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# MODERN GEOMETRIES

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor III

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Axiomatic Systems

## The study of mathematics requires an understanding of the nature

of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning takes place in the
context of an organized logical structure called an axiomatic (or
deductive) system.
Components of an Axiomatic System
1 undefined terms
2 defined terms
3 axioms
4 a system of logic
5 theorems

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Axiomatic Systems

1 consistent
2 complete
3 independent

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Properties of an Axiomatic System

## An axiomatic system is said to be consistent if there do not exist in

the system any two axioms, any axiom and theorem, or any two

## Since it is very difficult to verify consistency, models are used to

establish this property.

## A model of an axiomatic system is an interpretation of the

undefined terms in such a way that all the interpreted axioms are
true statements.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Properties of an Axiomatic System

## An axiom in an axiomatic system is independent if it cannot be

proved from the other axioms. If each axiom of a system is
independent, the system is said to be independent.

## In verifying independence, models are also used. The independence

of an axiom is established by finding a model of the system
resulting from the negation of the axiom. Hence, for a system with
n axioms, n models must be exhibited-one for each axiom.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Properties of an Axiomatic System

## An axiomatic system is complete if every statement containing

undefined and defined terms of the system can be proved valid or
invalid, or in other words, if it is not possible to add a new
independent axiom to the system.

## In general, it is very difficult to establish whether a system is

complete. However, if a system is complete, there cannot exist two
essentially different models. That is, all models of the system must
be isomorphic.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Finite Geometries

## Finite geometries were developed in the late nineteenth century, in

part to demonstrate and test the axiomatic properties of
completeness, consistency, and independence.

## Finite geometries provide relatively simple axiomatic systems in

which one can begin to develop the skills and techniques of
geometric reasoning.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Three-Point Geometry

Axioms:
1 There exist exactly three distinct points in the geometry.
2 Each two distinct points are on exactly one line.
3 Not all the points of the geometry are on the same line.
4 Each two distinct lines are on at least one point.

## Is the system consistent?

Is every axiom independent?
Is the geometry complete?

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Theorem
Each two distinct lines are on exactly one point.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Theorem
The three-point geometry has exactly three lines.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

In this geometry, does Euclidean concepts as length of a segment,
measure of an angle, and area (or other concepts concerning
measurement) apply?

be defined?

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Properties of a Finite Geometry

## For a configuration of points and lines to be considered a finite

geometry, several properties must hold. These include finiteness,
uniformity, uniqueness, and existence.
Properties
1 The number of points is finite.
2 The number of lines is finite
3 Each line is on the same number s of points, where s ≥ 2.
4 Each point is on the same number t of lines, where t ≥ 2.
5 Each pair of distinct points is on at most one line.
6 Each pair of distinct lines is on at most one point.
7 Not all points are on the same line.
8 There exists at least one line.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Four-Point Geometry

Axioms:
1 There exist exactly four points.
2 Each two distinct points are on exactly one line.
3 Each line is on exactly two points.

## Exercise: Determine whether the four-point geometry is consistent,

independent and complete.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Four-Point Geometry

claim.

## Can you state a property (a theorem) regarding the number of

lines passing through each point?

Duality

## The dual of a statement in four-point geometry is obtained by

replacing each occurrence of the term ”point” in the statement by
the term ”line” and each occurrence of the term ”line” by the term
”point”.

Example
Statement: Each pair of lines is on exactly one point.
Dual statement: Each pair of points is on exactly one line.

## Lawrence A. Eclarin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor III MODERN GEOMETRIES

Four-Line Geometry

Axioms:
1 There exist exactly four lines.
2 Each two distinct lines are on exactly one point.
3 Each point is on exactly two lines.