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Introduction

People in Bacoor are still suffering in health problems due to the improper waste

disposal. Examples include garbage that's not segregated, littering, hazardous items and items

that need to be recycled but not recycle. One of the causes of this problem is the misbehavior of

the Bacoor people towards waste management.

Waste management includes the act of processing, managing, monitoring and collecting

waste materials. These waste materials were produce by human activity. Waste management

helps to reduce the effect of improper waste disposal. Taking actions without thinking about the

possibilities or consequences may result to a problem that may affect the health of human being.

Improper disposing of waste can cause illness to people and has a large impact and can cause

serious problem to one’s health. Disease pathway associated with the poor handling of solid

waste. Waste can be the source of floods, pollutions and can cause serious health epidemics in a

population.

City of Bacoor is the first class City in the Cavite Province, Philippines. Bacoor City has

73 barangays of which 10 are coastal and 63 are inland barangay and it has 2 districts. In one

place with many people are expected to have lots of waste. Segregation is effective when there

are less waste goes to landfill. RA 9003 declares the policy of the state in adopting a systematic,

comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program that ensures the protection of

public health and the environment and the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage,

treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of best

environmental practices. The most essential tool is to have campaigns that will provide a public

awareness to everyone.

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This research will help the community in conducting clean up drive to ensure that waste

materials are disposed of responsibly.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the causes and effects of improper waste disposal to

health, specifically in Bacoor City, Cavite.

1. What are the right ways to manage "improper waste disposal" problem?

2. How can we prevent improper waste disposal in Bacoor City, Cavite?

3. Why do people in Bacoor still continue these bad habits?

4. What are the actions that the Bacoor Officials created against this matter?

Definition of Terms

For a better understanding of this study, the following terms are defined operationally.

Disposal. It is the act of disposing or getting rid of something.

Improper. This means not correct or simply means inaccurate

Management. It is the act of managing or controlling people or things.

Segregate. It is the act of separating or isolating some

Segregation. The separation or isolation of something.

Waste. Something that is no longer useful; worthless materials or things.

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Significance of the Study

Bacoor City Officials. This research will serve as a guide in creating programs about

waste segregation that’ll help in developing the environment in Bacoor City, Cavite. As of now,

the waste management responsibility has been left to the government or administrative

authorities. Through this study, Bacoor City officials will provide powerful programs that could

enhance the programs that the local barangays in the City would conduct.

Students. This study reveals the necessity of giving mass awareness to the impact of

waste disposal practices from the beginning of school education. Committed environmental

education will inculcate a proper and appropriate environmental culture in the students. Students

will be aware of their surroundings, this will help them to improve their ability to be more active

in cleaning and to be more productive. The knowledge of students will also benefits the

community.

Market Vendors and Consumers. Thisresearch will also help many people in Bacoor

City to know what they might get from their bad actions against nature and environment.

Diseases that Bacoor people might get and the other negative effects of these bad habits would

be explain properly in this study. Segregation is important for public health. People will be aware

and will be inform about this matter. There are ways and solutions stated in this study that will

benefit the Bacoor market vendors and consumers.

Readers. Not just Bacoor people would benefits to this study but also the other readers.

As a result, each individual would be aware on how to improve and develop the environment to

overcome the health problem. They would know what is the importance of waste segregation and

3R’s (Reduce, Re-Use and Recycle).

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Researchers. The proposed study will benefits and help the future researchers. This will

also serves as their guide in taking additional or new actions. This research is also open in

development of this study.

Scopes and Limitations

The scope of the study focuses on the improper waste disposal where people in Cavite

Bacoor are having a major problem because of the improper disposal of filth. It intends to have

an interview about improper waste disposal that result to poor health of the Bacoor people. There

is a growing realization of the negative impacts that wastes have had on the local environment

that affects the health of people. Then in this research, it would identify the main reasons on why

garbage isn’t properly disposed of, and how we can help to prevent further damage to the

environment. Public health must be protected. It is also focuses on how the practices of the

people in the community can deeply affect, not just to nature but also to their health.

Researchers are aiming to have more knowledge on how to understand the situation and

create right actions to solve the problem of improper waste disposal in Bacoor City, Cavite. This

study is also focusing on how to have an effective waste management in this specific City and

about the actions or policies that were created by the Officials or the Mayor of the City.

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This Chapter presents some foreign and local literatures and studies which the

researchers deem relevant with the present study. Such literatures and studies cited paved the

way in determining the extent of how far researchers have gone through along the area under

investigation.

Local and Foreign Studies

Improper waste disposal is one of the common and major problems in Bacoor City,

Cavite. This presents further information that is relevant to the present study. These are facts

taken from other studies that will strengthen the validity of results.

Zero waste is a philosophy of waste management that has a purpose in decreasing total

of waste to zero. Zero waste initiatives work toward extending current practices of

recyclingand reuse into a circular waste system.This strategy“maximizes recycling, minimizes

waste, reduces consumption and ensures that products are made

to bereused, repaired or recycled back into nature or the marketplace.”(Taken from website)

According to Iyyanki Muralikrishna and Valli Manickam from Research Gate

(December, 2017), “Without an effective and efficient waste management program, the waste

generated from various human activities, both industrial and domestic, can result in health

hazards and have a negative impact on the environment.” To have a clean and safe environment,

it must have an effective and efficient waste management program. It is a way for an area to have

health protection. Each barangay in the specific City must be responsible for the segregation of

waste sources, collection of biodegradable and recyclable components.

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“There is no material in this world, which is not useful in one-way or the other. Also

there is no material, which is created out of nothing. It is man’s ignorance that he considers

certain things as waste and other thing as useful. Just as types of wastes are changing, so mustthe

attitude of people towards waste must change. People must realize that the solution lies inusing

waste as a resource rather than to be destroyed. Only due to hazardous to human health, some of

these undesirable substances cannot be directly reused”. (Asmawati Desa, 2012)

According to the study, students’ awareness about environmental problems and

solutionscan be increased through education. Skills and knowledge gained from environmental

education would help them in changing human behavior towards the environment. Students with

some knowledge and skills on environmental education are more motivated to take part in

environmental protection activities and plans. Thus, would generate new ideas for the solution of

environmental problems.

According to studies, most of the tones of waste are improperly disposed materials.

Unfortunately this practice has been identified as one of the main causes of pollution and is

becoming a growing concern for both government and environmentalist as it poses serious

threats to health and the environment. Soil, water and air pollution can all be a result of improper

waste disposal and occurs when either of them becomes contaminated with hazardous

materials. Apart from this improper waste disposal can also have adverse health effects on

humans as over the years it has been responsible for causing several diseases and in some cases

even death. Energy conservation and recycling are also great ways to eliminate improper waste

disposal and keep the environment safe.

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Local and Foreign Literature

This research identifies the improper waste disposal in Bacoor City, Cavite. Humans are

part of the environment which can be affected negatively by solid waste management. It has

three basic components which is the 3R’s—the reduce, reuse and recycle. It’s objective is to

reduce the quantity of solid waste disposed of on by recovery of materials and energy from solid

waste in a cost effective and environmental friendly manner (Thegef.org, 2018).

Improper waste disposal is one of the biggest environmental issues here in the

Philippines. It caused bigger problems that affect not only the environment but also the health

and life of the people. This problem may be resolve or it will remain a problem to the country in

the next few years. Mismanagement of the waste disposal has a serious effect on ground and

surface water contamination, flooding, air pollution, water pollution etc. People will suffer in the

next years of existence if we continue this kind of activity. Health security maybe not secured or

guarded when it comes to drinking contaminated water because of the improper disposal of the

waste.(Written by Mary Joy Glean on August 14, 2017)

According to the article of Julian Torres, “JT” that he posted in the site of Hazardous

Waste, junk removal and he tagged of junk hauling companies on August 9, 2017 that the

Improper Waste Disposal has dangerous effects. According to him the recent studies conducted

reveal that out of the millions of tons of waste generated throughout the United States annually a

large percentage is improperly disposed. Unfortunately this practice has been identified as one of

the main causes of pollution and is becoming a growing concern for both government and

environmentalist as it poses serious threats to health and the environment. So to manage these

authorities have implemented strict waste management regulations and heavy penalties to

violators in order to enforce and promote safe waste disposal practices throughout the country.

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Also according to his article that Improper Waste Disposal is a Deadly Practice he said

the Soil, water and air pollution can all be a result of improper waste disposal and occurs when

either of them becomes contaminated with hazardous materials. Not only does this contribute to

the creation of a greenhouse gas effects but also causes significant harm to marine and wildlife.

Apart from this improper waste disposal can also have adverse health effects on humans

as over the years it has been responsible for causing several diseases and in some cases even

death. For instance when water is contaminated with foreign substances, like harmful pathogens,

toxic chemicals or medical waste its chemical composition changes making it harmful to use.

Diseases like Cholera, Dysentery and Leptospirosis are known to be spread through

contaminated water and can cause serious health epidemics in a population.

Another example of the dangerous effects of improper waste disposal is soil

contamination which occurs when hazardous chemicals come into contact with the soil. These

chemicals are absorbed by plants which are later utilized by other organisms including humans

which as a result can cause disease or even death. Improper waste disposal can also interfere

with the food supply as plant growth is impaired reducing the amount of food produced.

According to the articles of Paragati Ghosh there are main causes for rapid growth in the

quantity of solid waste. Paragati Ghosh is born in Gurgaon, Haryana, India according to her

profile she is Over 10 years of marketing communication experience includes managing multi-

country projects for developing markets. She’s skilled in Marketing Management, Customer

Insight, Market Research, and Advertising and Strong business development professional with a

Master of Arts (MA) in Mass Communication/Media Studies. And according to her article that

she posts in LinkedIn we have four main causes for growth in the quantity of solid waste.

Overpopulation:

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Due to increasing industrialization and population large quantities of wastes are being

generated in different forms such as- solid, liquid, sludge and gases. Each city produces tones of

solid wastes daily from households, hospitals, industry offices, market centers etc.

Some of these are biodegradable some are non biodegradable and Hazardous waste.

Wastes are directly thrown away on the street roads, city garbage collecting places etc. Out of

which most of it still remain there, which later pile up and chocks cities drainage lines.

Urbanization:

Due to pressure of urbanization most of the cities are growing fast and sometimes they

develop beyond the planned limits. Generally the unplanned areas of the city contain a quarter of

the total population, where the spatial information is missing because of non-availability of up-

to-date maps. Earlier waste disposal did not pose problem due to less population and lack of

public awareness. But due to rapid urbanization, proportionate increase in domestic and

industrial solid waste generation was observed in large cities.

Affluence:

With the affluence, there is a tendency to declare items as being in or out of fashion and

the items those are out of fashion results solid waste pollution.

Technology:

As the country achieves the economical goals, the countries invest more over technology.

With the development in technology, there is a shift from natural goods to the artificial ones,

those are generally non-biodegradable by nature such as plastic, and DDT etc. these non-

biodegradable products are largely responsible for causing solid waste pollution because they

persist unchanged in disposal operations such as landfills.

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According to the study conducted by James Lactao (2008), unlike the garbage of long

ago, our present rubbish includes syntheticmaterials that keep piling up unlike natural ones that

degrade and eventually returnto earth. Thus, disposal becomes a problem. Aside from this,

garbage is also ahealth hazard- being a melting pot of all sorts of disease. As today’s

throwingawaysociety consumes more and more products, we also generate more and morewaste.

Much of this waste gets burned in incinerators or buried in landfills,

causinga series of environmental problems including water pollution and loss of open space.

‘Solid waste’ includes all non-liquid wastes coming from all human activities and a range

of solid waste material that lead to health-hazards that can harm each individual in society.

General domestic garbage such as food waste, ash and packaging materials. Emergency waste

such as plastic water bottles and packaging from other emergency supplies. Other specialist

wastes, such as medical waste from hospitals and toxic waste from industry.

According to World Health Organization (WHO),if food is scarce, people may be forced

to scavenge through garbage which will lead to increased cases of disease such as dysentery as

well as increased exposure to rodents and insects as possible disease vectors; heaps of garbage

which may present a fire risk; burning waste which can contribute to health hazards such as

smoke which can contain toxins or chemicals and; breathing difficulties, including exacerbations

of chronic conditions such as asthma, which can arise from the burning of garbage in areas as

well as from fungi and mold that develop on garbage. It also says that garbage washed by rain

which can contaminate water supplies and soil used for agriculture as well as food supplies.

Indiscriminate dumping of waste cans which can block water courses causing flooding.

Electronic debris and batteries which can lead to leakage of heavy metals or toxins and

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contamination of drinking water from pharmaceuticals, including non-biodegradable antibiotics,

anti-neoplastics and disinfectants.

Over the last few decades, the dumping and burning of garbage generated in cities, towns

and villages in lands and water bodies have resulted in serious air, soil and water pollution.

Zero Waste Management minimizes waste disposal at dumpsites and reduces pollution of air,

ground water and soil that result from dumping.

Synthesis of Review of Related Literature

Improper waste disposal is one of the biggest environmental issues here in Bacoor City,

Cavite. It caused bigger problems that affect not only the environment but also the health and life

of the people.

Improper Waste Disposal is throwing away waste in a way that has it has a negative

effect in the environment and can cause illness to humans. It is known as a global issue that

every country faces nowadays. Examples include littering. Dangerous waste that is thrown

anywhere can harm everybody. According to romanodisposal.com, improper disposal of waste

will also cause harm to animals since they rely on the environment to survive. Dangerous

chemicals that wash away into the landfills can find their way into plants that are finally

consumed by both animals and humans. From being an eyesore to releasing toxins, chemicals,

improper waste disposal on any scale can create a bad effect in our environment, health problems

and even economic concerns. This is also true for more established landfill destinations, which

are frequently unlined. The lining of landfills prevents toxic substances from being released into

the ground water based on study provided by hunker.com.

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As what James Lactao said in his study, disposal becomes a problem. Aside from this,

garbage is also ahealth hazard- being a melting pot of all sorts of disease. Lots of people will

suffer if this problem will still unstoppable.

“There is no material in this world, which is not useful in one-way or the other. Also,

there is no material, which is created out of nothing. It is man’s ignorance that he considers

certain things as waste and other thing as useful. Just as types of wastes are changing, so mustthe

attitude of people towards waste must change. People must realize that the solution lies inusing

waste as a resource rather than to be destroyed. Only due to hazardous to human health, some of

these undesirable substances cannot be directly reused”. (Asmawati Desa, 2012). As what she

has said, people must change their own attitude and behavior towards improper waste disposal

and must give attention to have better waste management to improve the environment. Stop

mismanagement and start segregating waste. Clean and safe environment will give a positive

outcome that each living individual will benefit. Neat surroundings can influence everybody to

improve one’s behavior.

School campaigns and focused on recycling can increase awareness and better

attitudestoward solid waste management among children and their parents. Reports on solid

wastemanagement recommended that recycling habit needs to be established in relation

tosustainability solid waste.

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METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the research methodology for this qualitative

research. A qualitative study is appropriate when the goal of research is to explain a phenomenon

by relying on the perception of a person’s experience in a given situation (Stake, 2010).

Research Design and Method

Qualitative research is a process of naturalistic inquiry that seeks in-depth understanding

of social phenomena within their natural setting. It focuses on the "why" rather than the "what"

of social phenomena and relies on the direct experiences of human beings as meaning-making

agents in their everyday lives. Rather than by logical and statistical procedures, qualitative

researchers use multiple systems of inquiry for the study of human phenomena including

biography, case study, historical analysis, discourse analysis, ethnography, grounded theory and

phenomenology.Qualitative research is concerned with understanding and words.

Researchers conducted qualitative research to understand the views and perceptions of

other people regarding the topic problem.Through qualitative research, researchers can capture

the expressive information about the beliefs, feelings and opinions of respondents to gain deep

understanding and allows the researchersto examine their conclusion.

Respondents of the Study

Respondents are those persons who have been randomly chosen to participate in a

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particular study. Students, market vendors, consumers, barangay officials and those people who

live near in the place where there are pile of garbages have actually taken part in this study.

Method of Collecting data

The study was carried out using an interview.Interview is a meeting of people face to face

especially for consultation.The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-

verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses.Interviews are excellent tools to

understand the meaning and significant of the ways in which individuals participate in a various

religious communities. Interviews are the face to face meetings arrange with participants.

The researchers used one-on-one method of data collection by answering several

questions to verify information gathered from written sources, to clarify points of information

and to update information. some interviewees may be less self-conscious in a one-to-one

situation.

Sampling Technique

A sample is a group in a research study in which information is obtained or a population

selected for observation and analysis. It is a representative of a population taken to show what’s

the results are like. Sidhu (2003:67) stresses the importance of sampling and further explains that

if the population is very large, it can be satisfactorily covered through sampling. Sampling

technique are categorized into two, that is probability and non- probability samplingmethods. In

qualitative research, there are various sampling techniques that you can use when recruiting

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participants.Sampling procedures include random, judgmental, stratified and systematic

sampling.

For the purpose of this research, simple random sampling technique that was used to find

the right sample size.Every member and set of members has an equal chance of being included

in the sample. Random samples are usually fairly representative since they do not favor certain

members.

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