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The sediment concentration in the river flow has great effects on the abrasion phenomena in the

turbines of a hydropower project. Greater concentration of sediments in the rated flow results in
higher rates of abrasion of turbine blades and accessories. This results in loss of efficiency of
turbines, thereby the loss of power and energy requiring frequent repair and replacement of
turbines.

Because of the variation in rainfall, vegetation, as well as geomorphology, the runoff varies
accordingly, resulting in variation of sediment concentration according to the seasons of the year,
with the concentration being higher during the monsoon and quite low during the rest part of the
year. As the catchment characteristics differ from one tributary to the other, the sediment
concentration usually varies along the stretch of the same river. In general, the sediment
concentration is low in the upper part of the catchment of the Nepalese rivers (except for
catchment with Tibetan Tethys formation) due to the availability of higher Himalayan crystalline
rock mass. As the geology of the lesser Himalayas and Siwalik is less competent and more fragile
compared to that in the Higher Himalayan settings, the sediment concentration gradually
increases towards mid-hill and Terai.