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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Water plays an important role in many natural processes and is essential in

countless physical and chemical reactions. Water is essential to all living organisms.

Since the water in our bodies is continually being used or lost, it needs to be continually

replaced. Access to safe drinking water is essential for human survival and one of the

fundamentals for a good and prosperous society. This was officially recognized

internationally 28th of July 2010 when the UN General Assembly declared, “the right to

safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full

enjoyment of life and all human rights” (UN Human Right Council, 2011).

Sources of safe water is essential for every human being, drinking safe water

prevents humans and other animals from dehydration, deadly diseases and other

environmental effects. There are many sources of potable water including underground

reservoirs, rivers and lakes but these sources of water is crucial because of livestock

waste, human sewage, chemicals, and other contaminants that can lead to illness when

used for drinking, bathing, and other hygiene activities. The development of technologies

for the provision of clean and plentiful supplies of potable water has been a central

feature of successful civilizations.

Jetmatic pump is a small jet of steam, air, water, or other fluid in rapid motion

lifts or otherwise moves by its impulse. It is mainly used for household water supply

from a well, driven point system, or open water source which is powered by electricity
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that can be converted into potable water, while Prime Water has a branch in Camiling,

Tarlac serves as the water distributor located in the place. This water is process with basic

filtration techniques like flocculation, which adds chemicals to the water to get particles

to thicken and float so that they can be removed, sand filtration which filters out large

pieces of debris or chlorination which adds chlorine to kill bacteria and microorganisms.

Despite tap water being considered drinkable by the EPA, it can lead to numerous

problems. For one, chlorine is not ideal for human consumption while our bodies can

technically handle it, chlorine can lead to a variety of health complications and

is potentially carcinogenic (leads to cancer). There is also a risk of lead in tap water due

to lead being present in the pipes that bring tap water to your home.

The World Health Organization (WHO) and various national agencies have

drinking water quality standards that specify the acceptable microbial, chemical, and

radiological characteristics of safe drinking water.

This study will comprehend which water source between jetmatic pump and

Prime Water is more reliable. This is to help the Prime Water consumers and jetmatic

pump users improve their usage of water source. The researchers aim to get the

information that are needed to satisfy the contents of this study.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to compare and contrast which technology is better in producing

potable water; a water from a jetmatic pump or from Prime Water.

Specifically, it’s sought to answer the questions:

1. How may be the properties of water sources are described in terms of:
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1.1 pH level;

1.2 apparent color;

1.3 turbidity;

1.4 total dissolved solids;

1.5 nitrate;

1.6 lead;

1.7 cadmium;

1.8 arsenic;

1.9 taste;

1.10 odor; and

1.11 disinfectant residual?

2. How does the selection use these sources in terms of domestic activities?

3. What are the problems that the selections have acquired in using the water

sources in terms of:

3.1 water quality; and

3.2 waterborne diseases?

4. Is there a significant difference between water from a jetmatic pump and

commercialized water?
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Objectives of the Study

This study aimed to compare the water coming from a jetmatic pump and water

that comes from Prime Water. This is to know which technology is better in producing

water.

The specific objectives are as follows:

1. To determine the properties of water sources in terms of pH level, apparent

color, turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrate, lead, cadmium, arsenic, taste, odor,

disinfectant residual;

2. To determine if the selection use these sources in terms of domestic activities.

3. To determine the problems that the selections have acquired in using the water

sources in terms of water quality, waterborne diseases; and

4. To determine if there is a significance between water from a jetmatic tank and

commercialized water.

Significance of the Study

This study gives the readers knowledge and understanding about the water from a

jetmatic pump and water coming from Prime Water which will benefit the users of

jetmatic pump, Prime Water, Prime Water consumers, future researchers, and possible

significance of the study might show up in the conduct of the study and be included in the

final draft of the paper.

Jetmatic Users. This study will help the jetmatic pump users have a deeper

knowledge about the source of water they are using, its benefits, and to know the positive

and negative features of the water they are using.


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Prime Water. This study will give the company additional information on the

water they are providing for the people and may help them to improve the quality of their

water.

Prime Water Consumers. This study will help the consumers of Prime Water to

have more knowledge about the water source they are using, its benefits to them, and to

know the positive and negative features of their water.

Future Researchers. This study will be their guide in accomplishing their

research that is connected to our topic. It can give them information and background of

the topic that will be needed for their research that has something to do with our topic.

Definition of Terms

This section will help the readers to further comprehend this study by defining

terms that is not common.

Apparent Color. This refers to the color of the whole water sample and consists

of color from both dissolved and suspended components.

Commercialized Water. It is the water distributed by a water company to its

consumers in an area. It is the water distributed by the company Prime water to its

consumers in Camiling, Tarlac.

Domestic Activities. It is concerned with the running of a home and family. It is

the activities that involve doing household chores.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA seeks to protect and

conserve the natural environment and improve the health of humans by researching the

effects of and mandating limits on the use of pollutants. The EPA regulates the
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manufacturing, processing, distribution and use of chemicals and other pollutants. In

addition, the EPA is charged with determining safe tolerance levels for chemicals and

other pollutants in food, animal feed and water.

Jetmatic Pump. It refers to a small jet of steam, air, water, or other fluid in

rapid motion lifts or otherwise moves by its impulse. It is mainly used for household

water supply from a well, driven point system, or open water source which is powered by

electricity that can be converted into potable water.

Jetmatic Users. It is the people who use jetmatic technology as their source of

water.

MDL. It is the Method Detection Limit of an apparatus/machine or a method.

pH (Power of Hydrogen) Level. It is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The

range goes from 0 - 14, with 7 being neutral. It determines the amount that can be

dissolved in the water and biological availability of chemical constituents such as

nutrients and heavy metals.

Physicochemical Analysis. It is a method of investigating the physical and

chemical property of the water through different methods inside a laboratory. It is also

known as Physical & Chemical Analysis.

PNSDW. It is the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water, Department

of Health Administrative Order 2017-0010. It is the standard limit of the parameters for

drinking water.

Potable Water. It is water that is safe enough to be consumed by humans with a

minimal risk of short-term or long-term harm. Typical uses of potable water are drinking,

cooking, washing, toilet flushing and farm irrigation.


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Prime Water Consumers. It is the person who pays to Prime Water for their

service of water. It is the people who have Prime Water as their source of water.

Tap Water. It is water supplied to a tap/valve. It is the water that comes out of

the taps in a building that are connected to the main supply of the local water system.

Turbidity. This is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its

transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates. The more total suspended

solids in the water, the murkier it seems and the higher the turbidity.

Waterborne Diseases. It is the diseases that are caused by drinking contaminated

or dirty water.

Water Quality. It is the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological

characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the

requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.
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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Reviewing related literature and studies has a beneficial purpose for it gives the

researchers and those who will read the chapter new insights and concepts. This chapter

presents the readings, journals, articles and studies which have bearing on the study.

Related Literature

A. Foreign

The most important cause of secondary contamination of water introduced into

the distribution network from the treatment plant is the lack of its biological and chemical

stability. However, there are conditions enhancing bacterial growth and sedimentation

dissolution in stable drinking water. The following physicochemical indices were

determined in tap water: free chlorine, color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, iron, aluminum,

sodium, ammonium ion, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ∑ chlorates(V) and chlorates

(III), fluorides, chlorides, nitrates(III), nitrates(V), phosphates(V), sulphates (VI), copper,

total organic carbon, total trihalomethanes. (Jachimowski,2017)

As stated by Katore et al. (2017), treatment for drinking water production

involves the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce water that is pure

enough for human consumption without any short term or long term risk of any adverse

health effect.

According to Conn (2016), access to clean drinking water is one of the basic

necessities of life. For many U.S. trasvelers, a trip abroad may be the first time they’ve
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had to think about the safety of their drinking water. In some places, it’s as simple as

grabbing a cup, turning on the tap, and gulping it down. In others, you need to be careful

not to let a drop touch your lips. Contaminated drinking water is most commonly

swimming with bacteria, such as salmonella, cholera, and E. coli. That glass of tap water

may also include protozoa (giardia and cryptosporidium) and viruses (hepatitis A and

norovirus.) In some countries where older buildings and decaying plumbing are common,

water may pick up chemical contaminants as it runs through damaged pipes leading to the

tap. It’s true that residents become accustomed to the water in their home towns so they

may not have as many problems drinking tap water as tourists do. However, in some

places such as southern Mexico on the Yucatan Peninsula, no one drinks the water

because it’s contaminated.

As stated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2015), water is essential

for human health and well-being, all types of ecosystems, and a robust economy. The

production of many goods and services, such as agriculture, energy, manufacturing,

transportation, fishing, and tourism, depends on the availability and quality of water.

Humans and many animals and plants depend on available sources of freshwater, which

are surprisingly miniscule—0.007 percent—compared with the total amount of Earth’s

water. These sources are continually in flux, changing biologically, chemically, and

geologically. As the movement of water through the hydrologic cycle is continually

dynamic, so too are the changing spatial and temporal demands on water quantity and

quality for various uses.

Tap water is potable water delivered directly to the user (households, businesses,

public buildings, etc.). It is transported by a pipeline network from its collection point
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(source, drilling, river, etc.) to users of taps. Most often, this water is made potable by a

treatment center and disinfection, and then stored in one or more reservoirs waiting to be

consumed. The quality of tap water is highly regulated and subject to numerous health

checks, in developed countries. It most often comes from a groundwater, river, or simply

an apparent source and undergoes numerous treatments before reaching the consumer. In

some areas, it comes from desalination. (Achour, 2015)

According to Nayebare et al. (2014), potable water quality is negatively affected

by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural

pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains.

It is a generally accepted fact that the developed countries suffer from problems

of chemical discharge into the water sources mainly groundwater, while developing

countries face problems of agricultural run-off in water sources. All of the chemicals

generated by man will eventually end up in our water supplies. These dangerous products

from industry, agriculture and other human activities enter the rivers, lakes, and

underground water and can contaminate our drinking water. Although pH usually has no

direct impact on consumers, it is one of the most important operational water-quality

parameters. (Mandour, 2012)

As stated by Cho (2011), a recent science advisory panel report examined the

potential human health implications of chemicals of emerging concern such as

pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and industrial chemicals, in recycled water. The scientists

reviewed epidemiological and other studies of recycled water from the last 40 years.

While some early studies reported the presence of chlorine disinfection byproducts, the

panel noted that treatment methods at that time were less sophisticated. Current methods
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have been refined and disinfection byproducts have decreased. More recent studies of

recycled water found no adverse health effects in populations using recycled water.

Though the scientists acknowledged that the effects of long-term exposure to chemicals

of emerging concern and to substances that have not yet been detected are unknown, they

concluded that there was robust evidence that recycled water represents a source of safe

drinking water.

With increasing population growth and changing weather patterns due to the

effects of climate change, the need to find additional and alternative sources of water is

more pressing than ever on a global scale. Alternative sources of water are those which

have not been significantly exploited yet, due to the need for advanced technology to

remove organic and inorganic pollutants and toxins. Opportunities for increasing

environmental sustainability can be overlooked by concentrating on the separate

applications of water and wastewater treatment without considering the whole

hydrological cycle, which needs to be managed in an integrated manner so we avoid

focusing on these disciplines as if they were unrelated subjects. However, the benefits of

utilizing alternative water sources, identified by Durham, have become better understood

over the last decade. (Bennett, 2011)

As stated by the Apec Water (n.d.), one of the factors that influence the quality of

water is the runoff from urban areas. It will collect debris littering the streets and take it

to the receiving stream or water body. Urban runoff worsens the water quality in rivers

and lakes by increasing the concentrations of such substances as nutrients (phosphorus

and nitrogen), sediments, animal wastes (fecal coliform and pathogens), petroleum

products, and road salts. Good quality drinking water is not easy to produce given all the
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possible interference from the environment and man-made impediments. Good drinking

water is free from disease-causing organisms, harmful chemical substances, and

radioactive matter. It tastes good, is aesthetically appealing, and is free from

objectionable color or odor. The guidelines for drinking water quality specify limits for

substances and describe conditions that affect drinking water quality.

Pollutants from agricultural and urban run-off and drainage water from mining

activities can impact water quality. In many agricultural areas, fertilizers infiltrate

aquifers and contaminate the water supply. The International Atomic Energy Agency

contributes to water security by running models on water remediation times under

different nitrate input scenarios. It also studies links between nutrient loadings,

eutrophication (excessive nutrient levels) and the increased frequency and intensity in

freshwater harmful algal bloom outbreaks. Heightened concentrations of trace elements

in groundwater have emerged as a major public health issue in many countries. This

includes for example higher levels of arsenic in the groundwater. (International Atomic

Energy Agency, n.d.)

B. Local

According to Yasar (2011), his study attempt to investigate the quality of drinking

water used by community and their perception towards water quality. Water samples

were collected from hand pump, motor pump and tube well. Totally 160 households were

surveyed to check their perception against drinking water quality. The results showed the

values of bacteriological parameter fecal coliform were above WHO guidelines which
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made water unfit for drinking purposes. The community was unaware of the quality of

water they were drinking.

Price, quality, and accessibility considerations influence water use and water

service delivery in the two sites; Household users at best may be willing to pay only a

small amount for the improvement of their potable water; Institutional problems are

among the most important issues constraining service delivery of potable water in the two

sites in addition to other concerns; and Immediate action, therefore, needs to be done to

address institutional and other issues if the two sites, as well as similarly situated local

sites in the country, are to meet national and MDG targets in local potable water service

delivery. (Israel, 2009)

As stated by Israel (2009), the price, quality, and accessibility of potable water

were major factors influencing households in their choice of water source. Furthermore, it

asserted that there were key issues and challenges facing local water service delivery

most of which were institutional in nature. Based on the results, findings, and conclusions

of the national review and case analysis, the study suggested some recommendations

intended for the further development of local service delivery of potable water nationally,

in the case study sites and in other local areas.

Related Study

A. Foreign

According to Verangel and Erenea (2016) the water from free-flowing source was

used by majority of households for drinking. Residents that do not get water from this

source preferred an alternative from privately-owned jetmatic pump, water district, or


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refilling stations. One particular source was contaminated with fecal coliform making it

unfit to drink. The aim of assessing the utilization and quality of groundwater will

maintain its vital existence require an integrated water resources management framework

to educate the community that focuses on proper water conservation, sanitation, and

environmental awareness. The participation of government agencies are also encouraged

to conduct periodic monitoring of water quality and protection of water resource by

strong implementation of environmental laws.

In present study six different sites were selected for water collection and analyze.

From analysis which show fluctuation in all parameters in study duration. The pH values

of all sample noted from 7.0 to 7.7 which indicate neutral pH of sample however all

sample were within limit that is 6.5 to 8.5 as per World Health Organization std. (1989).

pH values of water quality which depends on the carbonate, bicarbonate. Electric

conductivity is parameter for dissolved organic substance. E.C. is the ability of an

aqueous solution to carry out electric current E.C. is useful parameter for indicating

salinity hazards. Variation in electrical conductivity was recorded in all samples. All the

selected sites showed E.C. within limit. i.e. 300us/centimeters TDS varied from 110 to

280 mg/liters. All the sites show TDS within limit i.e. 1000 mg/liters and TSS in all sites

is within limit i.e. 500mg/lit. TDS is important parameter which depends on the presence

of different particulate matter in the water. (Sonal et al., 2014)

As stated by Wright et al.,(2012), reveals that in low and middle income

countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of

household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources.

However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered
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temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to

explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with

disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. This repeated cross-

sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual

nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question

about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were

examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between

perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply

characteristics, and socioeconomic and demographic household characteristics was

explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. The results

suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in

South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera

outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety

in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odor, and

clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. This suggests that

household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to

those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public

perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera

outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

According to Yasar (2011), to investigate the quality of drinking water used by a

community and their perception towards water quality, water samples were collected

from hand pump, motor pump and tube well. Totally 160 households were surveyed to

check their perception against drinking water quality. The results showed the values of
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bacteriological parameter fecal coliform were above World Health Organization

guidelines which made water unfit for drinking purposes. The community was unaware

of the quality of water they were drinking. Women with higher education had perception

of smell (F = 3.51, p<0.01), taste (F = 3.10, p<0.05) and turbidity in water (F = 5.34,

p<0.01). Incidence of water borne diseases especially in infants appeared to be common

problem among the sampled households in the study region. Lack of proper water supply

system, proper sanitation and drainage facility were the common and contributing to poor

health of people.

Water has always been mankind’s most precious resource - there are no

substitutes. The struggle to control water resources has shaped human political and

economic history. Population growth and economic development are driving a steadily

increasing demand for new clean water supplies and it is well documented that lack of

access to clean water has major health implications. Many see the water security as the

key environmental issue of the 21st century. Water and energy issues are inextricably

linked. Energy is needed to extract water from underground aquifers, transport water

through canals and pipes, manage and treat waste water for reuse, and desalinate brackish

and sea water to provide new fresh water sources. Water is crucial for the energy

production, for hydropower dams, for cooling of thermal power plants, and for fossil fuel

production and processing. Water and energy are the critical elements of sustainable

economic development without access to both of them, economies cannot grow, jobs

cannot be created, and poor people cannot move out of poverty. On a global basis, neither

water nor energy is in short supply. What is in short supply is energy and water at a price

that people can afford to buy. The attitude towards water consumption may be the crucial
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ingredient. Furthermore, new approaches to financing, managing and maintaining

systems must be developed. (Olsson, 2011)

As stated by Jain (2010), this thesis examines the present status of household

drinking water treatment and safe storage technologies across the world, and in one

location Lucknow, India. The second aspect of this thesis analyzes the user perceptions

and behaviors relative to HWTS and quality of water at the point of consumption, post

HWTS treatment in the field. The result of the study reveals that there is a lack of

technical expertise in understanding and implementing these systems in the 45 UNICEF

countries where the survey was conducted and in the author’s field site in Lucknow,

India. Moreover, it was observed in India that safe storage was not being promoted

properly by the NGO with which the author worked. It was also observed that HWTS

technologies are still relatively expensive because of which they are beyond the reach of

the poor. Moreover, lack of education among the masses makes scale-up more

challenging.

According to A. Langanayogi et al. (2008), most of the alkalinity in neutral water

is formed due to dissolution of carbon dioxide in water. Higher alkalinity indicates

presence of carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide in water body. Higher alkalinity import

undesirable taste to water. Alkalinity gives bitter taste to water. Acceptable range of

chlorides is 250 mg/lit by World Health Organization. Chlorides concentration varied

from 4.5 to 298.2 mg/lit and higher concentration of chloride observed in S1 sites.

B. Local
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As stated by Tonog and Poblete (2015), Water quality is based on the physical,

chemical and bacteriological properties. In the study most of the water sources were

within the permissible limits in terms of color, odor, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS),

salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrite. However, hardness and alkalinity were

beyond the allowable limits. All water samples were positive for fecal coliforms. Thus,

this study concludes that all water sources tested are not safe and not potable.

The water quality of Carangan Estero in Ozamiz City was assessed by conducting

the physicochemical and bacteriological analyses of water samples. Overall assessment

revealed that water quality was deteriorating downstream due to relatively high discharge

of organic waste from toilets, kitchen, piggeries, laundry and commercial establishments

associated with dense population. A collaborative and sustainable effort of the

community is necessary to restore water quality. (Enguito et al., 2013)

As stated by Israel (2009), The national review found that although pertinent

laws, institutions, strategies and programs on potable water service delivery were already

in place, institutional problems remained. It further asserted that while the country may

be heading towards meeting its national and MDG objectives related to the provision of

potable water, more needs to be done with the limited time at hand. The study further

found that the price, quality and accessibility of potable water were major factors

influencing households in their choice of water source. Furthermore, it asserted that there

were key issues and challenges facing local water service delivery most of which were

institutional in nature.

Water is an essential need in order to survive. However, billions of people around

the world have no access to clean water. When water is lacking in the individual's life, it
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will result to inadequate sanitation practices. For households whose water sources are

from a hand jetmatic pump have used the water without any treatment. While as to Water

Protection and Treatment, result indicates that they treat the water with chlorine/bleach so

that the residents will have a source of potable water. (Besing, n.d.)
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Figure 1. Simulacrum

Figure 1 shows a glass of water that is divided in two, the left side and the right

side which represents the water from Prime Water and water from Jetmatic, respectively.

Inside the glass are gears together with laboratory equipment in the left and a tank with

tubes in the right, which signifies the water from Prime Water and water from Jetmatic

respectively. The gears and laboratory equipment represents the water coming from

Prime Water which is treated and undergoes process. On the other hand, the tank and the

tubes in the right side of the glass signifies the water coming from jetmatic which is not

treated that comes from the underground that is stored in a tank and used.
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The faucet in the left side and right side has droplets and it signifies that the water

from the right which is jetmatic has a better quality than the water in the left which is

water from Prime Water. The hand in the left side and right side that has water droplets

that are doing chores signifies the usage of consumers to their water source in terms of

domestic activities. It is shown that in the right side there is a water droplet drinking

which signifies that Jetmatic users drink their water more often that Prime Water

consumers. The big droplets that have figures inside it signifies the problems that Prime

Water consumers have encountered which is stomach pain and diarrhea while the other

droplet signifies that its consumer reports the problem of having bad quality of water.

The sunrays in the left faucet signify that the water from jetmatic dries in the season of

summer and only little water can be produced. The cord that is plugged into a socket

signifies that when the electricity comes out some jetmatic users experience lacking of

water from their source.


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Chapter 3

METHODS OF RESEARCH AND SOURCES OF DATA

This chapter presents the methods and procedures that is utilized in securing data

and how the data be translated in the completion of the study. Specifically, it presents the

instruments utilized in gathering the important data, together with the process that follow

in the analysis and interpretation of the data.

Research Design

This study utilized a comparative qualitative design that is characterized by

observation and recording outcomes without manipulation. This research design collects

data primarily by observation to determine similarities and differences between two

subjects. This research identifies the similarities and differences of potable water coming

from Prime Water and from a jetmatic pump through qualitative observation methods.

Selections of the Study

This study chose two types of selections, the first selection is jetmatic tank users

and the other is Prime Water consumers. The jetmatic pump users and Prime Water

consumers are the chosen selection of this study because they are the one who need the

results of this study so they would know which technology produces better water and

improve its usage. The researchers have seven (7) selections of jetmatic pump users and

seven (7) selections coming from Prime Water consumers.


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Scope and Delimitation

This research aims to identify which water source is more reliable; water from a

jetmatic pump or from Prime Water. Comparing two variables shows the similarity and

dissimilarity of the two that will show which on is better. This study is mainly concerned

to the users of jetmatic pump, Prime Water and Prime Water consumers in the town of

Camiling, Tarlac.

Sampling Design

This study utilized the purposive and quota sampling. The selection was chosen

because of their experiences and characteristics relative to the study. The researchers

utilized the purposive sampling to gather the information for comparing the water from

Prime Water and jetmatic pump. Purposive sampling has a chosen number of people to

be used as the selection knowledgeable in the field that will be analyzed. Quota sampling

has a limit of people to be used as the selection.

Data Gathering Instrument

The researchers did a one on one interview with the involved jetmatic users and

Prime Water consumers as the main instrument in gathering or collecting data. This

permits the researchers to have the precise information that are needed in the research.

Data Gathering Procedure

The data for this research was collected using an interview guide. The questions

are created using appropriate questions modified from related research and individual
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questions formed by the researchers. The interview is composed of questions that are

related to the experience and problems encountered in using the water from jetmatic

pump and Prime Water.

The data analysis utilized is qualitative. It requires the organization and data

reduction. Data analyses involving categorization and description. Through this category,

discussions were focused for proper interpretation and analysis.


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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of gathered data in each

question that were given. There were 9 questions asked and answered. The statements for

each question were categorized then summarized into one theme and tabulated. This

chapter contains tables that shows the physicochemical analysis of water from Prime

water and water from jetmatic; the utilization of Prime Water consumers and jetmatic

users of their water source in terms of domestic activities; the problems encountered by

the selection in terms of water quality and waterborne diseases; the similarities and

differences of water from Prime Water and water from jetmatic.

Table 1.1
Physicochemical Analysis of the Water from Prime Water
PARAMETERS UNIT PNSDW LIMIT MDL RESULTS
pH - 6.5-8.5/5-7** - 7.82
Color
Apparent Color 10 1 2
Unit
Turbidity NTU 5 - 0.22
TDS mg/L 600 /<10** - 347
Nitrate mg/L 50 2.2 <2.2
Lead mg/L 0.01 0.006 <0.006
Cadmium mg/L 0.003 0.001 <0.001
Arsenic mg/L 0.01 0.0007 <0.0007
No objectionable
Taste - No objectionable Taste -
Taste
No objectionable
Odor - No objectionable Odor -
Odor
Disinfectant Residual mg/L 0.3-1.5/0.2-0.4** - 1.226
Appearance - - - CLEAR
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Table 1.2 illustrates how the water coming from Prime Water or commercialized

water describe its water quality through Physicochemical Analysis. Physicochemical

Analysis of water is a method of investigating the physical and chemical property of

water through different methods inside a laboratory. PNSDW set a limit for every

parameter to determine if the water is qualified for human consumption and drinking.

MDL means method detection limit, this is the limit that the method can detect.

pH Level

pH level is an indicator whether the water is soft or hard. PNSDW limit in pH

level is 6.5-8.5/5-7. A pH level of water below than 6.5 is considered acidic, and with a

pH greater than 8.5 is considered basic. The table shows that the water from Prime Water

has a pH level of 7.82 which is slightly above the normal pH level of water and it passed

the standard pH level for drinking water.

Apparent Color

Apparent color is the shade of the whole water sample and consists of color from

both dissolved and suspended components. The PNSDW limit in apparent color is 10. If

the water has high level of apparent color it is most likely to have high level of suspended

particles in it. The physicochemical analysis result in the table shows that the apparent

color of the water from Prime Water is 2 which is below the limit of PNSDW for

drinking water. Therefore, it passed the standard apparent color for drinking.

Turbidity

Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due

to the presence of suspended particulates. The more total suspended solids in the water,

the murkier it seems and the higher the turbidity. In addition, turbidity is considered as
27

good measure of the quality of the water. The turbidity limit given by PNSDW is 5 NTU.

The table shows that the water from Prime Water has a turbidity of 0.22 NTU which is

below the limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard turbidity for drinking.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

TDS or total dissolved solid(s) is a measure of the combined total of organic and

inorganic substances contained in a liquid. This includes anything present in water other

than the pure H20 molecules. These solids are primarily minerals, salts and organic

matter that can be a general indicator of water quality. High level of TDS may cause

diseases that can be fatal. The limit of TDS of PNSDW is 600mg/L. The physicochemical

analysis result in the table shows that the TDS of the water from Prime Water is 347mg/L

which is below the PNSDW limit. Therefore, it passed the amount of TDS in drinking

water.

Nitrate

Nitrate level in drinking water can be an indicator of overall water quality.

Elevated nitrate levels may suggest the possible presence of other contaminants such as

disease-causing organisms, pesticides, or other inorganic and organic compounds that

could cause health problem. High levels of nitrate in water when consumed can

potentially cause fatal blood disorders such as methemoglobinemia in which there is a

reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. The limit of PNSDW for nitrate in

water is 50mg/L. The table shows that the nitrate of the water from Prime Water is

<2.2mg/L which is below the limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard amount

of nitrate for drinking.


28

Lead

Lead can enter drinking water when pipes that contain lead corrode, especially

when the water has high acidity or low mineral content that corrodes pipes and fixtures.

Lead is a toxic metal that can be harmful to human health even at low exposure levels

especially into infants. The limit of PNSDW in level of Lead is 0.01mg/L. The table

shows that the lead of the water from Prime Water is <0.006mg/L which is below the

limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard amount of lead for drinking.

Cadmium

Cadmium is found in drinking water supplies as a result of deterioration of

galvanized plumbing, along with industrial waste contamination, or surface water

contamination by certain fertilizers. Cadmium has the chronic potential to cause kidney,

liver, bone and blood damage from long- term exposure at levels above the limit given.

The limit of PNSDW for amount of cadmium in water is 0.003mg/L. The

physicochemical analysis result in the table shows that cadmium in the water from Prime

Water is <0.001mg/L which is below the limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the

standard amount of cadmium for drinking.

Arsenic

Arsenic is extremely poisonous to humans. What makes arsenic especially

dangerous is that it doesn’t have a taste or odor, so you can be exposed to it without

knowing it. Arsenic in the water when consumed may cause long term and short term

health effects. The limit of PNSDW on arsenic is 0.01mg/L. The table shows that the

arsenic of the water from Prime Water is <0.0007mg/L which is below the limit of

PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard amount of arsenic for drinking.


29

Taste

The taste of the water should have no objectionable taste according to the limit of

PNSDW. If the water has an objectionable taste it is most likely to be contaminated

therefore taste must be tested. The table shows that the water from Prime Water has no

objectionable taste. Therefore, it passed the standard taste for drinking.

Odor

The odor of the water should have no objectionable odor according to the limit of

PNSDW. If the water has an objectionable odor it is most likely to be contaminated

therefore must be tested. The table shows that the water from Prime Water has no

objectionable odor. Therefore, it passed the standard odor for drinking.

Disinfectant Residual

Disinfectant residual is the amount of chemicals used to disinfect the water and

chlorine is usually used. The limit given by PNSDW on disinfectant residual is 0.3-

1.5/0.2-0.4mg/L. The physicochemical analysis result in the table shows that the

disinfectant residual of the water from Prime Water is 1.226mg/L which is below the

limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard amount of disinfectant residual for

drinking.

The result of the physicochemical analysis of the water from Prime Water shows

that the water was treated; it also passed all the parameters and did not exceed the limit of

PNSDW. This further revealed that the water from Prime Water is safe to use and safe for

consumption and drinking. Although it is safe to use and to consume the physicochemical
30

analysis results shows that the water from jetmatic has better quality than water from

Prime Water.

Table 1.2
Physicochemical Analysis of the Water from Jetmatic
PARAMETERS UNIT PNSDW LIMIT MDL RESULTS
pH level - 6.5-8.5/5-7** - 7.00
Color
Apparent Color 10 1 1
Unit
Turbidity NTU 5 - 0.22
TDS mg/L 600 /<10** - 548
Nitrate mg/L 50 2.2 20.84
Lead mg/L 0.01 0.006 <0.006
Cadmium mg/L 0.003 0.001 <0.001
Arsenic mg/L 0.01 0.0007 0.001
No objectionable
Taste - No objectionable Taste -
Taste
No objectionable
Odor - No objectionable Odor -
Odor
Disinfectant Residual mg/L 0.3-1.5/0.2-0.4** - 0.016
Appearance - - - CLEAR

Table 1.2 illustrates how the water coming from Jetmatic describe its water

quality through Physicochemical Analysis. Physicochemical Analysis of water is a

method of investigating the physical and chemical property of water through different

methods inside a laboratory. PNSDW set a limit for every parameter to determine if the

water is qualified for human consumption and drinking. MDL means method detection

limit, this is the limit that the method can detect.

pH Level

The first parameter is pH level. pH level is an indicator whether the water is soft

or hard. PNSDW limit in pH level is 6.5-8.5/5-7. A pH level of water below than 6.5 is

considered acidic, and with a pH greater than 8.5 is considered basic. The table shows
31

that the water from jetmatic has a pH level of 7.00 which is the normal pH level of water

and it passed the standard pH level for drinking water.

Apparent Color

The second parameter is apparent color. Apparent color is the color of the whole

water sample, and consists of color from both dissolved and suspended components. The

PNSDW limit in apparent color is 10. If the water has high level of apparent color it is

most likely to have high level of suspended particles in it. The physicochemical analysis

result in the table shows that the apparent color of the water from jetmatic is 1 which is

below the limit of PNSDW for drinking water. Therefore, it passed the standard apparent

color for drinking.

Turbidity

Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due

to the presence of suspended particulates. The more total suspended solids in the water,

the murkier it seems and the higher the turbidity. In addition, turbidity is considered as

good measure of the quality of the water. The turbidity limit given by PNSDW is 5 NTU.

The table shows that the water from jetmatic has a turbidity of 0.22 NTU which passed

the limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard turbidity for drinking.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

TDS or total dissolved solid(s) is a measure of the combined total of organic and

inorganic substances contained in a liquid. This includes anything present in water other

than the pure H20 molecules. These solids are primarily minerals, salts and organic

matter that can be a general indicator of water quality. High level of TDS may cause

diseases that can be fatal. The limit of TDS of PNSDW is 600mg/L. The physicochemical
32

analysis result in the table shows that the TDS of the water from jetmatic is 548mg/L

which is below the limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the amount of TDS in drinking

water.

Nitrate

Nitrate level in drinking water can be an indicator of overall water quality.

Elevated nitrate levels may suggest the possible presence of other contaminants such as

disease-causing organisms, pesticides, or other inorganic and organic compounds that

could cause health problem. High levels of nitrate in water when consumed can

potentially cause fatal blood disorders such as methemoglobinemia in which there is a

reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. The limit of PNSDW for nitrate in

water is 50mg/L. The table shows that the nitrate of the water from jetmatic is 20.84mg/L

which is below the limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard amount of nitrate

for drinking.

Lead

Lead can enter drinking water when pipes that contain lead corrode, especially

when the water has high acidity or low mineral content that corrodes pipes and fixtures.

Lead is a toxic metal that can be harmful to human health even at low exposure levels

especially into infants. The limit of PNSDW in level of Lead is 0.01mg/L. The table

shows that the lead of the water form jetmatic is <0.006mg/L which is below the limit of

PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard amount of lead for drinking.

Cadmium

Cadmium is found in drinking water supplies as a result of deterioration of

galvanized plumbing, along with industrial waste contamination, or surface water


33

contamination by certain fertilizers. Cadmium has the chronic potential to cause kidney,

liver, bone and blood damage from long- term exposure at levels above the limit given.

The limit of PNSDW for amount of cadmium in water is 0.003mg/L. The

physicochemical analysis result in the table shows that cadmium in the water from

jetmatic is <0.001mg/L which is below the limit of PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the

standard amount of cadmium for drinking.

Arsenic

Arsenic is extremely poisonous to humans. What makes arsenic especially

dangerous is that it doesn’t have a taste or odor, so you can be exposed to it without

knowing it. Arsenic in the water when consumed may cause long term and short-term

health effects. The limit of PNSDW on arsenic is 0.01mg/L. The table shows that the

arsenic of the water from jetmatic is 0.001mg/L which is below the limit of PNSDW.

Therefore, it passed the standard amount of arsenic for drinking.

Taste

The taste of the water should have no objectionable taste according to the limit of

PNSDW. If the water has an objectionable taste it is most likely to be contaminated

therefore taste must be tested. The table shows that the water from jetmatic has no

objectionable taste. Therefore, it passed the standard taste for drinking.

Odor

The odor of the water should have no objectionable odor according to the limit of

PNSDW. If the water has an objectionable odor it is most likely to be contaminated

therefore must be tested. The table shows that the water from jetmatic has no

objectionable odor. Therefore, it passed the standard odor for drinking.


34

Disinfectant Residual

Disinfectant residual is the amount of chemicals used to disinfect the water and

chlorine is usually used. The limit given by PNSDW on disinfectant residual is 0.3-

1.5/0.2-0.4mg/L. The physicochemical analysis result in the table shows that the

disinfecjtant residual of the water from jetmatic is 0.016mg/L which is below the limit of

PNSDW. Therefore, it passed the standard amount of disinfectant residual for drinking.

The result of the physicochemical analysis of the water from jetmatic shows that

the water was not treated; it also passed all the parameters and did not exceed the limit of

PNSDW. This further revealed that the water coming from jetmatic is safe to use and safe

for consumption and drinking. The water from jetmatic is better than the water from

Prime Water in almost all the parameters except for TDS, nitrate, and arsenic.

Table 2 shows how the selections use their water source in terms of domestic

activities. Domestic activities are running of a home and family. It is also the activities

that involve doing household chores. Water plays an important role in the daily activities

of the selections for they use it every day in doing domestic activities. Water is called the

universal solvent because it dissolves more substances than any other solvent. Thus water

can be used in variety of ways especially in domestic activities.

It revealed that majority of the selections use their source of water in every

domestic activity that needs the aid of water such as taking bath, washing, cooking,

laundry and sometimes drinking. This affirms the findings of Conn (2016) that access to

clean drinking water is one of the basic necessities of life.


35

Table 2
Utilization of Water in Terms of Domestic Activities
STATEMENTS
THEME CATEGORIES
Prime Water Jetmatic
“Sa pagluto, sa panligo, sa “Sa pangluto, panghugas,
paghuhugas ,sa pag pampaligo, panglaba
dilig.Pang araw-araw iniinom rin. Halos araw-
naming ginagamit.” araw naming siang
“Sa panliligo, pagluto, gamitin.”
panghugas ng plato at mga “Araw-araw naming
pinggan. Pero sa paglalaba ginagamit, sa pagluluto,
ginagamit namin yung panghugas, at iniinom kaso
jetmatic.” sila lang dito sa bahay kasi
“Pagnagdidilig ako Prime ako yung purified water
Water yung ginagamit ko, iniinom ko.”
panlaba, panligo, “Sa pagligo, pagluluto,
panghugas, pero jetmatic panlaba, pang araw-araw
ginagamit namin naming pero hindi namin
pagnaglalaba.” siya iniinom kasi mostly
Drinking “Kapag naghuhugas tapos mineral water yung
nagsasaing. Prime Water ginagamit namin pagdating
pinakapinanggagalingan ng sa paginom.”
Cooking tubig namin sa pangaraw- “Panghugas, panligo,
Domestic araw” pangluto pwede ring
Activities “Ginagamit naming iniinom din malinis naman
Hygiene panghugas ng mga pinggan, kasi yung tubig. Pang araw-
panlaba ng mga damit tapos araw namin na ginagamit.”
panligo at pangluto sa pang “Ginagamit namin yung
Washing araw-araw.” tubig sa pangaraw-araw,
“Panligo, panluto, kumbaga yun yung main
panghugas, pangsipilyo source ng tubig namn.
halos lahat pero hindi Panghugas, panglaba,
naman iniinom kasi minsan pangluto, panligo. At
unexpected na umiitim. iniinom na din.”
Araw-araw naming “Yung sa inumin hindi pero
ginagamit kasi yun naman yung pang gamit sa araw-
pangunahing araw, panligo ,panlaba
pangangailangan natin.” ,panluto galling sa
“Laudry, panligo, jetmatic.”
panghugas, pagluto halos “Sa pagluluto, panglaba,
lahat sa pang araw-araw pangligo, halos lahat
except drinking.” ginagamit naming ung
jetmatic sa araw-araw.”
36

Table 2 Further revealed that some of the selections have an alternative water

source when doing other domestic activities such as doing the laundry to lessen their

expense especially on commercialized water. In addition, some of the selections do not

prefer drinking the water because some of the selections do not feel safe in drinking it

thus drinks purified water coming from refilling stations. Moreover, majority of the

selection that use commercialized water does not prefer drinking the water from Prime

Water. On the other hand, the selections that use jetmatic pump prefer to use their source

of water for drinking rather than Prime Water consumers. It further revealed that jetmatic

users drink the water from their source more often than Prime Water consumers who does

not drink the water from their water source.

Table 3.1.1
Problems of the Prime Water Consumers in Terms of Water Quality
THEME CATEGORIES STATEMENTS
“Minsan madumi siya hindi pwedeng inumin
brown yung kulay, minsan nga parang putik pa.”
“Minsan lang yun, yung talagang kapag open ko
ng tubig para siyang putik na kulay brown,
actually napicturan ko at napost ko pa sa facebook
yun kasi first time ko naranasan.”
“Minsan sabi nila kapag naglilinis yung Prime
Cleanliness Water ng tubig, nagiging madumi at kulay brown
yung tubig.”
“Minsan madumi yung tubig ng Prime Water,
Attributes Odor nagiging kulay brown.”
“Minsan madumi yung tubig, kulay brown minsan
pa black.”
Turbidity “Sobrang dumi, hindi namin nagagamit. Dapat
nag roround sila sasabihin kung kailan sila
magiging madumi yung tubig, hindi yung
gagamitin na lang yung tubig at pagtingin madumi
pala.”
“Minsan mabaho tapos minsan hindi lang purong
water, meron din solid materials tapos may sand
tapos yung kulay masumiitim.”
37

Table 3.1.1 shows the problems that the selections have acquired in using

commercialized water in terms of water quality. Water quality refers to the chemical,

physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the

condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any

human need or purpose.

It revealed that all the selections have experienced having a bad quality of water.

The selections have one common problem in the water quality; it is the turbidity of the

water which had high level of turbidity. Therefore, they consider it to be unusable and

unclean. Furthermore, it resulted for some of the selection to use or find another source of

water; such as when one of the selections uses purified water in domestic activities when

the commercialized water have high turbidity. However, even though water with high

turbidity may interrupt their schedule on a daily basis, majority of the selections just wait

for the water to flow until it becomes clear again. Furthermore, it revealed that

experiencing to have bad quality of water affected the consumers’ frequency of drinking

the water.

Table 3.1.2 shows the problems that the selections have encountered in using

water coming from jetmatic in terms of water quality. Water quality refers to the

chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of

the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to

any human need or purpose.

It revealed that majority of the selections using jetmatic have clean and safe water

thus majority of the respondents drink the water from their source. However, one of the
38

selections have experienced that the color of the water becomes yellowish and another

one from the selections experienced having rust on their water in a monthly basis, the

water that have rust is coming from the tank where the water from the jetmatic was

stored. Thus, one of the selections had to monitor and keep the cleanliness of the tank

monthly.

Table 3.1.2
Problems of the Jetmatic Users in Terms of Water Quality
THEME CATEGORIES STATEMENTS
“Malinis naman yung tubig actually iniinom pa
nga namin. Kapag tag-araw nawawalan ng tubig.
Kapag nawawalan din ng kuryente hindi
nagpupump ng tubig kaya dun kami sa
binobomba.”
“Para saamin malinis naman kasi iniinom nila dito
sa bahay pero hindi naman sila nagkakasakit. Wala
namang problema kasi maayos naman yung daloy
ng tubig.”
“Nadudumihan yung tubig kapag nangangalawang
yung tanke. Nagkakaroon pa kami ng ibang
Accessibility
problema number one, pag walang kuryente , yun
ang mahirap kasi hindi gagana. Meron pa kaming
Safety
nasubukan kasi nangangalawang yung tanke niya
Characteristics
halos buwan-buwan, kaya kailagan naming
Cleanliness
ipalinis.”
“Iniinom namin yung tubig kaya masasabi kong
Color
malinis naman. Sa ngayon wala pa naman kaming
nararanasang problema sa paggamit ng jetmatic.”
“Minsan nagiging dilaw yung tubig.”
“Masasabi ko namang malinis yung tubig pero
hindi kami dun umiinom sa purified water kami.
Pero may nasubukan na kaming problema kapag
nawalan ng kuryente hindi nagpupump doon pa
naman naggagaling yung pinapainom namin sa
baboy.”
“Malinis naman yung tubig at wala naman kaming
nagiging problema sa paggamit ng jetmatic.”

The table above further revealed that the selections who have experienced having

problems in the quality of the water finds a way to resolve it immediately and have
39

alternative water source when they experience the problem. In addition, their alternative

source of water is also jetmatic but it is a hand pump that is meters away from their main

source of their water.

Table 3.2.1
Problems of the Prime Water Consumers in Terms of Waterborne Diseases
THEME CATEGORIES STATEMENTS
“Kapag iniinom namin, minsan sumasakit yung
tiyan.”

“Wala pa naman sa awa ng Diyos kasi purified


water yung iniinom namin.”

“So far wala pa na naman kaming nararanasan na


Safety sakit.”

“Nasubukan na namin na minsan sumakit yung


Safeness tiyan.”
Unsafe
“Wala naman kaming naranasang sakit.”

“Nasubukan na namin yung pagtatae, lalo na


kapag madumi yung tubig kasi hindi siya ganun ka
brown kapag nasa baso lang.”

“Wala pa naman kaming nasubukan.”

Table 3.2.1 shows the problems that the selections have encountered in using

commercialized water in terms of waterborne diseases. Waterborne diseases are

conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water in variety

of ways. Disease can be spread while bathing, washing or drinking water, or by eating

food exposed to contaminated water. Waterborne diseases are caused by drinking

contaminated or dirty water. Contaminated water can cause many types of diarrheal
40

diseases, including Cholera, and other serious illnesses such as Guinea worm disease,

Typhoid, and Dysentery.

It revealed that majority of the selections that are using commercialized water

have not yet experienced any ailments or diseases. However, there are three selections

that have experienced pain in the stomach, and diarrhea. Moreover, the selections that

have not experienced any ailments do not use the water for drinking, in addition the

selections that have not experience any ailments or diseases, drinks purified water from

refilling stations while the selections who have experienced ailments have tried drinking

the water in a daily basis. This further revealed that the commercialized water is not safe

for drinking as perceived of the selections because it may cause ailments. This also

further revealed that having bad quality of water is related to acquiring waterborne

diseases.

Table 3.2.2 shows the problems that the selections have encountered in using

water coming from jetmatic in terms of waterborne diseases. Waterborne diseases are

conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water. Disease

can be spread while bathing, washing or drinking water, or by eating food exposed to

contaminated water. Waterborne diseases are caused by drinking contaminated or dirty

water. Contaminated water can cause many types of diarrheal diseases, including

Cholera, and other serious illnesses such as Guinea worm disease, Typhoid, and

Dysentery.

It revealed that majority of the selections that are using the jetmatic have not yet

experienced ailments or diseases in their history. However, there are two selections that
41

have experienced having pain in the stomach and diarrhea which further revealed that the

ailments and diseases that the selections using commercialized water experienced have

similar ailments or diseases to the selections that use jetmatic. In addition, the selections

that have experienced ailments or diseases have their waters change in colors and the one

contains rust in its water that comes from its tank during the time where they experienced

the illness. This further revealed that having bad water quality is related to having water

borne diseases.

Table 3.2.2
Problems of the Jetmatic users in Terms of Waterborne Diseases
THEME CATEGORIES STATEMENTS
“Wala pa naman kaming nasusubukan na sakit kasi
nakasanayan na nila ang paggamit at pag-inom ng
jetmatic eh. Minsan pag umuulan ang ginagawa
namin pinapakuluan namin yung tubig para mas
makasigurado kaming malinis siya at ligtas. Isa din
kasi akong BHW dito sa barangay namin at napag-
aaralan din namin ayon sa center kung ano-ano ang
mga dapat at hindi dapat gawin.”

“Wala pa namang mga sakit na naranasan dito kasi


nasanay na din sila sa pag iinom ng tubig, kahit
pagsakit ng tiyan wala.”
Prevention
“Nasubukan na naming magkaroon ng diarrhea.
Safe
Safeness Number one sa mga bata, sa mga anak ko kami rin
sumasakit yung tiyan ganoon.”
Unsafe
“Wala pa naman kahit mga bata nga umiinom din
sa faucet na galing diyan sa jetmatic.”

“Minsan nasubukan naming sumakit yung tiyan.


Minsan lang siyang nangyayari kapag nagiging
dilaw ang tubig.”

“Wala pa naman kaming nasubukan na sakit sa


paggamit ng jetmatic.”

“Wala pa naman kaming naranasang sakit.”


42

Table 4
Comparing Prime Water and Jetmatic Attributes
Prime Water Attributes Jetmatic
7.86 pH level 7.00
2 Apparent Color 1
0.22 NTU Turbidity 0.22 NTU
347mg/L TDS 548mg/L
<2.2mg/L Nitrate 20.84mg/L
<0.006mg/L Lead <0.006mg/L
<0.001mg/L Cadmium <0.001mg/L
<0.0007mg/L Arsenic 0.001mg/L
No objectionable Taste Taste No objectionable Taste
No objectionable Odor Odor No objectionable Odor
1.226mg/L Disinfectant Residual 0.016mgL
Drinking, Cooking, Drinking, Cooking,
Domestic Activities
Hygiene, Washing Hygiene, Washing
Problems Encountered
All seven selections
Two selections experience
experienced bad quality of Water Quality
bad quality of water
water
Three selections
Two selections experienced
experienced having
having waterborne diseases.
waterborne diseases. The Waterborne Diseases
The diseases were stomach
diseases were stomach ache
ache and diarrhea.
and diarrhea.

Table 4 shows the similarities and differences of the water from Jetmatic and the

water from Prime Water according to the gathered data. This table shows that the water

coming from jetmatic has better water quality from the parameters of the result of the

physicochemical analysis of the water than the water from Prime Water. Furthermore,

this table shows how the selection utilize their source of water in terms of domestic

activities and they have the same usage but jetmatic users drink their water more often

than Prime Water consumers. Moreover, this table shows the problems encountered by

the selections in terms of water quality and waterborne diseases and it revealed that

jetmatic users experience less having bad quality of water and having waterborne

diseases.
43

The result shows that there is a significant difference between the water from

jetmatic and the water from Prime Water.


44

Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the summary of the study, the conclusion draw based on the

findings and the recommendations offered.

Summary of Findings

This research gives focus on the utilization of potable water from a jetmatic pump

and commercialized water coming from Prime Water. There were seven (7) jetmatic

pump users and seven (7) Prime Water consumers as selections of this study. A

qualitative comparative research design was utilized on this study. The selections were

interviewed using an interview guide and gather the data by recording the interview.

After gathering the data, the researchers utilized repertory grid in which statements were

categorized then summarized into themes.

Water samples were collected and tested in a laboratory through physicochemical

analysis. The results of the physicochemical analysis showed that the water from jetmatic

has an overall better quality than the water from Prime Water in terms of pH level,

apparent color, turbidity, lead, cadmium, taste, odor, and disinfectant residual. However,

the water from Prime Water has a better quality in the parameters; TDS, nitrate, and

arsenic. The utilization of the Prime Water consumers and jetmatic users overall use their

source of water in the same domestic activities. However, jetmatic users drink the water

from their source more often than Prime Water consumers. From the data gathered all of

the selections of Prime Water consumers have experienced having a bad quality of water
45

while the jetmatic users only two of the selections have experienced having bad quality of

water. Furthermore, it revealed that jetmatic users experience having bad quality of water

less often than Prime Water consumers. There are three of the selections of Prime Water

consumers have experienced waterborne diseases while only two of the selections of

jetmatic users have experienced waterborne diseases. However, the diseases experienced

by the selections are the same which is stomach ache and diarrhea. Furthermore, this

study showed that there is a significant difference between the water from jetmatic and

water from Prime Water.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the gathered data the following assumptions were drawn:

1. The water from jetmatic have overall better water quality in terms of pH level,

apparent color, turbidity, lead, cadmium, taste, odor, and disinfectant residual. However

water from Prime Water have better water quality in the parameters TDS, nitrate, and

arsenic.

2. Majority of the selections use their water source in every domestic activity such

as cooking, hygiene purposes, and washing. However, jetmatic users drink their water

source more often than Prime Water consumers.

3. The selections that uses jetmatic experience less problems in terms of water

quality and waterborne diseases than Prime Water consumers.

4. There is a significant difference between water from Prime Water and water

from jetmatic.
46

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions of this study the following

recommendations are offered:

To the Prime Water Company, that they should often monitor the quality of

their water and the cleanliness of their pipes. They should announce to their consumers

when will be the water have bad quality and update their consumers in their actions.

To the Prime Water Consumers, they should report to the company as soon as

they experience problems in their service so that it can be fixed urgently.

To the Jetmatic Users, they should save and conserve water especially in the

summer season.