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Bulugh Al-Maram 209 r\'r--1\ tr-

.. I'


-~'};aJI ~~ - o
527. Narrated Abu Huraira .$: Allah's ~ J-~ ill1 ~.)
- ·' ~---'
J!./' ~
\ ,y
: , (oYV)
Messenger ~ said, "Do not fast for a
50.;~ 1;~ '111 :~ ~\ j_,.:..~ Jli :Jli
day or two daysl 2 J ahead of Ramadan
except a person1 3 1 who is in the habit ~~-
\ .T~
5L5 u-
~\~ ,,,,
.q- .,
Y- .J ,\Y- -r ·-
of observing a particular fast; he may
fast on that day." [Agreed upon].
. ...:l;. '-~:· . u~: ~-lj
-- ~ - L._,..,,,
528. Narrated 'Ammar bin Yasir ~: He J,~ ji I ~.)
- ·, ·' ~
-rt \;'- ,cl. -!
: ,, ( o YA)
who fasts on a day about which there is ~ •.w l8-'-?--.J1 \r.
- .'i\ i'L,;;. '-"'
:- :Jli ~
doubt (concerning the start of ---
Ramadan)l 4 l has disobeyed Abul-Qasim •~ &i~.l1 ~}~ .~ -~WI ~\ ~
~ [Al-Bukhari reported it Mu'allaq
(broken chain from his side), while Al-
.);1.J ~;. .:,;1 ~J .L.~1 ~JJ
Kbamsa reported it Mawsul (unbroken -~~
chain) and Ibn Hibban graded it Sahib
529. Narrated Ibn 'Umar ~: I heard
Allah's Messenger ~ saying, "Fast when
you see the new moon, and break your
fast when you see it; but if the sky is
cloudy, calculate (the month as 30
days)." [Agreed upon]. Muslim has: "If
it is cloudy, calculate (the month as)
thirty days." Al-Bukhari has: "Complete
the number (of days) as thirty." Al-
Bukhari reported the Hadith of Abu
Huraira .;$;> : "Complete the number of

[IJ The meaning of Siyiim and Saum is to "stop" and "refrain from". According to Shari'a
terminology, it implies abstinence from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse, etc. starting
from dawn till sunset, with a firm intention of carrying out the orders of Allah. Fasting is one
of the five pillars in Islam. One who rejects it, is a disbeliever; and who shuns it, is a
disobedient Muslim. Fasting was prescribed as an· obligation in the 2nd year of the Hijra
C2 J This Hadith tells us that the 'bserving of fast one day prior to the advent of Ramadan,
which is a practice among some i; orant and irreligious people, is forbidden.
l3 l In case, someone is in the hab of fasting on a particular day which incidentally happens
to fall on the day just prior to the commencement of Ramadan, it is permissible for him to
fast on that day.
l4 l In case the moon of Ramadan is not sighted on the 29th of Sha'ban due to the sky vision
being blurred by dust or clouds, one should complete the 30 days of Sha'ban first and then
observe fasting. The observance of fast merely on the basis of suspicion or assumption that
the moon of Ramadan might possibly have been sighted on the 29th of Sha'ban itself, is
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 210

(the month of) Sha'ban as thirty

daysl•l ."
530. Narrated Ibn 'Umar ~: The people -_;.;. ,JI ,,f"J (of" )
tried to sight the new moon, so I
.f.81 ..s•IJ : Jij I;_;.;
informed the Prophet ~ that I had
seen it, so he fasted and commanded ..., 81 -~L
_, _,
, 'r' -_:: "·f- ~t1 ~
...,.... '~ .J <./
.,;Qi\; • ~,
the people to fast.121 [Abo Da'ud ~~_1-:. ~·-·1 ~.::...:-_-:, ''1' ,ti 'I" I' -
reported it and Al-Hakim and lbn ..., . .., f"'-"<J ~-- '~J~Y. •J.J -~~
Hibban graded it Sahib (authentic)]. ..:>~
531. Narrated Ibn 'Abbas ~:A bedouin <..S'1~ tli1 ~.)
' •' G ,...r.
_._,. • ·'I . .J
,,f" (Of'\)
came to the Prophet ~ and said, "I
have seen the new moon (of
:JW ~
"IJZ •~II '-5'~
~ 11 ;:t;.• i:.1"f
..; f
0\ '
Ramadan)." He asked, "Do you testify ~I; jl; ~.:if '4,Y;\ -''!' C;f-
:Jili ,J.J.q . .) ~I
that nothing is worthy of worship
except Allah?" He replied, "Yes." He
\.4;.; 0f '4- ~~f :Jij .~ :Jij ~tli1
then asked, "Do you testify that _._,.81..j ~~\:;
:Jl.i ,~ :Jl.i ~~I J_?~
Muhammad is Allah's Messenger?" He
replied, "Yes." He then said, "Bilal,
,!- ~I ;1:;~ .\.A1 ly~ ~f J~ ~
announce to the people that they ~L.:!Ji (i-~J ,.:,~ ~1:; ~;. J.1 ~J
should fast tomorrow." [Reported by
Al-Kbamsa. Ibn Khuzaima and Ibn
Hibban graded it Sahib (authentic); An-
Nasa'i held that the stronger view is
that it is Mursa/ (missing link after the
Tiibi't) ].
532. Narrated Hafsa13-l ~. Mother of the
Believers: The Prophet ~ said, "The
fast of one who does not make
intentionl 4 l to fast before dawn is not
accepted"l 5 l [Reported by Al-Khamsa.
At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i are inclined

[IJ This tells us that we should commence and terminate our fasting on the sighting of the
[lJ We are thus informed that one witness suffices to herald the commencement of fasting
where as to announce the sighting of the 'Eid crescent, twO witnesses are required, according
to the majority of the scholars of jurisprudence.
C3l She was the daughter of 'Umar bin Al-Khanab and was married to Khunais bin Hudhafa
As-Sahm! whom she migrated with to Al-Madinah. When he died after Badr, Allah's Messenger
~ married her in the year 3 H. She died in Sha'biin, 45 H. at the age of 60 years.
C4 l One of the elements of fasting is Niyah (intention). Hence one must make an intention of
fasting prior to dawn.
C5 l One must make an intention of fasting before morning in case he is observing the
obligatory (Fard) fast. But in case he is observing voluntary (Nafl) fasts, it is all right to do
the same before noon.
Bulugh Al-Maram 211 r \'.r-- I\ tr
. 1'

toward the opinion that it is Mauquf (a

saying of a Companion, i.e. Hafsa). Ibn
Khuzaima and Ibn Hibban
authenticated it as Marfu' (attributed to
the Prophet)].
Ad-Diiraqutni has: "There is no fast for
the one who does not make the
intention to fast during the night."
533. Narrated 'Aisha ~: The Prophet ~
came to visit me one day and asked,
"Do you have anything (to eat)?" I said,
"No." He said, "Then I am fasting."lll
Then he came to me another day and I
said, "I had been given a present of
some Haisl 2 J • He said, "Show it to me,
for I had began the day fasting." Then
he ate.131 [Reported by Muslim].
534. Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd JtJi,: Allah's J~ jil ~~ ~ ,J ~ ~) (oft)
Messenger ~ said, "The people will
JI~ .q» : J\.i ~ ;u1 J~~ 0\ , 1;+:~
continue to be on the right path as
long as they hasten in the breaking of . .:li ·-~~, . cc'LI\ I \.:_~ ~ .~ , 81
-- '-"""" ~ ~ -f""";<J"
the fast." [Agreed upon].
At-Tirmidhi reports from the Hadith of
Abu Huraira ( JtJi,) from the Prophet~,
who said that Allah said, "The most
beloved to Me of my slaves is the one
who hastens most in breaking the
fast." 141
535. Narrated Anas bin Malik JtJi,: Allah's
Messenger ~ said, "Take a meal (just)
before dawn, for there is a blessing in
Subur (taking a meat)l 5 l at that time."
[Agreed upon].

[lJ This Haditb is an evidence that the intention of a voluntary observance of fasting does not
have to be made necessarily before dawn, but the same could be done during daytime also.
l2 l A mixture of dates and ghee.
l3 l This Haditb states that a voluntary fast may be terminated without an excuse.
l4 l As long as one is absolutely sure about the setting of the sun, he must not delay breaking
his fast, as a delayed breaking of fast is the practice of Jews and Christians.
l5 l The Jews and Christians do not observe partaking of Subur. It is reported by Muslim that
the eating of Subur is the difference between us and the people of the Scriptures. This
facilitates fasting and one gets an increased amount of reward.
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 212
536. Narrated Salman bin 'Aamir Ad-
Dabbi[IJ ~: The Prophet ~ said,
"When one of you breaks his fast, he
should do so with some dates; but if he
can not get any, he should break his
fast with water,!21 for it is purifying."
[Reported by Al-Khamsa. Ibn
Khuzaima, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim
graded it Sahib (authentic)].
537. Narrated Abu Huraira ~: Allah's ~ J~ j_i\ .:rf) ~;.; ~l .:,;_-; (o,-y)
Messenger ~ forbade continuous
fasting.[ 3 1 A man from among the JW , _Ji..:;. _,,.JI ,(}- ~ ~I J_,.:.) ~ :J~
Muslims said, "You fast continuously, 0 J.r"',J \;- (.JO'
'1 ~ \ '! d~ : : . I ' 'I\ : ' \~.'
.J' , ~ ~ iJ" J
Messenger of Allah!" He replied,
"Which one of you is like me? During ~ ~i Jt
\J~ ~l_'i» :J~ ~~\
the night my Rabb (Allah) gives me ,.;. I~ .'.if lyl l!il '\FX
food and drink." When they refused to 1'\-•!,t,..-•:,t..·-·
u ..;)
Y-('"' Y-l't;v--.J,'1:..1' JL.;;.I\
stop the continuous fasting, he fasted .JJ('"'
with them for a day and then another. ,«rs:;;) JJ\ft
)-t _,]» :Jw ,.JJ1f1
Then, they saw the moon. He then said, . ...:l;. •.::, . I ,~, i:ii 1·-\: ~~I 1<':'1l5
"If the new moon had not appeared, I ,. ~ ~ Y. ~ !"°'" ,i..r--
would have made you fast more (in this
way)." It is as though it would serve as
a punishment for them, when they
refused to stop. [Agreed upon].
538. Narrated (Abu Huraira) ~: Allah's .:,;» :~~I J_,.:.) J~ :J~ ~J (o,-A)
Messenger ~ said, "Whoever does not
abandon falsehood[ 4 l and action in ,~l\.J ·~ ~l_'i •p]I J_:j t._~ rJ
accordance with it and foolishness, . «~.1-j~ _, _, ~W, t- , j; .'.Jf <../,· ki;.
• Ji
, ·II
Allah has no need that he should .;J hlii1_-; ,;J1; ;i.-; &)~1 ~1-''J
abandon his food and drink.''
[Reported by Al-Bukhari, and Abu
Da'ud and the wording is his].
539. Narrated 'Aisha~: Allah's Messenger

[IJ lbn Aus bin Hujr bin 'Amr bin Al-Harith Ad-Dabbi was a SahillJi who settled at Basra and
was an old man during the lifetime of the Prophet ~ . He lived up to the caliphate of
Mu'awiya and it is said that he was killed in the battle of Al-Jamal at the age of 100 years. It is
also said that there is no other Sababt from Ad-Dabbi except him.
£ 1 The best of the things one may break his fast with, are fresh dates, then dry dates, then
£ 1 InArabic Wisal is a term used with reference to a person who does not break his fast in
the evening but goes on observing it continuously on to the second day with no eating or
drinking in between. This kind of fasting was only allowed to the Prophet.
£ 1 The purpose behind fasting is that one should learn to exercise self-control on himself.
The whole concept of fasting becomes abortive if one fails to learn the same.
Bulugh Al-Maram 213 r.J""'_tr:
I' I\ • -'~

~ used to kiss 111 and fondle while he ·~- '1·~~ ..;;;:; ~~I\~ IS' • ! ··~
was fasting, but he was the one among r,' .u ~....... Y' .J (.)":": ~ '-!;' \,) . ......., ...
> ' •• , ,_ ,>,,

you who had most control 121 over his ~ ·~~1 ~f ~~ aj_:; ·~L.o ;_:;
sexual desire. [Agreed upon). The
wording is Muslim's, and in another .j» : ~1:;,,, ..} 51j_l ·-~ 1.Ul1:; -~
narration, he has the addition: "during .«0~_;
540. Narrated Ibn 'Abbas ~: The Jt;;
illt ~J ........ ~ ,Jt ,;j.j (ot•}
Prophet ~ had himself cupped when
he was wearing the Ibriim (during Hajj ·rr ;.:; Fi ~.~I 01 ·'~~
or 'Umrab) and had himself cupped ·~!Qi ~1:;::, .~L.o ;:; ~.;,.1_:;
when he was fasting. [Reported by Al-
541. Narrated Shaddad bin Ausl 3 1
The Prophet ~ came across a man in
ill1 ~J ,'-1".Jf ,J ,?i.U ~:; (ot \)
Al-Baqi' who was being cupped in
~~ Jf ~ ~I ~f .~
.fa Jt;;
Ramadan. He said, "The one who cups :JW .~~::, · ' ,,, ,,, •. .-1L.
~ ~ Y'.J '-C?";
and the one who is cupped have
broken their fast." 141 [Reported by Al-
L;J:J1 ~1:;::, . «f ~1:; ~t;J1 )aih
Khamsa except At-Tirmidhi. Ahmad, .:;1_:; ~;. .:;1_:; J.;.;..f ~_:; ·~~_;i1
Ibo Khuzaima and Ibn Hibban graded it
Sahib (authentic)).
542. Narrated Anas •=
The first time
when cupping - for one who is fasting
- was disapproved was when: Ja'far bin
Abu-Talib had himself cupped while he
was fasting; the Prophet ~ came across
him and said, "Both of these have
broken their fast." Afterwards, the

[tJ It is not forbidden to kiss the wife or to embrace her during the state of fasting as the
same does not nullify fasting.
1 'Aisha it. advises that one should refrain from doing it lest one should make a slip and
render his fasting null and void.
£ 1 Heis Abu Ya'la Al-Ansari An-Najari Al-Madani, the nephew of Hassan bin Thabit. He was
learned and very tolerant. He died in Sham in 58 H. at the age of 75 years.
£ l It is proven by the preceding Hadith that cupping (letting out blood for medical
purposes) in the state of fasting is permissible. There seems to be an apparent contradiction
here but in fact it is not so. This Hadith narrated by Shaddad bin Aus stands abrogated due
to the fact that Shaddad arrived during the year of the conquest of Makkah, whereas
'Abdullah bin 'Abbas described the same to have transpired during the year of the Hajjatul-
Wada' (the last pilgrimage performed by the Prophet~). As to the matter of undesirability,
the cupping does not invalidate fasting according to the majority of 'Ulama but the same is
undesirable, and that too is in consideration of the fact that the bleeding may cause
weakness, which in tum may force someone into breaking his fast. But in case someone is
strong enough to withstand any such weakness or drowsiness resulting from the cupping,
then the ruling concerning its undesirability is ineffective.
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 214

Prophet • allowed .cupping for one

who is. fasting. Anas used to have
himself cupped when he was fasting.
(Ad-Daraqutni reported it and declared
it to be Qawiy (strong)].
543. Narrated 'Aisha ~: The Prophet • ,~ J~ jjl :.ri') ~~ ~j (o t'")
applied kohll 1 l in Ramadan while he
was fasting. [Reported by Ibn Majah . ~L;. ).:, 0~) ~ ygi ~ ~1 ~T
through a weak chain of narrators]. At- :&~?1 Jt.ij ·-~ ;i:.:.~ ~\; ;:,;1 ;1:;:;
Tirmidhi said, "There is nothing
authentic on this subject." '-?' ,., ~''l
. :o";,4lJ~
-544_ Narrated Abu Huraira ~= Allah's ~ J~ jjl :.ri') g;.} -1;f ~j (ott)
Messenger • said, "Whoever forgets
while fasting and eats or drinks should ).j 0- _:;» :~ ~I J_?) J\.i :Jt.i
complete his fast, for it is Allah who has tJ~ .;;;.p ~ •..;,} jT J5u .~L;.
fed h_im and given him drink." (Agreed "~-- •.'°f•1;~~1
.r- •'•> .«o..A.:;.)
-~J...i::..o ....u
Al-Hakim has, ''Whoever breaks his fast
forgetfully does not have to make-up
for that fast (/11-Qada), nor expiate (Al-
Kajfara) for it."1 2 1 And the narration is
545. Narrated Abo Huraira ~= Allah's ~ J~ tli1 :.ri') g;.; -1;l ~j (oto)
Messenger • said, ''Whoever has a ~ :._:.AJ_~ 1 ~:;; _:;»:~~I J_?) Jt.i :Jt.i
sudden attack of vomiting (while
fasting), does not have to make-up the ;1:,:; .11:WJJ1 ~•~I,.;:, •4&- ;:WJ
fast (Al-Qada), but whoever vomits
intentionally must make up the
day. "1 3 1 (Reported by Al-Khamsa;
Ahmad found it defective and Ad-
Daraqutni graded itQawi (strong)].
546. Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah ~: j_il :.ri') ~I µ _J !;~ ~j (oti)
Allah's Messenger • departed to
Makkah in Ramadan in the year of the·
f~ E_). ~ ~1 J_?) ~T , 1;+:~ J~
conquest. He and the people fasted till ~ .);- •fwJ ,.)~) ~ '~ Jl -~I
he came to Kura' Al-Ghamim. He then
.c.:i.i; ~; •!r-' ,'..r 81 i'l.;J, -~
- -~II '1-~
[IJ Kohl applied on the eyelashes for beauty or medicinal purposes.
[ZJWe are thus informed that the eating or drinking out of forgetfulness does not invalidate
fasting. Neither one is obliged to observe a compensational fast (.Al-Qadii) nor pay any
expiation. "'
£3 1 There is a difference of opinion among the scholars as to whether or not vomiting
invalidates fasting. The view which is based upon the evidence is that if the vomiting occurs
by itself, the fasting remains valid, but if the vomiting is an induced one (i.e., someone vomits
by himself on his own accord), it does invalidate fasting.
Bulugh Al-Maram 215 I' 1\ .
i .r-' tri'
called for a cup of water which he
raised till the people looked at it, and rs .;;h .:r-81 ~ J;. .~) ~~ ~
then he drank. C11 He was told ' ·" ~I~ : dl1
:J ,r.r 81 <J'2"-! -
.);;. j '1 ~~
~ ,~
r •
afterwards that some of the people had ,.. \ l ' ;. ' l "' .- ,,.
continued to fast, and he said, "Those
..!1;J J I , oL.;Q.;J I
..!.l;J J I>> : J W f
, LP
are the disobedient ones; those are the .«;~I
disobedient ones."! 2 1
In another narration : "It was said to ~·~:fa~ ~ :J .:,-.81 ~t : j ~» : -!ii1 .)"J
him: The people have found the fast
difficult, and are waiting for what you
~.ti .. : j;; ~ Z>J~ LJµ ·f t;.:..ll
will do." He then called for a cup of
water after the '.Asr prayer and drank.
[Reported by Muslim). ·~
547. Narrated Hamza bin 'Amr Al- ::rf') ~\11 J_;.;. _J ~;.;. ;.f"J (otv)
Aslami!3l •= He said, "O Allah's
Messenger! I find myself strong enough
.); !~I J_?j ~ : J\i ;!f , ~ J~ jil
to fast while travelling, so is there any sin ·'~ '1:~
~ I.ft'
' :·11 ..;,. -i t::..:a.ll
r- - 1~ ;·! ~l
~ J' ~ ~
upon me (if I fast)?" Allah's Messenger~
said, "It is a permission given by Allah ~ w~ ~" :~ ~1 J.?1 Jw ~c.~
and whoever acts upon it has done ~l ~f .:;"J ·~ ~ l;f .:,;.; ·~I
well. And whoever desires to fast would . ~f'J '~I.'..~ ;1-- . «~
not be guilty of sin." [Reported by ..;, ~ JJ '" c'i;;.. ~ i' ~, '
Muslim. Its basic meaning is found in ,.
.J. ~-·'
or> ~ti ,:~:10
<.) ~~
. '
,'--'!.,!>- ~ ~
.•t' -:~'11
Al-Bukhari and Muslim from 'Aisha's
report that Hamza bin 'Amr had asked]. .Jl.Jp
548. Narrated Ibn 'Abbas~: Permission J~ jil <:rf') ..<J"~ ,JI ,J"J (o tA)
was given for an old man to break his
fast (in Ramadan) and feed a poor for ~ ~f dJI -~ ~~ :Jli l~t.
every day, and no make-up (Al-Qada) is -,: '1'J 'L5:.:....
. '"~ ;:•........ "
"' ' -iY-
'1( ~' : .i..~-
if ,y r---"J
required of him. !4 1 [Reported by Ad-
. ;i;:.;._;;,J '~t;"J ~;1ll1 ;l"J)
(IJ It is permissible to observe fasting during a journey, but it is better not to observe it. In
case someone feels exhausted out of exertion during a travel, he is permitted to break his
fast. He can compensate for it by fasting later on. But he is not obliged to pay expiation to
atone for it.
121 As a general rule, it is permitted to fast during a journey. The people who did not break
their fast were called the disobedient ones for the simple reason that as long as the Prophet
~ broke his fast, who are they to go on observing it? Obedience calls for a complete
compliance with the instructions of the Prophet ~ . Perhaps those who continued fasting
were under the impression that the Prophet ~ had instructed them to break their fasting
merely out of his love and affection for them. Otherwise, his Companions ~ .ii I ~J would
never have disobeyed him.
131 He was a Sabiibi considered to be from Al-Hij:iiz region. He was nicknamed Abu Saleh or
Abu Muhammad. His son Muhammad and 'Aisha 'Mother of Believers' i;. narrated from him.
He died in 61 H. at the age of 80 years.
141 An old man who is incapable of observing fast may atone for it by offering Fidya
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 216
Daraqutni and Al-Hakim both of whom
authenticated it].
549. Narrated Abu Huraira •: A manl 1 l
came to the Prophet ~ and said, "O
Messenger of Allah, I am ruined." He
asked him, "What has ruined you?" He
replied, "I had intercourse with my wife
during Ramadan." He then asked him,
"Can you get a slave to free?" He said,
"No." He asked, "Can you fast two
consecutive months?" He said, "No."
He asked, "Can you provide food for
sixty poor people?" He said, "No." He
then sat down. Meanwhile an 'Araql 2 l
containing dates was brought to the
Prophet ~. He said, "Give this as
Sadaqa." The man said, "Am I to give
to one who is poorer than we are?
There is no family - between the two
mountains of Al-Madinah - more in
need of it than mine." The Prophet ~
thereupon laughed till his premolar
teeth appeared. He then said, "Go and
feed your familyl 3 1 with it."1 4 1
[Reported by As-Sab'a and the wording
is that of Muslim].
'" ,,. ,,. , ,,.
550. Narrated 'Aisha and Umm Salama ill\ ~J ~ ri.:; 6-.!.;:~ ,f'J (00•)
~: The Prophet ~ used to get up at
dawn1 5 l while in a state of ]aniiba ~ ~ .:Jl5 ~~I 0f ,l~e J~

(compensation). Similarly a sick and invalid person whose health is not likely to improve may
also offer Fidya. A Ftdya represents the offering of a full meal to a poor person. The same
represents an atonement for one day's missed fasting.
[IJ This person was Salma bin Sakhr.
£ 1 A basket containing thirty Sa' of dates.
c31 It becomes thus known to us that in case a person is extremely impoverished, he can also
feed his own kith and kin out of his own expiatory money (iJ\AS'). The majority of scholars do
not approve of it and some of them claim that this Haditb is null and void. Some regard it as
a special ruling meted out specifically to the person in question. But both of these claims are
not corroborated by evidence.
£ 1 This Haditb tells us that a woman is not liable to be subjected to Kaffara (the payment of
expiation). The majority of scholars do not approve of it. Some hold that if both man and
woman mutually agree to sexual intercourse, they are both liable to make the payment of
expiation. In case a man does it forcibly, he alone is required to make such a payment and
not the woman.
[SJ If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife during a night of Ramadan, he must take a
Bulugh Al-Maram 217 I' I\ . _,,
r J"""' tr
(sexual impurity). Then, he would take
a bath and fast. [Agreed upon]. And
Muslim added in the Hadith of Umm-
Salama: "He would not make up (the
551. Narrated 'Aisha"'= The Prophet~ ,~ J~ ai1 ~J ~U> :_;.:, (oo\)
said, "Whoever dies while some fast is
due from him (which is unfulfilled), his
•r~ 4i:, .:.,i; .Y» :J\i ~ ~I it
heir must fastl 1 J on his behalf." .~:;z ··~~r~
[Agreed upon].
Chapter 1
552. Narrated Abii Qatada Al-Ans:iri
Allah's Messenger ~ was asked about
the fast on the day of 'Ara/a,
whereupon he said: "It expiates the sins
of the preceding year and the coming
year." And he was asked about fasting
on the day of 'Ashura', whereupon he
said: "It expiates the sins of the
preceding year." He was then asked
about fasting on Monday, whereupon
he said: "That is the day on which I was
born, on it I was commissioned with ·~
Prophethood, and on it (the Qur'an)
was revealed to me."1 2 1 [Reported by
553. Narrated Abii Ayub Al-Ans:iri ji, •= ~) ~!~\r1 .;,~I ~f :_;.:, (oo,.)

bath in case he has sufficient time and then observ'e his fast. H the time is shon, he may
perform ablution and then fast. H he does not have time even for that, he must wash off his
face and hands, eat Subur and observe fast. Then he must take a bath immediately at dawn,
in order to prepare for the Fajr prayer in congregation.
Ill In case someone dies without observing his obligatory share of fasting, his inheritors - or
relatives - can observe the same on behalf of the deceased and thus the dead person gets
exonerated from his obligation.
l2 l This means that the minor sins are generally written off by the observance of such an act
of fasting, but the major sins can only be forgiven by repentance. As far as the people's rights,
liabilities and their monetary obligations as far as an indebted person is concerned, their
forgiveness depends entirely on the will of the people one owes to. 'Ara/ab is a term used
for the ninth day of Dhul-Hijja whereas 'Asbura' stands for the tenth of Muharram. The
Prophet 1l!ll liked fasting on Monday but did not elaborate on its reward.
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 218
Allah's Messenger ~ said, "He who
fasts Ramadan, then follows it with six
(days of fasting) from Shawwat,l 1 l it
will be (in terms of rewards) as if he
has fasted a whole year." (Reported by
554. Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri •:
Allah's Messenger~ said, "No slave (of
Allah) will fast for a dayl 2 l while
engaged in jihad, without Allah
removing the Hell-fire a distance of
seventy years from his face for that
day." [Agreed upon, and the wording is
555. Narrated 'Aisha"': Allah's Messenger
~ used to fast to such an extent that
we thought he would never break his
fast, and he would go without fasting to
such an extent that we thought he
would never fast. I never saw Allah's
Messenger ~ fast a complete month
except in Ramadan, and I never saw
him fast more in any month than in
Sha'ban. (Agreed upon, and the
wording is that of Muslim).
556. Narrated Abu Dhar•: Allah's ~ J~ jjl :rf') ~~ ~' :;.:, (00'\)
Messenger ~ commanded us to fast
three days in the month; on the
~ f_,_;.; .:,l ~~I J_?) 0_-;l :Jl.i
thirteenth, the fourteenth and the ,;~ Ejlj ,;~ .i.,-}..3 :.~~i ~bU
fifteenth."l 3 l (Reported by At-Tirmidhi
·~~~lj ~L.::..!.11 ~lj) .;~ ~j
and An-Nasa'i; Ibn Hibban graded it
Sahib (authentic)]. . .:J~.);l~j

Ill ff the thirty days of Ramadan fasting ace joined with the six days of fasting in Shawwiil, it
makes 36 days. According to Shari'a (the Islamic law), each virtue is rewarded ten times.
Therefore, if we multiply 36 with 10, it makes 360, a number which equals the days of a year.
Some scholars are of the opinion that these six days of fasting in Shawwiil. must be completed
in a continuous order right after the end of Ramadan. Some believe that it is enough to
merely complete six days of fasting in Shawwiil. - in any order, either successive or with
intervals - which is deemed to be the most correct opinion. Also, the voluntary fast of
Shawwal may only be done after making up any missed days of the obligatory fast of
12 1 Fasting in the cause of Allah may imply the observance of fast while being in jihad
(battlefield). It may also mean a voluntary observance of fasting.
131 This is known as the fasting of Ayyam Al-Beed (bright days), as a brightness (due to the
full moon) lingers all through the nights following these specified fasting days.
Bulugh Al-Maram 219 \'.I\ · . I'
i.r-' tr
557. Narrated Abo Huraira ~: Allah's ,rr. ,, ,.. ,o ... .> (

Messenger ~ said: "It is not lawful for •~JI.;; ;uJ\ :ri'.; •..r../' ~I :/.J (oov)
' 0 ,, .... ,...- 0 ,,,. ....

a woman to fast (optional fasting), .'.ii ;\·-ii ~1_: '1» : Jli ~,

,.r--:, ()'"7"! , , u~ i
"'"" 41 J'.J'"".)
when her husband is present, except
with his permission. Ill [Agreed upon; j2 · ~1h
1 .~G ~jj) ·f_,..;.3'h
"~» :;)1; ./•~1 ;1j •'5.;~
The wording is that of Al-Bukhari]. Abu ~ ., . , i.nw.J ,..:Ii
Da'ud added: "other than Rainadan."

558. Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri ~: <lJ1 :ri') ~~.'.GJ\ ).~-· ~\ ~J (ooA)
Allah's Messenger~ forbade fasting on
two days, the day of Al-Fitr (breaking -i~ ~~~~I J~j ~l .~ J~
the fast of Ramadan) and the day of Al- ·~ ~ ·~ 1 ,rY--' ·~ 1 ,rY.: ,,.;.;;.
Adha (offering sacrifices). [Agreed
559. Narrated Nubaisha Al-Hudhalil 2 J J~ <lJ1 :ri') ~1'.J1 Ll.;1 ~J (oo\)
~:Allah's Messenger~ said, "The days
of At-Tashriq1 3 1 are days of eating, ,J!?I f~\» :~~I J~) J\i :J\i ~
drinking and the remembrance of Allah, ~I)) . «~) ji ~I f~) .'7')J ~f .JSl f
the Great and Glorious." [Reported by
! ~ .r 0

560. Narrated 'Aisha and Ibn 'Umar ,&,: <lJ1 :ri') :;J. ,JI) ~Ii :/.J (oi•)
Nobody was allowed to fast on the days
of At-Tasbriq except those who could ,r4i ~ ~:;.. '1\J i· 6:c J~ rJ :
not afford the Al-Hady (sacrifices). . i.?~, ":I\ ~ : I : ~I '11 : . , ~ ;, i - ~ :q
, ; - r er-: ; ~ ..., -'-"-!""""
[Reported by Al-Bukhari].
·~~~I ~I))
561. Narrated Abo Huraira ~: The .~ J~ <lJ1 :ri') ~;.} ~\ ~J (oi \)
Prophet ~ said, "Do not single out the
~I il:J - I~ ~ : ~ 'i» : J\i ~ ' ~I\ ,:/
night (preceding) Friday - from among , . _, <.../;'
the nights - for prayer; and do not fY. I~ 'i) '<)t;l.ii -~ ~ '·i~
single out Friday - from among the
days - for fasting, unless it occurs ~
0 <~ 01 '11; ' -i·~\ii ~~ L:..,a., ~\
. ,, : ' ·i·-;-.
during a day of fasting, which one of .;: !': ~\)) . ccj..5~\ ~ ~ .r_J..;> ~
you normally observes." [Reported by
111 A woman is forbidden to observe a voluntary fast without acqmnng her husband's
permission. Even if she intends to observe a compensatory fast (in lieu of the missed
obligatory one), she still need to ask for her husband's permission.
121 He is Abu Turaif Nubaisha bin 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin 'Wib Al-Hudhali. He is a Sahiibi who
has elevenAbadith. He settled at Basra and was called, Nubaisha the benevolent.
131 Ayyam At-Tashriq is a term used®r the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth of Dhul Hijja. It
is forbidden to fast during these days. Someone who is performing Hajj may observe fasting
on the said days if he fails to get an animal for sacrifice; the others are not allowed. In
addition to it, it is also forbidden to fast on the days of two 'Eid, irrespective of the fact
whether the fasting happens to be a voluntary one or a compensatory one.
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 220
562. Narrated (Abu Huraira)
Messenger ~ said, "None of you
:~~I J_?) J\.i :J\.i ~l ~j (o'\Y)
, '' .'.J\ ~I~ .~I,,,
should fast on Friday, Ill unless he fasts i .r"-!. :l-l;.\ d'
, · i >'- I
~- ,, ''»
r"-'- l
(it together with) a day before it or a t..,, .
-~ • «~~. )".. .J f ';jj
. ...:J.i_,, ...,.- t..,,
. )"..
day after it." {Agreed upon].
563. Narrated (Abu Huraira) •=
Messenger ~ said: "When the (month
: J\.i ~ ~I J_?j ~l ~f ~J (o'\'l")
~I)) . «I.;~ )\j .)G..!,
. ,'; a;!1 1fo
ot) Sha'ban is halfway through, do not ~

fast."1 2 1 (Reported by Al-Khamsa.

Ahmad considered it Munkar
564. Narrated As-Samma' bint Busr1 3 1 - ~
JJI er;>_; , -~, ~01 ,.:;..J (o'\t)
~: Allah's Messenger ~ said, "Do not '1» :J\.i ~ ~I J_?j ~f , ~ J~
fast on a Saturdayl 4 l except what has
.~('·!;;,·::I W ~I ~I,,, I ' ,;
been made obligatory on you; and if r-=- ..r' jJ ., ~ - · i >'- Y' _,......,
one of you can get nothing but a grape-
skin or a twig from a tree, he should
;_; _;\ '-~ ·~ ~l rJl;.f ~ (J .:,~
> } ,, 0 , o,, ,,
chew it." [Reported by Al-Khamsa, and ;.Jt.:;.!) ,~\ ~\)) .«~ ,~_;.:...;.
its narrators are reliable, but it is
Mudtarib (narrated with irreconcilable
,liJ\; ;~1 :i.;:; ,;_,F ~t ~t •.:..~
contradictions in the chain). Malik .t__,..s,:,.:. :lJll ;\ Jl.i_J
rejected it and Abu Da'ud said, 'It is
MansUkh (abrogated).']
565. Narrated Umm Salama ~: Allah's
Messenger * used to fast mostly on
Saturday and Sunday, and he used to
say, "They are festival days for the
polytheists, and I want to act contrary
to them." [Reported by An-Nasa'i. Ibn
Khuzaima graded it Sahib (authentic)
and this is his wording].

[tJ It is prohibited to observe fast on Friday alone. This prohibition may be due to the the
mistaken belief of someone who deliberately o.bserves fast on Friday thinking that he will get
more reward for it on this particular day.
l2 l One can fast provided he has to observe a compensatory fasting (in lieu of the Fard -
obligatory ones) or the other prescribed ones which may be categorized as Wajib
(compulsory). However, voluntary fasting is prohibited lest one should be subjected to
exhaustion and weakness that may in tum render the Ramadan obligatory fasting difficult for
l3 l As-Samma's name was Buhaiya or Bahima hint Busr. She was a Sababiya from the clan of
Mazin. She was said to be the sister or the aunt of 'Abdullah bin Busr.
l4 l Since Saturday carries a special importance for the Jews and they observe fast on this day,
and pay deference to it; and as long as the observance of fasting strikes a resemblance with
the Jews, hence the Prophet ~ has prohibited singling out Saturday only to this end.
However, Umm Salama ~ narrates that the Prophet ~ observed fast on Saturday and
Sunday both. Since Saturday is the day of festivity among the Jews, the Prophet ~ fasted on
Bulugh Al-Maram 221 ('_,
I' 11 . -''
, , ..... ,.. I ,,.. .>
. :iJa.i.l l..i.._J ' ~j>
566. Narrated Abu Huraira ~= the .~ J~ WI :r!') ;_-;.;'-!if .:f_J (O'\'\)
Prophet ~ prohibited fasting on the ......
..,,, " -·" ,, • ' • ' '•.... ~ • ...,~11 ',,,
day of 'Ara/a at 'Arafat. 111 [Reported by ........I"'; .....f -iY- -i)""' :_:,&- ..ft' =" (.,i" <.)
Al-Khamsa except At-Tirmidhi; Ibn ~). .);1 ~_J ·~~_fll;), i: ~I ~l_J)
Khuzaima and Al-Hakim authenticated
it, and Al-'Uqaili considered it Munkar . ~I ~~l_J ,~t;.Ji_J
567. Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar ~: WI :ri') -_;.;. _.:r. ~ I µ .:f_J ( o '\V)
Allah's Messenger ~ said, "He who '{» :~ ~I J_?) J\i :J\i l~e J~
observes perpetual fastingl 2 J , has not
fasted." [Agreed upon). Muslim .:f pj ,fli .j2 . «~~If L.P.:,; fL.P
reported it from Abu Qatada with the .«fal '{_J fL.P '{» : ~ ~~l.:i '-!if
wording: "He has not fasted nor broken
his fast."

Chapter 2
568. Narrated Abu Huraira ~= Allah's .~ J~ WI :r!') ;_-;.}'-!if .:f (o'\A)
Messenger ~ said, "He who prays
during the night in Ramadan1 31 with G~t Z,0..;;) fli .:,;» :Jli ~ ~I J_?) 01
faith and seeking his rewardl 4 l from .j2 .«~~ ~ fiZ ~ ;.i ~ ~~l_J

this day to oppose the Jewish norms, and in order to supplement the reward of it, he also
fasted on Sunday.
[IJ It is prohibited for the one performing Hajj to fast on the day of 'Ara/ah (the ninth of
Dhul-Hijja) since one has to face a lot of hardships and rigorous trials on this day. Therefore,
the observance of fasting on this day may lead to exhaustion and weakness which in turn may
prove to be a hindrance in performing the ritual components of Hajj. Other people (the ones
who are not performing HaiJ) are not prohibited to fast on this day. In fact, the same carries
a great importance and reward.
12 1 Some ignorant people keep observing fast on a perpetual basis. This Hadith clearly proves
that this practice is prohibited. The majority of scholars are of the opinion that it is forbidden
to always observe fasting as the same enfeebles a person and thus causes hindrance in many
of his religious and worldly activities. It is stated in a Hadith that a person owes some liability
to his own physique and bodily existence too, thereby giving some rest to himself from time
to time. Even the Prophet ~ followed the same course of action by observing fast some day
and leaving it the other day.
r3 1 Qiyam stands for performing the voluntary prayers (Tarawih) during Ramadan nights. By
the virtue of this prayer, one's previous sins are all absolved and forgiven, provided the one
performing the same harbors a complete and absolute faith in the commitment made by
Allah in regard to it's reward.
14 1 It implies that the same should not be done for the purpose of merely showing-off. If so,
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 222
Allah will have his past sins forgiven."
[Agreed upon].
569. Narrated 'Aisha ~: When the last ~ Jt_;; ;11 ~~ ~l&. ~ (oi .. )
ten days of Ramadan began, Allah's
Messenger ~ used to tighten his waist
- ,~\~;I~!~ ~I J_,:.~ ~\S :.:.Jti
belt (i.e. occupy himself with the .~~~ i.:. - ~W;~ ~ ~~\11 ~I ,l.$l
worship of Allah), stay awake all night,
':2 . <l.:.l ~l'.)
• .?Li_',' ..,..-· - ,~- Gl'
and awaken his family (for night .)

prayers). (Agreed upon].

570. Narrated ('Aisha) ~: When the ~ ~\S ~ ~I 0l ~J (oV•)
Prophet ~ intended I'tikaf (seclusion
in the mosque for worship), he prayed ;11 ~~J .);_ .~W;~ ~ ~1}~1 ~I
the dawn prayer and then entered his ~ -e~ ~ ~ljjl ~I t5 '~J)
place of seclusion. (Agreed upon].
571. Narrated ('Aisha) ~: The Prophet :.:.Jti ~ Jt_;; ;11 ~~ ~J (oV\)
~ used to engage in I'tikaf (seclusion
in the mosque for worship) during the )_:,, ,~ ~l ;1) l~l ~ ~I ~\S
last ten days of Ramadan till Allah, Who .;;ii~-~~; t5 ft.iii
is Great and Glorious took his soul (to
His Mercy). Then, his wivesPl engaged
in I'tikaf after him (i.e. after his death).
[Agreed upon].
572. Narrated ('Aisha) ~: Allah's ~~I j_,:.~ ~\S ~l :.:.Jti ~J (oVY)
Messenger ~ would put his head in my
room - while he was in the mosque -
and I would then comb it. And he
would never enter the house except for
a need,l 2 l if he was in I'tikaf
(seclusion).(Agreed upon; the wording
is Al-Bukhiri's].
573. Narrated ('Aisha) ~: The Sunnah
for one who is observing I'tikaf
(seclusion in a mosque for worship) is
not to visit a sick person, nor attend a
funeral, nor touch nor fondle a woman

all of one's minor sins are forgiven and written off. Some scholars make this statement to be
a conditional one that the forgiveness rs only possible if the person performing it has sound
'Aqida (Belief - Creed).
£•l According to this Hadith, women too should observe I'tikaf (sitting in a complete
confinement in a mosque and offering prayers and supplications during the last ten days of
[ZJ Here, 'a need' (~WI) implies responding to the call of nature in terms of urination or
Bulugh Al-Maram 223 I' -11 tr-
r_,..... .. I'
(one's wife),1 1 1 nor go out for any
need, except for that which is an _;f ~I)~ . •CJ~ ~~ .) ~l ..j~\ -q:,
absolute necessity. There is no I'tikaf ·, ;;- ,
~J e 1•11 ~.-\ '~I , '''
J' ..,
, f,
·~ ~~1: ._,..~
,,J, ,, ,
• •.lJb
without fasting, and no I'tikaf except in
a congregational mosque. [Abu Da'ud -~~T
reported it, and its narrators are
acceptable, except that the strongest
opinion is that the end of it (the last
sentence) is Mawquf (saying of a
Companion, i.e. 'Aisha)].
574. Narrated Ibn 'Abbas ~: The Prophet It;; jjl
~.) ·'-"".
G '\
,if. ,,f.J
~ said: "Fasting is not incumbentl 2 J
~ .:,..;Ji1 :JL.i ~ ~I ~f , t~.+;t.
on one engaged in l'tikaf (seclusion in
the mosque for worship) unless he . «~ Js. ~I;~ ~r ~l · r~ -~'
imposesl 3 1 it on himself." [Reported by
.~f 8:; &;1,1:; ·~\;.Jlj ~~1ll1 ~lj~
Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim. The
strongest opinion is that it is also
MawqU.f (saying of a Companion, i.e.
Ibn 'Abbas)].
575. Narrated Ibn 'Umar ~: Some of 11< 'f11 ·' ~
,,, ,if.'\ (oVo)
<..S'vu ._.., ~.J '/'J
the Prophet's ~ companions saw in IJ.J'l "'.:'Z <..!;'
• ~I\ , .__.t;._,:,l : \f i.;.• .] ~l , l ;_;.;
their dreams that Lailatul-Qadr was ~ • ~

among the last seven nights (of , _f,-1 j \11 ,c? I .) il;J
, -L Ll I .) .].ill I
Ramadan). Hence, Allah's Messenger~
said, "I see that your dreams agree .ti r-s~j~ i.S)i1 :~~I J_?~ JW
regarding the last seven nights. ·~~ ~lS ~ •_f,-1}11 -~I .)
Therefore, whoever is to seek it, should
do so during the last seven nights."1 4 1
. fl,; :;z .«_f,-1}11 ,c? I .) Li~,;<!.;
[Agreed upon].
576. Narrated Mu'awiya bin Abu Sufyan j_il 0'~ ~~ ~l ,J. ~~ :y_:, (oV'\)
~ : With regard to Lai/atul-Qadr, the
Prophet ~ said, "It is the twenty-
tl:J · Jt:i
,- ~
-· .;
&J1 ,if
·, ,1;~.; It;;
seventh night." [Reported by Abii .~.Ji~ ;f ~lj~ . «&~:, .c:;. il;J11 :.].ill\
Da'ud. The strongest opinion is that it
is Mawquf (saying of a Companion, i.e. -~J e-01:;

111Here, touching one's wife implies the act of sexual intercourse, which unanimously
nullifies /'tikaf Otherwise, touching one's wife, in itself, is not prohibited.
121 It implies the regular days, other than Ramadan.
Fasting does not become binding on the one who is observing I'tikaf unless he himself
vows to observe fasting.
141 A Haditb which is narrated by 'Abdullah bin 'Umar 4.:..- 41 ._,.;,.;according to Sabibain,
states that one should search for Lailatul-Qadr (Night of Decree) Within the last ten nights of
Ramadan. H the same is not possible, then one should look for it within the last seven nights,
specially the odd ones like 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th and 29th.
The Book of Siyam (Fasting) 224

Forty different sayings were mentioned
regarding the exact night of Lailatul-
Qadr and I mentioned them in Fath A/-
Bari [Explanation of Sahib Al-Bukhari,
by Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar].
577. Narrated 'Aisha i;,: I said, "O ~ , Jt.;;
~I :ri') ~~ c;.:, (ovv)
Allah's Messenger, tell me, if I know
which night is Lailatul-Qadr, [IJ what ~ ,.. .)1 ~\)
.. !41 ,..
J~) IS.. :.:...ii :..:J'ij

(supplication) should I say in it?' He I !» : Jij ~4-.:! J -1 l.. ' .ilJI tl:J tl:J ~ l
~.J' . .J' -l • '- ~
said, "Say, 0 Allah, Ymf are forgiving !f, , ,, ~ , ,..11i ..., "
, ~'

and love forgiveness, so forgive me." .«~~Li ,~1 ~ •P .!l;l r-+1JI

[Reported by the Al-Khamsa except ~~?\ ~J ,;_j1; ':'if ;j- ;, ~I ~IJ)
Abu Da'ud. At-Tirmidhi and Al-Hakim
authenticated it]. .~i;J1:,

578. Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri •= ill1 :ri'J i.i-llLJI )_,'. ~' CfJ (OV/\)
Allah's Messenger~ said, "Do not set i.!J .q» :~~I J_?) Jij :Jij ~ Jt_;;
out on a journey except to three
mosques; i.e., Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at ~I : ~\..'.;.; ~~ .)1 -.jl Jt;:.:_.i1
Makka), my Masjid (at Al-Madinah) and
Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa (Mosque of
.«~~I ~IJ ,1.:i;. ~.'~J 'ii/JI
~ ";.~~,
}erusalem)."l21 [Agreed upon]. ·,. ~

[tJ The strongest view concerning Lailatul-Qadr is that this night occur5 within the last ten
nights of Ramadan particularly in its odd nights and the same may keep changing in Ramadan
alternatively. This night sometimes may occur on 21st, or 23rd, or 25th etc. It can not be
stated with an absolute cenainty as to which of these particular nights is Lailatul-Qadr, but
the same has been kept unknown and this is what the contents of Ahiiditb imply.
[ZJ As mentioned in an earlier Hadith, the observance of I'tikaf must take place in a mosque.
Some of the scholars have conditioned I'tikaf with these three mosques. However, the
compiler refutes and negates their viewpoint and maintains that the three above stated
mosques have not been specified for the observance of I'tikiif They have been specified for
the purpose of visit and pilgrimage. This Haditb further informs us that it is not permissible
to proceed to any place other than these three mosques with the intention of getting reward.
If someone goes to the Prophet's mosque, he must also enjoy the honour of visiting
Prophet's (~ ) grave. As to those who travel to visit the entombed graves of Auliya-A/Jab
('saints'), with the intention of earning reward, such are the people who are committing
innovation in the religion as well as shirk.