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# Limiting Reagent Problems

## C12H22O11 + 12O2 ---> 12CO2 + 11H2O

There are 10.0 g of sucrose and 10.0 g of oxygen reacting. Which is the limiting reagent?

Problem #2: Calculate the number of NaBr formula units formed when 50 NBr3 molecules and 57 NaOH
formula units react?

## 2NBr3 + 3NaOH ---> N2 + 3NaBr + 3HOBr

Problem #3: Aluminum reacts with chlorine gas to form aluminum chloride via the following reaction:

## 2Al + 3Cl2 ---> 2AlCl3

How many grams of aluminum chloride could be produced from 34.0 g of aluminum and 39.0 g of
chlorine gas?

Problem #4: Suppose 316.0 g aluminum sulfide reacts with 493.0 g of water. What mass of the excess
reactant remains?

## CaCO3 + 2HCl ---> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

6.088 g CaCO3 reacted with 2.852 g HCl. What mass of CaCO3 remains unreacted?

Problem #6: How many grams of PF5 can be formed from 9.46 g of PF3 and 9.42 g of XeF4 in the
following reaction?

## 2PF3 + XeF4 ---> 2PF5 + Xe

Problem #7: How many grams of IF5 would be produced using 44.01 grams of I2O5 and 101.0 grams of
BrF3?

## 6I2O5 + 20BrF3 ---> 12IF5 + 15O2 + 10Br2

Problem #8: 950.0 grams of copper(II) sulfate are reacted with 460.0 grams of zinc metal. What is the
yield of Cu?

Problem #9: What weight of each substance is present after 0.4500 g of P4O10 and 1.5000 g of PCl5 are
reacted completely?

## P4O10 + 6PCl5 ---> 10POCl3

Limiting Reagent Problems - Solutions

## C12H22O11 + 12O2 ---> 12CO2 + 11H2O

There are 10.0 g of sucrose and 10.0 g of oxygen reacting. Which is the limiting reagent?

## 2) Calculate moles of oxygen required to react with moles of sucrose:

From the coefficients, we see that 12 moles of oxygen are require for every one mole of sucrose.
Therefore:

## Oxygen on hand ⇒ 10.0 g / 31.9988 g/mol = 0.3125 mol

Since the oxygen required is greater than that on hand, it will run out before the sucrose. Oxygen is the
limiting reagent.

## Solution path #2:

1) Calculate moles:

## sucrose ⇒ 0.0292146 mol

oxygen ⇒ 0.3125 mol

## sucrose ⇒ 0.0292146 mol / 1 mol = 0.0292146

oxygen ⇒ 0.3125 mol / 12 mol = 0.02604

## Oxygen is the lower value. It is the limiting reagent.

The second method above will be the preferred method to determine the limiting reagent.
Problem #2: Calculate the number of NaBr formula units formed when 50 NBr3 molecules and 57 NaOH
formula units react?

## 2NBr3 + 3NaOH ---> N2 + 3NaBr + 3HOBr

Solution:

Comment: we can treat numbers of molecules or formula units in the exact same manner as we would
use moles. Keep in mind that the meaning of one mole is that 6.022 x 1023 of that entity (be it molecules
or formula units) is present.

## 1) Determine limiting reagent:

NBr3 ⇒ 50 "moles" / 2 = 25
NaOH ⇒ 57 "moles" / 3 = 19

## NaOH is the limiting reagent.

Note that there need be no conversion from grams to moles. Discussions of numbers of molecules uses
numbers that are directly proportional to the number of moles and do not need to be converted.

Comment: I must warn you against using the results of the division, in this case the 19 for the NaOH, in
the next step of the calculation. The 19 is good only for determining the limiting reagent. You need to
use the 57 in the next step.

3:3 = 57: x

x = 57 "moles"

## Correctly phrased, the answer is 57 formula units.

Problem #3: Aluminum reacts with chlorine gas to form aluminum chloride via the following reaction:

## 2Al + 3Cl2 ---> 2AlCl3

How many grams of aluminum chloride could be produced from 34.0 g of aluminum and 39.0 g of
chlorine gas?

Solution:

## Al ⇒ 34.0 g / 26.98 g/mol = 1.2602 mol

Cl2 ⇒ 39.0 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.5500 mol

Al ⇒ 1.2602 mol / 2 =
Cl2 ⇒ 0.5500 mol / 3 =

## Seems pretty obvious that chlorine gas is the limiting reagent.

2) Use Cl2 : AlCl3 molar ratio:

## x = 0.3667 mol of AlCl3 produced

3) Convert to grams:

## 0.3667 mol X 133.341 g/mol = 48.9 g (to three sig fig)

Problem #4: Suppose 316.0 g aluminum sulfide reacts with 493.0 g of water. What mass of the excess
reactant remains?

Solution:

## Al2S3 ⇒ 316.0 g / 150.159 g/mol = 2.104436 mol

H2O ⇒ 493.0 g / 18.015 g/mol = 27.366 mol

## Al2S3 ⇒ 2.104436 / 1 = 2.104436

H2O ⇒ 27.366 / 6 = 4.561

## The molar ratio to use is 1:6

1 : 6 = 2.104436 mol : x

## 12.626616 mol X 18.105 g/mol = 227.4685 g

4) Determine excess:

## 493.0 g - 227.46848724g = 265.5 g (to 4 sig figs)

Notice how the question only asks about the excess reagent, but you have to go through the entire set
of steps (determine moles, determine limiting reagent, use molar ratio) to get to the answer. Tricky!
Problem #5: In this reaction:

## CaCO3 + 2HCl ---> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

6.088 g CaCO3 reacted with 2.852 g HCl. What mass of CaCO3 remains unreacted?

Solution:

## CaCO3 ⇒ 6.088 g / 100.086 g/mol = 0.0608277 mol

HCl ⇒ 2.852 g / 36.461 g/mol = 0.0782206 mol

By inspection, we see that HCl is the limiting reagent. (Mentally divide both values by their respective
coefficient from the equation to see this.)

## 2) Determine moles, then grams of calcium carbonate used:

1 :2 = x : 0.0782206 mol

x = 0.0391103 mol

## 6.088 g - 3.914 g = 2.174 g

Problem #6: How many grams of PF5 can be formed from 9.46 g of PF3 and 9.42 g of XeF4 in the
following reaction?

## 2PF3 + XeF4 ---> 2PF5 + Xe

Solution:

1) Limiting reagent:

## PF3 ⇒ 9.46 g / 87.968 g/mol = 0.10754 mol

XeF4 ⇒ 9.42 g / 207.282 g/mol = 0.045445 mol

## PF3 ⇒ 0.10754 / 2 = 0.05377

XeF4 ⇒ 0.045445 / 1 = 0.045445

XeF4 is limiting

## 2) Use XeF4 : PF5 molar ratio:

1 : 2 = 0.045445 mol : x

## x = 0.090890 mol of PF5 produced

3) Determine grams of PF5:

## 0.090890 mol X 125.964 g/mol = 11.45 g

Problem #7: How many grams of IF5 would be produced using 44.01 grams of I2O5 and 101.0 grams of
BrF3?

Solution:

## I2O5 ⇒ 44.01 g / 333.795 g/mol = 0.1318474 mol

BrF3 ⇒ 101.0 g / 136.898 g/mol = 0.7377756 mol

## I2O5 ⇒ 0.1318474 / 6 = 0.02197457

BrF3 ⇒ 0.7377756 / 20 = 0.03688878

I2O5 is limiting.

## 2) Use I2O5 : IF5 molar ratio:

The ratio is 6 to 12

6 : 12 = 0.1318474 mol : x

## 0.2636948 mol X 221.89 g/mol = 58.51 g (to 4 sig figs)

Problem #8: 950.0 grams of copper(II) sulfate are reacted with 460.0 grams of zinc metal. What is the
yield of Cu?

## CuSO4 ⇒ 950.0 g / 159.607 g/mol = 5.95212 mol

Zn ⇒ 460.0 g / 65.38 g/mol = 7.03579 mol

CuSO4 is limiting.
3) Determine moles, then grams of Cu:

## 5.95212 mol X 63.546 g/mol = 378.2 g

Problem #9: What weight of each substance is present after 0.4500 g of P4O10 and 1.5000 g of PCl5 are
reacted completely?

Solution:

## P4O10 ⇒ 0.4500 g / 283.886 g/mol = 0.00158514 mol

PCl5: 1.5000 / 208.239 g/mol = 0.00720326 mol

## P4O10 ⇒ 0.00158514 / 1 = 0.00158514

PCl5: 0.00720326 / 6 = 0.00120054

PCl5 is limiting.

## Use 1 : 6 molar ratio.

1 : 6 = x : 0.00720326 mol