7

1D M A

I M R I6

G U D N S4 E8

E N I T K N

S N9 E R V O U S E E D

T V G L O

I U2 R I N A R Y U E C

V S M T R

R11 E P R O D U C T I V E A I

U N L N

M5 U S C U L A R T E

A A

R3 E S P I R A T O R Y

Across
2. Filters and eliminates liquid wastes; regulates water balance.
3. Enables gas exchange with the blood.
5. Enables movement, maintains posture and can store energy.
9. Senses external environment and communicates with and activates other parts of
the body.
11. Produces gametes and supports development.
Down
1. Allows ingestion and breaks down food so that nutrients can be absorbed.
4. Provides mechanical support; stores minerals and produces red blood cells.
6. Protects the body's internal environment and stores fat.
7. Enables the transport of nutrients, gasses and wastes to and from cells.
8. Secretes hormones into the bloodstream for regulation of cellular activities.

Group II
Human Body Organ Systems
R8
E10 X O C R I N E
U12 P
P3 A R A T H Y R O I D E11
E O N
F13 H17 A I R A4 D R E N A L D P5
A U U O A
L T7 E S T I C L E S C N
L O6 T P1 R C
O V N18 A I L S9 I I R
P A V K T N E
I P14 R O S T A T E I16 M M U N E A
A I N I S
N E T
S S19 A
W R
T2 H Y R O I D L20 E U K O C Y T E S
A
L15 Y M P H A T I C
Across
2. a large ductless gland in the neck that makes hormones to regulate growth &
development through the rate of metabolism.
3. glands that control the calcium in our bodies
4. located on top of each kidney, produce hormones that you can't live without,
including
sex hormones and cortisol.
7. male gametes
10. Pertaining to the secretion of a substance out through a duct
14. walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis, it secretes fluid that
nourishes and protects sperm
15. a vital part of the immune system, comprising a network of vessels that carry a
clear
fluid called lymph
16. the body's system that defends against disease causing agents
17. grows from follicles found in the dermis
18. protects fingers and toes, made of a tough protective protein called keratin.
20. white blood cells that are part of the immune system that protect the body against
disease and invaders

Down
1. pea-sized gland attached to the base of the brain, important in controlling growth
and
development & the functioning
5. makes insulin to help digest and use glucose
6. female gametes
8. Body system that required for production of offspring
9. largest organ of the human body
11. refers to the secretion of a substance (a hormone) into the bloodstream.

Group III

Human Body Systems Crossword Puzzle


M12 U S C U L A R S Y S T E M

C5 D15 S8
I I K D4
E6 X C R E T O R Y G M2 E I
C E U L G
M3 U S C U L A R S Y S T E M E E10
N9 L T C T S X
E A I U A T C
R T V L L I R
V O S11 K E L E T A L V E
O R S R E T
U Y Y S S O
S N1 E R V O U S S Y S T E M Y R
T S S Y
I14 N T E G U M E N T A R Y T
M E E
D13 I G E S T I V E M M

R7 E S P I R A T O R Y S Y S T E M

Across
1. System that consists of nerves, brain and spinal cord
3. system that contains voluntary and involuntary muscles
6. disposing of the body's waste
7. brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide
11. includes bone, cartilages, ligaments
12. skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles
13. Breaks down food
14. skin, hair, regulates temperature

Down
2. helps movement of the body, maintaining posture, and circulating blood throughout
the body
4. this system starts in the mouth
5. the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body
8. system that protects major internal organs and provides overall support
9. system that transmits signals from the body to the brain
10. this is also known as the urinary system
15. esophagus, stomach, intestines

Ask: How are the words related to each other? Are they interdependent of each
other?
Why are they important to us?

E. Evaluation
How does coordination of the Nervous System with Musculoskeletal, Digestive,
Respiratory, and Circulatory Systems important? Explain in 3-5 sentences.
Scoring Guide
Points Description
 Had written 3-5 sentences with correct
5 answer/concept F.
 Subject-verb agreement is evident
 Had written 3-5 sentences with correct answer/
4 concept
 With 1-3 errors in grammar
 Had written 1-3 sentences
3  Concept is not clear
 With more than 3 errors in grammar

2  Had started but not able to finish


Extend (Assignment)
Make a Concept Map explaining the how the major organs of the nervous
system work with the musculo-skeletal, digestive, respiratory, and circulatory system.
Lesson 16
Nervous System

Q2 Week 4
Day 2

Duration: 1 Day

Objective :
Describe how the Nervous System controls all the organs system of the
body.
S6LT – IIc-d – 2

A. Materials :
Activity cards, cartolina, manila paper, pentel pen, pictures,
2x2x8 lumber
B. References :
- RBEC Lesson Guide Science Grade 6, pp.18-20
- Into the Future Science and Health 6 pp. 30-43
- Science Links 6 pp 165-177
- https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/organ.html

C. Process Skills : Observing , describing , demonstrating, inferring


D. Values Integration:
 Taking good care of the nervous system

Learning Tasks:

Engagement
1. Show the picture to the pupils

The human nervous system

Ask the following questions:


1. What can you say about the picture?
2. What are the parts of the nervous system?
3. Why do you think are the functions of these parts?
4. Are they related to other body organs?
2. Let pupils observe the images

Ask:

1. What are the organ systems represented by the pictures?


2. Do you know their functions?
3. Are they related to one another?

Exploration
Group the class into three. Each group will be given activity to perform.
Give pupils the standards/measures in doing the activity.

Activity 1
Interpret a picture

Ask the following questions:

1. What does the picture show?


2. Do you see how well coordinated her muscles are?
3. What do you think is on the girl’s mind while doing the activity?
4. What organs are working in this picture?
5. What controls their movement?
Activity 2

Acting out

Scenario:

It is a rainy Sunday and the family is staying home for bonding. Mother requested
Alma to cook champorado for snacks. When it is already boiling she constantly stirs it to
produce a soft yummy one. She accidentally touch the pot. She shouted “ouch”.

1. What do you think happened to Alma?


2. What system tells her to respond like that?
3. What particular system is affected when she touch the hot pot?

Activity 3

The Role of the Nervous System

Problem:

How do you keep your balance?

What you need:

Balance beam

What you need to do:

1. Find a long secured 2x2 board that you can walk across. Make sure that when you
are walking on is not wider than your foot. If no board is available draw a line on
the ground as your balance beam.
2. Try walking along your balance beam, slowly at first and then try walking quickly .If
you are using a line on the ground, try walking just along the line.

What have you found out?

1. What are some of the things you have to watch out for on a balance beam?
2. What kind of adjustments did you make to keep yourself balance?
3. What body system makes adjustments in controlling you’re your body parts?
4. What is the role of your nervous system in doing the activity?

Conclusion:

Make a conclusion based from the given problem.


Explanation
1. Let each group report the outcome of their activities by following the
standard.
a. Describe how they perform the activity
b. Present their answers on the questions given.
2. Let them give examples on how the nervous system works in their
day to day life.

Elaboration
1. Group them into three. Give pupils the following differentiated
activities.
Group 1

Describe how the nervous system controls the circulatory system


through drawing

Group 2

Describe how the nervous system controls the muscular system


through dance

Group 3
Describe how the nervous system controls the skeletal system
through a poem or song.

2. Ask the following questions:


 How the nervous system controls the different organ system in
our body?
 Why is it necessary that the nervous system controls these
systems in our body?
 What will happen if the nervous system will not control other
body systems?
 What will you do to take care of your nervous system?
BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS

 All of the systems within the body interact with one another to keep an
organism healthy. Although each system has specific functions, they
are all interconnected and dependent on one another. The nervous
system controls various organs of the body directly. The brain also
receives information from many organs of the body and adjusts signals
to these organs to maintain proper functioning.
 The brain regulates the position of bones by controlling muscles
 The brain regulates heart rate and blood pressure.
 The brain controls the contraction of skeletal muscle.
 The nervous system regulates the speed at which food moves through
the digestive tract.
 The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland and other endocrine
glands.
 The brain monitors respiratory volume and blood gas levels.
 The brain regulates respiratory rate.
 The autonomic nervous system controls the tone of the digestive tract.
 The brain controls drinking and feeding behavior.
 The brain controls muscles for eating and elimination.
 The brain controls mating behavior.
 The brain controls urination.
 Nerves control muscles connected to hair follicles.

Evaluation
1. Describe in 5 sentences how the nervous system controls the other
organ system of the body.
Scoring Guide
Points Description
Written five (5) sentences with correct
5 grammar and concept emphasized.
Written four (4) sentences with error in
4 grammar, but
concept is emphasized.

Written (3) sentences with error in grammar


3 but concept is
emphasized.
2 Written (2) sentences with error in grammar
and concept not emphasized.
1 Written only 1 sentence with error in
grammar and concept not emphasized.
XI. Extend
Describe how the nervous system controls the following system
1. digestive system
2. respiratory system
3. muscular system
Lesson 17
Health Habits
Q2 Week 4
Day 3

I. Objective: Discuss healthful habits that promote proper functioning of all the organ
systems
in the body.
S6LT-IIc-d-2

II. A. Materials: pictures, Manila paper, pentel pen, cartolina

B. References:
- RBEC Lesson Guide Science Grade 6, pages 12-13,24,251
- Science and Health 4 pages 45-49,67-68,88-89,
- Science for Active Learning 6 pages 65-66,76,98-99,128,157-158,
- www.google.com
C. Process Skills: Observing, inferring, communicating

D. Value Integration:

 Proper care for the body

III. Learning Tasks


A. Engagement
1. Show a picture of healthy habits.

Ask the following questions:


a. What can you say about the pictures?
b. How these activities help our body systems?
b. What benefits do we get from doing these activities?

Today, we are going to study the health habits for our body systems

B. Exploration
Group the class into three. Basic group will be given rolled cartolina
with 2 body systems and healthy habits respectively written on it then they will choose
the healthy habits suited for the system. Average group will be given cartolina with
2 body systems written on it and a short description of each system, let them give the
healthy habits. Fast group will be given names of 2 body systems and let them think
of the healthy habits for each system. After brainstorming, each group will fill in the
needed information on the appropriate column of the Manila paper. Then, post their
output on the board. Finally, the reporter in each group will share.

Group ____ HEALTH HABITS

Remind on the standards before, during, and after in doing any activity.

C. Explanation
1. What healthy habits that are common for all the body systems?
2. Why do we need to observe these healthy habits?

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHER

 It is important to keep our body systems working at its best. Because every
now and then we are using them in our daily activities and to think that
they are working together as a team in our body. If one of them is not in
good condition, others are also affected.
PROPER CARE FOR THE BODY SYSTEMS
 Exercise regularly-(all body systems)
 Adequate sleep- (all body systems)
 Eat proper kind of foods- (all body systems)
 Proper hygiene- ( all body systems)
 Monitor your toilet habits- ( digestive system)
 Do not smoke – ( respiratory system)
 Be free from stress- ( Circulatory system)
 Avoid eating food high in fats, cholesterol and salt-( circulatory)
 Avoid drugs and alcohol- (nervous system)
 Proper skin protection- ( integumentary)
 Staying indoors- ( integumentary)
 Wear proper equipment when playing a game or riding a bike-
(skeletal & nervous )
 Eat food rich in calcium and vitamin D- (skeletal system)
 Breath fresh air-( respiratory system)
 Live in a clean environment- (Circulatory system)
 Have positive outlook in life-( circulatory)
 Avoid inhaling poisonous fumes such as those from glue or paint-
(Nervous) D.
Elaboration
1. Each group will present about the health habits (teacher may modify
the activity depends on the level of the pupil)
Group A--------------- Musculoskeletal system (song)
Group B---------------Digestive System (poem)
Group C--------------- Respiratory System (rap)
Group D--------------- Nervous System (jingle)

2. Group Presentation

E. Evaluation
Write at least three health habits for each body system and discuss
briefly.
Scoring Guide
Points Description
Written three (3) sentences with correct grammar
5 and concept emphasized.
Written three (3) sentences with error in grammar,
4 but
concept is emphasized.

Written 1-2 sentences with error in grammar and


3 concept is
not clear.

IV. Assignment
Explain why it is important to take care of our body systems.
Lesson 18
Nervous System

Q2 Week 4
Day 4
Duration: 1 Day

I. Objective :
Make a chart showing healthful habits that promote proper functioning of
all the organ systems in the body.
S6LT – IIc-d - 2

II. A. Materials :
Charts, pictures, Manila paper, cartolina strips

B. References:
- RBEC Lesson Guide Science Grade 6, Pages 12-13,24,251
- Integrative Science for young Explorers 5 pages 33
- Science and Health 4 pages 45-49,67-68,88-89,
- Science for Active Learning 6 pages 65-66, 76, 98-99,128,157-158,
- www.google.com

C. Process Skills : Observing , describing , classifying,


communicating.

D. Values Integration:
 Caring for the body
 Precautionary measures in doing the activity.

III. Learning Tasks:


A. Engagement
1. Arrange the jumbled letters to form a word for the body systems
a. Sourven
b. Vestigide
c. Yortaculic
d. Ratrisporey
e. Tatenemugrayt
f. Lamucoslekeluts

Ask the following questions:


1. Can you say something about each system?
2. How about its function?
3. What should you do to keep them healthy?

B. Exploration
Group the class into three groups. Each group will be given activity to
perform.
Give pupils the standards/measures in doing an experiment.
Activity 1
The pupils are grouped into 6, they will be given manila paper
and meta cards:
1. they will get manila paper with body system in it
2. they will write in the meta card the healthy habits and post
in in the manila paper
3. they will present it creatively

Explanation
1. Presentation of output.
2. Each group will be asked by the following questions.
 What were your thoughts about the activity?
 How did you do it?
 What were your techniques in doing the activity easier and
faster?
 Why do we have to follow the healthy habits for our body
systems?
BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS

Body System Healthy Habits


 Exercise regularly
 Adequate sleep
 Eat proper kind of foods
1.Muscu-  Proper hygiene
eskeletal  Wear proper equipment when playing a game or riding a
System bike-
 Eat food rich in calcium and vitamin D
 Monitor your toilet habits
 Exercise regularly
 Adequate sleep
 Eat proper kind of foods
2.Digestive
 Proper hygiene
system
 Do not smoke
 Breath fresh air
 Exercise regularly
 Adequate sleep
 Eat proper kind of foods
3.Respiratory
 Proper hygiene
 Avoid eating food high in fats, cholesterol and salt
 Be free from stress
 Live in a clean environment
 Have positive outlook in life
4.  Exercise regularly
Circulatory  Adequate sleep
 Eat proper kind of foods
 Proper hygiene
 Avoid drugs and alcohol
 Wear proper equipment when playing a game or riding a
bike-(
 Avoid inhaling poisonous fumes such as those from glue
or paint-
5.Nervous  Exercise regularly
 Adequate sleep
 Eat proper kind of foods
 Proper hygiene
6. Integumentary  Proper skin protection-
 Staying indoors

C. Evaluation
Make a chart showing healthful habits that promote proper functioning
of all the organs system in the body.
Rubrics:
5 points – A chart is complete, legibly written and neatly made
4 points – A chart lacks 1 healthy habit, legibly written
3 points – A chart lacks 2 healthy habits and not legibly written
2 points – A chart lacks 3 healthy habits and not legibly written
1 point – Only few healthy habits are written and not legibly written

IV. Extend
Make an advertisement showing healthful habits.
Lesson 19
Vertebrates and Invertebrates

Q2 Week 5
Day1

I. Objective:
Describe the characteristics of vertebrates and invertebrates.
S6LT-IIe-f-3
Value focus: Take care and protect animals.

II. Subject matter:


Topic: characteristics of vertebrates and invertebrates.
Skill: Describing, Grouping
Reference: BEAM5 module 16 & 17, science for daily use 5 unit II animals pp.
75-77
III. Instructional Procedure:
A. Engagement
1. Drill: Encircle the animal that does not belong to each group.
a. clam jellyfish sponge snail
b. whale dolphin seal fish
c. ant spider housefly ladybug
d. crab lobster mussel shrimp
e. earthworm leech millipede planaria
f. alligator bear cat horse
g. human dog lion kangaroo
2. Presentation of the new lesson
Today we will describe the animals according to their
characteristics the vertebrates and invertebrates.
B. Exploration
1. Group the class into 3.
2. Read the standards to follow when doing an activity.
3. Distribute the activity cards to each group and perform the
assigned activity.
Activity I
Fill in the table below of the following list of animals.

Centipedes Dolphin Tamaraw Monkey Mosquito

Beetle Bat Mouse Rabbit Ant

With backbone Without backbone


1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.

Questions:
1. Into how many group did you classify these animals?
2. What is your basis for grouping them into two?

Activity 2
Describe the characteristics of the following animals.
Animals Characteristics
A.
1. Snails
2. Earthworm
3. Lobster
4. Starfish
5. jellyfish
B.
1. Fish
2. Cow
3. Dog
4. Cat
5. Lizard

Questions:
1. In which group of animals has backbone?
2. Which group of animals has no backbone?
Activity 3
Put letter V if the animal is vertebrates and I if Invertebrates.

Questions:
1. What have you noticed to vertebrate animals?
2. How about Invertebrate animals?
C. Explanation:
1. Reporting of the groups output.
2. Analysing and discussions of pupils answers.
3. Outline the pupil’s answers on the board.
4. The teacher asks questions to develop critical thinking.

D. Elaboration:
1. Teaching part:
The teacher will discuss more.
Background information for teachers
Animals can be classified according to the presence and absence of
backbone.
Animals without backbone are called invertebrates.
Worms, clams, jellyfish, flies, and spiders, are some example of
invertebrates.
Animals that have backbones called vertebrates. All vertebrates have
left and right sides of the body which are alike. Vertebrates have two
pairs of limbs. Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals are some
examples of vertebrates.

2. Generalization:
Describe the characteristics of vertebrates.
Describe the characteristics of invertebrates.
3. Valuing:
How will you take care and protect animals?
4. Application:
List down the animals that are found in the community.

Vertebrates

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
Invertebrates

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

E. Evaluation:
Encircle the picture of the animals that have backbone or vertebrates.

IV. Assessment:
1. Describe vertebrates animals
Give 3 examples
2. Describe invertebrates animals
Give 3 examples
V. Assignment:
Find the meaning of the ff: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Lesson 20
Characteristics of Vertebrates

Q2 Week 5
Day2

I. Objective:
Describe the characteristics of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes
(S6 LT-IIe-f-3)

Value focus: Love your animals at home.

II. Subject Matter:


Topic: Characteristics of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes.
Skill: Describing, Writing, Selecting
References: BEAM 5 module 16 and 17, Science for daily use 5 limits II, Animals
pp. 75-77.
The new science links pp. 191-203.
III. Instructional procedure:
A. Engagement :
1. Drill: Rearrange the jumbled letter to form the correct word.

SFSIHE SNAIBIHPAM SLAMAMM SDRIB PERSELIT

2. Review: What are the characteristics of vertebrates animals? How


about invertebrates animals? Give some examples.
3. Presentation of the new lesson.
Normally, vertebrates are classified into five smaller groups: mammals, birds, fish,
reptiles, and amphibians. In this lesson you will learn the characteristics of each
classification.

B. Exploration:
1. Group the class into 3.
2. Recall the standards to follow when doing an activity.
3. Distribute the activity cards to each group and perform the assigned
activity.
Activity 1
Complete the chart about the characteristics of animals.
How their How they
Animals Habitat Body young move from
covering develop born one place to
alive or another
hatched from place?
eggs?
1.
TUNA

2.
TOAD

3.

CROCODILE

4.
PARROT

5.
MONKEY

Activity 2
Identiy the animals describe below. Choose your answer from the box below.
____1. Bodies are covered with feathers. Have wings and two legs for running.
____2. The unique characteristics is the presence of the mammary glands. They
bring forth their young alive. They feed their young with their milk
from the mammary glands. Their bodies are covered with hair and
fur.
____3. They live in water, their bodies are usually covered with scales. They are
able to breath in water because they have gills. They used their fins
to be able to swim in water.
____4. Animals that spend their life both in water and land. They have smooth, moist
and scale less skin.
____5. Are terrestrial animals, they have dry scaly skin.
Snake birds Crocodile Salamander
Cat Monkey Fishes Toad Dog

Activity 3
Encircle the animal that does not belong to the group.
1. Kangaroo Cat bat fish
2. Alligator toad frog salamander
3. Parrot dog duck swan
4. Skate shark tuna lizard
5. Turtle alligator snake duck
Questions:
1. What animal that does not belong to number 1 group? Why?
2. How about no. 2, 3, 4, and 5?
C. Explanation:
1. Reporting of group outputs.
2. Analysis and discussion of pupils answer.
3. The teacher ask questions to develop critical thinking.
D. Elaboration:
1. Teacher gives more information about the lesson

Background info for Teachers


Animals that have backbones are called vertebrates. The vertebrates are classified into
five classes; namely, mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Most mammals do not lay
eggs. They give birth to their young. They feed their young with milk produced by the mammary
glands. Examples of mammals found in our community are dogs, cats, carabaos, cows, goats,
and pigs. Birds are covered by feathers. They lay eggs that have hard shells all birds possess
one pair of legs and one pair of wings. Example of birds are hens, hawk, and owls. Reptiles have
bodies that are covered with scales or plates. They lay their eggs on land. They can leave on land
and on water. Crocodiles and turtles are some example of reptiles.
Amphibians such as frogs, salamanders live a double life. They live part of their lives in
water while they are young. When they mature, they live on land to survive. All amphibians lay
eggs on water for example a frog lays eggs on water which hatched into tadpoles. These tadpoles
swim around and breathe with gills. As they grow older, they change. They develop legs and lungs
and begin to live on land. Most fish are covered with scales. Some are egg layers; other are live
bearers. They spend all their lives in water. Fish have gills which are used for breathing.
2. Generalization:
 What are the five classification of vertebrates animals?
 Describe each.
3. Valuing: How will you love your animals at home?

4. Application:
Match column A with column B. write the letter of the answer on the
space provided before each number.
A B
_______ 1. Has a beak and is well adapted to flight. A. mammal
_______ 2. Has gills, fins, and lateral line. B. reptile
_______ 3. Has dry scaly skin. C. amphibian
_______ 4. Warm-blooded animals with fur and mammary glands. D. fish
_______ 5. Has moist skin and live on land and water. E. bird

E. Evaluation:
Identify the characteristics of the different vertebrates by completing the chart
using the following description.
 Classification: - fish, bird, reptiles, amphibians, mammals
 Body covering: - scales, hair, skin, feather
 Movement: - swim, walk, and run, hop and jump, fly, crawl
Animals Classification Body covering Movement
1. Lizard
2. Toad
3. Bat
4. Maya
5. Yellow fin tuna
6. crocodile
7. Horse
8. Carabao
9. Salamander
10. Chicken

V. Assessment:
Choose the letter of the correct answer
1. Which of these animal is a mammal?
a. Ape b. Chicken c. Parrot d. Ostrich
2. Which statement best describe the characteristics of fishes?
a. They live on land and on water.
b. They live in water and they have scales, fins, and gills.
c. Their bodies are covered with dry scales and they crawl.
d. Their bodies have feathers and wings to keep them warm .

3. To which group do chicken and ducks belong?


a. fish b. Reptiles c. birds d. amphibians
4. Why do whales belong to the group of mammals?
a. Whales have moist for breathing.
b. whales have lungs and mammary glands.
c. Whales have feathers and wings for flying.
d. Whales have gills and fins for swimming.

5. Snakes, turtles and lizards belong to reptiles because they have dry scales and
they lay eggs from which their offspring are hatched. Does a dog belong to
this group?

a. dogs belong to this group?


b. No, because it has smooth, moist and scaleless skins.
c. Yes, because it has dry scales, it laid eggs and crawl.
d. Yes, because it breathe through their lungs and crawl.

V. Assignment:
List down some more animals that belong to:

Reptiles
Fish
Birds

Amphibians Mammals
Lesson 21
Classifying Vertebrate Animals

Q2 Week-5
Day3

I. Objective:
Classify vertebrates into mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes.
(S6LT-IIe-f-3)
Value Focus: Wildlife Conservation

II. Subject Matter:


Topic: Classification of vertebrates: Mammals, birds, reptiles,
amphibians and fishes Skill: Classifying, listing.
References: The New Science Links pp.191-203,
Science for Active Minds pp. 167-169
Science for Daily use 5 pp.75-77
Beam 5 Module169.17

III. Instructional Procedures:


A. Engagement:
1. Drill: Read science words
2. Review: Check assignment
3. Presentation: Look at this figure. What is this? Today you will
learn more on classification of vertebrates.

Cl
Classification of Vertebrates

Mammals Reptiles Amphibians Birds Fishes


ss

Vertebrates are further divided into five classes namely: mammals,


reptiles, amphibians, birds and fishes.

B. Exploration:
1. Group the pupils into three.
2. Distribute activity cards to each group and let them do the activity

ACTIVITY 1

Write M if the animal in the picture is a mammal, A if amphibian, B if birds, R if


reptiles, and F if fishes.
1.____________ 2.___________

3.

___________ 4. _____________

5. ___________ 6. _____________

Activity 2
CClassify the pictures of animals according to its classification:

Mammals Reptiles Amphibians Birds Fishes


3ACTIVITY 3

Classify these animals according to the group they belong:

Monkey human hawk goat owl


Tadpole duck earthworm turtle rabbit
Whale tamaraw cat bat dolphin

Mammals Reptiles Amphibians Fishes Birds

1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
Question: How did you classify the animals?

C. Explanation:
1. Reporting of group outputs.
2. Analysis and discussions of pupils answer.
3. The teacher asks questions to develop critical thinking.
D. Elaboration:
1. Teaching part:
2. Generalization:
What are the classification of vertebrates?
3. Valuing:
In your daily life situation, how will you help conserve wildlife?
4. Application:
Identify the classification of the following vertebrates. Write A if it is amphibian, B if
it is a bird, M if it is a mammal and F if it is fish.
_______1. Owl _______6. Ducks
_______2. Salamander _______7. Whale
_______3. Dolphin _______8. Pelican
_______4. Snake _______9. Alligator
_______5. Goldfish _______10. Frog

IV. Assessment:
Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which of these animals is a mammal?
A. Ape B. Duck C. Parrot D. Goldfish
2. To which group do pigeon and ducks belong?
A. Fish B. Reptiles C. Birds D. Amphibians
3. Salamander, caecilian, and toad belong to
A. Amphibians B. Reptiles C. Birds D. Fish
4. To which group do tilapia , milkfish and goldfish belong?
A. Fishes B. Amphibians C. Reptiles D. Birds
5. Which of these animal is a reptiles?
A. Tortoise B. Lion C. Parrot D. Squirrel

V. Assignment:
Find the meaning of the following:

1. Porifera 2. Cnidaria 3. Echinoderms 4. Mollusk


Lesson 22
Characteristics of Invertebrate Animals

Q2 Week 5
Day 4

I. Objective:

Describe the characteristics of the following groups of invertebrate: Porifera,


Cnidarian or
Coelenterates, Echinoderms, Mollusks (S6LT-IIe-f-3)

Value Focus: Conservation of different sea


organism

II. Subject Matter:


Topic: The characteristics of the following Invertebrates: Porifera,
Cnidarian or Coelenterates, Echinoderms, Mollusks.

Skill: Describing, selecting & inferring

Reference: The new Science links pp. 191-203, Science for Active Minds
pp. 167-169, Science
For Daily Use 5 pp. 75-77, BEAM 5 Module 16 & 17

III. Instructional Procedures:


A. Engagement:
1. Drill: Read Science words: Porifera, Cnidarian, Coelenterates,
Echinoderms, Mollusks.

2. Review:
Cross out the name of the animal that does not belong to
the group.
a. goat , rat, owl, dog
b. hen, goose, duck, fish,
c. snake, turtle, bat, alligator
d. tadpole, mouse, frog, toad
e. whale, rays, shark, carp

3. Presentation of the new lesson:

Today we will describe another characteristics of animals. The classification of


Invertebrates which are: Porifera, Cnidarian or Coelenterates, Echinoderms, and
Mollusks.

B. Exploration:
1. Group the class into 3
2. Distribute the activity cards
3. Recall the standards in doing the activity
Activity 1
Picture –Word Connection
Use the pictures to identify the classification of invertebrates. Rearrange the letters
to form the word.

CAIDNRIAN MKLLUSO RAFIRIPO ECMIONDERH

Activity 2
1. Study the picture of the different groups of Invertebrates.
2. Find out distinguishing characteristics of each group.
3. Enter you observation in a table below.

A. Porifera
B. Cnidaria

C. Mollusks

D. Echinoderms
Invertebrate Distinguishing Characteristics
Groups
1. Porifera

2. Cnidaria

3. Mollusks

4. Echinoderms
Activity 3
Match column A with Column B
A B

a. Spiny- sinned sea animal


b. Soft body animal
c. Hollow-body or soft-body animal
d. Full of pores or holes. These holes serve as
passage for water which carries nutrient and
gases.

C. Explanation:

1. Reporting of group outputs


2. Analysis and discussion of pupils answer
3. The teacher ask questions

D. Elaboration:
1. Teacher gives more information about the lesson.

97
Background information for Teachers
1. Porifera
The Poriferans are marine animals full of pores or holes. These holes serve
as passage for water which carries nutrients and gases. Sponges or pore-
bearing animals belong to this group.
2. Coelenterata / Cnidaria
The Coelenterate or Cnidaria are hollow-bodied or soft-bodied
animals. Their bodies are made up of two layers of cells which form a hollow
tube. Examples of animals in this group are the fresh water hydras, hydroids,
jellyfish, sea fans, sea anemones, and corals.
3. Mollusks
Mollusks are soft-bodied or shelled animals. Snails, slugs, clams,
mussels, oysters, squids and octopuses, are mollusks. Most animals like
the clams, oysters and snails have shells that protect their soft bodies.
4. Echinoderms
Echinoderms are spiny-skinned sea animals. They have hard shells
covered with prickly spines or needles. Starfish, sand dollars, sea urchins, and
sea cucumber are the most common examples of this group.

2. Generalization:
What are the four classification of Invertebrates that we learned?
1. Porifera
2. Cnidaria
3. Echinoderms
4. Mollusks

3. Valuing:
How will you love your pet animal at home?

4. Application:
Underline the correct example of a given group of Invertebrates.

1. Mollusks (octopus, sea lilies, jellyfish)


2. Echinoderms (sea star, snails, hydras)
3. Cnidarian (corals, sea cucumber, squids)
4. Porifera (Bath sponge, sea anemone, oyster)

E. Evaluation:
Match column A with column B. Write the letter of the correct answer.

A B
1. Are hollow-bodied or soft-bodied animals. a. Porifera
2. Marine animals full of pores or holes b. Coelenterate
3. Are soft-bodied or shelled animals. c. Mollusks
4. Are spiny-skinned sea animals. They have shells d. Echinoderms
covered with prickly spines or needles.

98
IV. Assessment:
Describe the Characteristics of Invertebrates by completing the chart
using the following descriptions.

Classification - porifera, cnidarian, echinoderms, mollusks


Movement - crawl, swim
Description - soft-bodied, spiny skin, pores or holes, shelled animals
Animals Classification Movement Description
1. Octopus
2. Sea star
3. Corals
4. Bath sponge

V. Assignment:
List down some animals that belong to coelenterate, mollusks,
cnidarian and echinoderms.

99
Lesson 23
Characteristics of Invertebrates
Quarter 2 Week 6
Day 1 & 2
Duration: 2 days

Day 1
I. Describe the characteristics of the following group:
(Platyhelminthes, annelids, nematodes)
S6LT-IIe-f-3

II. A. Materials:
ascaris of humans or animals earthworm leech
lens manila paper pentel pen

B. References:
- RBEC Lesson Guide Science 5 pp. 79-81
- Science Links pp. 217 - 219
- https://youtu.be/mMexgObr4fs

C. Process Skills: identifying, inferring, describing


D. Values Integration:
appreciate the importance of worms to the plants

III. Learning Tasks:

A. Engagement:
1. Look at the pictures.

A B C

Ask the following questions:


1. What does each picture tell about?
2. How does they look like?
or watch the video using the link https://youtu.be/mMexgObr4fs

100
B. Explore:
Group activity.
Distribute activity sheets.
Set standards for grouping.

I : Problem: What are the characteristics of the three


groups of worms?

II. Materials:
earthworm ascaris of human or animals
leech planaria magnifying lens
pentel pen manila paper

III. Procedure:
1. Study the worms by using a magnifying glass
2. Describe what you observed.
3. Write the characteristics of each animal that you
observed.

Name of Classification Characteristics


Animal
1. ascaris
2. earthworm
3. planaria
4. leech

C. Explain
1. Each group will present its findings based on their activity.
2. Ask: What are the characteristics of each group of worms?
3. How are they similar? Different?

Day 2

D. Elaboration

Group 1
Compose a one stanza song describing the characteristics
of Platyhelminthes, annelids and nematodes

101
Group 2
Compose a one stanza poem describing the
characteristics of Platyhelminthes, annelids and nematodes

Give a short description of the following group of invertebrates

Group 3

Platyhelminthes Nematodes

_____________ _____________

Worm
Facts Annelids

_________________
_________________

Pupils will present their output


Ask: What are the common characteristics among the group of worms?
How important are worms to the growth of plants?

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHER

All worms have bilateral symmetry. An organism which has bilateral


symmetry can be divided into two parts that are alike. Some worms are
free living while others are parasitic. They live in a bodies of other animals
and people such as flukes, tapeworms and ascaris.
Platyhelminthes ( flatworms ) –have bodies that look like
ribbons.
 They have a thin flat body that resembles a ribbon and
have a definite head region and body organs.
 They have no space inside so they have no digestive
system.
 A layer of outer cells or epidermis covers the animal’s
body. An inner layer of cells forms an intestine.

102

Most flatworms are parasites living in the body of a
variety of animals but some are freely living in marine,
freshwater, or moist land habitat
Flatworms have three major groups: planaria, tapeworm
and fluke
Nematodes - consist of animals called roundworms.
 Roundworms are unsegmented worms that have long,
thin, round bodies pointed at both ends and are
covered by a tough cuticle
 Have muscles that run the length of their body. These
muscles cause the worms’ body to move in a thrashing
manner as one muscle contracts and another relaxes
 Roundworms are both found in marine and fresh
water habitat and on land. Some are parasites and
attaches to plants or animals. Most roundworms are
harmless. Some of them are also parasites. The
ascaris lives in the intestines of the human beings. The
hookworm, another parasite, enters the human body
by boring through the skin in the feet.
Annelids Animals belong to this group are segmented worms.
 They live in salt water, fresh water and in the soil. They
are the most complex among the worms. Their bodies
are divided into segments. Examples of the animals in
this group are the earthworms and leeches. The
earthworm has no respiratory system but absorbs
oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide through its thin
skin, which must be keep moist.

E. Evaluation
Describe the characteristics of Platyhelminthes, annelids and
nematodes by filling in
the table.

Invertebrates Characteristics

IV. Assignment
Cut out picture of the three groups of worms and write
a short description.

103
Lesson 24
Arthropods
Q2 Week 6
Day 3

Duration: 1 Day

VI. Objective :
Describe the characteristics of the following groups of invertebrates
Arthropods ( insects, crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods)
S6LT – IIe-f-3

VII. A. Materials :

Activity cards, pictures, live or preserved animals


ants spider shrimp
centipedes
millipedes lens

B. References :
- RBEC Lesson Guide Science 5
- Science Links pp. 210 - 213
https://youtu.be/6wvIWXyOWgw

C. Process Skills: Observing , describing , analyzing

D. Values Integration:
cooperation

VIII. Learning Tasks:


D. Engagement

Ask: What are these animals? What characteristics do these animals have in
common

104
Exploration
Describing Arthropods

Problem:
How are arthropods classified

What you need:


live or preserved animals
ants spider shrimp
centipedes millipedes lens

What to do:
1. Observe and write down the characteristics of each
animal.
2. Identify the pair of legs in column one, the body
sections present such as head, abdomen, or thorax in column two; and
write with antennae under column three

Animals Pair of legs Body Section Presence/absence


of Antennae
Ants
Spider
Shrimp
Centipede
Millipede

Explanation
1. Let each group report the outcome of their work
Present their answers on the questions given.
2. What do all these animals have in common?
In what ways do these animals differ

Elaboration
Group them into three. Give pupils the following differentiated activities.
Group 1

What do you know about Arthropods Word Bank

1. Insects have __________ legs. Crustaceans


many legs
2. _________ have wings and three pairs Insects
of walking legs. Arachnids
3. Myriapods are animals with _________ 3 pairs of legs
4. __________
Group have
2 no antennae 2 pairs of legs
5. __________ are mostly sea creatures

105
Group 2
Given are the description of invertebrates. Write it down under its correct
column

have antennae 5 pairs of leg protect themselves by curling up


can hunt food in total darkness using their antennae
4 pairs of walking legs possess spinnerets many legs
3 pairs of legs no antennae

Myriapods Crustaceans Arachnids Insects

Group 3
Describe the characteristics of arthropods by filling in the table.

Arthropods Characteristics
Crustaceans
Insects
arachnids
Myriapods

Presentation of output by groups


Ask: What characteristics of arthropod differ from other
invertebrate?

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHER

Arthropods are joint-legged animals. They make up the largest group in


the animal kingdom. Their legs are jointed. Their bodies and legs are made
up of sections. They have an outside shell called the exoskeleton.
There are four groups of animals in this group. These are:
a. Crustaceans have a hard outer body covering divided into sections.
Have five pairs legs for swimming and walking. They are characterized by
the presence of antennae located on the head. The antennae are organs
that touch,taste and smell food. They can hunt food in total darkness using
the antennae. Crabs, lobsters and shrimps belong to this group.
b. Insects are small, six-legged animals or have three pairs of walking
legs, one or two pairs of wings and a pair of antennae. Their bodies are
divided into three parts: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. They

106
change their form as they grow. They are the most numerous animals on
earth.
Bees, ants, wasps, butterflies, cockroaches, ladybugs, fireflies,
termites, moths and grasshopper are insects.
c. Arachnids have four pairs of walking legs. Have two body segments
and no antennae. They have possess spinnerets with which they spin silk
thread into webs, cocoons and nests. Most arachnids live on land and a
few live on water Examples of arachnids are scorpions, mites, ticks and
spiders.
d. Myriapods are animals with many legs. They are the millipedes
(diplopods) which have two pairs of legs in every segment of their body
and the centipedes (chilopods) which have one pair of legs in every
segment of their body.
Centipede means “hundred feet” while millipede means “thousand feet”

Evaluation

Complete the description by supplying the correct word from


the word bank.
____________ are jointed legs. There are four groups of animals in this group.
Crustaceans have a hard outer ___________ divided into sections. _________
have three pairs of walking legs, one or two pairs of wings and a pair of
antennae. __________ possess spinnerets which they spin threads into webs.
Myriapods are the animals with __________.

Insects Arthropods body covering

Arachnids many legs myriapods

IX. Assignment
Collect some insect and arachnids. Preserve the in a glass jar
with cotton and naphthalene balls.

107
Lesson 25
Classifying Invertebrates
Quarter 2 Week 6
Day 4
Duration: 1 Day

X. Objective :
Classify invertebrate animals into porifera, cnidarian,
Platyhelminthes, annelids, mollusks, nematodes, arthropods and
echinoderms
S6LT – IIe-f-3

XI. A. Materials :
Activity cards, multimedia, Manila paper, pentel pen
live or preserved animals:
ants or butterflies snails starfish
earthworms jellyfish lens

B. References:
- RBEC Lesson Guide Science Grade 5, pages 76-78
- Science Links, pages 207-210
- http://images.seach.yahoo.com

C. Process Skills: Classifying, Observing


D. Values Integration:
 accepting individual differences
 Awareness

XII. Learning Tasks:


E. Engagement

1. Rearrange the letters to form the word

MKLLUSO EOHTWARM NESITC

108
ECMIONDERH SNOPGE

F. Exploration
Groupings. Giving of instructions.
Give pupils the standards/measures in doing the activity.

Classifying Invertebrate Animals

Problem: How are invertebrates classified?

What you need:

live or preserved animals:

ants or butterflies snails starfish


earthworms jellyfish lens

Animals Characteristics Classification Other


Example
Ants/butterfly
Snails
Starfish
Earthworm
jellyfish

G. Explanation
4. Let each group report the outcome of their work by following
the standard.
5. Ask: What do all these animals have in common? How do they
differ?

H. Elaboration
1. Group the pupils into three. Give pupils the
standards/measures in doing the activity.
2. Let the pupils do the following differentiated activities.

109
Group 1
Direction: Match the description in column A to the terms in column B
A B

1. Multi-legged with segmented bodies, their a. Coelenterates


skeleton is located outside their bodies b. Echinoderms
2. Hollow-bodied animals and have stinging c. Porifera
cells or tentacles d. Annelids
3. Soft-bodied and are enclosed in a shell e. Invertebrates
4. Spiny skinned sea animals f. Platyhelminthes
5. Have soft, long, slender and segmented bodies g. Arthropods
6. Pore-bearing animals h. Mollusks
7. They have flatworms and have no digestive system

Group 2

Use the word bank and letter clues to name each of the different types of
invertebrates described. Choose your answer from the words inside the box.

A_ _ _ R _ _ _ _ _ Have limbs with joints that allow them to


move
_O___S__ Most have a soft, skin-like organ covered by
a hard shell. Some live on land while others
live in water.
_C__N______ Live in the ocean. Have arms or spines that radiate
from the letter of the body.
__O__Z__ Single celled animals, microscopic in size

A _ _ _ L_ _ _ Have segmented bodies, but no limbs

Protozoa Echinoderms Arthropods


Mollusks Annelids

110
Group 3

Classify into different types of invertebrates.

beetle leech hookworm octopus liverfluke

snails star fish sea anemone tapeworm jellyfish

Nematode Annelid Platyhel- Arthropod Mollusk Porifera Cnidaria Echino-


s s minthes s n derms

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS

Invertebrates are animals without backbones. They have economic importance. They are
sources of food, medicine, source for trade and industry. Invertebrates are classified into
poriferans, coelenterates, echinoderms, mollusks, annelids, platyhelminthes ,
nematodes and arthropods.
Poriferans are marine animals full of pores or holes. Its body is a hollow tube with
many pores or openings. These holes serve as passage for water which carries nutrients
and gases. The wall of the body is made of two walls. Sponges or pore-bearing animals
belong to this group.
Coelenterate/ Cnidarian are hollow-bodied or soft-bodied animals. Their bodies are
made up of two layers of cells which form a hollow tube. Examples of animals in this
group are the fresh water hydras, hydroids, jellyfish, sea fans, sea anemones, and corals.
Platyhelminthes have bodies that look like ribbons. They have no space inside so
they have no digestive system. Flatworms belong to this group.
Nematoda or Nematodes consist of animals called roundworms. They are long, thin,
round, and pointed at one or both ends. Some of them are also parasites.
Annelids are segmented worms. They are the most complex among the worms.
Their bodies are divided into segments.
Mollusca or Mollusks are softbodied or shelled animals. Snails, slugs, clams,
mussels, oysters, squids and octopuses are mollusks. Most animals like the clams,
oysters and snails have shells that protect their soft bodies.
Echinodermata or Echinoderms are spiny-skinned sea animals. They have hard
shells covered with prickly spines or needles. Starfish, sand dollars, sea urchins, and sea
cucumber are the most common examples of this group.
Arthropoda or Arthropods are joint-legged animals. They make up the largest
group in the animal kingdom. Their legs are jointed. Their bodies and legs are made up
of sections. They have an outside shell called the exoskeleton.

Ask: How are these animals classified?

111
Evaluation
Classify the following animals. Write each animal under the column they
belong.

ascaris jellyfish sponges earthworm


clams sea urchin grasshopper leech
starfish scorpion planaria snail
hydra shrimp

Annelid Porifera Cnidarian Platyhelminthes Nematodes Echinoderms Mollusk Arthropods

Assignment
What are the mollusk that we use as food?

112