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The resultant deformation of the body is equal to the algebraic sum of the deformation of the individual section. Such

principle is called as principle of super position.

A composite bar composed of two or more different materials joined together such that the system is elongated or

compressed in a single unit.

If the body is allowed to expand or contract freely, with the rise or fall of temperature no stress is developed, but if free

expansion is prevented the stress developed is called temperature stress or strain. It is also called as Thermal stress and

strain.

Principle stress: The magnitude of normal stress, acting on a principal plane is known as principal stresses.

Principle plane: The planes which have no shear stress are known as principal planes.

Whenever a body is strained, some amount of energy is absorbed in the body. The energy which is absorbed in

the body due to straining effect is known as strain energy

The planes, which have no shear stress, are known as principal planes. These planes carry only normal stresses.

UNIT –II

Define: Beam

BEAM is a structural member which is supported along the length and subjected to external loads acting

transversely (i.e.,) perpendicular to the center line of the beam.

If a load is acting on the beam which perpendicular to the central line of it then it is called transverse loading.

A beam whose one end is free and the other end is fixed is called cantilever beam.

A beam supported or resting free on the support at its both ends is called simply supported beam.

If one or both of the end portions are extended beyond the support then it is called over hanging beam.

If a load which is spread over a beam in such a manner that rate of loading w, is uniform throughout the length then

it is called as udl.

It is the point where the B.M is zero after changing its sign from positive to negative or vice versa. It occurs

in overhanging beam.

The BM is said to be positive if moment of the forces on the left side of beam is clockwise and on the right side

of the beam is anti-clockwise.

(or)

The BM is said to be positive if the BM at that section is such that it tends to bend the beam to a curvature having

concavity at the top.

The BM is said to be negative if moment of the forces on the left side of beam is anti-clockwise and on the right side

of the beam is clockwise.

(or)

The BM is said to be positive if the BM at that section is such that it tends to bend the beam to a curvature having

convexity at the top.

SF at any cross section is defined as algebraic sum of the vertical forces acting either side of beam.

BM at any cross section is defined as algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces which are placed either

side from that point.

What is maximum bending moment in a simply supported beam of span ‘L’ subjected to UDL of ‘w’ over

entire span?

Max BM =wL2/8

In a simply supported beam how will you locate point of maximum bending moment?

The bending moment is maximum when SF is zero. Writing SF equation at that point and equating to zero we can

find out the distances x from one end .then find maximum bending moment at that point by taking moment on right

or left hand side of beam.

It shows the variation of the shear force and bending moment along the length of the beam.

Cantilever beam, simply supported beam, fixed beam, continuous beam, over hanging beam.

Concentrated load or point load, uniform distributed load (udl), uniform varying load (uvl).

UNIT III

The transverse section which was plane before bending remains plane after bending also.

Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract independently about the layer, above or below.

M/ I = σ /Y = E/R

M - Maximum bending moment; I - Moment of inertia

The N.A of any transverse section is defined as the line of intersection of the neutral layer with the transverse

section.

Due to pure bending, the layers above the N.A are subjected to compressive stresses, whereas the layers below

the N.A are subjected to tensile stresses. Due to these stresses, the forces will be acting on the layers. These

forces will have moment about the N.A. The total moment of these forces about the N.A for a section is known

as moment of resistance of the section.

Section modulus is defined as the ratio of moment of inertia of a section about the N.A to the distance of the

outermost layer from the N.A.

Section modulus,

I = Moment of Inertia of whole section about NA

The shear stress distribution in a rectangular section is parabolic and is given by

State the main assumptions while deriving the general formula for shear stresses

The presence of shear stress does not affect the distribution of bending stress.

The variation of shear stress along the depth of the beam is called shear stress distribution

What is the ratio of maximum shear stress to the average shear stress for the rectangular section?

What is the ratio of maximum shear stress to the average shear stress for solid circular section?

What is the shear stress distribution value of Flange portion of the I-section?

D- depth of flange

In the case of triangular section, the shear stress is not max at N A. The shear stress is max at a height

of h/2

What are the different sections in which the shear stress distribution is to be obtained?

The stress produced in a beam, which is subjected to shear forces is known as shear stresses.

q = F/3I [R2-y2]

The shear stress distribution I -section is parabolic, but at the junction of web and flange, the shear stress changes

abruptly.

Where D = over all depth of the section d = Depth of the web b = Thickness of web

How will you obtained shear stress distribution for unsymmetrical section?

The shear stress distribution for Unsymmetrical sections is obtained after calculating the position of N A.

The shear stress distribution diagram for a composite section, should be drawn by calculating the shear stress at

important points.

UNIT –IV

What are the methods for finding out the slope and deflection at a section?

The important methods used for finding out the slope and deflection at a section in a loaded beam are

1. Double integration method

3. Macaulay’s method

The first two methods are suitable for a single load, where as the last one is suitable for several

loads.

Why moment area method is more useful, when compared with double integration?

Moment area method is more useful, as compared with double integration method because many problems which

do not have a simple mathematical solution can be simplified by the moment area method.

In Macaulay’s method, a single equation is formed for all loading on a beam, the equation is constructed in such a

way that the constant of Integration can be applied to all portions of the beam. This method is also called method of

singularity functions.

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