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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Fermentation is one of the oldest forms of food preservation

technologies in the world. Indigenous fermented foods such as bread,

cheese, and wine have been prepared and consumed for thousands of years

and are strongly linked to culture and tradition, especially in rural households

and village communities. According to (McGovern, 2009), several jars

containing remains of wine and evidences of wine use as old as 7,000 years

ago have been uncovered by archaeological excavations. The name

fermentation was derived from Latin word fervere meaning “to boil” (as cited

in Alba-Lois, 2010).

According to Dickinson, the process of fermenting is basically feeding

sugars and nutrients in solution to yeast, which return the favor by producing

carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. This process goes on until either all the sugar

is gone or the yeast can no longer tolerate the alcoholic percentage of the

beverage. Different yeasts produce different results and have different

tolerance levels (Anon, 2005).

Vinification, more commonly known as wine-making, is the process of

wine production where the most commonly used raw material is grapes

(Science and Technology of Winemaking, 2015). This process, in general,


consists of the entire process of wine production, from selection of fruit,

extraction of juices, to the fermentation and bottling of wine.

Wine is a popular and important beverage typically made from

extracted juice of fruit that accompanies and enhances a wide range of

European and Mediterranean-style cuisine, from the simple and traditional to

the most sophisticated and complex (Okafor, 2007). It is important in cuisine

not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent since its acidity

lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Any fruit with good proportion of

sugar may be used in producing wine and the product is normally named after

the fruit. The fruit and strain of yeast involved dictates the type of wine to be

produced (Amerine and Kunkee, 2005).

For centuries, the Philippines had its own tradition of fermenting and

drinking wines which are produced in different parts of the country. As there is

an abundance of a number of readily available tropical fruits all year round.

Colored fruit wines are gaining much popularity because of their

powerful antioxidant activity due to the naturally-occurring pigments. In

addition, the pigments in colored fruit wines have potential health effects

against cancer, aging, neurological diseases, inflammation, diabetes and

bacterial infections. The exotic and well-blended sweet, sour and alcoholic

tastes of fruit wine easily curb one’s appetite.


In this study, fresh pineapples was used as the main raw material for

this experimental fermentation as it is a wonderful tropical fruit having

exceptional juiciness, vibrant tropical flavor and immense health benefits.

Pineapple contains considerable amount of calcium, potassium, vitamin C,

carbohydrates, crude fibre, water and different minerals that is good for the

digestive system and helps maintaining ideal weight and balanced nutrition.
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter contains the review of related literature and studies that

serves as a guide in order to obtain necessary data and supply valuable

information about the present study.

Yeast

The most important organism association with fermentation is yeast.

Yeasts as a group of microorganisms have been commercially exploited as a

fermentative species to carry out alcoholic fermentation, especially

Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae plays a prominent role in controlling

the quality and flavor of the final product in wine fermentation (Nurgelet al.,

2009).

Yeast is a unicellular fungus which reproduces asexually by budding or

division, especially the genus Saccharomyces which is important in food

fermentations has the ability to reproduce much faster (Walker, 1988). Yeasts

and yeast-like fungi are widely distributed in nature. They are present in

orchards and vineyards, in the air, the soil and the intestinal tract of animals.

Like bacteria and molds, they can have beneficial and non-beneficial effects

in foods. Most Yeast strains are larger than most bacteria. The most well-

known examples of yeast fermentation are in the production of alcoholic


drinks and the leavening of bread. For their participation in these two

processes, yeasts are of major importance in the food industry.

Honey

Honey is a sweet (mostly consisting of monosaccharide of fructose,

glucose) jelly-like substance made from the nectar of flowers by bees. The

high sugar content present in honey predisposes it as a good substance for

yeast fermentation to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. Different

fermentation technologies have been applied to achieve a various degrees of

alcoholic honey beverages, popularly known as mead (Kraus, 2012).

Honey is natural diet and contains natural antioxidant properties that

can destroy biologically destructive chemical agents which have been linked

to many diseases such as cancer. Honey contains a variety of

phytochemicals (as well as other substances such as organic acids, vitamins,

and enzymes) that may serve as sources of dietary antioxidants. The amount

and type of these antioxidant compounds depends largely upon the floral

source/ variety of the honey. In general, darker honeys have been shown to

be higher in antioxidant content than lighter honeys (Gheldof et al., 2002).

Honey is a sweet (mostly consisting of monosaccharide of fructose,

glucose) jelly-like substance made from the nectar of flowers by bees. The

high sugar content present in honey predisposes it as a good substance for

yeastfermentation to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. Different


fermentation technologies have been applied to achieve a various degrees

of alcoholic honey beverages, popularly known as mead (Kraus, 2017).

Pineapple

Petronella (2011) stated that pineapple is one of the most popular

tropical fruit that is well known for its juicy sweet taste. This delicious fruit is

also known as Pina, Nanas and Ananus. This fruit is rich in nutrition. It has a

high content of vitamins, minerals, fibers and enzymes. This fruit is totally fat

free and very helping to maintain an ideal body weight and provide a

balanced diet for those who want to be fit.

Pineapple is largely consumed around the world as canned pineapple

slices, chunk and dice, pineapple juice, fruit salads, sugar syrup, alcohol,

pineapple chips and pineapple puree (Savage et al., 2013). It is also grown

and used as a medicinal plant in the tropics because it contains a proteolytic

enzyme called bromelain (Tochi et al., 2008). The therapeutic properties

include treatment of malignant cell growth, thrombus formation, inflammation,

control of diarrhea, dermatological and skin debridement (Tochi et al., 2008;

Savage et al., 2013). A good quality wine has been and can always be

produced from pineapple at higher temperatures, as obtained in Nigeria, than

recommended (Jacobs, 2001) because pineapple is a tropical plant (Jacobs,

2001; Bartholomew et al., 2002)


Sugar

Sugar cane is so far the world’s largest source and most efficient raw

material for bioethanol production (Macedo et al., 2008).

Study done by (Limtong et al., 2007) revealed that sugar in the form of

glucose, sucrose and fructose, normally has sufficient organic nutrients and

minerals that make it suitable for ethanol production by yeast

(Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Sugar can be added to encourage the

secondary fermentation, as well as in the "dosage" of bottle-fermented

sparkling wines, when a mixture of sugar and wine is added to the bottle after

the yeast sediment is removed. The amount of sugar added in the dosage will

determine how sweet the final product is, which will be relayed to the

consumer on the bottle's label.


CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

This chapter will therefore discuss the materials and methods that the

researchers used for the production of pineapple wine.

Preparation of Equipment

Several pieces of equipment were prepared before the vinification

process began. The crock pot, knife, blender, containers, and strainer were

washed and sterilized with boiled water.

Preparation of Pineapple must

One medium ripe pineapple was washed to remove possible

contaminants that may adhere to the pineapple during slicing. The crown was

removed off the top of the pineapple and its skin was then sliced off. The fruit

was then sliced into smaller pieces, which were all then placed in a blender

and blended into minutes for easier juice extraction.

Extraction and Fermentation of Pineapple Juice

The blended fruits were placed in a strainer for juice extraction. The

recovered pulp was placed in cheesecloth for further juice extraction. This

was done to assure a better juice extraction. Simultaneously, distilled water


was heated, where 2 g yeast was dissolved in 100 mL warm distilled water for

activation.

The extracted juice was placed inside a plastic bottle. 100 mL honey

and the yeast mixtures were added before a rubber cap was placed. On the

end of the rubber cap, one end of rubber tubing was placed. The other end of

the tubing was placed inside an inverted test tube filled with water to measure

the amount of CO2 evolved by the set-up. This also served as an indicator

that fermentation has finished when no more CO2 gas evolved. Lastly, this

was done to allow passage of CO2 without allowing O2 gas to enter the

system and maintain anaerobic conditions.


STI College

Sta. Cruz, Laguna

In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements in General Biology I

“Pineapple Wine”

Submitted by:

Canlas, Clarence M.

Gusay, Charles Benedict C.

Vallente, Albert James F.

Capati, April Ann D.

Wagan, Ella Joy B.

Submitted to: Ms. Alyssa Camille F. Cabardo