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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

The deteriorating quality of educational products is the subject of

relentless agitations by parents. Frequently, parents, community, and

even the school authorities say that the schools are producing high

school graduates who are illiterate. This fact cannot be denied because a

substantial number of students enter high school without the abilities to

interpret the materials for their level with full of grasp of meaning. Some

can read nicely aloud, but don’t exactly understand the words they have

uttered. Some students can read all the words yet misses the essential

meaning.

One of the most important skills learned by young students is the

ability to understand written text, which is usually referred to as reading

comprehension. Comprehension of the information in text, or of the

author’s meaning, is the ultimate reason for reading. To comprehend

larger units of text such as paragraphs and stories, a child must

understand the smaller word units (National Institute of Child Health

and Human Development, 2000).

Sage (2000) stated that learning to read, therefore, posses

challenges as children to have communicate more clearly outside the

shared context of conversation which demands a well-developed

understanding of words and how they are used.

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Realizing the need to evaluate the reading performance of students

in today’s schools, the researchers decided to pursue a study which

aims to construct and validate a Reading Comprehension Test in English

for the Second Year High School students.

Statement of the Problem

This study desires to construct and validate a reading

comprehension test in English for second year high school.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following:

1. Construct and validate a reading comprehension test relative to:

1.1. Contextual Clues

1.2. Getting the Main Idea

1.3. Sequencing of Events

1.4. Predicting Outcomes

1.5. Distinguishing Facts and Opinions

2. Determine the extent content validity of test in terms of:

2.1. Appropriateness

2.2. Adequacy

3. Determine the extent of the acceptability of the test in terms of:

3.1. Relevance

3.2. Efficiency

3.3. Usability

4. Determine the reliability of the test.

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Scope and Delimitation

This study covers the construction and validation of reading

comprehension test in English for students in Mindanao State

University-CETD, G.S.C. The reading comprehension test is delimited to

reading skills which are contextual clues, getting the main idea,

sequencing of events, predicting outcomes, and distinguishing facts and

opinions which are based from the 2002 Philippine Secondary School

Learning Competencies (PSSLC) in English for the second year secondary

students.

This study is delimited on determining the reliability of the test in

terms of content and appropriateness and also determining the

usefulness of the test to the students and teachers in terms of the

acceptability and relevance

The test is in multiple choices since the survey among high school

teachers reveals that it is the most commonly used type for them to

ensure objectivity and ease in scoring. The test will be administered to

100 students of Mindanao State University-CETD, G.S.C. chosen

randomly through sampling.

Significance of the Study

The researchers have a great determination to have this study for

they believe that the result of this work of a great help to the following:

The School Administrators, this study will provide data to school

administrators about the reading skills of the students. It will also serve

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as a guide to enhance their English Teachers to teach personnel

development that focuses on the training of teachers in teaching reading.

The English Teachers, this study will help and encourage them to

gain additional ideas in the modification of their teaching strategies in

teaching reading. This study wills also serve as a guide in the

construction, analysis, and improvement of reading comprehension skill

and other language skill test.

The Students, who are beneficiaries of learning, findings of the

study may of great help to their academic endeavor. The result of this

research hoped to help them improve their reading skills and knowledge

that they may acquire. Thus, it will inspire and motivate them to set

higher goals for personal achievement.

The Researchers, this work may guide them to make a difference

in their chosen field, specifically the teaching profession. This will also

serve as an opportunity for them to become self-reliant and task-oriented

researchers.

Other Researchers, this study will serve as an additional literature

for future investigation. This will also give them further informations in

making their studies related to construction and validation of a reading

comprehension test.

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Chapter II

REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

In this chapter, related literature and studies are presented based

from the different insights, theories, definition, models, and approaches

posited by researchers and reading experts relating to the different

variables in this research work. This also provides a conceptual

framework which forms the matrix of the study is presented on the

succeeding page.

Related Literature

The Reading Process

Reading is a process which is complete only when comprehension

is attained. The element is that the reader reconstructs the message

encoded in the written language. Full comprehension occurs when the

reconstruction agrees with the writer’s intended message that

comprehension depends as much or even more on the information stored

in the readers brain than on the information stored in the text (Dechant

1991 cited by Magno 2011).

UNICEF (2002) emphasized that reading is one media for

cultivating many techniques of thinking and imagining. Over years there

have been conceptual shifts in the way teachers and researchers think

about reading and point to conclusion that reading is an acquired skill.

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Construction and Validation of Reading
Comprehension Test for Second Year
Students of MSU-CETD, G.S.C.

Construction Validation

Planning the Test Formal Validation

Reviewing PSSLC Item Analysis

Data Gathering Discrimination Index

Difficulty Index
Drawing the table of
Specification
Content Validity

Building the the Item Pool


Appropriateness

Constructing the Adequacy


Reading
Comprehension Test
Acceptability

Writing the Test in its Relevance


First Draft
Efficiency
Informal Validation
Usability
Peer Feedback
Reliability
Expert Feedback
Test-Retest

Figure 1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

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Zints (1990) as cited by Abraham (2002), that student shall

acquire the fundamental skills of reading in order to have a good

understanding of what they are reading. This skills namely, vocabulary

skills, note taking skills, skimming, scanning, distinguishing facts from

opinion, making conclusions and many others. These domains requisites

the comprehension skills which are the biggest contributor in the

learning process of the students.

Reading is of great importance for the students who do not “learn

to read” during the first three years of school experiences has much

difficulty when they are subsequently asked to read to learn. Reading is

the primary way of students to learn information in the different content

areas of English/Language Arts, Math, Science, etc. In addition to,

Bradley, Danielson, and Hallahan (2002) concluded that when students

cannot read, or struggle to learn to read, their ability to read other

subject matter and achievement at grade level is limited thus, it is

imperative that the students attain solid reading skills in the early

grades.

Yu (2001) emphasized that to become a good reader, children first

need to acquire the language for literacy to dwell. During the early years,

children can learn best through active hands on experience such as

playing, building, exploring, and talking. They also learn through

imaginative social play and listening stories told by parents or model

figures.

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Santiago (2011) stated, that the use of plain language promotes a

friendly environment to the readers so as to improve the effectiveness of

the material for it suffices the readers need to have a thorough

understanding on what they are reading. It provides a clear and

convenient communication between the context and the reader. The

effectiveness of the material gives the students a bigger chance to learn

more. It allows them to make progress on their comprehension skills so

as to erase the barriers of hardships that hinders them to acquire

knowledge.

Comprehension as Process

Comprehension is defined as the complex cognitive process

involving the intentional interaction between the reader and the text to

convey meaning. It is the essence of reading, meaning, it is the

construction of meaning through interactions between the text and the

reader (Paynter, 2005 cited by Amora, 2011).

Students are taught to read to understand what is in text.

Reading instruction is effective in stimulating student comprehension

abilities to the extent that it stimulates students to process texts as good

readers do. Learning to read with comprehension is learning to

understand writing as well as one understands spoken language.

Comprehension of the written text is said to be approximate to the

comprehension of the spoken language. When that happens, then

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reading comprehension has developed, for practical purposes, to its

limiting or asymptotic level (Perfetti, 2005 cited by Amora, 2011).

Add to this, Amora, (2011) emphasized that, to develop

comprehension skill, teacher needs to make covert thought processes

obvious to the student through modelling, demonstrations, and

guidance. Secondly, it is important for the teacher to provide temporary

support, or scaffolding to help the student move toward independent

application of strategies and skills, and the long-term goals of

maintenance over time and generalization to related reading situations.

Next, it is important for instruction to be sustained over time.

Reading Comprehension

Reading is often thought as a hierarchy of skills, from processing

of individual letters and their associated sounds to word recognition to

text-processing competencies. Skilled comprehension requires fluid

articulation of all these processes, beginning with the sounding out and

recognition of individual words to the understanding of sentences in

paragraphs as part of much longer texts. There is instruction at all of

these levels that can be carried out so as to increase student

understanding of what is read (Pressley, Michael 2006). Comprehension

according to Reading Next, includes elements such as the ability to grasp

the gist of a text, to notice and repair misinterpretations, and to change

tactics based on the purpose of reading (Biancarosa and Snow, 2006).

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Reading comprehension is often discussed in terms of being a

process involving the integration of decoding ability, vocabulary

knowledge, prior knowledge of the topic considered, and relevant

strategies to make sense of a text and understand it (Kintsch W. &

Kintsch E., 2005).

Block and Pressley (2002) stated that comprehension involves

more than 30 cognitive and metacognitive processes including clarifying

meaning, summarizing, drawing inferences, predicting, and so on.

Trabasso & Bouchard (2002) emphasized that comprehension strategies

are specific, learned procedures that foster active, competent, self-

regulated, and intentional reading. Reading comprehension strategy

instruction (CSI) refers to explicitly these procedures either in isolation or

in multiple component packages.

CSI is appropriate for individuals who consistently fail to develop a

coherent understanding of material that is read. The failure to develop

understanding may be generalized across large numbers of different

types of reading materials or be restricted to domains with which the

reader lacks familiarity. CSI has been validated for both generalized

comprehension failures and for specific domains (e.g., students who are

experiencing difficulty with their science text books only). Additionally,

CSI can be adapted to use with texts that are read aloud for pre-readers

(Tracey & Morrow, 2002) as well as for older students who have severe

decoding problems (Ivey, 2002).

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Block and Pressley (2002) pointed out that comprehension

instruction involves a complex and long-term commitment to teach

students the necessary strategies and to provide them with sufficient

practice to use the strategies easily and the habits to use them

frequently. They also suggested that teachers could learn how the

strategies work and become better able to teach them to their own

students by applying the strategies to their own reading. Applying

strategies to teacher’s own reading w not only helps the teacher become

better prepared to provide CSI, but also demonstrates the potential for

improvement that such strategies hold for their students.

Contextual Clues

Contextual clues are words or phrases that serve as clues to the

meaning of an unfamiliar expression in the text. These clues are found in

the sentence or in a paragraph in which the difficult term is used. As the

student read or analyze the whole sentence, they come to discover that a

word, a phrase or the entire sentence bears relation to the unfamiliar

term. Such relation then, leads or guides them to the meaning of the

difficult expressions (Baraceros, 2004). In addition to, Villamin A,

Villamin C. & Sena M. (2003) emphasized that one of the best ways of

discovering word meanings is through Context clues or hints given by

other words in the sentence.

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Furthermore, contextual clue comes from the Latin prefix, con

(with) and texto (sentence), and clue (guide). Thus the lead or guide word

gets the name Contextual clue.

Getting the Main Idea

Getting the main idea is a very important skill in the content fields

like Language/Literature, Science, Mathematics, and Social Studies.

A reader determines the facts not only for their own sake but also

to find out why the author is writing. As it was said, “all writing is

communication.” So, a writer writes to convey his or her thoughts to an

audience or the reader. Finding the main idea is much like finding the

motive of the crime. It is the motive of the crime that usually determines

the other factors; the who, what, when, where, and how. So in order to

become a better reader, finding the main idea is one of the skills a

student should develop (A. Villamin, C. Villamin, & M. Sena, 2003).

Sequencing of Events

Sequencing is one of many skills that contribute to students'

ability to comprehend what they read. Sequencing refers to the

identification of the components of a story, such as the beginning,

middle, and end, and to the ability to retell the events within a given text

in the order in which they occurred.

The ability to sequence events in a text is a key comprehension

strategy, especially for narrative texts. Finding meaning in a text depends

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on the ability to understand and place the details, the sequence of

events, within some larger context—the beginning, middle, and end of a

story. The ordering of events in a story, along with connecting words

such as once upon a time, then, later, afterwards, and in the end, are

good examples of textual features, an understanding of which gives the

reader a way of integrating the story's individual parts into its larger

framework—and thereby understanding the author's purpose.

As students listen to or read text, they are best served if they can

understand the information as it is presented and then recall it at a later

point. Beginning readers and those that have not had much opportunity

to work on their sequencing skills have a tendency to retell a story by

starting with the end, since it is the part that they read or heard most

recently. Even more experienced readers may re-tell a story by focusing

primarily on the sections that were most appealing to them rather than

by giving a more complete picture of the events that occurred (Fox and

Allen, 1983).

Practicing sequencing helps remedy both of these issues and

makes this aspect of reading comprehension second nature. If students

are encouraged to identify the parts of a story, for instance, they will be

better able to retell it to someone else, as it is a more manageable task to

think of a story in pieces—the beginning, middle, and end—rather than

try to recall it as one large chunk. Sequencing activities also provide an

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opportunity for students to examine text and story structure, which, in

turn, strengthens their writing skills.

Predicting Outcomes

Predicting outcomes is inferring what will happen next. You are

making a guess about what you think may happen as a result of several

progressive events. There are three things to remember about this

process, first, a set of events can have several likely outcomes but only

one real outcome. Second, a predicted outcome states only what may

happen not what will actually happen; and lastly, when you predict an

outcome, you should consider all the facts that are available including

your own experiences (A. Villamin,C. Villamin, & M. Sena, 2003).

A paragraph, by definition, is a group of sentences about the same

idea. All other material in the paragraph fits under the main idea. In a

paragraph, authors often present the main idea to readers in a single

sentence called the topic sentence or the clear statement of the main idea

of a passage. This gives the readers the indistinct meaning of the text

that they are reading in order for them to predict outcomes and to give

their own perception and judgments on what they are reading to

understand eventually what they are reading.

When students make predictions, they are deciding their purposes

for reading. Prediction activities work hand-in-hand with background

knowledge. As students synthesize what they know with the text they are

reading, it helps them determine a purpose for reading.

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Distinguishing Facts and Opinion

When reading academic materials, very often a reader will have to

distinguish between fact and opinion—between what the writer thinks

and how the writer supports what he or she thinks, between what is

proven to be true and what needs to be proved. A good test for whether

something is a fact or opinion might be to a reader, “Can this statement

be debated? Is this known for certain to be true?”If the reader answers

yes to the question, that answer is an opinion; if the reader answer yes to

the second, that answer is a fact. To make sense in reading, a reader

must be able to tell whether they are reading facts or opinion.

The ability to differentiate between fact and opinion is a very

important skill. Like a detective, a reader needs to know the difference

between what people think and what people know, between what people

believe to be true and what has been proven to be true. Then a good

reader will be able to see whether writers support their opinions, and if

they do how they do it. This will allow the readers to judge for the validity

of those opinions.

Content-Validity

Content validity means the extent to which the content or topic of

the test is truly representative of the course. It involves, essentially, the

systematic examination of the test content to determine. It covers a

representative sample of the behavior domain to be measured.

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It is described by the relevance of a test to different types of

criteria. Thus, content validity depends on the relevance of the

individual’s responses to the behavior area under consideration rather on

the apparent relevance of item content (Calmorin, 2004).

Oriondo & Antonio (2004) as cited by Mahusay (2011) explained

that contentment validity is related to how adequate the content of the

test samples the domain about which inferences are to be made. It is

particularly important for a test. In judging content-validity, one should

look both the topics or subject-matter covered in the test, as well as the

type of behavior or test desired from the students. There are two-way

grids aid designed to aid in constructing test so that all appropriate

topics and behaviors will be sampled in the proper proportions.

Mahusay (2011) added that when constructing a test for a

particular subject, one must ask whether the items adequately reflect the

specific content of that subject. If the test can be answered, the basis of

the basic intelligence, general knowledge or test wiseness, the content of

the course or knowledge of a subject is being tested adequately. The test

lacks content-validity.

Content-validity describes the relevance of the test to different

types of criteria, such as thorough judgments and systematic

examination of relevant course syllabi and textbooks pooled judgments

with subject matter experts, statements of behavioral objectives, analysis

of teacher-made test questions, among others. Thus, content-validity

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depends on the relevance of individuals’ test responses to the behavior

area under consideration rather than on the apparent relevant of item

content (Mahusay, 2011).

Test and its Uses

Garcia (2004), the most important aspect of student evaluation in

most classrooms involves test that the teacher makes and administer to

the students.

It is a systematic way of gathering information about the learner’s

behavior, usually through paper and pencil procedures.

Through testing, teachers can measure the student’s acquisition of

knowledge, skills and values in any learning area in the curriculum.

Tests serve a lot of functions or school administrators, supervisors,

teachers, and parents as well.

School administrators utilize test results for making decisions

regarding the promotion or retention of students; improving or enriching

the curriculum; and conducting staff development programs for teachers.

They can also have a clear picture of the extent to which objectives of the

school’s instructional programs is achieved. Supervisors use test results

in discovering learning areas needing special attention and identifying

the teacher’s weaknesses and learning competencies not mastered by the

students. Teachers, on the other hand, utilize tests for numerous

purposes.

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Though testing, teachers are able to gather information about

the effectiveness of instruction; give feedbacks to the students about

their progress; and assign grades.

Parents are able to see determine how well their children are

faring in school and how school is doing its share in educating their

children Garcia (2004).

Test Construction

Calmorin (2004) stated that the quality of test construction

depends largely on the part of the classroom teachers. Every classroom

teacher is interested to know far and how deep he can facilitate, orient,

and guide the students with the knowledge, ideas, abilities, skills, and

attitudes that he wishes to build up in order to achieve his teaching

objectives and to make his students responsive to the changing needs in

the society and complete globally in other graduates of the world.

Steps in Constructing Teacher-made Test

Calmorin (2004) listed down the steps in construction teacher

made test. These are (1) Planning the test, (2) preparing the test, (3)

reproducing the test, (4) administering the test, (5) scoring the test, (6)

evaluating the test, and (7) interpreting the tests results.

Writing the Test in its First Draft

Writing the test in its first draft. Once the important learning

objectives and Question have been defined and determined.

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Then, begin writing the questions while the different test formats-

multiple choice, fill in the blanks or short answer, true-false, matching,

and essay- are constructed differently, the following principles apply to

constructing questions and tests in general.

Make the instructions for each type of question simple and brief. Use

simple and clear language in the questions. If the language is difficult,

students who understand the material but who don’t have story language

skills may find it difficult to demonstrate their knowledge. If the language

is ambiguous, even a student with strong language skills may answer

incorrectly if his/her interpretation of the question differs from the

instructor’s intended meaning.

Write items that require specific understanding or ability

developed in that course, not just general intelligence or test-wideness.

Do not suggest the answer to one question in the body of another

question. That makes the test less useful, as the test-wise student will

have an advantage over the student who has an equal grasp of the

material, but who has less at taking tests.

Constructing a Multiple-Choice Test.

The Multiple choice tests is one of the most popular item formats

in education. It can be constructed to evaluate variety of outcomes of fact

from simple recall to blooms highest taxonomic level of cognitive skills

(Osterlind, 2000).

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Such a test usually consists of a number of items that pose a

question to which students must select an answer from among number

choices. Items can also be statements to which students must find the

best completion. It is common knowledge that the correct answers

should be distributed evenly among the alternative positions of multiple-

choice items.

But there are many other important guidelines for writing good

items. A typical multiple choice item has three parts: a stem that present

the problem; the correct or best answer and several distracters (Cheung,

2002).

Informal Validation

Salkind (2000) reveals that face validity is the least Statistical

estimate as it’s simply an assertion on the researcher’s part claiming that

they have reasonably measured what they intended to measure. It’s

pertains to whether the test “looks valid” to the examinees who take it.

Formal Validation

Item analysis is a process which examines students’ responses to

individual test items in order to assess the quality of those items and the

test as a whole. It is especially valuable in improving items which will be

used again in the later test, but it can also be used to eliminate

ambiguous or misleading items in a single test administration. In

addition, item analysis is valuable for increasing teachers’ skills in the

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test construction and identifying specific areas of course content which

need greater emphasis or clarity (Salkind, 2000).

Related Studies

Some researchers were found out not to be related to the present

studying terms of the variables investigated and the design of the earlier

studies. These earlier studies were made use of to guide this researcher

on the methodology of analyzing the variables of their study.

Bayhon (2005) constructed a test in intermediate Algebra for the

second year students. The respondents of a study could be classifies into

three groups namely; the selected experts in Math and Test construction

and two groups of selected second year high school students of General

Santos City High School.

Bayhon’s (2005) study guided the present research in choosing

group of validators. The present study has three groups of validators. The

first group will give feedback and suggestion for the improvement of the

test. The second groups will be the test takers where the result shall be

use for item analysis. The third group will be another set of test takers

where the result becomes the basis for determining the reliability of the

test.

Mahusay (2011) made an achievement Test in Mathematics for

incoming first year college students. Validation covered the process of

item analysis to set the discrimination and difficulty indices of the item,

establishing the reliability of the instrument.

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Reliability test involved the reliability estimate of the whole test

using the Kuder-Richardson formula 21. The item analysis showed that

the test items that were retained have acceptable difficulty indices and

discrimination indices.

The final form of the test after item analysis has content validity

since the percentage of the test items were close to the percentage of

items of Table of Specification. As evaluated by Math experts and test

construction experts they agreed that the proposed test was valid. The

assessment that was developed is highly reliable as shown by the value

of KR-21 (r=0.989).

This means that the whole test is consistent and that the test can

give a reliable measure of student’s knowledge in Mathematics.

Cosocot (2003) did a study to see if the oral reading proficiency of

the grade 3 pupils was related to their comprehension proficiency.

Reading skills were tested in the content area of science. In this study,

171 pupils were tested from thirteen (13) schools in the Polomolok West

District.

Fluency, reading levels and types of errors in oral reading were

used to indicate oral reading proficiency. Reading comprehension skills

were tested more on word recognition, vocabulary, noting details,

observing, classifying and interpreting visuals.

The findings of the study indicated very poor fluency of all the

respondents. 40% of them reading in the frustration level and making

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errors omission, insertion, substitution, reversal, repetition,

mispronunciation, disregard of punctuations, and writing assistance

from the teacher. There were 24% of the 171 students who were found

out with poor word recognition skills while 39% have poor vocabulary

skills. The students also were founded out to have the poorest

observation skills. 31% percent of the students were low in this level

while 59% were moderate. Also, oral reading skills significantly

influenced reading comprehension proficiency.

Diaz (2004) made a study on the oral and silent reading

performances of fourth year high school students. She found out that the

oral reading skills profile of the fourth year high school students showed

an overall moderate performance in oral reading. While the four

dimensions of reading comprehension, the skill of students were very

deficient. The work of Diaz is similar to the present study because the

reading skills were being described. It differs only in the respondents and

the present study of the researchers because the researchers’ aims to

know the reading performances of the respondents by the use of a test

that the researchers going to construct.

Espiritu (2000) made a study on the teachers questioning

strategies and the reading comprehension of 195 senior high school

students of Mindanao State University. Her findings revealed that the

overall proficiency of the students was moderate. In literal, inferential,

and re-organizations dimension of reading comprehension, the

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proficiency level was low, indicating that the least mastered skill were in

the critical dimension of comprehension. It was found out in her study

that there was a high correlation between questioning strategies of the

teachers and the level of reading comprehension of the students.

Espiritus’ study and the present study both worked on the reading

comprehension of students in high school. It differs only in respondents

because the study focuses only on second year high school students.

Definition of Terms

For better and deep understanding of this study, the following

terms are described conceptually and operationally.

Construction. Theoretically, it is a state in which the

constructing of something is not yet acknowledged (Terencio Jr, 2007).

Operationally, it refers to attempt to make and design a “reading

comprehension test in English for the 2nd year high school students.

Validation. Theoretically, this refers to the establishment of

truthfulness or soundness of a thing (Genoso, 2010). Operationally, this

refers to the appraisal rating of the teacher-educators and the school

administrator in terms of acceptability, usability and appositeness.

Reading Comprehension. Theoretically, this refers to the level of

understanding of a writing of a student’s depending on the text. A

process involving the integration of decoding ability, vocabulary

knowledge, prior knowledge of the topic considered, and relevant

strategies to make sense of a text and understand it (Kintsch, 2005).

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Operationally, this refers to the linguistic skill which will be constructed

by the researchers and will be validated by some experts.

Contextual Clues. Theoretically, this refers to words or phrases

that serve as clues to the meaning of an unfamiliar expression in the

text. These clues are found in the sentence or in a paragraph in which

the difficult term is used (Baraceros, 2004). Operationally, this refers to

the learning competency to be included in the test construction.

Getting the main idea. Theoretically, this refers to the point or

the most important thought of a particular sentence. This helps the

readers to understand what they are reading (A. Villamin,C. Villamin, &

M. Sena, 2003). Operationally, this refers to the learning competency to

be included in the test construction.

Sequencing of Events. Theoretically, this refers to the

identification of the components of a story, such as the beginning,

middle, and end, and also to the ability to retell the events within a given

text in the order in which they occurred. Operationally, this refers to the

learning competency to be included in the test construction.

Predicting Outcomes. Theoretically, this refers to the act of

telling what might possibly happen next. It is guessing about what you

think may happen as a result of several progressive events (A.

Villamin,C. Villamin, & M. Sena, 2003). Operationally, this refers to the

learning competency to be included in the test construction.

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Distinguishing Facts and Opinions. Theoretically, refers to the

readers ability to distinguish between fact and opinion—between what

the writer thinks and how the writer supports what he or she thinks,

between what is proven to be true and what needs to be proved.

Operationally, this refers to the learning competency to be included in

the test construction.

Content Validity. This is the relevance of the test to different

criteria (Reyes, 2008). Operationally, it refers to the representativeness of

the topics and the skills included in the Table of Specification (TOS)

based on the Philippine Secondary Schools Learning Competencies

(PSSLC) for second year English.

Appropriateness. Theoretically, it refers to the suitability of

purpose or use (Cabatigan, 2007). Operationally, in study this is refers

to the aptness of the test items.

Adequacy. Theoretically, this refers to the condition of being

sufficient to what is needed (Cabatingan, 2007). Operationally, it refers to

conciseness and sufficiency of the test items against the DepEd

Philippine Secondary School Learning Competencies (PSSLC) in English

for second year.

Acceptability. Theoretically, it refers to a product or a system is

considered to be satisfactory and likely to gain somebody’s approval.

Operationally, this refers to the condition where the validators will

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express agreement or disagreement based on the extent of the indicators

being likely to be observed.

Relevance. Theoretically, this refers to the condition of having

some sensible or logical connection with something else such as a matter

being discussed or investigated. Operationally, this refers to the

significant relationship of the test to the competencies and goals of the

educational system in terms of helping all students.

Effeciency. Theoretically, this refers to the degree to which

objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are

solved.

Usability. Theoretically, refers to the possibility of use of a product

(Calmorin, 2004). Operationally, the term operationally refers to the

appraisal given by the raters on the possibility for use of the test for

teaching English.

Reliability. Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A

test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly. For

example, if a test is designed to measure a trait, then each time the test

is administered to a subject, the results should be approximately the

same (Worthen et al., 1993). Operationally, this refers to how stable,

dependable, trustworthy, and consistent a test is in measuring the same

thing each time.

Difficulty Index. Theoretically, refers to determining whether the

students have learned the concept being tested (Reyes,

27
2008).Operationally, it is obtained by getting the average of the

proportion of students who answered the item right in the upper 27%

group and lower 27% group.

Discrimination Index. It is a measure of an item’s ability to

discriminate between those who scored high on the first test and those

who scored low (Reyes, 2008). Operationally, it refers to the differences

between the proportion of students who got the items right in the upper

27% group and those in the lower 27% group.

Item Analysis. Theoretically, it refers to the process which

examines student’s responses to the individual test in order to assess the

quality of those items and of the test as a whole (Reyes, 2008).

Operationally, it involves calculating the discrimination index and

difficulty index of each item test.

Validity. Theoretically, refers to the characteristic of a test

measure that answer the question on how well the instrument fulfills the

function for which it is being intended (Hopskin and Stanley, 2003).

Operationally, the term refers to sampling adequately through the test

items. This is to fulfill the need to establish the content validity of a test

that5 is to be developed.

Content Validators. Theoretically, refers to an expert in the field

to vouch for the items measuring what they were intended to measure

(Reyes, 2008). Operationally, it refers to the learn of three content

validators who are master teachers and experts in the fields.

28
PSSLC 2002. Theoretically, this refers to the Philippine Secondary

Schools Learning Competencies-2002. It is a general list of learning

competencies per subject area (Trocio, 2000). Operationally, it is the

basis of the Table of Specification (TOS) and it served as a guide in

building the item pool.

R & D. Theoretically, this refers to the Research and Development.

It is the creative work undertaken in systematic basis in order to

increase the stock of knowledge of man, culture, and society, and the use

of this stock of knowledge to device new applications. It is a process of

developing and evaluating educational product using standard

procedures (Borg, 2001).

Second Year Students. Operationally, this refers to the

respondents of the study.

Mindanao State University-CETD. Operationally, this refers to

the locale of the said study.

29
Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents and discusses the research design and the

general procedure for the conduct of the investigation. The systematic

diagram of such design is found on the next page.

Research Design

The researchers will utilize the Research and Development (R & D)

scheme, to come up with the intended educational product, this research

will undertake several stages patterned after the model of Nolasco,

(1994). The stages described as planning the test, making the table of

specification, item pool building, peer validation, first trial run, item

analysis, second trial run, getting the reliability. This study will be

constructing and validating a reading comprehension Test for second

year high school students. Shown in Figure 2 is the research design of

the study.

Evaluators

The first group of respondents will be the group of content

validators. They are the English experts, test construction and the

second year teachers that will evaluate the reading comprehension test.

They will further give comments and suggestions for improvement of the

test.

30
Reading Comprehension Test for Second Year High School

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Planning the First Final Final


Test Revision Validation Form
of
the test
Final
Drawing the Item
Table of Revision
Analysis
Specification
Discrimination
Actual writing Index
the draft
Difficulty
Index
Informal
Validation

Experts and
Teacher’s
feedback and
Statements

Figure 2. RESEARCH DESIGN

31
The second group of respondents will be the randomly selected

second year students of Mindanao State University-CETD, General

Santos City.

Research Respondents

Box 1 shows the distribution of respondents. The respondents

were composed of selected second year students of MSU-CETD.

Box 1
Distribution of Respondents
N=15O

Number
Total
Secondary School of
Population
Respondents

MSU-CETD, G.S.C.
II-A
II-B
II-C
II-D

Total

Research Instrument

Bayhon (2005) emphasized that will be given to the second year

students. The questionnaire will be used in finding the content validity in

terms of appropriateness and accuracy, and acceptability in terms of

relevance, efficiency and usability. The questionnaires will be given to the

evaluators where they can rate according to corresponding number– A

five-point scale. The data of the study were obtained from the results of

32
the First administration and Second administration of the test in

Reading Comprehension in English for Second Year High School,

constructed by the researchers. The corrected test papers and answer

sheets of the examinees were used.

The Reading Comprehension Test in English is composed of 80

items with options provided since it is a multiple-choice type of test in

the first administration. During the final administration it will be

shortened to at least 60 items still with options. These 60 items were

estimated to be good for one and a half hour testing.

The respondents were provided with answer sheets, where they

were asked to blacken or shade the circle that corresponds to their

answer.

Research Procedures

A. Planning and Data Gathering

Before making the test, the researchers have consulted the

Philippine Secondary Schools Learning Competencies (PSSLC) in English

for Second Year. This is to ensure that the items of the test are in line

with the target subjects of the test.

The researchers will be deciding on what to include in the test and

number of items per subject area. This means that the researcher will

develop a Table of Specification (TOS) in which the variables to be

measured are reflected. This test grid will be laid out following the

33
admonition that a table of specification includes under each skill areas

(Sevilla et al, 2004).

The relevance of entries to the test grid will be subjected to critical

evaluation by the English Experts and test construction Experts. Their

feedbacks will guide the researchers to firm up their judgment on the

table of specification (TOS) for the proposed Reading Comprehension

test.

A good test must be planned, thus careful planning must precede

its construction. As part of the planning for the test, the Researchers will

explore the minimum and desired learning competencies for English

provided by the Department of Education (DepEd), the textbooks and

references used in learning reading comprehension outcomes that are

needed to be measured.

After the objectives and learning outcomes have been defined and

the subject matter outlined, a Table of Specifications (TOS) was

constructed based on the minimum and desired Learning Competencies

for English.

B. Actual Writing of the Draft

The researchers will have the test in multiple-choice type. This is

to give a relative ease in scoring. According to Thorndike (2007), this type

of test was considered a very versatile type because it can readily give a

feedback on the misconceptions of the students taking the test.

34
The researchers will adapt ideas from different authors of different

references such as textbook, workbooks, reviewers, and unpublished

materials. The researchers will then organize the concepts based on

Philippine Secondary School Learning Competency (PSSLC) and areas

touch in the course.

C. Informal Validation

The validators will evaluate the draft of the test. They will be given

a questionnaire where they will assess the level of validity the test has.

They are assumed to impart and contribute constructive criticisms on

the reading comprehension test for improvement.

D. First Revision

In this stage, items that are irrelevant and inadequate will all be

discarded. Suggestions and comments in the informal validation will be

followed for the revision of the test. The researchers will then select the

most significant and relevant items that should be included in the test.

Unnecessary ideas and parts will be deleted. The researchers can add

informative ideas that are relevant and must be included in the test. The

test will be revised based on Peer Feedback and Expert Feedback. Their

comments, reactions, and suggestions will help the researchers to have

the first revision of the test. The study will be conducted thorough giving

the reading comprehension test to the sophomore students after its

first revision. After giving the test, comments and suggestions from the

35
second year English teachers of Mindanao State University-CETD, G.S.C.

will be given emphasis and will be written down.

E. Final Validation

Right after the first revision, the copies of the test will be

reproduced and will be given to the validators for final validation. The

test will have final validation after gathering the results. Item analysis

will be applied in the test in terms of discrimination index, difficulty

index and distracters attractiveness and usability. The item analysis will

be based on the results of the answers of the students. In this stage, the

questionnaire for the evaluation of the test will be distributed to the

teachers-experts validators. The researchers will get the summarized

comments and suggestions of the validators for the making of the final

draft. The questionnaire will include the content-validity which will be

determined through appropriateness and adequacy. The acceptability will

be determined through relevance, efficiency and usability.

F. Final Revision

The researchers will make the final revision after the final

validation of the test. Items of the test will be analyzed and decisions will

be made whether to reject, to revise, or to retain the items.

36
Statistical Treatment

The researchers will use the Weighted Arithmetic Mean and overall

to analyze and interpret the result of the evaluation done by the

respondents.

The following shows the formula for the weighted mean and overall

mean:

∑ 𝐟𝐱
̅=
𝒙 ∑𝐟

where 𝑥̅ = weighted arithmetic mean

∑ 𝑓𝑥= sum of all the products of f and x where

f= frequency and x= weight of each score

∑ 𝑓= sum of all the respondents

∑𝐱
𝐱̅=
𝐍

where 𝑥̅ = mean

x= sum of all items

N= number of items

The formula P=Ru+RL/T x 100 will be used in getting the Index

of Difficulty of the test and will follow the following arbitrary rule:

Range of Difficulty Interpretation Action


0-0.25 Difficult Revise or discard
0.26-0.75 Right Difficulty Retain
0.76-above Easy Revise or discard

37
DU-DL will be used in getting the Index of discrimination and

the researchers will follow the following rule of thumb:

Index Range Interpretation Action

-1.0-1.50 can discriminate but item is Discard


questionable
-.51-0.45 Non-discriminating Revise
0.46-1.0 Discriminating Include

To determine the reliability of the test, K-R21 will be used. In

getting the sample size to be used in the Respondents, Slovin’s Formula

which is n=N/ 1+Ne² and Stratified random Sampling will be used.

38
BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS

Baraceros, Ester L. (2004). English 2: Reading and Thinking Skills for


Academic Study. 1st ed. Rex Bookstore.

Block, C. C., & Pressley, M. (2002). Comprehension Instruction:


Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press

Calmorin, Laurentina P. (2004). Measurement and Evaluation. 3rd ed.


Valenzuela City: 24 K Printing Co., Inc.

Garcia, Carlito D. (2004). Educational Measurement and Evaluation.

Mandaluyong City: Books Atbp. Publishing Corp.

Ivey, G. (2002). Building comprehension when they’re still learning to


read words. In C. C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension
instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 234-246). New
York: Guilford Press.

Kintsch, W., &Kintsch, E. (2005). Comprehension. In S. G. Paris & S. A.


Stahl (Eds.), Children’s reading: Comprehension and assessment
(pp. 71-92). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

RAND Reading Study Group. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward


an R & D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA:
RAND.

Trabasso, T., & Bouchard, E. (2002). Teaching readers how to


comprehend text strategically. In C. C. Block & M. Pressley ed.
Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp.
176 200). New York: Press.

Tracey, D. H., & Morrow, L. M. (2002). Preparing young learners for


successful reading comprehension. In C. C. Block & M. Pressley
(Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices
(pp. 219-233). New York: Guilford Press.

Villamin, A., Villamin, C., & M. Sena, (2003). Skill Builders for Effecuent
Reading. Second Edition. Phoenix Publishing House Inc. Quezon
City Philippines.

39
B. JOURNALS/ PERIODICAL

Cheung, D. (2002). How Can We Construct Good Multiple Choice Items?.


Science and Technology Education Conference.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000).


Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read:
An evidence of the scientific research literature on reading and its
implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769).
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

C. UNPUBLISH MATERIALS

Amora, Evelyn J. (2011). The Reading Comprehension Level and the


National Achievement Test Performance in English of Second Year
High School Students. Master’s Thesis, MSU-GSC

Bayhon, Rosemarie P. (2005). An Achievement Test in Intermediate


Algebra; Development and Validation. Master’s Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Cabatingan, Analyn M. (2007). Development of an Algebra Workbook for


Nursing Students at General Santos Doctor’s School Foundation, Inc.
Master’s Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Casocot, Dolores (2003). The Oral Reading Proficiency in English of Grade


III Pupils and its Correlation to the Reading Comprehension
Proficiency in the Content Areas. Master’s Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Diaz, Rosalind S. (2004). Oral and Silent Reading performance of Fourth


Year High School Students as Influenced by their Study Habits.
Master’s Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Espiritu, Nelia A. (2000). “Teachers Questioning Strategies and the


Reading Comprehension of Senior High School Students of MSU-
GSC.” Master’s Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Genoso, Rossana U. (2010). Development and Validation of Teacher’s


Guide in Phonemic Awareness for early Reading Success. Master’s
Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Mahusay, John G. (2011). Development and Validation of an Assessment


Tool in Mathematics for Incoming Freshmen at STI-College, General
Santos City. Master’s Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Reyes, E. (2008). Development and Validation of an Achievement Test In


Chemistry. Master’s Thesis, MSU, GSC.
40
Terencio, Jr. Dominador. Development of Modules in General Physics for
Maritime Students in Mindanao Polytechnic College, G.S.C. Master’s
Thesis, MSU, GSC.

Trocio, Teresite S. (2000). “An Achievement Test in Fourth Year


Mathematics For Lagao National High School”. Master’s Thesis,
MSU-GSC.

D. ONLINE SOURCES

Biancarosa and Snow, (2006). Reading Comprehension: A Review.”


Journal of Research in Reading . Retrieved August28, 2012 from
http://www.wce.wwu.edu/Depts/SPED/Forms/Kens%20Readings
/reading/Readings/comprehension/Comp%20%20models.pdf

Bradley, Danielson, & Hallahan (2002). The Importance of Reading


Comprehension Skills. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from
http://www.edhelper.com/language/Reading_Skills.htm

Duke & Pearson, (2002). Research on Teaching Reading Comprehension.


Retrieved August 2, 2012 from
http://www.wce.wwu.edu/Depts/SPED/Forms/Kens%20Readings
/reading/Readings/comprehension/Comp%20%20models.pdf/

Pressley, Michael (2006). Reading instruction that works: the case for
balanced teaching. Retrieved August 30, 2012 from
http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Gl6TWPOE2o0C&
oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Reading+instruction+that+works:+The+case+f
or+balanced+teaching&ots=WDL3X6Gy9_&sig=kgIU6slAZInOJfGqT
WuDqFeS2L0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Worthen, B. R (1993). Measurement and evaluation in the school. NY:


Longman. Retrieved September 10, 2012 from
http://course1.winona.edu/lgray/el626/MandEtext3.html

Yu, (2001). Effective Practices in Developing the Reading Comprehension


Skills. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngextremeexplorer/pdf/effect
ivepractices.pdf

Sequencing. Retrieved September 10, 2012 from


http://www.austinschools.org/curriculum/la/resources/docume
nts/instResources/LA_res_Seq_ORS_Module.pdf

41
APPENDIX A

Letter of Permission to Conduct the Study

Republic of the Philippines


Mindanao State University
General Santos City

Date: ____________

BERNADITA S. TOTESORA

The Principal
Mindanao State University
College of Education Training Department
JP Laurel Street, General Santos City

Dear Madam:

Greetings of Peace!

The undersigned students are presently working on their thesis


entitled “CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A READING
COMPREHENSIONTEST FOR SECOND YEAR HIGH SCHOOL
STUDENTS OF MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY-CETD, G.S.C.” in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for their thesis.

In connection with this, they humbly ask for your approval to allow
them to conduct their research on the above title on your school.

Your approval is highly appreciated. Thank you!

Respectfully yours,
(Sgd.) KIMBEERLYN BAJOLAN CALAUOD
(Sgd.) MARICAR HORTELANO
Researchers

Noted by:

(Sgd.) PROF. MELY SUBIERE


Adviser

Approved by:
(Sgd) Ma’am BERNADITA S. TOTESORA

42
APPENDIX B

Letter for Validation

Republic of the Philippines


Mindanao State University
General Santos City

Date: ______________

JULNES M. JUMALON, Ph.D


College of Social Science and Humanities
Mindanao State University
Fatima, General Santos City

Dear Ma’am;

The undersigned students of Mindanao State University- College of


Education is currently conducting a research study entitled
“CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A READING
COMPREHENSIONTEST FOR SECOND YEAR HIGH SCHOOL
STUDENTS OF MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY-CETD, G.S.C.” in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the thesis.

Attached are the questionnaire and the Reading Comprehension


Test for the Second Year High School, which is the output of this
research.

In connection with this, we humbly ask you as one of the


evaluators of the said Reading Comprehension Test in terms of
acceptability, usability, relevance adequacy and appropriateness.

The result of this study will be kept confidentially and will be used
for research purposes only.

Thank you very much!

Respectfully yours,

(Sgd.) KIMBEERLYN BAJOLAN CALAUOD


(Sgd.) MARICAR HORTELANO
Researchers

Noted by:

(Sgd.) PROF. MELY SUBIERE


Adviser
43
Republic of the Philippines
Mindanao State University
General Santos City

Date: ______________

JOHARIA NICART, Ph.D


College of Education
Mindanao State University
Fatima, General Santos City

Dear Ma’am;

The undersigned students of Mindanao State University- College of


Education is currently conducting a research study entitled
“CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A READING
COMPREHENSIONTEST FOR SECOND YEAR HIGH SCHOOL
STUDENTS OF MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY-CETD, G.S.C.” in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the thesis.

Attached are the questionnaire and the Reading Comprehension


Test for the Second Year High School, which is the output of this
research.

In connection with this, we humbly ask you as one of the


evaluators of the said Reading Comprehension Test in terms of
acceptability, usability, relevance adequacy and appropriateness.

The result of this study will be kept confidentially and will be used
for research purposes only.

Thank you very much!

Respectfully yours,

(Sgd.) KIMBEERLYN BAJOLAN CALAUOD


(Sgd.) MARICAR HORTELANO
Researchers

Noted by:

(Sgd.) PROF. MELY SUBIERE


Adviser

44
Republic of the Philippines
Mindanao State University
General Santos City

Date: ______________

PROF. SALVACION SANTANDER


College of Social Science and Humanities
Mindanao State University
Fatima, General Santos City

Dear Ma’am;

The undersigned students of Mindanao state University- College of


Education is currently conducting a research study entitled
“CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A READING
COMPREHENSIONTEST FOR SECOND YEAR HIGH SCHOOL
STUDENTS OF MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY-CETD, G.S.C.” in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the thesis.

Attached are the questionnaire and the Reading Comprehension


Test for the Second Year High School, which is the output of this
research.

In connection with this, we humbly ask you as one of the


evaluators of the said Reading Comprehension Test in terms of
acceptability, usability, relevance adequacy and appropriateness.

The result of this study will be kept confidentially and will be used
for research purposes only.

Thank you very much!

Respectfully yours,

(Sgd.) KIMBEERLYN BAJOLAN CALAUOD


(Sgd.) MARICAR HORTELANO
Researchers

Noted by:

(Sgd.) PROF. MELY SUBIERE


Adviser

45
APPENDIX C

Letter to the Respondents

Republic of the Philippines


Mindanao State University
Fatima, General Santos City
College of Education

Date:____________

Dear Respondents,

Greetings of Peace!

We are conducting a research study entitled ““CONSTRUCTION


AND VALIDATION OF A READING COMPREHENSIONTEST FOR
SECOND YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF MINDANAO STATE
UNIVERSITY-CETD, G.S.C.”

Please answer the questions in the test correctly and carefully.


Your answers shall be treated confidentially.

Your cooperation and help will be greatly appreciated.

Thank you very much and God Bless!

Respectfully yours,

(Sgd.) KIMBEERLYN BAJOLAN CALAUOD


(Sgd.) MARICAR HORTELANO
Researchers

Noted by:

(Sgd.) PROF. MELY SUBIERE


Adviser

46
APPENDIX D

VALIDATION TOOL
Construction and Validation of a Reading Comprehension Test for
Second Year High School Students

Content Validity Questionnaire


Directions: This tool asks for your evaluation of the questionnaire to be
used in the data gathering for the investigation stated above, to establish
its content validity. You are requested to give your honest assessment
using the criteria stated below, by checking the appropriate number
which best reflects your assessment. Please refer to the legend below.

Legend:

Scale Interpretation Description

The questionnaire is valid and can


5 Very Highly Valid provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 0-5% errors.

The questionnaire is valid and can


4 Highly Valid provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 8-10% errors.

The questionnaire is valid and can


3 Valid provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 11-15% errors.

The questionnaire is valid and can


2 Less Valid provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 15-20% errors.

The questionnaire is valid and can


1 Not Valid at all provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 21-25% errors.

ACCEPTABILITY 5 4 3 2 1
1. The test provides an organized
instructional tool for teachers in achieving
the curriculum target of enhancing the
student’s Reading Comprehension.

47
2. The questions are sequenced on a
continuum from simple to complex which
allows students to improve test-taking
ability.

3. The test is a reference material in


developing the student’s Reading
Comprehension skills.

4. The test questions help students feel the


confidence and self esteem while learning as
they experience success in answering the
test.

5. This test is a big boost to student’s


mission and target which is to level up the
technique in reading comprehension.

6. The test presents a creative approach in


developing the student’s reading
comprehension skills.

7. The test provides an organized and


systematic instruction in reading
comprehension.

8. The test questions are adequate in


developing reading comprehension skills
among learners.

9. The test provides insights about reading


comprehension among learners.

10. Each question is presented in a way that


teachers and students find it convenient.

RELEVANCE 5 4 3 2 1

1. The test is aligned with the DepEd


program.
2. The objectives of the test are aligned with
the skills and competencies in the PSSLC.

3. The questions in the test are congruent to


the objectives.

4. The test provides different exercises that

48
are suited to the objective.

5. This is a research-based, thus scientific


and systematic in approach.

6. The test gives meaning to the reading


difficulties of the struggling students in
reading comprehension by providing
appropriate and challenging questions.

7. It contains steps that teachers can adhere


to when teaching reading so that their
instruction will not only be successful but
also be fun and meaningful to the students.

8. It gives the students a variety of ways to


understand and comprehend what they are
reading.

9. The questions in the test enhance the


student’s skills in answering a reading
comprehension test.

10. The test provides questions which help


students develop their test-taking skills as
they learn.

49
APPENDIX E

Content Validity Questionnaire of the Reading Comprehension Test

Name:
Position:
Highest Educ. Attainment:

Direction: Please check the following corresponding to your answer.

Legend:

Scale Interpretation Description

5 Very Highly Valid The questionnaire is valid and can


provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 0-5% errors.

4 Highly Valid The questionnaire is valid and can


provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 8-10% errors.

3 Valid The questionnaire is valid and can


provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 11-15% errors.

2 Less Valid The questionnaire is valid and can


provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 15-20% errors.

1 Not Valid at all The questionnaire is valid and can


provide unbiased data for the study,
allowing 21-25% errors.

APPROPRIATENESS
5 4 3 2 1
1. The test items are representative of the topics
and skills included in the Table of
Specifications based on the Philippine
Secondary Schools Learning competencies
(PSSLC) for second year English students.
2. The test items are proportionally distributed
among the competencies.

50
3. The test items are suited to the comprehension
level of the second year students.
4. The test items are suited to the behavioral
patterns of the second year students.
5. The test items develop student's reading
comprehension skills and critical thinking.

ADEQUACY
5 4 3 2 1
1. The contents help the learner's need in
enhancing reading comprehension skills.
2. The items included are sufficient for the
comprehension capability of the students.
3. The test helps develop the reading
comprehension skills of the students.
4. The numbers of items that exist are in proper
quantity, that is, not too many and not too few.
5. The test items provide opportunities for
application of new learning in real-life
situations.

Please give your comments/suggestions (you may use the back portion of
the paper for more comments/suggestions):

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Rated by:
____________________________
Signature over printed name

51
APPENDIX F

(PSSLC 2002)

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
IN
INTERACTIVE SECONDARY ENGLISH
LANGUAGE CURRICULUM
2002

SECOND YEAR
At the end of the second year, the student shall have developed the
following competencies:

LISTENING
1. Determine the social issues addressed in an informative talk, the
objective of the speaker and his attitude on the issues
1.1 Listen for clues and links to show the speaker’s trend of thought
1.1.1 Describe the speaker’s attitude towards the subject
1.1.2 Arrive at conclusions regarding the attitude of the speaker toward
his subject by noting clues and links to show the speaker’s stand and
assumptions
1.2 Explore opportunities for speedy and economical access to
information by listening to talks, informative, political, religious

2. Identify prosodic features, stress, and intonation features as carriers


of meaning that may aid or interfere in the delivery of the message in
stories and informative texts
2.1 Note prosodic features (e.g. stress, intonation, pauses) and rate of
speech as carriers of meaning
2.2 Identify changes in meaning signaled by stress, intonation and
juncture
2.3 Listen for points the speaker emphasizes as important signaled by
contrastive sentence stress

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3. Employ varied listening strategies (marginal, selective, attentive,
critical) to suit the listening text and task
3.1 Supply gaps in listening texts caused by acoustic disturbance
3.1.1 Predict what is to follow considering the text type and macro
discourse pattern
3.1.2 Use context to guess items not heard in a listening text
3.2 Listen to longer stories
3.2.1 Employ projective listening strategies when listening to stories
3.2.2 Predict outcomes from events described in stories as they unfold
3.2.3 Listen to determine if one’s predictions are borne out
3.2.4 Listen to events and note developments in narratives as they unfold
3.2.5 Note the dramatic effect of sudden twists in surprise endings
3.3 Listen to issues pertaining to the community
3.3.1 Identify the attitudes of the speaker on an issue
3.3.2 Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue

4. Process speech at different rates by making inferences from what was


said
4.1 Use syntactic and lexical clues to supply items not heard in a
listening text
4.1.1 Anticipate what is to follow considering the function of the
statements made
4.2 Listen to determine conflicting information aired over the radio and
television

5. Express appreciation for oral interpretations noting harmony, unison,


and rhythm
5.1 Listen to appreciate the tune and narrative structure of ballads
5.2 Listen to appreciate harmony, unison, and rhythm in choric
interpretations

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SPEAKING
1. Give a short, informative talk using appropriate registers to suit the
intended audience and variation in intonation and stress for emphasis
and contrast
1.1 Make use of stress and intonation for emphasis and contrast
1.2 Express feelings and attitudes by utilizing contrastive stress and
variations of tone and tempo
1.3 Use stress, intonation and juncture to signal changes in meaning

2. Give information and express needs, opinions, feelings and attitudes


explicitly and implicitly in informative talk
2.1 Formulate response to questions noting the types of questions raised
(yes-no, wh-questions alternative, modals, embedded)
2.2 Use the telephone to make inquiries
2.3 Give information obtained from mass media: newspapers, radio,
television
2.4 Use audio-visual aids to highlight important points in an informative
talk

3. Infer the function of utterance and respond accordingly taking into


account the context of the situation and the tone used (asking
information, making suggestions, expressing wants, dislikes, approval,
disapproval
3.1 Respond orally to the ideas and needs expressed in face-to-face
interviews in accordance with the intended meaning of the speaker
3.2 Include instructional information and constraints

4. Arrive at a consensus on community issues by assessing statements


made
4.1 React to information obtained from talks
4.1.1 Agree/disagree with statements and observations made concerning
community issues

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4.2 Agree/disagree with statements, observations and responses made in
political and religious talks when discussing issues affecting the
community
4.3 Interview persons to get their opinions about social issues affecting
the community

5. Use appropriate turn-taking strategies (topic nomination, topic


development, topic shift, turn-getting, etc.) in extended conversation
6. Use communication strategies (e.g. paraphrase, translations, and
circumlocution) to repair break-down in communication

READING
1. Gather data using library resources consisting of general references,
atlas, periodical index, and periodicals to locate information
1.1 Use the periodical index to locate information in periodicals
1.1.1 Determine the content and stand of a newspaper
1.2 Extract and organize information from different text types

2. Adjust and vary reading speed based on one’s purpose for reading and
the type of materials read
2.1 Use different reading styles to suit the text and one’s purpose for
reading
2.2 Scan rapidly for sequence signals or connectors as basis for
determining the rhetorical organization of texts

3. Demonstrate the ability to activate background knowledge (e.g. use


advance organizers, illustrations, comprehension, questions, titles, etc.)
to better understand a text
3.1 Relate ideas from previous readings to a given text

4. Demonstrate the ability to interpret and if necessary reproduce in


linear verbal forms and graphics relationships calling for inferential
interpretations

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4.1 Interpret and compare orally or in writing information presented in
tables, charts, graphs, etc.
4.2 Choose the chart (flow chart, tree diagram or grid) most suited to
illustrate thought relationships in a given text
4.3 Organize information into a concept map

5. Utilize varied reading strategies (covert dialogue with the writer and
the sectional approach) to process information in a text
5.1 Note the function of statements made as the text unfolds and use it
as the basis of predicting what is to follow
5.2 Suggest modifications to be made considering the context of the
situation when the text was written
5.3 Distinguish between facts and opinion and note expressions that
signal opinions
(seems, as I see it)

5.4 Identify propaganda strategies used in advertisements and other


texts and consider these when formulating hypothesis concerning claims
made
5.5 Abstract information from the text by noting both explicit and
implicit signals used by the writer to serve as directions on how the text
is to be interpreted

6. Develop the ability and the desire to read different text types for
information, pleasure and appreciation
6.1 Derive from the written text varied ways of expressing an idea

7. Develop strategies to make sense of unfamiliar words, ambiguous


sentence structures, and information-dense discourse
7.1 Arrange words in a cline to differentiate between shades of meaning
7.2 Guess the meaning of idiomatic expressions by noting keywords in
expressions, context clues, collocations, clusters or related words, etc.

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7.3 Get the meaning of complex sentence structures by deleting
expansions to come up with the kernel sentence

WRITING
1. Communicate thoughts, feelings, one’s needs in letters, journal
entries, book reviews, interview write-ups, etc. using appropriate styles
(formal and informal)
1.1 Employ the interactional functions of language in pen-pal letters,
letters of invitation, “yes” and “no” letters
1.2 Write reflections on learning experiences in diary and journal entries
1.3 Summarize and write reactions to books read (book reviews) or
movies seen (movie review)
1.4 Prepare interview guides and make a write-up of an interview

2. Accomplish forms (school, evaluation, survey) and order slips and


prepare posters and captions calling attention to drives
2.1 Fill out personal data sheets (school forms, bank forms, etc.)
2.2 Accomplish order slips, telecom forms
2.3 Call attention to school events and drives
2.3.1 Make captions for posters
2.3.2 Write slogans
2.3.3 Prepare advertisements for school drives

3. Write different types of discourse: narration (personal experiences),


exposition (book reviews) and description (apparatus, objects, etc.)
3.1 Write well-constructed texts employing alternative forms of the
overall macro discourse patterns
P-Sn Situation, Problem, Attempted Solution-Result-Evaluation
TRI Topic-Restriction, Topic-Illustration, and Topic-Restriction-
Illustration
3.2 Use appropriate modes of development to express one’s ideas, needs,
feelings, and attitudes

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3.3 Expand ideas using a variety of and cohesive devices to make the
flow of thought from one sentence to another smooth and effortless
3.4 Write short personal narratives to support an assertion

4. Organize ideas in non-linear texts


4.1 Use information maps and other concept maps as aids in note taking
• Linear, branching, cyclical flow-charts
• Three-level tree diagrams
• Grids
4.2 Use three-step word, phrasal and sentence outlines to organize ideas
4.3 Explain in writing the data presented in non-linear texts

5. Do self and peer-editing using a set of criteria


6. Use writing conventions to indicate acknowledgement of resources

LITERATURE
1. Discover Philippine and Afro Asian literature as a means of expanding
experiences and outlook and enhancing worthwhile universal human
values
1.1 Express appreciation for worthwhile Asian traditions and the values
they represent
1.2 Assess the Asian identity as presented in Asian literature
1.3 Assess one’s self in the light of what makes an Asian
1.4 Identify one’s self with other people through literature and note
cultural differences so as to get to the heart of problems arising from
them

2. Discover literature as a means of having a better understanding of


man and the forces he has to contend with
2.1 Discover through literature the symbiotic relationship between man
and his environment and the need of the former to protect the latter

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2.2 Demonstrate a heightened sensitivity to the needs of others for a
better understanding of man
2.3 Discover through literature the links between one’s life and the lives
of the people throughout the world
2.4 Highlight the need for a more just and equitable distribution of
resources

3. Show understanding and appreciation of the different genres with


emphasis on types contributed by Asian countries (i.e. haiku, tanka etc.)
3.1 Point out the elements of plays and playlets
3.2 Determine the macro discourse patterns (PSNTRI) of essays and the
micro discourse signals used to establish meaning relationships in the
essay

4. Point out the role of literature in enabling one to grow in personhood


4.1 Note the values underscored by the writer in literary pieces
4.2 Distinguish literature s a means of gaining vicarious experiences
4.3 Discriminate what is worthwhile from what is not through literature
4.3.1 Distinguish as a positive value the ability to look into oneself and to
accept one’s strengths and weaknesses
4.3.2 Single out humility, resourcefulness and self-reliance
5. Employ reading skills as an aid in comprehension and appreciation of
a literary piece
5.1 Select appropriate details from a selection (i.e. contrasts, illustration,
etc.) used by an essayist to attain his objective (to persuade, to inform, to
call attention, etc.)
5.2 Point out how the choice of title space allotment, imagery, choice of
words, figurative language, etc. contribute to the theme
5.2.1 Single out and explain figurative language used
5.2.2 Point out and express appreciation of sensory images in literary
forms

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5.3 Show relationship between the man idea and signifi cant details
5.4 Draw conclusions and make inferences based on details/specifi c
ideas
5.5 Determine the author’s tone and purpose for writing a literary
selection
5.6 Paraphrase passages to demonstrate understanding

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