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HAI\DBOOKOF'

INSTRIJMtrI\TATIOI\

AND COI\TROLS

A

PRACTICAIJ

DESICIN

AND

APPIIICATIONS

MANUAL

FOR

TIIE

UECIIANICAIJ

SERVICES

COVERING

STEAM

PLANTS,

POWDR

PLANTS,

EEATTNG

SYSTEMS,

ArR-CONDTTIONTNG

REFRIGERATION,

SYSTEMS,

DIESEL

PIJANTS.

SYSTEMS, VENTTLATTON

AND

WATER

TR,EATMENT

HOWARDP. KALLEN, B.M.E.,M.M.E., P.E.,EditOr

Portner, Kollen & Lemelson, Consulting Engineers

,,

Member, Instrument Societg of

America

Am.erican Societg of Mechanical

Engineers

FIRST EDITION

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY

NEW

YONK

TORONTO

1961

LOI\DON

PREFACE

the building and plant services-power, heating, air -condition-

ing, refrigeration,prime

pllx

Leasingly aware of the importance of well-designed instrumentation

and coitrol systemsto plant services. Yet,

instrumentation specialistshave

activity to fully eiplote the

controi systemsto This handbook

in mind, although the speclafi"itrgitrrtt.t-entation engineerwill ffnd

The ma-

fu

movers,and others-have becomemore com- World War II, the engineer has become in-

ensureproper operation of thesebuilding and

in

tL"

y"*t

iince

as u pta&ca1 matter, few engineersother than

the opportunity in their day-to-day

many applicationsof instrumentationand

their engineeringproblems.

has been prepared with the "nonspecialist"eng]n^eel

jection

of practical value to him.

much material t each

terial is presentedin

tem desiln,

a practicialto6[ for all who are concernedwith the mechanicalserv-

ices in institutional, commercial,and industrial buildings' Thus, this book will be useful to engineerswho design and apply

mechanicalsystemsto

ing

suficient detail to provide a soundbasisfor sys-

application, selection,and operation. It is intended to be

buildings, plant engineers,architects, consult-

engineers,maintenat"" utd operating engineers, Power and util-

ity 'In engineers,and others in allied ffelds.

ils general arrangementthe

handbook gives emphasisto funda-

mentals is well as pr:actical application. In this way it is felt that the material will be-equally useful to the nonspecialistand specialist

alike. After a study of fundamentalsin the secondsection,the reader is

provided with

variables

^temperature, flow liquid

both qualitative and quantitative data on pressure'

level, pH, and conductivity-the

-ori

buil&ngsi

systems"for

d.i.r/,"r,air-conditioning ventilation, and refrigeration, with consider- able spacedevotedto actual cases.

fr"qrr"ntly

meaiured and controlled in mechanical servicesfor

These are then tied together,in a detailed discussionof

boiler

and power plants, heating plants,.mechanical

this handbook will contribute not only to-a better

understaniing of the instruments and controls themselves,but to a

It

ii hoped that

Preface

fuller appreciation of what they can and cannot be expectedto do

.when-integrated

hazard

mechanical-servicesystem can be better than thi

causeit to function.

of misapplication may be avoided. It is quite true that no

with mechanical-servicesystems. In ihis way the

controls which

handbook, by its very nature, is a compilation of the knowledge

of many people,organizations,and companies. And, while individu-al

credits are acknowledged throughout this handbook, I wish to ex-

press special appreciation to such individuals as A. C. Wenzel of

_{epublic Flow MetersCo., R. E. Sprenkleof Bailey Meter Co.,

Haines

sidine of Hughes Aircraft Corp., and particularly to the Instrument

Society of America and the American Society of Mechanical Engi- neers.

of Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., and D. M. Con-

_A

}.

E.

wish to aclnowledge the invaluable help of Mrs.

Katherine Mangione and of my wife Claire in the preparation and proofreading of the manuscript and index.

F_rnally, I

HousardP. Kallen

i

CONTENTS

Preface

SECTION I-INTRODUCTION

SECTION z-INSTRUMENTATION FUNDAMENTALS '

AND

CONTROL

.

Symbolsand Notations Automatic-control Terminology.' Fundamentalsof Measurementand Control. Modesof Automatic Control. Block-diagam Analysis

.

SECTION 8_MEASUREMENT

OF PRESSUREAND DRAFT.

Measurementof Pressureand Draft. Manometer Tables Pressure-instrument Speciffcation. Calibration of PressureInstrurnents Installation of PressureIntruments.

SECTION 4-TEMPERATURE

MEASUREMENT

Temperature-measuring TheorY Filled-system Thermometers BimetalThermometers. " IndustrialLiquid-in-glassThermometers' Thermocouple PYrometers Superheater-tube-temperature Measurements.

.'

.'

"

"

:''

Radiation Pyrometers. Thermistors TemperatureMeasurementby

Temperature Measurement by Chemical Signal. Temperature Instrument Speciffcation

Color.

.-.

'-'

"'

SECTIONs-MEASUREMENT OF FLOW.

Primary

Selecting the Diameter Ratio, Differential Range, and Piping

Layout Mechanical and Electric Meter Bodies Installation of Difierential-pressure Flow Meters

Elements for Difierential-pressure Flow Meters' ' ' ' '

vii

1-1

2-L

2-L

2_LL

2-18

2-28

2-38

8-L

3-1

8-10

8-18

8-2f

8-30

bL

LL

b8

4-25

4-29

4-31

u4

+.50

4-56

4-58

4-6L

4-6L

4-63

L1

5-l

5-6

5-28

HO

vru

Contents

Variable-area FIow Meters

Positive-displacement Flow

Open-channel Flow

SECTION o-MEASUREMENT LEVEL Fundamental Principles Ball-float Devices

Meters.

Measurement.

AND

CONTROL OF LIQUID

Displacement-type Level Controls Hydrostatic-headDevices

Electric- and Pneumatic-level Transmission

Electric- and Magnetic-typeLevelJimit Devices

.

.

.

" Boiler-water-level Indicators

Level Instrument Speciffcations

SECTION 7-FINAL

CONTROL ELEMENTS

Valve Bodies and Inner Valves. Control-valve Construction Details PowerOperators Electric Actuators. Direct-acting Control Valves. Control-valve Sizing. Control-valve Speciffcations

SECTION 8-MEASUREMENT CONDUCTIVITY

AND CONTROL OF pH AND .

Chemistry of Electrochemical Measurements. Continuous-conductivity N{easurement Applications of Conductivity Measurement

.

SECTION g-BOILER SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTATION

AND CONTROL

Feedwater Regulation Boiler-feed-pump-recirculation Control

Combustion Controls Flue-gas Analysis Oxygen Analysis. Combustion Safeguards Smoke-densityRecorders. Steam-temperatureControl TJpical Boiler-controlInstallations

SECTION IO-STEAM-PRESSURE REDUCING AND DESUPERHEATING

SECTION II-STEAM-TURBINE CONTROL Turbine .Governors.

INSTRUMENTATION

AND

5-44

5-49

5-58

6-l

6-l

M

6-13

6-18

6-Zs

6-26

6-98

6-95

7_I

7-z

7-Zz

7-27

7-40

7-56

7-Oz

7-72

8-I

8-l

8-i20

8-gB

9-I

9-4

g-20

g-29

g-80

g-gs

9-106

g-t1g

g-l?4

9-194

10-1

11-1

l1-r

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

Contents

ix

Turbine-supervisory Instruments. 1l-16

' fl 'r

I

rjry ii'

SECTION I2-DIESEL-ENGINE

OF

SECTION I8-CONTROL

GOVERNING.

HEATING,

AIR-CONDITION.

ING. AND REFRIGERATIONSYSTEMS

Tz_L

18-I

Control Adapted to

Inside-thermostatControl

13-1

Modulatingor Two-positionControl.

13-4

13-5

Outdoor-thermostat Control

13-8

Individual-roomControl.

13-13

Control of Unit Heatersand Unit Ventilators.

r3-13

Unit-heater Control Methods.

13-14

UnitVentilators

l3-19

Control of Commereial Central-fan Heating Systems.

13-25

Tempering SystemsWith I'ull-through Fans.

t3-26

Tempering SystemWith Blow-through Fan.

t3-30

Blast Heating Systems.

13-30

Thermostat Location

13-31

Outdoor-air Control

13-31

Blow-through Systems.

.

.

18-36

PreheaterOutdoor-air Control.

13-37

Winter Humidification Distribution and Zone Control.

13-39

t3-43

Control of Commercial Central-fan Cooling Systems.

t3-48

Control of SystemsUsing Cold-waterCooling Coils

13-50

Control

of

Direct-expansion Cooling Systems.

t8-53

Control of Air-washer Systems

13-59

Dehumidifying Systems.

I3-60

ApplicationsRequiring Reheat

13-62

Control of Outdoor-air Dampers.

13-64

Summer-winterSystems,

 

13-66

Control of

13-68

ControlRequirements

13-71

Capacity Control

r3-72

Control of Distribution

13-79

Index follows Section73.

Section I

INTRODUCTION

Today's advanced control techniques owe much to their early devel-

opment in the mechanicalservicesfield,

pioneeredalmost 40 years ago. Since that time, t}te mechanicalservices

havebeen a proving ground for an almostendlessnumber of developments :hathavepushedthe controlsart to new heights. But this has been a two-way street; in the same period, controls had

nuch to do with boosting electric generating efficiency from roughly 3%

ib of coal per kwhr to

:ts zone controls, electrical distribution's load-frequency control systems- have reaped the full measure from a dynamic controls technology. Yet,

the ultimate in controls is nowhere in sight. We will witness many new .rnd fundamental developmentsin the years ahead. And, no doubt, engi- reers will some day look upon today's control methods as relatively crude .rncestorsof "truly modern" control.

Closed-loopcontrol s)/stemswere

3/t tb.

And other services-air

conditioning with

Primary Measurements. of

force

unit

area-is

one--olthe

nical

services,

pressuresrange-lrom less than:-n inch of mercury to several thousand

pounds per square inch. And they must be measuredaccurately. Be-

cause of the broad range, numerous pressure-measuringelementshave been developed. They vary from direct meanssuch as spiral and bourdon gagesfor high pressuresto inferential methods such as thermal (hot-wire) gagesfor high vacuums.

A relative newcomer to the ffeld is the pressuretransducer.

Ilj1fulrg

on electricalinterpretationof -rtd;;-dg"1Gtf pressule. A commondesignusesthe strain-

qegeliinciple. iti.

the surface of a small piece of Bakelite-impregnatedpaper. When the gage is cemented to the surface subjected to load, the wire grid stretches,

changingits electricalresistance. By measuringresistancechanges(with a potentiometer), we indirectly measure pressure. Transducersare com- patible with the highest pressures t-he mechanical services ffeld will be required to measurefor yearsto come. Temperatures t-hat concern mechanical engineers are in the range of -200 to well over 1000"F. To meet the requirements of this wide t-t

consistsof a wir-e grid bonded to

l-2

fntroduction

spectrum, researchers constantly seek new principles of measurement, improving on existingmethods.

over certain temperature ranges,we have a wide selectionof

,

range is

only

one of

several key

factors.

measuring

Sensitivity,

elements. But

accuracy, responsespeed, cost, expected useful life, corrosion resistance- all needto be considered.

Briefy,

present measuring practice breaks down like

. (vapor, gas, mercury) thermometersfrom

-180

to

tlis: ffled-system

I000"F;

resistance

thermometersfrom -100

pyrometersfrom 200 to 7000'F. we shall see more

of- radiation techniques for extremely high temperatures or in situations where it is impractical to contact the areabeing measured.

to 600"F; thermocouplesfrom -800

to 2700'F;

radiation (optical)

Liquid-,_ vapor-, and gas-flow measuremen-t-of key importance to the

mechanical services-has

But

still are-most_frequently used.

adaptableto electric or pneumatic transmissions.

.bee^n the subject of several ie""ni d"r,"lopments.

plate, flow nozzre,venturi tube) methods

ihey

are simple,easy to use, and readily

differential-pressure (oriffce

Area-type-flow meters fft directly in the fow

.

area varies.

line and require no oriffce acrossthe'meter body is

For viscous huids at least (oils, biack

plates or other primary elements. pressure drop

constant while fow

liqt'or, etc.), we can expectstepped-upuseof thesemeters.

flow-sensing elements depend on electrical and magnetic tech-

.

freely

the rotor

rate.

hese units can measure accurately continuous or intermittent fow of

Newes':

niques.

between supports in the flow

produces 'l an a-c signal with a frequency-directly

One

design

_emp_loys a

line.

bucket-wheel rotor

that

{rins

A powerful magnet insidl

proportional to fow

chemicals, liqueffed gases,and soludons containing

temperaturesup to

Recently developed radioactive materials.

l"

-layerthicknessincreases,the number decreases.

minute quantity of radioactive material such asradium salts.

suspended. particles at

use of

1000'F.

Range is from 0.08 to 5,200 gpm.

methods of liquidJevel measurement ,i"ke

The

gam-ma-raysystem is based on t}'e change

penetratea Iayer of liquids. As

Gamma-raysiurce is a

S".,11"ber

of gamma rays that can

controllers.

A distinguishing.mark of

modern contrors is their inability

they require faster, more

ollers will lean "orlt proportional, auto-

of

to tolerate time-lags.

accurate control response. To meet dris need, -ot"

l,acking "flywheel efiect,"

toward sophisticated control modes-combinations matic reset,andrate action.

on

the

question of

pneumatic versus electrical and electronic con-

witness increasing use of all t]-rreetypes.

design wil

coverlhe furl range cf -nlt

This

i, certain

trollers,-w€ are likely to

is largely becauseno one

to be a fast-growinglist of jobs.

-l!*"*gle-_r"a":qrtj!ipn. Remote Transmission

Remote transmission of

measurements-sending

instrument .

satety,ecoTmv, co . Where high_pressure high_te;6;;tu;fl;ids

are present, remote transmissioneliminates

signals over relatively long

relatively long

distances-has distances-@ manv ,.lrrr,"oo".

hazards bv ne"-iffi.o

nonlrnl

eliminates hazards by permitting control

I

Introduction

l-8

from

e

safe

location.

Thus,

we

shall

see

a

strong

trend

continuing

in

this direction. Recent ffndings of an Edison Electric Institute questionnaire

covering direct versus trarismitted pressure for

pressuresteam and water systemsback up this thinking'

utility companiesusing air or botli), 63 per

systems,and 79 per

answering

oil,

hydrogen,

.Of-46

high-

someform of remotetransmission (either electricor

cent were on steam systems,50 per cent on water

centon oil systems.

Telemetering,

extension of the in-plant transmission idea, fflls an im'

pipeline, and water-supply systems

portant need in

of toduy.

Carrier current is the most common transmission

medium on po*"r systems,with private lines, leasedlines, and micTowave

following in that order.

even greater importance.

the far-flung Power,

As these systems continue to grow, telemetering will

take on

Svsteris Enqineering.

In the strict senseof the word, there is nothing

gineering in

the conuols ffeld'

"e havebeenengineeringcontrolsystemsfor years.

Instrument men

Today, hoiever,

t[e

term appearsto be taking on an added meaning-

compleie integration

The controls -expert is called in and works, closely with

engineer from tie early stagesof design.

trol system,and 'The equipment that is easierto control'

of control-system design with

the _system it serves. the

The net result is a better .equipment con'

Scop".

s&pe

of material covered in

this handbook is intended

to be of direct inteiest to the mechanical engineer engaged in the design, application, and operation of systemsfor mechanical services:steam plants, power plants, heaiing plants and heating systems,air-con&tioning systems, iiesel piattts, and refiigeration systems. And, although the in^strumentation and c;ntrols discussedhave a broad application in other ffelds, notably

the processindustries, they are viewed here mainly as they apply to the mechanicalservices.

highly

specialized

iistrumentation.

is referred to "Control of Nuclear Reactors and Power Plants" by M. A.

Schultz,McGraw-Hill BookCompany,Inc', 1955'

Instrumentation for

certain mechanical services, because of its

nature, has been omitted.

For

In this category is nuclear-reactor

an excellent treatment of this subject, the reader

Credits.

As editor of this handbook, I

have received the most gen-

erous assistanceand cooperation from a great number of U.S. instrumen- tation manufacturers,the InstrumentSocietyof America,ASME, consulting engineering ffrms, and many users of mechanical-serviceinstrumentation. Wf,il" .p""iftc credits are made throughout the book, I wish to take this opportunity to expressmy deep appreciation to the many_ind-ividualsand

without whose coopbrationpreparation of this handbqok would

have "iirpatri"r" been impossible.

Section 2

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS

STMBOLS AND NOTATIONS

In order to convey his ideas and information effectively and concisely,

the controls engineer makes use of a system of symbols' They are, in efiect, his "shorthand" and should be understood by the engineer who is

responsible for design, selection, operation, or maintenance of control systemsfor the mechanicaland electrical services.

A system of s)'rnbolshas been stdndar&zed by the Instrument Society

of America' and is given here in condensedform' General. Instruments and instrumentation items are identiffed and rep- resented by a system of letters and numbers, together with a number oI

simple basic pictorial symbols for illustrating the items on fow plans and other drawings.

The identiffcation shall consist of a combination of

Identiffcations.

letters used to establish lhe general id,entit! of the item with its

Purpose

and functions, For somerequirementsthis will be su{f,cientand complete; but usually it will be followed by a number that will serve to establish the wecific identita ,of the item. The identiffcations shall be used for the cornplete-G-ignation of the item in written work, and in combination

with thJpictorial symbol for representationon fow plans orother drawings.

General Identiftcations.

The

general identiffcations shall

consist of

letters as listed in Table 2-1 used in combinations as shown in Table 2-2'

Table 2-1 covers the letters that may be employed, the deffnition or signiffcance of each, and the permissible position or positions in which eachmay be used when combining.

Table 2-2 covers the permissible combinations of letters of identiffcation

and shows the signiffcance of

each such complete general identification.

In the use of the letters, or their combinations,the following rules and

instructions apply:

The

@ OU identifying letters shall in all casesbe written in upper case'

a TentatioeRecommendedPructice,InstrumentatianFIou PInn Syrnbola,ISA RPS,I,InstrumentSocietyof America.

2-l

2-2

Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals

(t tV

only exceptions ar^ethe optional 'pH";

in the combined ffrst letter

use of "d" and "r," and the use of

p,

as per footnotes of Tables 2-f and

o

o

2) The-maxirnum number of identifying letters in any combination shall

be t&CgC-Q).

symbols such as co,

letter.

The only exceptionii in the use oi

pH,"

or chemical

where the self-deffningpair is treated as a single

Table 2-1. Letters of Identiftcation

Definition, and permissible positions in any combination

Ifpper-cose

letter

First letter-

Second letter-

process variable

ot actuation

type reading or

other function

A

Alarm

c

Conductivity

Control

D

Density

E

Element

(primary)

F

Flow

G

Glass (no m:-asu.ement)

H

IIand

(octuated)

I

Indicating

L

f,evel

M

Moisture

P

Pressure

R

Dpee(l

Rccording-(recorder)

.it"r"

s

T

Temperature

v Viscosity

w Weight

Well

Third

letter-

additional

function

.tvole l:

when

required

procees variables:

the following

may be used optionally

as a first letter

for other

(1)

(2) Readily recognized self-defining chemical

:lA"

may be used to cover

all types of analyzing instruments.

symbors such as coz,

used for these specific analysis instruments.

oz, etc., may be

(3) The self-defining svmbol "pH"

lqP

z, Although

insert

not a preferred

a lower-case "r"

missibie to

lower-case "911 -uv

or pressure difference.

mav be used

for hydrogen-ion concentration.

procedure, when consid-erednccessary ii after

is per.

distinguish

flow

ratio.-

l,iku*i.",

to distinguish t"-p".u1,t.u

difference

be inserted after "T"

@ letter shall have only one deffnition or

A

@

a

signiffcancein its use as a

prqc"rg. varilble,

"ffrst" letter in any

A

ei,ther the "second" or the "third" letter in i combination. to deffne

letter shall have only one definition or signiffcaieVh,iffi"a us

combination, to deffne tli"

6\$sjY-,Pg-ol-d-"ype.

\fl.

,a

$f

It, is

19h:."

No

pariicularly

important in writing the combinations of letters to

to the sequenceof arrangement shown by Table 2-2.

hyphens shall be used between letters or combinations of letter$i

Symbols and Notations

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INSTRUMENTAIRLINES

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E(

.l

x-

EASICSYMBOL

3-WAY

gasrc sYM80L

FORPISTON-

EOOY

FORSAFETY

OPERATEOVALVE

(HYORAULIC OR

FORANY

VALVE

(RELIEF) VATVE

PNEUMATIC)

xr

EASICSYMBOL

EASICSYMBOL

EAStCSYM80tSHoWTNG

BASICSYMBOL

FORSELF-

FORMANUALLY

PNEUMAIICTRANSMISSION

SH0WINGPNEUiiIATIC

ACTUATED

( INIEGRALI

OPERATEO

INSIRUMENT ( ELECTRIC

CONNECIIONFROM

CONTROLVALVE

TRANSMISSIONSAME

INSTRUMENTTO

REGULATING

EXCEPTFORTYPEOF

DIAPHRAG[tMOTOR

VALVE

CONNECTION}

VALVE

Frc. 2-1.

Basicinstrumentationsymbols. (From ISA RP5.1. )

Speciffcldentiffcations, In most casesit will be necessaryto supplement the general identiffcation of an item by a numerical system, to establish its specific identity. Any system of item or serial numbers may be used, eonsistentwith the requirements of the user. The numbers may pertain only to the same kind of item within one processunit; or may be a com-

Symbols aiid. Notations

F_{lt

<

I

fi\

v_/

DISPLACEMENT- FLOWELEMENT (PRIMARYI

TYPEFLOWMETER

(WHEN NOMEASURING INSTRUMENIISPROVIDEO'

,-6-

-l-

2-5

arr\

\1,/

FLOWINDICATOR,

DIFFERENTIALTYPET

LOCALUMOUNTEO

FLOWRECORDER,

FLowRECoRDER,

OIFFERENTIALTYPE.

OFROTAMETER

MECHANTCALTRANSMtSSt0N,

OROTHER

LOCALLYMOUNTEO

IN-THE-LINE TYPE

a- LE

FLOWRECORDEF, PNEUMATICTRANSMISSION. TRANSTilITTERLOCAL, RECEIVERMOUNTEOON EOARD

FLOWRECORDER,MECHAITICALTYPE,FLOWRECOROERWIIH PRESSURE FLOWRECOROING WITHOIRECTCONNECTEDPRESSURE RECOROINGPEN,EOTHELEMENIS CONTROLLER.

RECOROINGPEN,LOCALLYMOUNIEO

( NOTETHATINLISIINGSUCHA COM- MIITERSLOCAL,ANDRECEIVER

BINATIONITEI\,IINSPECIFICATIONS, BOARDMOUNTED (RECEIVER SHOULD WITHRECEIVER

ETC.,ITWOULD8E WRITTENAS BEWRIITENASFR-s ANDPR-z,AND MOUNTEOONEOARD

FR-4 ANOPR-2,THEREEYTREAT- INGEACHETEMENIASSEPARATE ENTITY)

PNEUMATICTRANSMISSION,TRANS.

PNEUMATIC

TRANSMISSION

EACHTRANSMIITERIOENTIFIEO8Y

ANOLOCAL

IIS OWNELEMENT)

TRANSMITTER

Ftc. 2-2.

Typicalinstrumentationsymbolsfor flow.

(From ISA RP5.1.l

plete serial-number system for a plant or an organization. In any case the seriesof consecutivenumbers will be suitable for use with tlie general identifications. When used in written work, the number shall be placed after the letters, and separatedfrom them by a hyphen. For example, temperafure-record- ing controller,item numberone (1) , is written asTRC-I.

_ Applying the Identifications. The identifications, wherever possible, shall be used to identify a complete instrumentation application with all its components, instead of independent identiffcations being assigned to

2A Instnrmentation and'Control Fundamentat-.

the varrous pieces required.

of;irp)ying

The rules and instructions for this principle

identificationsare asfollows:

\!)

For combination instruments that measure more than one kind ol

one kind of function, each portion

of the combination shall have its own identiffcation. Components

variable, or that provide more than

@ T

\9,/

T

TEMPERATUREWELL

TEMPERATUREINDICATOR

ORTHERMOMETER(LOCAL)

W

TEMPERATUREELEMENT

WITHOUTCONNECTION

TOINSTRUMENT

+.--,

.<

(-L!-)

\:v

TEMPERATUREINDICATING

POINTCONNECTEDTO

MULTIPOINTINDICATOR

ONBOARD

/-

*@

C

TEMPERATUREINDICATING

ANDRECORDINGPOINT

CONNECTEDTOMULTIPOINT

INSTRUMENTSONBOARD

*1

A

--D<H

TEMPERATURERECORDING

CONTROLLER,BOARD

MOUNTED(ELECTRIC

MEASUREMENT)

TEMPERATUREINDICATING

TEMPERATURECONTROTLERTEVPERATURERECORDING

CONTROLLER.FILLED

OFSELF-ACTUATEDTYPE

C\ON{ROLLERANDTEMPERATURE

SYSTEMTYPE,

REG\ORDER,COMBINED

LOCALLYMOUNTED

INSTRIIMENTEOARDMOUNTEO

Frc.2-3. Typicalinstrumentationsymbolsfor temperature.(From ISA Rpi.I.)

pertaining to such a portion shall be identiffed accordingly, and the instrurnent or equipment common to both shall utilize both identfi,ca- tions. For example, a combination recorder for flow and pressure would be PR-l and FR-S. or point instruments with all points of the same gencral

@t"tdnte-pen

'Synbols

and Notatlons

2-'t

ELINDLEVELCONTROLLER.

INTERI'lALTYPE

GAGEGLASS

LEVELRECORDER.PNEUMATIC

TRANSMISSION,WITHEOARD

MOUNTEORECEIVER.

EXTERNALTYPETRANSMITTER

LEVELINDICATINGCONTROLLER

ANDTRANSMITTERCOMBINED

IVITHBOAROMOUNTEDLEVEL

INDICATINGRECEIVER

LEVELRECoRD|NGCoNTRoLLER,

EXTERNALTYPE.

PNEUMATICTRANSMISSION

t

lJ."\

tl\v

=

ltui""httTJ[t

LEVELRECORDINGCONTROLLERANDLEVEL

RECOROER,PNEUMATICTRANSMISSION

COMBINEDRECEIVEREOARDMOUNTED

Frc. 2-4,

Typicalinstrumentations1'rnbolsfor level.

(From ISA RP5,1.)

service,and all providing the samefunctions, shall have one identiffca- tion. The separateelementsand their componentsshall be identiffed by suffix numbers added to the number of the item: e.g., TR-1-1, TR-I-2, etc.

.{pj ' For remote-transmissioninstruments both the receiver and the trans-

mitter shall have the sameidentiffcations,in agreementwith the over- all serviceand function of the item.

.r.

2-8

Instrumentation

and Control

Fundamentals

@.

f"*

instrument ny *ni"l'

control valve shall

ii

have the same identification as the control is a"tuated' Where more than one valve is

actuatedbythe,u,""co"ttoller,theyshallbeidentifiedbysuffixletters

-6-

addedtotherwmbetoftheitem:e'g''TRC-1a'TRC-1b'etc'

16-

PRESSUREtNDICAToF,

PRESSURERECoR0ERI

LOCALLYMOUNTED

EOARDMOUNTED

PRESSURERECOROITIG

PRESSURE

GONTROLLER, PNEUMATIC

TRA|SMrsslotl,WlrH

AtARII

LOCAL

BOARO]{OUiTTEDRECEIVER

2.PENPRESSURERECORDER'

BOAROMOUNTED,I-PEN

PNEUIilATICTRANSMISSION

SELF-ACTUATEO (II{TEGRAL)

PRESSUREREGULATII{G VALVE

PRESSURE C0NTRoLLER,

ELINOTYPE. (SHOII

CONTROLLER DIRECTTY

ABOVEDIAPHRAOM IF SO

'piii-uir-lir

PRESSURE

RECORDING

c inansmIss|0N ;

CONTROLLER

(DITFERENTTALI'

vrlTHPREssuRE SEcoRDER)

COMBINED INSTRUMENTSOARO MOUNTED

ilouNTE0)

Frc. 2-5.

Typical instrumentation symbols for pressure'

(From

ISA RPSJ')

where

accessories such as

identiffcation,

valve positioners, air sets,switches, relays'

silall be assignedthe same identifica-

which they connect or with which they are

1"q"""

they

"i"., tion as the instrument to

used.

Symbols and Notations

2-9

(6 Frimary '

-

measuring elementsshall be assignedthe sameidentiffcations

as the instruments to which they connect. Where an element does not connect to any instrument, such isolated item (only) shall be assigned separate primary-element identification. Where more than

/6t

\t

HANDACTUATEDPNEUMATIC

c0N0ucTrvlTYREc0RDER,

pH RECoR0ING

CONIROLLER,SOARDMOUNTED,

LOCALLYilOUNTEO

CONTROLLER,

WITHINOICATION

BOARDMOUNIED

 

(CONVEYOR SELT}

SPEEORECORDER,

WEIGHTRECORDERI

vrscosrTYREcoRDER,

LOCALLYITOUNTEO

LOCALLYIilOUI{TED

PNEUMATTCTRANSMtSS|0I{,

EOARDMOUNTED. (ELEIIEt{T INSAMPLEFLOV{LINEI

+

-

-t!!r-

4

re@

t

DENSITYREC0RDER,

lil0lSTUREREC0RDER'

PNEUMATICTRAI'ISMISSION,

LOCALLYMOUNTED

BOARDMOUNTED. (ELEMENT

DENSITYCONTROLLER

II'I SAMPLEFLOIVLINE)

BLINO,INTERNAL

ELEMENTTYPE

Frc. 2-6.

Typical

instrumentation symbols-miscellaneous.

(From

ISA nPs.l.)

one element connectsto the same instrument they shall be identiffed

by suffix numbers after the item number, in agreementwith numbersof the instrument to which they connect.

The symbolsto be used to show instrumentation on flow plans

t}le point

Symbols.

and other drawings are illustrated in Figs. 2-I to 2-7, inclusive'

Figure

2-f0

InsBumentatlon and Conhol Fundanontah

2-I covers tho basie piotorlal symbols required. The remainder of tho drawings show tlpicai symbols, complete with identifications, covering the difrerent processvariables and types of equipment that are most likely to be encountered. All others shall be drawn by use of t}le basic pictorial

[

*

Uffi,

TEMPERATURERECoRDTNGCoNTRoLLER,

B0AR0MouNTE0,RESETT|NcLoCALLY

IIIOUNTEDFLOWINOICATINGCONTROLLER 0'r0TETHAT "c0NTRoL sETTtilG'sHouL0 8E SHOWI{ALONGSIOEAIRLIiIETO

r]{DtcaTEcAscA0EcoilTRotl

FLOWRECORDINGCONTROLLERWITI{

LEVELRECORO,EOTHELEMEI{TS

PNEUMATICTRAI{SITISSION, LEVEL

TRANSMITTERTXTTRNALTYPE.

COMSIIIEORECTIVERBOARDMOUNTED

Frc.

PRESSURERECORDIiIGCOT,ITROLLER PRESSURERECOROINGCONTROLLER,BOARD

v{lTHFLOvfREC0RD.l0TH ELEMENTS PNEUI'ATICTRANSMISSION.COMSINED

RECEIVER80ARDl,l0UNTED

M0UNTEqRESETTINGLOCALLYlllOUNIEO

FIOWRECOROIN6CONTROLTERS

2-7.

Typical

instrumentation

symbols

for

rsARPs.r.)

combined

instruments.

(From

symbols of Fig. 2-l

pertain to the useof the symbols:

with

the proper identiffcations.

The following notes

1. The circle, generally approximately IAt in. in diameter, is used to depict instruments proper and most ot-herinstrumentation items. It is also used as a "fla{' to encloseidentiftcations and point out items such as valves which have their own pictorial symbol. Optionally

2.

8.

Automatic.controlTerminolog;r':.

2-ll

such items may have their identiffcation written alongside the pictorial symbol, and the circle for "fagging" omitted.

It is generally unnecessaryto repeat the identiffcation for transmitter,

control valve, primary element, etc., as they are determined by their

Where such components are

shown at a remote distance or on a separate sheet, a note of the

identiffcation may be added alongside the pictorial line symbol.

A brief explanatory notation may be added alongside a sy-rnbolif

considerednecessaryto clarify the function or pulpose of an item. A few such notes are easier to apply and use than a great variety of more complicated symbols.

connecting

connection to the instrument proper.

or

AUTOMATIC-CONTROLTERMINOLOGY

Understanding the languageof tle power controlsengineeris a necessary

prerequisite to

control terminology has been dificult, Iargely becauseengineersoften use severalterms to refer to the sameconhol phenomenon, Recent publication of ASME Standard 105, "Automatic Control Ter-

minology," by the Instruments and Regulators Division of the American

Society of Mechanical Engineers,standardizescommonly used control terms

and represents accepted practice.

applies to instrumentaUonand controls, is summarized in Table 2-8.

understanding control fundamentals.

Standardization of

Terminology of this publication, as it

Table

2-3. Automatic.control

Terminolog;r+

+Ln autonatic controller is a device which measuree the value of a variable quantity ou condition and operates to correct or limit deviation of this measured value from a selectedreference.

An

automatic

controller

includes

both

the

measuring

means and

the

controlling

means. True automatic-control

systems always contain oue or more feedback loops, at

least one of which includes both the '<

An

automatic-control

automatic controller and the process.