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ranscript of Science Investigatory Project on Ethanol from ripe banana peelings

Ripe banana Peelings
1 liter Water
Sterilized Bottle

Definition of Terms
DMC Basic Education
Science Investigatory Project
Ethanol from Musa paradisiaca Peelings
Group 3
This study aims to signify the use of waste from musa paradisiaca (ripe banana) peelings that
pollute our surrounding when thrown anywhere after eating ripe banana fruits.
Null Hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis
If banana peelings can't turn into Ethanol then we can't lessen the number of banana peelings in
our surrounding
If banana peelings could be extracted into Ethanol then we could reduce the number of waste
from ripe banana peelings
This study aims to give importance to ripe banana peelings instead of making it as waste;
polluting our environment and to know the effectiveness of banana peelings as Ethanol.
Anyone who chooses to conserve waste from banana peelings
an edible fruit produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants of the genus musa.
The fruit is variable in size, color, and firmness but is usually elongated curved, with soft flesh,
rich in starch, covered with a rind, which may be yellow, purple or red when ripe. The fruits
grown in clusters hanging from the top of a plant.
-Ethyl alcohol is a colorless liquid with molecular formula C2H2OH. It is the alcohol found in
alcoholic beverages.

- is a process in which energy is derived from the oxidation of organic compounds, therefore
producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as waste by-products.
- is a process used to separate different mixtures by heating a liquid until it boils, then capturing
and cooling the vapor, and collecting it into condensed vapor
-a microscopic fungus consisting of single oval cells that reproduce by budding, and are capable
of converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide
Gather waste ripe banana peelings
Wash then scrape the inner part of the peelings
place it in a 1 liter water
heat for 30 min.
place extract into sterilized bottle
add yeast
partially scale it
ferment it for over 3 months
(extract is distilled to produce ethyl alcohol

Energy plays a vital role in the development of any nation. However, that
development increases pollution levels. Recycling and utilization have
become major concerns of developing nations. The goal of this research is to
utilize banana peels for the production of bioethanol by using the
yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects of hydrolysis factors were
investigated, and the optimized combination of factors with response surface
designs was found. The results show that 45.088% of ethanol was obtained at
1.50% v/v acid concentration, 91.02 °C temperature and 21.66 min retention
time. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) correlation coefficients Pred R2 = 0.8650
and Adj R2 = 0.9782 indicates an excellent evaluation of the experimental data
by a second-order polynomial regression model.

Banana peel
Sugar content
1. Introduction
The overall well-being of the world, industrial competitiveness, and the function of society are
all dependent on safe, sustainable and affordable energy [1]. Energy provides essential power for
almost all human activities. It provides services for cooking, heating, lighting, health, food
production and storage, education, mineral extraction, industrial production and
transportation [2,3]. Energy consumption has increased steadily over the last century as the
world population has grown and as more countries have become industrialized. Crude oil has
been the major resource required to meet this increased energy demand [4]. Different techniques
have been used to estimate the current known crude oil reserves, and it has been concluded that
the annual global oil production will decline from the current 25 billion barrels to approximately
5 billion barrels in 2050 [5].

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, bioethanol) is the most employed liquid biofuel used as a fuel or as a
gasoline enhancer. Given that ethanol has a higher oxygen content than other liquid biofuels, a
smaller amount of the additive is required. The increased percentage of oxygen allows a better
oxidation of the gasoline hydrocarbons with the consequent reduction in the emission of CO and
aromatic compounds [6,7]. Biofuels are generally produced by fermentation of agricultural
wastes, fruit wastes, municipal and industrial wastes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's
yeast) as food for the microorganisms [8]. The complexity of the production process depends on
the feedstock [9].

The recycling and utilization of solid wastes are currently major issues for environmental
research. The treatment of solid waste goes as far back as the 18th century, when burying the
waste was the best option for waste management. Inadequate municipal and industrial solid
waste collection and disposal creates a range of environmental problems in Ethiopia. A
considerable amount of waste ends up in open dumps or drainage systems, which threatens both
surface water and ground water quality and causes serious environmental and health problems.
The open air burning of waste, spontaneous combustion in landfills and incinerating plants
lacking effective treatment for gas emissions are all causing air pollution [10,11]. The adverse
effects of inadequate solid waste service create significant issues for productivity and economic
development. Solid wastes, such as fruit peels, are largely obtained as a byproduct from food
processing industries, juice processing plants, hotels and restaurants. These types of waste can
cause serious environmental problems unless they are converted into a useful product or
disposed of properly [12].

Over time, the scarcity of resources and the soaring pollution level have necessitated the need for
alternative treatment options. Recently, there are many treatment options for solid waste such as
composting, incineration, land filling and production of different biofuels. The option chosen
must be based on different technical and economic criteria of the particular situation [13]. In
most developing African countries, municipal solid wastes are disposed of in non-engineered
landfills, which are known to generate greenhouse gasses. In developed nations, however,
municipal solid wastes are treated through advanced methods such as controlled incineration and
production of biofuels both due to the increasing need to use the so called “waste” as a resource
and due to stringent environmental regulations [14]. This research work focuses on the utilization
of waste for energy generation (i.e., the possibility of converting waste fruit peels into valuable
product (bioethanol) at optimum parameters).
The aim of this study is to optimize parameter conditions (acid concentration, temperature and
time) for hydrolysing waste banana peels to obtain the maximum amount of fermentable sugars
by conducting series of experimental analysis. The effect of benzyl penicillin is also studied
during fermentation.

2. Material and methods

2.1. Material

2.1.1. Raw material

Banana peels (Royal red and Lacatan) were collected in plastic bags from a juicing plant near the
MIT campus and were washed before use. Analytical grade chemical, sulfuric acid (H2SO4),
sodium hydroxide (NaOH), yeast extracts agar, urea, dextrose sugar (Mg SO4.7H2O), baker's
yeast/yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintained on YEPDA (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone,
2% agar) slant stored at 4 °C), distilled water, and benzathine penicillin G were used in the
experiment. The physicochemical characteristics of the banana peel are listed in Table 1.

.2. Methods

2.2.1. Feed material

The gathered peels were chopped into small pieces approximately 2–4 cm in length using a
knife. The pieces were then sun dried under mild sunlight for two days and then dried at 60 °C in
an oven for one day. Next, the samples were taken out of the drier once they were dry enough to
be crushed. The cut pieces were then crushed in the grinder. The ground sample was divided
proportionally into seventeen separate samples of 10 g of ground banana peels and another two
separate samples of 20 g of ground banana peels. A juice was prepared for each sample by
adding 10:1 (v/w) ratio of distilled water to the sample in separate flasks [16]. The
lignocelluloses molecules must be broken down into free sugars before the fermentation required
for alcohol production [17].

2.2.2. Steam treatment

The separate samples capped with aluminum foil were autoclaved at 15psi pressure for 30 min.
After autoclaving the samples were allowed to cool and the soluble portion was separated from
the insoluble using filtration. The insoluble portion was then allowed to hydrolyse, and the
amount of sugar produced was measured for each sample.

2.2.3. Acid hydrolysis

The first 25 ml of 0.5%–2.5% (v/v) diluted sulfuric acid was added to the insoluble component
from pretreatment steps. The fruit peels were hydrolysed in the reactor between 70 and 110 °C
for 10–30 min as the experimental design required. After hydrolysis, pH adjustment was carried
out with 1 M NaOH until the pH reached a pH of 7. Insoluble particles were separated from the
hydrolysate by filtration. The soluble component was then added with the previously filtered
solution from the pretreatment step for the next procedure [18].

2.2.4. Measuring sugar content

The Brix method was used to measure the sugar content of each sample. Using optimum
conditions, hydrolysis was carried out for the remaining two samples containing 20 g banana
peel powder. Once again the lignin was removed from the soluble portion, and the remaining
soluble solution was added into the previously separated soluble portions. The residue and
remaining samples were discarded. Finally, these two samples were used to produce ethanol
from banana peels by Saccharomyces cerevisiae[7].

2.2.5. Fermentation
The media was prepared for the fermentation process. Fermentation with S. cerevisiae only and
fermentation with S. cerevisiae and benzathine penicillin G. 100 ml from the in column was
added to 0.5 g of yeast (5 g/L yeast), S. cerevisiae, in 250-ml flask. The flask was covered with
aluminum foil to prevent air entrance (the growth was made anaerobically). The conical flask
was then placed in a shaking incubator for 24 h at temperature of 30 °C and 200 rpm, which was
used for the fermentation process. In the fermentation step, the two samples were conditioned to
a temperature of 30 °C before the fermentation step started. This temperature was the working
temperature throughout the entire fermentation process. At this step the pH was set to 5.0–5.5
(which is the optimum pH for the activity of S. cerevisiae) by the addition of 1 M NaOH. The
25 ml freshly prepared yeast culture was added into each of the flasks (1:4 (v/v) of samples) and
the flask's mouth was wrapped with aluminum foil. Next, 0.05 g of benzathine penicillin G
(0.5 g/L) was added into the second flask while the first remains as it was. Finally, both samples
were placed in shaker incubator at 200 rpm at 30 °C, for 3 days. The samples were checked
every day by adjusting the pH to between 5.0 and 5.5 [19]. Finally, the ethanol product from the
banana peel juice was distillated using a rotary evaporator.

2.2.6. Density measurement

The final products were evaluated for their ethanol content by measuring the
corresponding density using a pycnometer at room temperature. The specific
gravity of the produced alcohol was determined and the alcohol concentration
was determined from the relationship between the specific gravity and the
proportion of ethanol in alcohol solution at room temperature. The specific
gravity of the sample was calculated according to the formula given below.

Due to the modernization of our country, there were new things that are
added in the basic necessities of an individual, one of this is fuel. Since fuel
is bought in a high price, some people can’t afford it. To resolve this
problem, we need to find abundant and renewable source of fuel that is
low cost. The project entitled “Ethanol Production from Banana Peelings”
was made to help solve this problem. This project will give us knowledge
on how to make ethanol from banana peelings that is renewable, easy to
make, eco-friendly and can be afforded in a low price.


This study is done to give importance to banana peelings. The research

wanted to produce Ethanol out of Banana Peelings. Since banana peelings
are also wastes, they can be a problem to our community. Some may step
on them, and may have slipped. This is true. Banana peels may cause
accidents as well as pollution. But, we can change this into a positive
outcome. We, researchers, wanted to make Ethanol using banana peels. In
this way, through the use of our knowledge in chemistry, we can
contribute in lessening the burden brought about by pollution. We also
wanted to know the effectiveness of the banana peelings as Ethanol as
well as the properties contained in the banana peel that can be used for
Ethanol production.

Statement of the Problem

This study only focuses on the potential of Banana Peelings as an Ethanol

fuel and answers the question generally:

Can Ethanol be produced from Banana Peelings?

Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:

What properties does Banana Peelings contain for the production of



Probably, Ethanol can be produced from banana peelings.


This project plan is important because it reveals the potential of banana

peelings to produce Ethanol. It is significant for us to know the ways on
how we can lessen pollution by means of recycling. This can be an eye-
opener to many individuals who has a problem in the price increase of
commercial fuels. This can serve as an idea for them to conserve energy
and start recycling.

Likewise, this study can give all of us knowledge on how to make ethanol
fuel out of banana peelings.


This investigatory project only focuses on the potential of banana peelings

to produce ethanol. Only the banana peelings will be used for the project.
We won’t be using other possible sources of biomass for ethanol.

Here is an excerpt by Dr. Zan Smith in his article, “Feasibility of Biomass

Fuel Briquettes from Banana Plant Waste”. The following information had
added some information that we need to apply in making the ethanol.

The Banana Plant, Simply Amazing

In addition to being a ubiquitous fruit many enjoy, the banana plant has a
long list of amazing qualities for which many wonderful products result.
The sap is used to dye cloth, produce indelible inks and assist with the
production of antibacterial soap and gel. The superior strength of the fibers
has a long list of applications in the textile fabrics and the paper pulp
industries. Unfortunately, the very qualities that contribute to making this a
unique plant also work against its successful use as a biomass fuel.

Banana peels are used for polishing silverware, leather shoes, and the
leaves of house plants. Researchers found that minced banana peel could
quickly remove lead and copper from river water as well as, or better than,
many other materials. A purification apparatus made of banana peels can
be used up to eleven times without losing its metal-binding properties. The
banana peels are very attractive as water purifiers because of their low
cost and because they don't have to be chemically modified.

We used the following materials and ingredients in making our product:

 Banana Peelings
 Hot water
 Yeast
 Stirring Rod
 Beaker
 Funnel
 Plastic Container with lid
 Mortar and Pestle
 Filter Paper


The banana peelings were collected after the consumption of its flesh.
These peelings were then finely chopped and macerated. The peelings
together with the yeast were put into the beaker with hot water. The
mixture was slowly stirred using the stirring rod. Then it was transferred to
the plastic container with the lid loosely affixed. This was done so that it
will allow carbon dioxide to escape during the fermentation process without
letting in dirt and bugs. The mixture was set in an area that has a
consistent temperature of 70 degrees. The peelings were left to ferment
for about 2 days.

Then there will be some wastes to be filtered out after fermentation. Bugs
and dirt can sometimes get into the mixture, but mostly dead yeast was
filtered out. The mixture was then transferred to an alcohol lamp and was
lit. This was done to show if there is really alcohol in the product for it to
be called as an ethanol.


Trial Observations
It produced a low-fire flame but after about 17 seconds, the
1 flame died.
It produced a low-fire flame but after about 10 seconds, the
2 flame died.
It produced a low-fire flame but after about 10 seconds, the
3 flame died.
It produced a low-fire flame but after about 8 seconds, the
4 flame died.
It cannot produce fire anymore


Compared to an ordinary ethanol, our product cannot produce fire that

much. As seen in the graph above, the fire easily dies. First of all, fire was
produced from the banana peel because it contains carbon that is
commonly found in petroleum and fuels and ethanol itself contains two
molecules of carbon. Second, it only produces low flame because it also
contains rubidium which is according to our research, a flame retardant
which means that it reduces flammability of fuels or delays their
This study signifies the use of waste from ripe banana (Musa paradisiaca) peelings that pollute our surrounding when
throw anywhere after eating ripe banana fruits. Â The study aims to produce Ethyl Alcohol out of ripe banana extract
added with yeast ad ferment it for 3 months. Â The researcher gathered waste ripe banana peelings from banana fruit
stand at Agora Public Market, Pagadian City. The waste ripe banana peelings were washed then scrapped the inner part
of the peelings after scrapping. This was placed in the one (1) liter of water, heated until cooked in thirty (30) minutes.
The extract is being poured into the sterilized bottle added with yeast and partially scaled. After being fermented over
three (3) months, the extract is distilled to produce ethyl alcohol.  The ethyl alcohol product’s physical
characteristic is compared to the commercial one. It was clear in color and volatile. In the quantitative observation, the
researcher used 10mL of the experimental product “alcohol� and tested its flammability in three (3) trials giving a
21.167 mean value. Based on the T-test computation results, it was found out that the value is greater than the P-value
with the degree of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. Â I conclude that the waste ripe banana (Musa paradisiaca)
peeling is a potential raw material in the production of ethyl alcohol. It was found out that there is a significant
difference on experimental ethyl alcohol and commercial one in term of its flammability.