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Padri War, (1821–37), armed conflict in Minangkabau (Sumatra) between reformist Muslims,

known as Padris, and local chieftains assisted by the Dutch. In the early 19th century the puritan
Wahhābīyah sect of Islām spread to Sumatra, brought by pilgrims who entered the island
through Pedir, a northern port. The Padris, as these Sumatran converts to Wahhābīyah came to
be known, objected to local institutions that were not in accordance with the pure teaching of
Islām. This jeopardized the power of the local chiefs, whose authority was based on adat, or
customary law. In the ensuing conflict between the Padris and local chiefs, the Padris, using
Bondjol as their base, launched guerrilla war against the chiefs. The Dutch, afraid of the
influence of the Muslim reformists, sided with the chiefs but were still engaged in the Java War
(1825–30) and thus unable to send troops to crush the Padris until the end of that war. Tuanku
Imam Bondjol, the leader of the Padris, surrendered to the Dutch in 1832 but soon renewed his
rebellion. The war continued until 1837, when the Dutch seized Bondjol. The war allowed the
Dutch to extend their control into the interior regions of Sumatra.

The proclamation of Indonesian independence

The proclamation of Indonesian independence was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August
1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed resistance of the
Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands and pro-Dutch
civilians, until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia's independence in 1949. In 2005, the
Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept de facto 17 August 1945 as Indonesia's
independence date. In a 2013 interview the Indonesian historian Sukotjo, amongst others, asked
the Dutch government to formally acknowledge the date of independence as 17 August 1945.
The United Nations, who mediated in the conflict, formally acknowledge the date of
independence as 27 December 1949.
The document was signed by Sukarno (who signed his name "Soekarno" using the older Dutch
orthography) and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed president and vice-president
respectively the following day.

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of 16 August, by Sukarno, Hatta,
and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi's house, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta (now
the "Museum of the Declaration of Independence", JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta). The original
Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik. Maeda himself was sleeping
in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia's independence, and had lent his
house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader
in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against
Indonesia's independence, scheduled for 24 August.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that
matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was
brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional
surrender to the Allies on 15 August following the Nagasaki atomic bombing. The historic event
was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and
Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Sukarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately.
The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for
Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation's diversity. The
particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of
Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned
earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be defunct
Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue. Instead, the radical activists
demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All parties
involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included
Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers in the name of the nation of Indonesia.

Sukarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the
centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of
Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Sukarno's house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. There
was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered
to the Allies, The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.

The proclamation at 56, Jalan Pegangsaan Timur, Jakarta, was heard throughout the country
because the text was secretly broadcast by Indonesian radio personnel using the transmitters of
the JAKARTA Hoso Kyoku radio station. An English translation of the proclamation was
broadcast overseas.
The Spanish Armada

In May 1588 Spain was the most powerful country in the world. King Philip II of Spain
was determined to conquer England and became its King. He ordered a large number of ships to
be prepared to set sail and invade England.
At first Queen Elizabeth I ignored the rumors of a Spanish invasion, but soon she came to
realize the great danger the country was in and she made sure that England would be prepared
for a battle. Eventually the Spanish were ready and over 100 ships set sail towards the English
Channel.
As soon as the Spanish ships were seen from the English coast, fire were lit on the hills as
a signal that the invasion was coming. When the Spanish ships got close enough the English
navy closed in and great sea battle began.
Once the battle began it was obvious to the Spanish that they would be defeated. Not only
did the English sailors have stronger and more powerful ships, they also made terrifying use of
fire ship-boats which were deliberately set ablaze and then sent amongst the Spanish fleet.
At last the battle was over. A few Spanish ships escaped and eventually reached home,
and many were sunk and to this day some of their wrecks still lie on the seabed in the English
channel.

5. What is the text about?


a. The battle between Spanish and England d. the great danger for England
b. The power of the Spanish armada e. the lose of the Spanish Armada from England
c. The power of the England armada

6. What did Queen Elizabeth do when she realized the great danger for her country?
a. Prepare the English armada for a battle
b. Lit fires on the hills as a signal for the battle
c. Instructed the English Navy to hide behind the hills
d. d. instructed the English Navy to get back
e. Instructed the English navy closed

7. What did the English soldiers do when they saw the Spanish ships?
a. Prepare the English armada for a battle d. they got back
b. Lit fires on the hills as a signal for the battle e. they asked the Queen to surrender
c. hide behind the hills

8. “…to be prepared to set sail and invade England.” (Paragraph 1). What is the synonym of the
underlined word?
a. interact b. attack c. instruct d. infiltrate e. invent
Rengasdengklok
On August 14,1945, Japan surrended unconditionally to the Allies. The news was kept
secret by the Japanese army in Indonesia, but Sutan Syahrir, the youth of Indonesia, knew it
through the BBC Radio Broadcasts in London on August 15,1945. At the same time, Ir. Soekarno
and Drs. Moh Hatta returned to the Indonesia from Saigon, Vietnam.
On August 15, at 8 p.m., under the leadership of Chairul Saleh, younger groups and older
groups gathered in the backroom Bacteriologi Laboratory which located in Jalan Pegangsaaan
Timur number 13, Jakarta. The younger group argued that Indonesia must declared their
independence immediately. But the older group didn’t agree that. Because of that, independence
should be discussed on PPKI meeting on August 18, 1945.
Because there was a different opinion between older groups and younger groups, younger
groups brought Soekarno and Hatta to Rengasdengklok in early morning of August 16, 1945.
Rengasdengklok was chosen because it was located away from Jakarta. Yonger groups tried to
push Soekarno and Hatta to declare Indonesia Independence
After had a long discussion, Soekarno was willing to declare it after returning to Jakarta. At
that moment in Jakarta, Wikana from younger groups and Ahmad Soebarjo from older groups
made a negotiations. The results was that the declaration of Indonesia Independence should be
held in Jakarta. In addition, Tadashi Maeda allowed his place for negotiations and he was willing
to guarantee their safety. Finally, Soekarno and Hatta were picked from Rengasdengklok.
Text of Proclamation of Indonesia Independence formulated by Soekarno, Hatta, and Ahmad
Subarjo. Once the text was completed and approved, Sajuti Melik then copied and typed the
manuscript used a typewriter.
At first Proclamation of Indonesia Independence would be read at Ikala Field. But looked at
the road to the Ikada Field was guarded by japanese army. Finally they moved to residence of
Soekarno at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur number 56 Jakarta.
On the day of Friday, August 17 1945, Soekarno read the Proclamation of Indonesia
Independence text and then connected with a short speech without text. After that, Latif Hendra
Ningrat and Soehoed was fluttering the flag which had sewn by Mrs. Fatmawati. Then audience
sang Indonesia Raya song together. Finally the proclamtion was heard throughout the country.

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August
1945.
The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed resistance of the Indonesian
National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands and pro-Dutch civilians, until
the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia’s independence in 1949. The Netherlands declared
that they had decided to accept de facto 17 August 1945 as Indonesia’s independence date. The
United Nations, who mediated in the conflict, formally acknowledge the date of independence as
27 December 1949.
The document was signed by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed president
and vice-president respectively the following day.

Bandung as Sea of Fire

Bandung as Sea of Fire was a fire that occurred in the city of Bandung on March 24, 1946.
Within seven hours, about 200,000 residents of Bandung burned their homes.
• British troops as part of the Brigade MacDonald arrived in Bandung on October 12, 1945.
Bandung was deliberately burned by TRI and local people. There were black smoke billowing
high into the air everywhere. The British Army began to attack so fierce. The greatest battle
happened in the Village name Dayeuh Kolot, in South Bandung, where there were a large
ammunition depot belonging to British. In this battle, Barisan Rakyat Indonesia destroyed the
ammunition depot

The strategy to fire Bandung was considered because the power of TRI and people’s militia was
not comparable to the British forces and NICA. This incident inspired to create the famous song
“Halo, Halo Bandung”.

General Offensive of 1 March 1949

The Dutch launched a military offensive on 19 December 1948 which it termed Operation Crow.
By the following day it had conquered the city of Yogyakarta, the location of the temporary
Republican capital. By the end of December, all major Republican held cities in Java and Sumatra
were in Dutch hands.
The Republican President, Vice-President, and all but six Republic of Indonesia ministers were
captured by Dutch troops and exiled on Bangka Island off the east coast of Sumatra.
In areas surrounding Yogyakarta and Surakarta, Republican forces refused to surrender and
continued to wage a guerrilla war under the leadership of Republican military chief of staff
General Sudirman who had escaped the Dutch offensives. An emergency Republican
government, was established in West Sumatra.
On March 1, 1949 at 6 am, Republican forces launched March 1 General Offensive. The Offensive
caught the Dutch by surprise. For his part, Hamengkubuwono IX allowed his palace to be used
as a hide out for the troops. For 6 hours, the Indonesian troops had control of Yogyakarta before
finally retreating.
The Offensive was a moral and diplomatic success, inspiring demoralised troops all around
Indonesia, as well as proving to the United Nations that the Indonesian army still existed and
were capable of fighting. On the other hand, the offensive had demoralized the Dutch forces,
because they never thought that Indonesian forces could assault and control the city, even for a
few hours.

The Battle of Ambarawa

The Battle of Ambarawa was a battle between the recently created Indonesian Army and the
British Army that occurred between 20 October and 15 December 1945 in Ambarawa,
Indonesia.
On 20 October 1945, Allied troops under the command of Brigadier Bethell landed in Semarang
to disarm Japanese troops. Initially, the troops were welcomed in the area, with Central Java’s
governor Wongsonegoro agreeing to provide them with food and other necessities in return for
the Allies’ promise to respect Indonesia’s sovereignty and independence.
However, when Allied and NICA troops began freeing and arming freed Dutch POWs in
Ambarawa and Magelang, many locals were angered. Indonesian troops under the command of
Lieutenant Colonel M. Sarbini began besieging Allied troops stationed in Magelang in reprisal
for their attempted disarmament.
On the morning of 23 November 1945, Indonesian troops began firing on Allied troops stationed
in Ambarawa. A counterattack by the Allies forced the Indonesian Army to retreat to the village
of Bedono.
On 11 December 1945, Soedirman held a meeting with various commanders of the Indonesian
Army. The next day at 4:30 AM, the Indonesian Army launched an assault on the Allies in
Ambarawa. Indonesian artillery pounded Allied positions, which were later overrun by infantry.
When the Semarang-Ambarawa highway was captured by Indonesian troops, Soedirman
immediately ordered his forces to cut off the supply routes of the remaining Allied troops by
using a pincer maneuver.
The battle ended four days later on 15 December 1945, when Indonesia succeeded in regaining
control over Ambarawa and the Allies retreated to Semarang.

The Java War or Diponegoro War was fought in central Java from 1825 to 1830, between the
colonial Dutch Empire and native Javanese rebels. It started as a rebellion led by Prince
Diponegoro, a leading member of the Javanese aristocracy who had previously cooperated with
the Dutch.

The proximate cause was the Dutch decision to build a road across a piece of Diponegoro's
property that contained his parents' tomb.

The rebel forces were held up by a siege at Yogyakarta, preventing them from gaining a quick
victory. This allowed the Dutch to raise and ship in new troops. The rebels adopted guerilla
tactics and held out against Dutch forces for several years.

The war ended in Dutch victory when Diponegoro was invited to a peace conference, then
betrayed and captured. Prompted by the cost of the war, the Dutch colonial authorities
implemented major reforms throughout the Dutch East Indies to ensure the colonies were
profitable.

The rebellion finally ended in 1830, after Prince Diponegoro was tricked into entering Dutch
controlled territory near Magelang, believing he was there for negotiations for a possible cease-
fire. He was captured through treachery and exiled to Manado and then to Makassar, where he
died in 1855.

"Sumpah Pemuda"
The idea of organizing the Second Youth Congress Student Association Students from Indonesia
(PPPI), a student-member youth organizations from all over Indonesia. On the initiative of GN,
the congress was organized in three different buildings and is divided in three meetings.
Resulting in the Youth Pledge.

First meeting, Katholieke Jongenlingen Building Bond


The first meeting, Saturday, October 27, 1928, at the Katholieke Jongenlingen Building Bond
(GOC), Bull Field. In his speech, Soegondo hope the conference will strengthen the spirit of unity
in the hearts of the youth. The event continued with a description of the meaning and Jamin
Moehammad union relationships with youth. According to him, there are five factors that can
strengthen the unity of Indonesia that is history, languages, customary law, education, and
willingness.

Second Meeting, Building Oost-Java Bioscoop


The second meeting, Sunday, October 28, 1928, in Building Oost-Java Bioscoop, discuss
education issues. The second speaker, and Sarmidi Poernomowoelan Mangoensarkoro, agrees
that children should be educated nationality, must also be a balance between education at
school and at home. Children also should be educated in a democratic manner.

Third Meeting, Building Indonesisch Huis Kramat


At the next session, Soenario explains the importance of nationalism and democracy in addition
to scouting movement. While Ramelan argues, scouting movement can not be separated from
the national movement. Scouting movement since the early to educate children and self-
discipline, the things that are needed in the struggle.

Before the congress closes played the song "Indonesia" by Wage Rudolf Supratman. The song
was greeted with a very festive by congress participants. Congress closed with a statement
announcing the results of the congress. By the youth in attendance, the formula is pronounced
as Faithful Oath, reads: