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SMK. ST.

FRANCIS CONVENT (M), 88000 KOTA KINABALU, SABAH

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2013

STATISTICS OF STUDENTS’ SCORES IN AN EXAMINATION

NAME : Noor Shazlien bt. M. Jamal

CLASS : 5 Pure Science 1

I/C NUMBER :

EXAM REGISTRATION NO:


CONTENTS
 Acknowledgement......................................................................................... 2

 Objectives..................................................................................................... 3

 Introduction................................................................................................... 4

 Task Specification......................................................................................... 8

 Part 1............................................................................................................. 9

 Part 2............................................................................................................. 17

 Part 3............................................................................................................. 25

 Further Exploration........................................................................................ 26

 Conclusion.................................................................................................... 28

 Reflection...................................................................................................... 29

 Bibliography.................................................................................................. 30

1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express gratitude to God for His guidance, the strength and health He
had given me to do this project work. Peace and blessings be upon to our Prophet
Muhammad SAW and the family, next to his companions and tabi’in, the gentlemen
scholar until the servants of God who followed in their footsteps.

To my parents, who always make sure that I’m well educated, literate and
nurtured to this day; I sincerely thank, you. I appreciate the things you’ve helped and
contributed in completing this project work, such as money, encouragements and
facilities like Internet and reference books.

To my Additional Mathematics teacher, Mr. Saw and tuition teacher, Mr. Carette;
thank you for guiding me throughout this project when I had difficulties in doing a task.
Thank you so much for the lessons you’ve taught me since last year.

I’m highly grateful for my group members; Nor Nadia Natasha, Nur Syahira
Sofyani and Rowena Diane, for your freewill to did this project with me. Even though
this project is presented individually, we cooperated in discussing and sharing ideas to
ensure our task is done correctly and finished on time.

I did not pray for a lighter load, but for a stronger back. I wouldn’t have been
motivated to complete this project work without the blessings and support from all of
you. Thank you.

2
OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of the Additional Mathematic project work, I am able to gain valuable
experiences based on the objectives:

 Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non-
routine problems.
 Experiences classroom environment which are challenging, interesting and
meaningful and hence, improve thinking skills.
 Experiences classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in
meaningful ways in solving real-life problems.
 Experiences classroom environments where expressing one’s mathematical
thinking, reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected.
 Experiences classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective
learning.
 Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing and to
use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas of correctly and
precisely.
 Enhance exquisite mathematical knowledge and skills through problem solving in
ways that increase interest and confidence.
 Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future understandings and our work
place.
 Train ourselves to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate
and to share knowledge in an engaging a healthy environment.
 Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively.
 Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics.

We are expected to submit the project work within two weeks from the first day the task
is being administered to us. Failure to submit the written report will result us not to
receive the certificate.

3
INTRODUCTION

By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection
of demographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of
"statistics" is broadened, then including the discipline concerned with the collection,
summary, and analysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in government,
business, and all the sciences. Electronic computers have expedited statistical
computation and have allowed statisticians to develop "computer-intensive" methods.
The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of probability
and statistical inference, which are used in statistical practice. The relation between
statistics and probability theory developed rather late, however.

In the 19th century, statistics increasingly used probability theory, whose initial
results were found in the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly in the analysis of games
of chance (gambling). By 1800, astronomy used probability models and statistical
theories, particularly the method of least squares, which was invented by Legendre
and Gauss.

Early probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by


Laplace; following Laplace, probability and statistics have been in continual
development. In the 19th century, social scientists used statistical reasoning and
probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and
sociology; physical scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to
advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The
development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development of
inductive logic and the scientific method statistics is not a field of mathematics but an
autonomous mathematical science, like computer science or operations research.
Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins in public administration and maintains a
special concern with demography and economics. Being concerned with the scientific
method and inductive logic, statistical theory has close association with the philosophy
of science; with its emphasis on learning from data and making best predictions,
statistics has great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics. With its
concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information science and computer
science.

DEFINITION OF STATISTICS

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and


presentation of data. It deals with all aspects of data, including the planning of data
collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

4
BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS

Statistical methods date back at least to the 5th century BC. The earliest known writing on statistics
appears in a 9th-century book entitled Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages, written by Al-
Kindi. In this book, Al-Kindi provides a detailed description of how to use statistics and frequency
analysis to decipher encrypted messages. This was the birth of both statistics and cryptanalysis,
according to the Saudi engineer Ibrahim Al-Kadi.[10][11]

The Nuova Cronica, a 14th-century history of Florence by the Florentine banker and official Giovanni
Villani, includes much statistical information on population, ordinances, commerce, education, and
religious facilities, and has been described as the first introduction of statistics as a positive element in
history.[12]

Some scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics to 1663,


with the publication of Natural and Political Observations
upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt.[13] Early
applications of statistical thinking revolved around the
needs of states to base policy on demographic and
economic data, hence its stat- etymology. The scope of
the discipline of statistics broadened in the early 19th
century to include the collection and analysis of data in
general. Today, statistics is widely employed in
government, business, and natural and social sciences.

Its mathematical foundations were laid in the 17th


century with the development of the probability
theory by Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat (left).
Probability theory arose from the study of games of
chance. The method of least squares was first described
by Carl Friedrich Gauss around 1794. The use of
modern computers has expedited large-scale statistical
computation, and has also made possible new methods
that are impractical to perform manually.

5
History of statistics can be said to start around 1749 although, over time, there
have been changes to the interpretation of the word statistics. In early times, the
meaning was restricted to information about states. This was later extended to include
all collections of information of all types, and later still it was extended to include the
analysis and interpretation of such data. In modern terms, "statistics" means both sets
of collected information, as in national accounts and temperature records, and analytical
work which require statistical inference.

Statistical activities are often associated with models expressed using


probabilities, and require probability theory for them to be put on a firm theoretical basis.

A number of statistical concepts have had an important impact on a wide range


of sciences. These include the design of experiments and approaches to statistical
inference such as Bayesian inference, each of which can be considered to have their
own sequence in the development of the ideas underlying modern statistics.

STATISTICS TODAY

During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments for agricultural
research, public health concerns (epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality
control, and economic and social purposes (unemployment rate, econometry, etc.)
necessitated substantial advances in statistical practices. Today the used of statistic
has broadened far beyond its origin. Individuals and organizations use statistics to
understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social
sciences, medicines, business, and other area. Statistics are generally regarded not as
the subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct, allied, field. Many universities
maintain separate mathematics and statistic departments. Statistic is also taught in
department as diverse as psychology, education and public health.

MATHEMATICS AS AN AESTHETIC DISCIPLINE

This brief piece of article offers a defense of the study of mathematics for those
people who are convinced either that mathematics is not worth studying or that
mathematics is “just not for them.” We study mathematics for the same reasons we
study poetry or music or painting or literature: for aesthetic reasons. Simply put, we
study mathematics because it is one of the loveliest disciplines known to man.

"The science of pure mathematics, in its modern developments, may claim to be the
most original creation of the human spirit." – A.N. Whitehead [Wh].

6
One of the most compelling aesthetic features of mathematics is its refined
austerity. Its unadorned gracefulness is unique among the arts. In fact, part of the very
essence of mathematics is its precision. People are referring to this quality when they
suggest that mathematics teaches "clear thinking." Mathematics' precision does not lie
in any claims of universal truth. But rather this precision, and hence power, lie in the
acknowledgement of exactly the points at which mathematics consciously and
deliberately abandons claims of universal truth. Mathematics is the only discipline that I
am aware of that does this. And this precision and austerity allow for an elegant
economy, an economy that comes from the elimination of the cluttering mire of
imprecision.

"Mathematical knowledge adds vigor to the mind, frees it from prejudice, credulity, and
superstition." – John Arbuthnot [Mo].

The common defense is not, however, supplanted by the new defense, but rather
it is subsumed by it. This assumption takes the unexpected form of an appreciation for
the utility of mathematics. By this I mean that to most students of mathematics, the
utility of mathematics should be presented in something like the same fashion as music
is presented to students of music history, namely as a marvel to be appreciated, not an
instrument to be operated. Those students interested in actually creating music (i.e. in
becoming musicians or composers) are advised to study performance or composition.
Similarly, those students interested in actually harnessing the utilitarian powers of
mathematics (i.e. in becoming engineers and scientists and mathematicians) are
advised to study engineering and applied mathematics. But for the vast majority of
mathematics students, a simple, honest appreciation of the remarkable utility of
mathematics should be seen as the ultimate "real world" goal. In short, the sense of
agency developed in most students regarding the utility of mathematics should be of an
appreciative nature, not an instrumental nature. Since "appreciation" is an aesthetic
term and not a scientific term for most students, the traditional defense of the study of
mathematics as a tool is subsumed by the aesthetic perspective of the new defense.

Written by J.D. Phillips, Department of Mathematical Sciences

7
TASK SPECIFICATION
All the form 5 students who took the Additional Mathematics subject were
required to do this project. The main objective of the Additional Mathematic Work 2013
was to analyze the marks for any subject to determine the average grade of the subject
in my class. As for me, I had chosen to analyze the class marks of Additional
Mathematics subject in the latest examination. In the first part of the question, I had to
list the importance of data analysis in daily life. I also had to specify the three types of
measure of central tendency and at least two types of measure of dispersion. I had to
give examples of their uses in our daily life as well.

For part two, I had to calculate the mean, median, mode and standard deviation
for the ungrouped data of the subject I had chosen which is Additional Mathematics by
using the mark sheet of my class from the latest examination. Then, I had to construct a
frequency distribution table which contains at least five class intervals of equal size. By
using Mathematical method, I was able to draw histogram and ogive. From the table,
graph and formula, I could find the mean, mode, median, standard deviation and
interquartile range for the grouped data.

Last but not least, by using Mathematics, I was able to draw an ogive to calculate
the lowest mark for the Additional Mathematics subject in my class. I was also able to
compare the achievement in my class with Mr. Ma’s class (further exploration).

8
PART ONE
Question 1
The importance of data analysis in daily life:

Data analysis is the most important in businesses. No business can survive without
analyzing available data. Visualize the following situations:

 A pharma company is performing trials on number of patients to test its new drug
to fight cancer. The number of patients under the trial is well over 500.
 A company wants to launch new variant of its existing line of fruit juice. It wants
to carry out the survey analysis and arrive at some meaningful conclusion.
 Sales director of a company knows that there is something wrong with one of its
successful products however hasn't yet carried out any market research data
analysis. How and what does he conclude?

These situations are indicative enough to conclude that data analysis is the lifeline of
any business. Whether one wants to arrive at some marketing decisions or fine-tune
new product launch strategy, data analysis is the key to all the problems.

What is the importance of data analysis - instead, one should say what is not important
about data analysis. Merely analyzing data isn't sufficient from the point of view of
making a decision. How does one interpret from the analyzed data is more important.
Thus, data analysis is not a decision making system, but decision supporting system.

Data analysis can offer the following benefits:

 Structuring the findings from survey research or other means of data collection.
 Break a macro picture into a micro one.
 Acquiring meaningful insights from the dataset.
 Basing critical decisions from the findings.
 Ruling out human bias through proper statistical treatment.

9
Question 2

MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Mode, median and mean are the three measures of central tendency which indicates
the central values around which the data seems to cluster. However, the values of these
measures may differ greatly. Thus, it is vital to choose one that reflects the central value
of data. When an extreme value exists in the data, the mean does not reflect the central
value of the data. The median and the mode are not affected by the existence of the
extreme value. Nevertheless, the mode is confusing when the data has more than one
mode.

Mean

The mean of a set of ungrouped data can be obtained by adding all the values of the
∑𝑥
data and dividing the sum by the total number of values of data; 𝑥̅ = where N is the
𝑁
total number of values of data.

If the set of ungrouped data is given in a frequency distribution table, then the mean is
∑ 𝑓𝑥
calculated as follows; 𝑥̅ = ∑𝑓
where f is the frequency.

When the values of a set of data are grouped into classes in a frequency table, the
value that is used to represent all the values of the data in a class is the midpoint of the
∑ 𝑓𝑥
class; 𝑥̅ = ∑𝑓
, where x is the class midpoint and f is the class frequency.

Mode

The mode of a set of ungrouped data can be determined by identifying the value which
occurs most frequently. When the data is given in a frequency distribution table, then
the mode is the value with the highest frequency.

Example:

15, 11, 12, 14, 11, 16, 17, 11, 19, 11

The mode is 11 since 11 occurs most frequently.

10
In a set of a grouped data, the mode can be found in a histogram. A histogram is a
graphic representation of a frequency distribution table. It is constructed by marking the
boundaries of each class along the horizontal axis and the frequencies along the
vertical axis. The class with the tallest bar is the modal class and based on the diagram
below, P is the mode.

Median

The median of a set of ungrouped data is the value in the middle position of the set
when the values of the data are arranged in ascending order.

Example:

11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23

The median is 17 since it is in the middle.

11
If the total number of values of the data is even, there will be two values in the middle.
Thus, the median is the mean of the two middle values.

Example:

21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32

26+27
Median =
2
= 26. 2

In a set of grouped data, the median can be estimated from an ogive or calculated from
a cumulative frequency table by using the following formula:

𝑁
− 𝐹
𝑚 = 𝐿 + (2 )𝐶
𝑓𝑚

L = lower boundary of the median class


N = total frequency
F = cumulative frequency up to the lower boundary of the median class
fm = frequency of the median class
C = size of the class interval

12
The ogive is constructed by plotting the cumulative frequency against the corresponding
upper boundary of each class of a set of data.

MEASURE OF DISPERSION

Range

The simplest measure of dispersion of a set of data is the range. The range of a set of
ungrouped data is the difference between the largest value and the smallest value in
the data, range = largest value – smallest value.

The range of a set of grouped data is the difference between the midpoint of the
highest class and the midpoint of the lowest class, range = midpoint of highest class –
midpoint of lowest class.

Variance
∑ 𝑥2 ∑ 𝑓𝑥 2
𝜎2 = − 𝑥̅ 2 for a set of ungrouped data and 𝜎 2 = ∑𝑓
− 𝑥̅ 2 for a set of grouped
𝑁
data, where x is the class midpoint.

13
Standard deviation

The square root of the variance is called the standard deviation, 𝜎 = √𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 which
has the same unit as each value of the data.

Question 3
Examples of the uses of each type of measure of central tendency in daily life:

Mode

The mode appears the most often out of a given set of numbers. A data set can have
more than one mode or no mode at all if all of the numbers appear with equal
frequency. The concept of a mode can be easily connected to many tangible, real-life
situations. A bakery that sells twice as many red velvet cupcakes as chocolate brownies
will need to produce more cupcakes to satisfy their customers. In this bakery, the
number of red velvet cupcakes sold is the mode.

Mean and average

The terms mean and average are used interchangeably in mathematics. When the
entirety of a data set is added and divided by the total number of data points, the
resulting number is referred to as the mean or the average. Averages are used quite
frequently in everyday statistics. Ask the students to find the average age of classmates
in the room with or without the age of the instructor included, and in their own family.

Median

Median is another simple measurement used commonly in basic statistical analysis.


When a data set is organized by the size of numbers, the median is the middle value. If
there is an even number of data points, the median is the average of the two middle
values. Medians can be used when the data set features extremely large or small
values that could significantly affect the average. Median is likely to be the best
measurement of age when a given group features one person aged 80, and everyone
else between 18 and 20.

14
1. In real life, suppose a company is considering to expand into an area and is
studying the size of containers that competitors are offering. Would the company
be more interested in the mean, the median, or the mode of their containers?

Answer: The mode, because they want to know what size tends to sell most
often.

2. An ad agency is planning an ad campaign for a city. Would they be more


interested in the median or mean family income for the city?

Answer: The median, because a few very large incomes could drastically alter
the value of the mean as the "average" income in the city.

3. An economist is comparing interest rates on 90-day CDs in 8 major cities. Should


he compare the mean, the median, or the mode?

Answer: The mean, because these don't usually have outliers with drastically
different percentage rates, so the mean is reasonable.

4. A company wants to know if their customers rate their service as excellent, good,
average, or poor. Would the company be more interested in the mean, the
median, or the mode?

Answer: Either the median or the mode. The mode would indicate the most
common answer. If numbers were assigned as 4 =excellent, 3=good, 2=average,
and 1=poor, the median as the center value would provide useful information.

5. Houses sold at $203000, $214000, $220000, and $4,257,000. Which would be


more helpful to a potential buyer, the mean, the median or the mode?

Answer: There is no mode that occurs more often. The mean would be skewed
by the outlier to indicate a mean price over 1 million dollars. The median as the
average of 214000 and 220000 would be far more representative of the center of
the prices for recently purchased homes.

6. Scores on a test were 99, 99, 97, 89, 88, 88, and 0. Which would be more helpful
to the teacher, the mean, the median or the mode?

Answer: The mean would not be helpful due to the obvious outlier. The 2 modes
indicate 2 higher positions which are both helpful, but split the effect of either
number. The median gives the best overall picture of the data.

15
7. SAT scores in a class are 360, 430, 450, 480,480, 500, 510, 510, 520, 520, 530,
540, 600, 620, 710. Which would be more helpful to the teacher, the mean, the
median or the mode?

Answer: The mode does little to provide insight. As the data is roughly bell-
shaped, either the mean or median would be a reasonable predictor.

16
PART TWO
Question 1

Class marks of Additional Mathematics subject:

Student Marks, 𝑥
1 47
2 59
3 55
4 39
5 48
6 26
7 71
8 51
9 58
10 61
11 57
12 48
13 35
14 39
15 63
16 55
17 71
18 50
19 58
20 42
21 43
22 32
23 52
24 74
25 47
26 61
27 56

17
Question 2
47+59+55+39+48+26+71+51+58+61+57+48+35+39
+63+55+71+50+58+42+43+32+52+74+47+61+56
a. Mean, 𝑥̅ = 27

1398
=
27
= 51. 78

b. Median = 52

26, 32, 35, 39, 39, 42, 43, 47, 47, 48, 48, 50, 51, 52,

55, 55, 56, 57, 58, 58, 59, 61, 61, 63, 71, 71, 74

c. Mode = 39, 47, 48, 55, 58, 61, 71

d. Standard deviation, 𝜎 = √𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒


∑ 𝑥2
Variance, 𝜎 2 = − 𝑥̅ 2
𝑁

∑ 𝑥2 = 472 + 592 + 552 + 392 + 482 + 262 + 712 + 512 + 582 + 612 + 572 + 482

+352 + 392 + 652 + 552 + 712 + 502 + 582 + 422 + 432 + 322 + 522 + 742

+ 472 + 612 + 562

= 76024
76024
𝜎2 = − 51.782
27

= 134.5353037

𝜎 = √134.5353037

= 11.59893546

= 11.60

18
Question 3 a)

Class Interval Frequency, 𝑓 Midpoint, 𝑥 Upper boundary


(Marks)
21 – 30 1 25.5 30.5
31 – 40 4 35.5 40.5
41 – 50 7 45.5 50.5
51 – 60 9 55.5 60.5
61 – 70 3 65.5 70.5
71 – 80 3 75.5 80.5

∑ 𝑓𝑥
Mean, 𝑥̅ = ∑𝑓

25.5(1)+35.5(4)+45.5(7)+55.5(9)+65.5(3)+75.5(3)
= 27

1408.5
= 27

= 52.17

Mode = based on histogram graph

= 50.5 + 2.5

= 53

Median (Method 1) = based on ogive graph

= 52

Class Interval Upper boundary Frequency, 𝑓 Cumulative


(Marks) frequency
11 – 20 20.5 0 0
21 – 30 30.5 1 1
31 – 40 40.5 4 5
41 – 50 50.5 7 12
51 – 60 60.5 9 21
61 – 70 70.5 3 24
71 – 80 80.5 3 27

27
Q2 = 2

= 13.5
Mode
10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0
Fraquency

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
20.5-30.5 30.5-40.5 40.5-50.5 50.5-60.5 60.5-70.5 70.5-80.5
Marks

20
Ogive
28.0

26.0

24.0

22.0

20.0

18.0
Cumulative Fraquency

16.0

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
20.5 30.5 40.5 50.5 60.5 70.5 80.5 90.5
Marks

21
𝑁
−𝐹
2
Median (Method 2), 𝑚 = 𝐿 + ( 𝑓𝑚 ) 𝐶

27
− 12
2
= 50.5 + ( ) 10
9

= 50.5 + (1.67)

= 52.17

Standard deviation, 𝜎

Class Midpoint, 𝑥 Frequency, 𝑓 𝑓𝑥 𝑓𝑥 2 𝑓(𝑥 − 𝑥̅ )2


Interval
21 – 30 25.5 1 25.5 650.25 711.29
31 – 40 35.5 4 142.0 5041.00 1111.56
41 – 50 45.5 7 318.5 14491.75 311.42
51 – 60 55.5 9 499.5 27722.25 99.80
61 – 70 65.6 3 196.5 12870.75 533.07
71 – 80 75.5 3 226.5 17100.75 1632.87
∑ 𝑓 = 27 ∑ 𝑓𝑥 = 1408.5 ∑ 𝑓𝑥 2 = ∑ 𝑓(𝑥 − 𝑥̅ )2 =
77876.75 4400.01
Mean, 𝑥̅ = 52.17

Method 1 Method 2
∑ 𝑓𝑥 2 ∑ 𝑓(𝑥− 𝑥̅ )2
𝜎2 = ∑𝑓
− 𝑥̅ 2 𝜎2 = ∑𝑓

77876.75 4400.01
= − 52.172 =
27 27

= 162.6151741 = 162.9633333

𝜎 = √162.6151741 𝜎 = √162.9633333

= 12.75 = 12.77

22
Interquartile range

Method 1

Interquartile range = Q3 − Q1
3 1
𝑁− 𝐹 𝑁− 𝐹
= 59.5 – 43 Q3 = 𝐿+ ( 4
)𝐶 Q1 =𝐿+ ( 4
)𝐶
𝑓𝑚 𝑓𝑚
= 16.5
3 1
(27)−12 (27)−5
= 50.5 + (4 ) 10 = 40.5 + (4 ) 10
9 7
Method 2
Interquartile range = Q3 − Q1 = 50.5 + (9.167) = 40.5 + (2.5)
= 59.67 – 43 = 59.67 = 43
= 16.67

Question 3 b)

Based on my answers above, the most appropriate measure of central tendency that
reflect the performance of my class is the mean. The mean is able to show the average
mark obtained by the class, reflecting the average performance of all the students in the
class.

Question 3 c)

Merits of standard deviation

 It is based on all the items of the distribution.


 It is a mean-able to algebraic treatment since actual + or – signs deviations are
taken into consideration.
 It is least affected by fluctuations of sampling.
 It facilitates the calculation of combined standard deviation and coefficient of
variation, which is used to compared the variability of two or more distributions.
 It facilitates the other statistical calculations like skewness and correlation.
 It provides a unit of measurement for the normal distribution.

23
Limitations of quartile deviation

 It is not suited to algebraic treatment.


 It is very much affected by sampling fluctuations.
 The method of dispersion is not based on the items of the series.
 It ignores the 50% of the distribution.

Question 4

a. Grouped data is more accurate. Ungrouped data are data that are not organized,
or if arranged could only be from highest to lowest. Grouped data are data that
are organized and arranged into different classes or categories.

b. Data in statistics can be classified into grouped data and ungrouped data.
A row of data such as 1, 2, 6, 4, 6, 3, 7, is called an ungrouped data. Ungrouped
data is any list of numbers that you had gathered. Besides, this data can also be
summarized neatly in a frequency distribution table as shown below:

Number 1 2 3 4
Frequency 3 2 1 2

Ungrouped data is usually used when there are lesser numbers to count
or small numbers with only one possible answer. Example: The ages of 200
people going to a park on a Saturday afternoon. The ages are: 27, 8, 10, 49, ...

On the contrary, grouped data is a data that has been organized into
groups known as classes. Each of these classes is of a certain width and this is
referred to as the class interval or class size. Example:

Age (years) Frequency


0–9 5
10 – 19 6
20 – 29 7
30 – 39 3
40 – 49 4
50 – 59 5

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Grouped data is the opposite of ungrouped data which is used when you
have a big amount of numbers or large numbers of possible outcomes. Example:
The ages of 200 people going to a park on a Saturday afternoon. The ages have
been grouped into the classes 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, ...

PART THREE
Question 1

a. New mean = 52.17 + 3


= 55.17

b. New mode = 53 + 3
= 56

c. New median = 52 + 3 (from Method 1)


= 55
= 52.17 + 3 (from Method 2)
= 55.17

d. New interquartile range = 16.67 or 16.5

e. New standard deviation = 12.77 or 12.75

Question 2
∑ 𝑓𝑥
New mean, 𝑥̅ = ∑𝑓

1408.5+95.5
= 27

= 53.71

∑ 𝑓𝑥 2
New standard deviation, 𝜎 = √ ∑𝑓
− 𝑥̅ 2

77876.75+(95.5)2
=√ − 53.712
28

= √222.2716143

= 14.91
FURTHER EXPLORATION
Question 1
20
× 27 = 5.4
100

27.0 – 5.4 = 21.6

Based on the ogive graph, the lowest mark for the top 20% of the students is 62.5.

Question 2

Mr. Ma’s class has a higher mean when compared to my class, which is 76.79
against 53.71. This shows that Mr. Ma‘s class scored higher in the examination. Mr.
Ma’s class has a lower standard deviation compared to my class too, which is 10.36
against 14.91. A low standard deviation means there is a little gap between the marks of
the students. Thus, this shows that Mr. Ma‘s students scored nearer to their mean score
of 76.79.

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Ogive
28.0

26.0

24.0

22.0

20.0

18.0
Cumulative Fraquency

16.0

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
20.5 30.5 40.5 50.5 60.5 70.5 80.5 90.5
Marks

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CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we can conclude using mathematical method, to determine the


performance of the school by analyzing the marks for every subject obtained by
students to determine the average school grade.

Other than that, we can also use statistic to determine the subject that can be
scored highest among the students by drawing histogram and creating pie chart. This
concept can also be used to find out not only the mean of the marks obtained by
students in examinations but also the standard deviation.

Last but not least, we can also use interquartile range to determine how far the
values of data in a set of data are spread out from its average value. From this we can
also compare the advantages of using standard deviation and interquartile range to be
used as a better measure of dispersion.

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REFLECTION

While conducting this project, I have learnt how important data analysis is in our
daily life. Apart from that, this project encourages students to work together and share
their knowledge. It is also encourages student to gather information from the internet,
improve their thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication.

Based on my findings, I found that the mean mark and the average grade of my
class Additional Mathematics are off average. Suggestions to improve my class
performance, the students must:

Do more
exercises
on weak
topics

Revise on Better results Complete


previous in Additional sets of
SPM Mathematics SPM model
papers examinations papers

Pay full
attention
in class

Not only that, I had also learned some moral values that I practiced. This project
had taught me how to be responsible on the work that was given to me to be completed.
This project also made me gained more confidence to do work and not to give up easily
when we could not find the solution for the question. I also learned to be more discipline
on time, which I was given about a week to complete this project and pass up to my
teacher just in time.

I proposed for this project work to be continued as it brings a lot of moral values
to the students and also tests the students in understanding Additional Mathematics.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Majalang, Michelle C. (2013) Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2013. SMK
Lok Yuk, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
2. Tze Hin, Chang and other authors. (2012) Nexus SPM A+ Additional
Mathematics. Selangor Darul Ehsan, Selangor: Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.
3. Abdul Karim, Aini Akmalia. (2011) Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011.
Sekolah Agama Menengah Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, 43900 Sepang, Johor.
4. Selvaraj, Nur Syafiqah bt Muhammad Faizal. (2012) Additional Mathematics
Project Work 2/2012. Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Gopeng.
5. Wikipedia. (2013) Statistics. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics
6. Phillips, J.D. Mathematics as an Aesthetic Discipline. Department of
Mathematical Sciences, Saint Mary’s College, Moraga, California 94575.
http://euclid.nmu.edu/~jophilli/essays/math-aesth.html

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