Sei sulla pagina 1di 11



During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed
around the room. Teachers often use this strategy as a way to have students
share their work with peers, examine multiple historical documents, or respond
to a collection of quotations. Because this strategy requires students to physically
move around the room, it can be especially engaging to kinesthetic learners.

Select texts

Select the texts (e.g. quotations, images, documents, and/or student work) you
will be using for the gallery walk. You could also have students, individually or in
small groups, select the text for the gallery walk.

Organize texts around the classroom

Texts should be displayed “gallery-style” - in a way that allows students to

disperse themselves around the room, with several students clustering around a
particular text. Texts can be hung on walls or placed on tables. The most
important factor is that the texts are spread far enough apart to reduce significant
Instruct students on how to walk through the gallery

Viewing instructions will depend on your goals for the activity. If the purpose of
the gallery walk is to introduce students to new material, you might want them to
take informal notes as they walk around the room. If the purpose of the gallery
walk is for students to take away particular information, you can create a graphic
organizer for students to complete as they view the “exhibit,” or compile a list of
questions for them to answer based on the texts on display. Sometimes teachers
ask students to identify similarities and differences among a collection of texts.
Or, teachers give students a few minutes to tour the room and then, once seated,
ask them to record impressions about what they saw. Students can take a gallery
walk on their own or with a partner. You can also have them travel in small
groups, announcing when groups should move to the next piece in the exhibit.
One direction that should be emphasized is that students are supposed to
disperse themselves around the room. When too many students cluster around
one text, it not only makes it difficult for students to view the text, but it also
increases the likelihood of off-task behavior.
Methods and strategies of teaching- jerin

1. BY <br />JERIN C ISSAC<br />M.Ed Pondicherry University<br />METHODS

2. The biggest challenge before a teacher is the presentation of a lesson. <br
/>If this presentation is effective, students can reach the goals of life by
acquisition of knowledge and if the teacher is unsuccessful in his presentation, it
is impossible to reach the educational objectives.<br />INTRODUCTION<br />
3. Method of teaching is directly related to the presentation of the lesson.
Which a teacher should use, depends on the nature of the subject, and the tact of
the teacher . <br />METHOD OF TEACHING<br />
4. There are four methods of presenting the subject matter.<br /> 1. TELLING
METHOD; Lecture method, Discussion method, Story telling method and so
on.<br /> 2 .DOING METHOD; Project method, Problem solving method, Textbook
method and so on.<br /> 3 .VISUAL METHOD; Demonstration method, Supervised
study method and so on.<br /> 4 .MENTAL MEHOD; Inductive, Deductive,
Analysis, Synthesis method etc.<br />METHOD OF TEACHING<br />
5. STRATEGY: - Strategy is the art and science of directing and controlling the
movements and activities of the army. If strategy is good, we can get victory over
our enemies. In teaching this term is meant those procedures and methods by
which objectives of teaching are realized in the class.<br />STRATEGIES OF
6. Stone and Morris have defined teaching strategy in the following words;<br
/> “Teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure,
instructional objectives and an outline of planned tactics, necessary to implement
the strategies”. <br />Definition<br />
7. Strategy can be summarized as<br />Teaching is the generalized plan of the
whole lesson plan.<br />It consists of structure of teaching, objectives of teaching
and techniques of evaluation of teaching.<br />In strategy of teaching, realization
of objectives is given more importance than presentation of lesson.<br />A
strategy does not follow a single track all the time, but it changes according to the
demands of the situations such as age, level, needs, interests and abilities of the
students. Thus strategy is more comprehensive than method.<br />It is
directional in nature. It refers to goal directed activities of the teachers. Thus, it is
more close to science than arts.<br />
8. It is that procedure by which new knowledge fixed in the minds of students
permanently. For this purpose, a teacher does extra activities in the class. <br
/>These activities help the teacher to take shift from one strategy to another.
Thus, teaching tactics are that behavior of the teacher which he manifests in the
classi.e., the developments of the teaching strategies,giving proper stimulus for
timely responses, drilling the learnt resposes,increasing the responses by extra
activities and so on. <br />TACTICS OF TEACHING<br />
9. TEACHING METHOD<br />TEACHING STRATEGY<br />When we try to achieve
some objectives by any method it becomes strategies.<br />Strategy is actually a
combination of different method.<br />For E.g. Lecture or textbook or question
answer method can be never be used separately.<br />It is a macro approach.<br
/>It considers teaching as science.<br />Its purpose is to create conducive
learning environment.<br />It is based on modern theories of organization.<br
/>(pre determined objectives, becomes strategy)<br />Behavior of students and
teachers and their mutual relationship.<br />It is limited to the presentation of
subject matter.<br />Methods come under strategy.<br />It is a micro
approach.<br />Teaching as an art.<br />Effective presentation of subject
matter.<br />Classical Theory of human organization.<br />Work is important.<br
/> <br />
10. Selection of using strategies depends on the nature of organization of
human activities. Teaching strategies are divided into two;<br />Autocratic<br
/>Democratic<br />TYPES OF TEACHING STRATEGIES.<br />
11. Teacher centered methods<br />Teacher exercise full control over student,
they are given least chance to act freely.<br />They can do what they are allowed
to do.<br />Banking concept.<br />AUTOCARTIC TEAHING STRATEGY<br />
12. STORY TELLING METHOD<br /> Tell the students real time stories,
anecdotes about great men, women, rulers, prophets, saints to develop-qualities
of truth, honesty, perseverance, courage, co-operation or creativity-identification
of characters, empathizes.<br />AUTOCRATIC METHODS<br />
13. Story should be interesting<br />Natural sequence should be
maintained.<br />Character should be elaborated to the demanding
situations.<br />Actions-Story should be full of actions.<br />Phrases and figures
of speech should be used.<br />Story should be purposeful.<br
14. Increase interests of the people.<br /> Improves vocabulary.<br />Increase
in Imaginative power.<br />Develop good qualities.<br />Lively environment.<br
/> APPLICATIONS<br />Used languages and social sciences<br />ADVANDAGES<br
15. Traditional method<br />A teacher delivers a lecture on different point on
any topic in a serial order and asks several questions. <br />Logical and sequential
presentation of the content.<br />LECTURE METHOD<br />
16. Content should be systematized in a logical and systematic manner.<br
/>Listeners should not find any gap <br />Language should be easy, clear and
understandable.<br />Question should be asked to the student in between the
lecture.<br />Material aids such as chart, graph, and picture should be used.<br
17. Important points should be written on board.<br />Illustration should be
given.<br />There should be sufficient flow in lecture, avoid use of notes and
books during lecture.<br />Lecture should not be too long, short lecture is
recommended.<br />Minimize seriousness and dullness by adding humor.<br
18. For introducing a new lesson<br />Cognitive and affective domains can be
developed.<br />More content can be presented.<br />Lays much stress on
presentation thereby developing ability of presentation in students also.<br
/>Concentration for a longer period of time<br /> <br />APPLICATION<br /> All
school subjects can be taught.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
19. Teacher shows all the activities given in the lesson to the students as an
action and explains the important points before them during demonstration.<br
/> The teacher follows three steps <br />Introduce the lesson by question answer
or lecture method.<br />Demonstrate each and every aspects of the lesson and
develops it through activities.<br />He make the student drill of the subject
matter for assimilation.<br />He ask evaluative question and the desired skill is
developed through imitation of the action.<br />DEMONSTRATION<br />
20. 1. Teacher should prepare well what and how he has to demonstrate in the
class <br />2. Students should be given enough chance to remove their doubts
after the demonstration<br />3. Afterwards the activity students should be asked
to repeat the demo.<br />4. Important point should be explained by short
lectures during the process of demonstration.<br />5. The demo. Process should
be divided into many phases and students should be evaluated after every
phase<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
21. It is helpful in teaching skills in training institutions.<br />Lower and middle
level of objective cognitive and psychomotor domains can be easily achieved
through this method.<br />Useful in teaching science subject in schools <br
/>Every practical work needs demonstration<br />Observation and thinking
capacity of students can be developed.<br />Senses of students can also be
trained <br />APPLICATION<br />This method is applicable in teaching science
crafts arts and agriculture.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
22. All class is divided in two different groups of common features.<br />The
division is made on the basis of difficulty level of different subjects.<br />Every
group is handed to different teachers separately.<br />Here teachers find out the
individual problem of students and then he individually guides them to remove
this problem.<br />If difficulty of whole group is similar, group teaching and group
guidance can be given.<br />TUTORIAL METHOD<br />
23. Students of same capacity or same weakness should be kept in same
group.<br />The behavior of teacher should be unbiased at the time of guidance
to ensure equal chance of progress.<br />It should be done by experienced and
expert teachers.<br />Every student should be motivated to tell his problems
frankly so as to get the benefits.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
In this methods, the bright students discusses their problem with their teacher
and weak students are asked to do drill work after removing their difficulties<br
/>This system is close to democratic.<br />GROUP TUTORIAL:- In this method, the
teacher to remove the difficulties of average students, this is needed when level
of class room teaching is low from the point of view of the students<br
/>PRACTICAL TUTORIAL: - In this system, the students work with teacher in lab.
Psychomotor domain is especially developed through this approach. <br />
25. It is a type of remedial teaching.<br />Teacher can teach in the class
keeping the individual differences due to the small size of the class.<br />Absence
of previous knowledge can be compensated.<br />Every student gets the chance
to express his problem openly and individually.<br /> APPLICATION <br
/>Teaching natural science and mathematics.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
26. These strategies are child centered.<br />Interest, capacities, attitudes,
needs of learners are taken to account.<br />It develop affective and cognitive
domain.<br />Maximum interaction between teachers and students are
seeing.<br />Both students and teachers are equally active.<br />Purpose-all
round development of learners.<br />Teachers works as helpers and guide<br />
27. It is an oral method like question and answer method.<br />Maximum
interaction between teachers and students can be seen.<br />Discussion can be
formal and informal. Formal discussions are arranged for the purpose of achieving
predetermined objectives hence rules are also predetermined.<br />Informal
discussions are neither objective oriented nor rules are predetermined.<br
28. Teacher and students discuss in the class whenever it becomes
necessary.<br />In formal discussion, teacher divides the class in to different
groups and gives the topic of the discussion to each group.<br />Every group has
a leader to anchor and conduct the discussion.<br />Leader raises new topics of
discussion.<br />In the end, teacher draws the conclusion of the discussion with
the help of leaders.<br />DISCUSSSION METHOD (Cont.)<br />
29. Ensure maximum participation.<br />Students have the opportunity to
criticize and evaluate.<br />Logical and meaningful criticism should be
accepted.<br />Students should anchor the discussion themselves.<br />Keeping
teachers as guide.<br />Teacher selects the topic only with the help of
students.<br />Students who have leadership quality should be selected for
anchoring.<br />Relevant topic should only be considered.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br
30. ADVANTAGES<br />Thinking and communicating powers can be
developed.<br />Leadership quality can be developed.<br />Expression ability can
be developed.<br />Problem solving ability can be developed.<br />Develop
creative potentials of the students.<br />Attitudes and interest of students can be
drown out towards learning.<br />Higher level cognitive and affective objectives
can be realized through classs room discussion.<br />APPLICATION<br />All
subject except mathematics, art, music, dance can be taught.<br />
31. Literary means high discover<br />Students learns themselves<br />Teacher
raises problematic situations before the students.<br />He guides them from
there will get materials to the solutions of the problems.<br />Individual
discovery of the solutions to the problem by trial and error method.<br
32. Five steps involved in the methods are:-<br />(a) Presentation of the
problem.<br />(b) Giving information about material and techniques helpful in
solving the problem.<br />(c) Hypothesis formulation by the students
themselves.<br />(d) Data collection for testing of the hypothesis.<br />(e)
Testing the hypothesis-accepting the true hypothesis and rejecting the falls
hypothesis. <br />PROCEDURES<br />
33. Teachers should help in formulating hypothesis.<br />They should help in
gathering the resources.<br />Doubts should be removed.<br />Students should
be given chance to go further on the basis of trial and error, theory of learning.<br
34. Knowledge through self study and self learning.<br />Learning through
investigation an research.<br />There by developing scientific attitudes.<br
/>Increase self confidence of the students.<br />Motivates students to accept
newer and newer challenges.<br />Highest level of cognitive objectives can be
achieved.<br /> <br />APPLICATION<br /> Useful in teaching mathematics and
science.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
35. Used in social science to clarify facts and concepts unlike heuristic method
used in science to formulate or testify laws and principles.<br />Facts and
concepts are explained in an objective manner unlike heuristic method where
subject matter is comprehended subjectively.<br />Discovery is related to past
events while heurism is concerned with phenomena at present.<br />E.g.
“Courses of Aurangzeb’s failure in south India” is a discovery and “Causes of law
productivity of agriculture lands in India is a heuristic method.<br />DISCOVERY
METHOD<br />
36. This method was propounded by W.H Kilpatrick.<br />Pupil is assigned a
project which has direct utility for the students.<br />Students work on the
project under the guidance of the teacher.<br />Find out the solution of the
problem based on their experience.<br />PROJECT METHOD<br />
37. Student follows a collective approach in project method unlike individual
problem solving as in Heuristic method.<br />The problem given in the form of
project is real while the problem of heurism may be real as well as imaginary.<br
/>The approach of the project is productive, here something useful is created.
Unlike heurism which is analytical.<br />
38. Constructive project<br />Pupils work physically in or outside the class like
writing letters, essays on given topics, preparing fields for games , playing drama
etc.<br />Aesthetic project<br />Appreciation powers of students are
developed.<br />Presentation of music programmes, decorating a hall,
beautification of lawn etc.<br />TYPES OF PROJECT<br />
39. Problematic project.<br />Students learn solutions of life- related problems
such as studying the effect of balance diet on health, advantages of physical
exercise on body fitness, Causes of family disputes and their solution etc.<br
/>Drill project.<br /> <br /> Working capabilities and automation of students are
increased. <br />Filling in the map, coloring the arts and pictures, solving
mathematical sums etc.<br />
40. Principles of purpose<br />Principles of utility<br />Principles of
freedom<br />Principles of activity<br />Principles of reality<br />Principles of
prior planning<br /> <br />PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT METOD<br />
41. 1. Creating situation:- Teacher creating situation in the class that student
propose themselves to work on the project .<br />High level of motivation is
found in students. Teacher tells them the method and procedure of the
project.<br />2. Selection of the project:- Six principles as mentioned above are
taken into consideration.<br />Teacher helps the student to select the project on
the basis of their interests.<br />STEPS INVOLVED<br />
42. 3. Planning:- Teacher discusses various points of the project with the
students. Students take part on discussion.<br />After discussion, teacher writes
down the whole programmmes of action step wise on the black board. Grouping
is also done.<br />
43. 4. Execution:- Students first upon select relevant facts, information and
material and each groups works on the project separately and complete it within
time limit.<br />5. Evaluation:- When project gets completed ,it is first criticized
and evaluated by the students themselves within the group and when fully
satisfied report to the teacher.<br />6. Rporting:- Students write each and every
steps of the project that is how they did. The report may submit to the
teacher.<br />
44. Based on principles of learning.<br />Law of readiness<br />Law of
exercise<br />Law of effect<br />Related to real life situation- Students learn how
to solve real life problems in life.<br />Work experience-Students get real
experience of working by their projects and the learning which is associated with
doing is more stable and meaningful.<br />Inculcation of democratic values-They
learn coopration, tolerance, mutual acceptance.<br />A boon for weak students-It
is a boon since students work in group collectively.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
45. ROLE PLAYING METHOD<br />Students are given a chance to play the role
of teacher.<br />It is a dramatic method.<br />Teacher teaches the topic and the
students one by one teaches the same topic to the class.<br />When he teaches
all his classmates answer his questions.<br />They not down the shortcoming of
the student teacher.<br />This teaching is later criticized and suggestions for
improvement are given.<br />Drama in literature is also thought to this
method.<br />This method is usually adopted in training colleges.<br />
46. Subject teacher, he is advice to be present in the class at the time of role
play.<br />He should be there in the class at the time of criticism.<br />The topic
of teaching for the purpose of role playing should same for all for comparison.<br
/>All the observers should note down the short comings of all teachers selected
for the purpose.<br />Discussion based on memory and recall is
recommended.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
47. Repeated teaching of the same topic increases learning.<br />Practice
makes a man perfect and a critical observation make man alert.<br />It increases
social skills of students<br />Students learn the methods of analysis, synthesis
and evaluation.<br />Develop critical power of the students.<br />Remove their
own mistakes through imitation.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
48. The basic assumption of this method of teaching is that a group of pupils
can give more ideas than a single person.<br />Problem can be analyses and
evaluating more comprehensively.<br />A problem is given to students and there
asked to put forward their views on this problem one by one.<br />Thus many
views regarding the nature of the problem, its causes and its possible solutions
come to light.<br />Conclusion is drawn after evaluating these jumbled ideas.<br
49. This method being problem centered, it should be meaningful and related
to real life situation.<br />All views of students are welcome and relevant views
should be isolated from them later on.<br />The views of students will be either
written or typed.<br />SUGGESITONS<br />
50. Cognitive and affective objectives can be achieved.<br />Good ideas can be
inculcated.<br />Imaginative power of students can be developed.<br
/>MERITS<br />
51. THANK YOU<br />

Think-pair-share (TPS) is a collaborative learning strategy in which

students work together to solve a problem or answer a question about an
assigned reading. This technique requires students to (1) think individually about
a topic or answer to a question; and (2) share ideas with classmates