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UNIT-1

1.Two vertical rods one of steel and other of copper are each rigidly fixed at the top and 50 cm apart.

Diameters and lengths of each rod are 2 cm and 4m respectively. A cross bar fixed to the rods at the lower

end carries a load of 5000 N such that the cross bar remains horizontal even after loading. Find the stresses

in each rod and the position of the load on the bar. Take E for steel = 2x105 N/mm2 and E for copper =

1x105 N/mm2.(14M)

2.A bar of elastic material is subjected to directed stress in a longitudinal direction, and its strains in the

two directions at right angles are reduced to one-half and one third respectively to those which normally

occur in a ordinary tension member. If E=200kN/mm2 and m = 4, what is the value of elastic constant?

3. a) Define proportionality limit, elasticity limit, yield stress and ultimate stress of a material? (4M)

b) A circular rod of steel 14mm diameter is testing in a testing machine and it is found that when the

tension is 18kN the total extension on a 21cm length is 0.15mm.Find the value of E.(10M)

4. a) Define young’s modulus, shear modulus and Bulk modulus. Derive the relation between them. (5M)

b) The following data refer to a tensile test conducted on a mild steel bar :

diameter of the specimen = 20 mm

length of the specimen = 200 mm

extension at a load of 40 kN = 0.12mm

Load at yield point = 80kN

Maximum load = 150 kN

Total extension = 50 mm

Neck diameter = 15 mm.

Determine (i) young’s modulus (ii) yield stress (iii) ultimate stress (iv) percentage elongation and

(v) percentage reduction in area. (9M)

5. a) The piston of a steam is 40cm diameter and the piston rod diameter 6cm diameter. The steam pressure

is 1.05 N/mm2.Find the stress in the piston rod and the elongation of 75cm, taking E = 205kN/mm2 when

the piston is on the in-stroke.(10M)

b) Write a note on impact loads? (4M)

6. a) A weight of 10 KN falls by 30 mm on a collar rigidly attached to a vertical bar 4 m long and 1000

mm2 in section. Find the instantaneous expansion of bar. Take E= 210 Gpa.(7M)

b) An elemental cube is subjected to tensile stresses of 30 N/mm2 and 10 30 N/mm2 acting on two mutually

perpendicular planes and a shear stress of 10 30 N/mm2 on these planes. Draw the Mohr’s circle of stresses

and hence or otherwise determine the magnitudes and directions of principal stresses and also greatest shear

stress. (7M)

7. a) Two vertical rods one of steel and the other of copper are each rigidly fixed at the top and 50cm apart.

Diameters and lengths of each rod are 2cm and 4cm respectively. A cross bar fixed to the rods at the lower

ends Carries a load of 5000N such that the cross bar remains horizontal even after loading. Find the stress

in each rod and position of the load on the bar. Take Es= 2.x 105N/mm2, Ec= 1x 105N/mm2.(7M)

b) A round bar of length L and diameter D is subjected to an axial pull P. Find the change in volume of

the bar. Poisson’s ratio = 1/m, young’s modulus = E. (7M)

8. a) A piece of material is subjected to three mutually perpendicular tensile tresses and the strains in the

three directions are in the ratio 3:4:5. If the value of Poisson’s ratio is 0.2857, find the ratio of the stresses

and their values when the greatest stress is 90N/mm2.(7M)

b) Draw Mohr’s circle when the component is subjected to state of pure shear.(7M)

9. a) Define the following i) Poisson’s ratio ii) shear modulus iii) Volumetric strain (7M)

b) A steel rod is 2.2 m long and must not stretch more than 1.2 mm when a 8.5kN load is applied to it.

Knowing that E = 200GPa, determine (i) the smallest diameter rod that should be used, (ii) the

corresponding normal stress caused by the load. (7M)

10. A compound bar consists of a central steel strip 25 mm wide and 6.4 mm thick placed between two

strips of brass each 25 mm wide and x mm thick. The strips are firmly fixed together to form a compound

bar of rectangular section 25 mm wide and (2x + 6.4) mm thick. Determine: i) The thickness of the brass

strips which will make the apparent modulus of elasticity of compound bar 157 GN/m2. ii) The maximum

axial pull the bar can then carry if the stress is not to exceed 157 MN/m2, in either the brass or the steel.

Take Es= 207 GN/m2 and Eb= 114 GN/m2. (14M)

UNIT-2

1.A simply supported beam of length 10 m carries the uniformly distributed load and two point loads as

shown fig. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam. Also calculate the maximum

bending moment. (14M)

2.Determine the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the cantilever loaded as shown in Figure: 1

3. A beam of length 6m is simply supported at its ends. It is loaded with a gradually varying load of 750

N/m from left end to 1500 N/m to the right end. Construct the SF and BM diagrams and find the magnitude

and position of the maximum BM. (14M)

4. An overhanging beam of length 7m is supported centrally at two points 5m apart. It carries a uniformly

increasing load of 400 N/m from the left end to 800 N/m at the midspan. It also carries a point load of

1000N at the right end. Draw the SF and BM diagrams and locate the point(s) of contra flexure. (14M)

5. A beam of length 6m is simply supported at its ends. It is loaded with a gradually varying load of 750

N/m from left end to 1500 N/m to the right end. Construct the SF and BM diagrams and find the magnitude

and position of the maximum BM. (14M)

6.A simple supported beam of length 8m rests on supports 6m apart, the right hand end is overhanging by 2

m. The beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 1500 N/m over the entire length. Draw the shear force

and bending moment diagrams and find the point of contra flexure, if any? (14M)

7. a) A simply supported overhanging beam is load as shown in the Figure 5. Draw the shear force and

bending moment diagrams. (7M)

b) A beam of 10 m long is simply supported and carries a load of uniformly varying from 50kN/m at the left

end to 150 kN/m at the right end. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams. (7M)

8. a) A beam of 12 m long is supported at 2 m and 10 m from the left end. It carries uniformly distributed

loads of 15 kN/m over both overhanging lengths along with a clockwise couple load of 220 kN-m at mid-

span. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam. Find the position and magnitudes

of maximum bending moment and the position of the point of contra flexure. (7M)

b) Derive the relation between loading, shear force and bending moment. (7M)

9. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam shown in Figure. Show all important values.

(14M)

b) Draw the Shear force and bending moment diagram for the loaded beam as shown in Figure 1. (7M)

UNIT-3

1. Derive bending stresses for i) Solid rectangular cross section and ii) Hollow circular cross section(14M)

2. a) A 3 m long rectangular beam of section 100 mm x 200 mm is loaded with a point load of30000 N distant

1 m from the right-hand support. Find the maximum shear stress in the beam Also find the shearing stress

at a layer 20 mm below the top of the beam at a section 1 m to the right of the left-hand support.(7M)

b) Derive the equation M/I = f/y = E/R (7M)

3. a) A rectangular beam 300mm deep is simply supported over a span of 4m. Determine the U.D.L per meter

which the beam may carry, if the bending stress should not exceed 120 N/mm2 Take I = 8x 106mm4

(7M)

b) An I-section beam 350mm×150mm has a web thickness of 10mm and a flange thickness of20mm. If the

shear force acting on the section is 40kN, find the maximum shear stress developed in the section. Sketch

the shear stress distribution across the section. Also calculate the total shear force carried by the web.(7M)

4. a) A beam of triangular cross-section with a base of 120 mm and 150 mm, the lower surface being

horizontal. If the shear force on a section is 30 kN, draw the distribution of shear stress in the beam. (7M)

b) A beam is of T-section, flanges 135mm x 12mm and web 120mm x 15mm. It is subjected to a sheer force

of 29kN. Draw shear stress distribution across the depth marking values at salient points. What percentage

of the shearing force a any section is carried by the web? (7M)

5. a) A beam of symmetrical section 30cm deep and I= 12000cm4, carries U.D.L. of 16kN/m. Calculate the

maximum span of the beam if the maximum bending stress is not to exceed160N/mm2. With this span,

calculate the maximum central load if the bending stress is not to exceed the limit given above.(9M)

b) From first principles show that the shear stress is not maximum at the neutral axis in case of an isosceles

triangular section. (5M)

6. A simply supported rectangular beam is 150mm wide by 300mm deep carries a central concentrated load

of 12KN and a distributed load of 8KN/m on a span of 3metres. Determine the maximum bending stress in

the beam and bending stress at 1metre from the left end.(14M)

7.The cross-section of a joist is a T-section 12.5 ×12.5×1.2cm with 12.5 cm side horizontal. Find the

maximum intensity of shear stress and sketch the distribution of stress across the section if it has to resist a

shear force of 90kN.(14M)

8. A 60cm× 20 cm I- joist has 2.5cm thick flanges and 1.8cm thick web. Calculate the maximum intensity

of shear stress and sketch the distribution of stress across the section, the S.F. at the cross-section being

650kN.(14M)

9.The Shear force acting on a section of a beam is 50 KN. The section of the beam is T shaped of dimensions

100 mm x 100 mm x 20 mm as shown in the fig. The moment of inertia about the horizontal neutral axis is

314.221 x 104 mm4. Calculate the shear stress at the neutral axis and at the junction of the web and flange?

(14M)

10. The cross-section of a beam is shown in fig. The beam is made of material with permissible stress in

compression and tension equal to 100 Mpa and 140 Mpa respectively.

Calculate the moment of resistance of the cross-section, when subjected to a moment causing compression

at the top and tension at the bottom.(14M)

UNIT-4

1. a) A cantilever beam AB of length 4m carries a point load of 100kN at free end and another point load

100kN at 2m from the free end. If E = 105 N/mm2and I=108 mm4for the cantilever then determine the slope

and deflection at the free end by Moment area method. (7M)

b) Write in brief about double integration method. (7M)

2. a) A cantilever beam AB of length 4m carries a point load of 100kN at free end and another point load

100kN at 2m from the free end. If E = 105 N/mm2and I =108 mm4for the cantilever then determine the slope

and deflection at the free end by moment area method (7M)

b) Write in brief about double integration method. (7M)

3. a) Derive the relationship between slope, deflection and radius of Curvature of a simply supported beam.

(7M)

b) A 300 mm long cantilever of rectangular section 48 mm wide and 36 mm deep carries a uniformly

distributed load. Calculate the value of load w if the maximum deflection in the cantilever is not to exceed

1.5 mm. Take E = 70X109GN/m2. (7M)

4. a) Define Macaulay’s method? And find out Deflection of a simply supported beam with an Eccentric

point load (7M)

b) A horizontal beam AB is simply supported at A and B, 6m apart. The beam is subjected to a clockwise

couple of 300kNm at a distance of 4m from the left end. If E=2×105N/mm2and I=2×108mm4. Determine

(i) Deflection at the point where couple is acting(ii) the maximum deflection. (7M)

5. A beam of uniform section, 10 meters long, is simply supported at the ends. It carries point loads of 110

KN and 60 KN at distances of 2m and 5m respectively from the left end. Calculate: The deflection under

each load and maximum deflection. Given: E = 200x106N/m2and I = 118x10−4m4 (14M)

6. a) What is Macaulay’s method for finding out the slope and deflection of a beam? (5M)

b) A 3 meters long cantilever is loaded with a point load of 450 N at the free end. If the section is rectangular

80 mm ( wide) x 160 mm (deep), and E = 10 GN/m2, calculate slope and deflection. (i) at the free end of the

cantilever, (ii) at a distance of 0.55 m from the free end. (9M)

7. a) A beam of length 6m is simply supported at the ends. It carries a uniformly distributed load of 4 kN/m

over a length of 2 metres from the left end. Find the maximum deflection of the beam. Take E = 2 x 105

N/mm2 and I = 2 x 107 mm4. (10M)

b) Write about double integration method? (4M)

8. A girder of uniform section and constant depth of 500 mm is freely supported over a span of 8 metres.

Calculate the deflection for a uniformly distributed load on it such that the maximum bending stress induced

is 90 N/ mm2. Take E=2.04X105 N/mm2. If for the above girder, the flanges are so portioned that there is

uniform flange stress of 90 N/ mm2 throughout the beam, calculate the central deflection. (14M)

9.A cantilever of length 2m carries a point load of 20 kN at the free end and another load of 20 kN at its

center. If E = 105 N/mm2 and I=108 mm4 for the cantilever then determine by moment area method, the

slope and deflection of the cantilever at the free end. (14M)

10.A beam of length 6 m is simply supported at its ends. It carries a uniformly distributed load of 10 KN/m

as shown in fig. Determine the deflection of the beam at its midpoint and also the position and the

maximum deflection. Take EI= 4.5 x108 N/mm2. (14M)

UNIT-5

1. a) Show that in the case of a thin cylindrical shell subjected to an internal fluid pressure, the tendency to

burst length wise is twice as great as a transverse section. (7M)

b) Determine change in dimensions of a thin spherical shell due to an internal pressure. (7M)

2. a) A shell 3.25m long, 1m in diameter is subjected to an internal pressure of 1N/mm2. If thickness of the

shell is 10mm, find the circumferential and longitudinal stresses. And also find the maximum shell stress and

the changes in the dimensions of the shell. Take E = 2×105 N/mm2, 1/m = 0.3. (7M)

b) A riveted boiler 2.25m in diameter has to sustain and internal pressure of 0.56 N/mm2. The efficiency of

the riveted joints is 70% and a safe stress of 60N/mm2 is allowed in a material. Find the thickness of the

shell and the necessary pitch of rivets for the longitudinal joints, which is a single riveted butt joint. Take

diameter of rivet =6 t and where t is thickness of the plate (7M)

3. a) A cylindrical vessel whose ends are closed by means of rigid flange plates is made of steel plate 3 mm

thick. The internal length and diameter of vessel are 50 cm and 25 cm respectively. Determine the

longitudinal and circumferential stresses in the cylindrical shell due to an internal fluid pressure of 3 MN/m2

Also calculate increase in length, diameter and volume of the vessel. Take: E = 200 GN/m2, and 1/m = 0.3

(7M)

b) Derive the expression of hoop stress for thin spherical shell. (7M)

4. a) Derive expression for circumferential strain, volumetric strain for thin spherical shell.(7M)

b) Determine change in dimensions of a thin spherical shell due to an internal pressure. (7M)

5. a) Derive a formula for the proportional increase of capacity of a thin spherical shell due to an internal

pressure. (5M)

b) A cylindrical tank open at top and having vertical axis, is of 2.75 m inside diameter and 20 m high. The

tank is filled with water and is made of structural steel with a yield point of 220 MN/ m2. Determine the

thickness of the tank if (i) longitudinal joint is 90% efficient and (ii) longitudinal joint is 70% efficient.

Assume factor of safety as 3. (9M)

6. A cylindrical shell of 200 mm diameter and 1 metre length is filled with a fluid at atmospheric pressure.

The wall thickness is 8mm. If an additional 2 x 104 mm3 of the fluid is pumped into the cylinder, find the

pressure exerted by the fluid on the wall of the cylinder. Find also the hoop stress induced. E = 2 x 105

N/mm2 ; Poisson’s ratio = 0.3. (14M)

7. a) Derive a formula for the hoop stress in a thin spherical shell subjected to an internal pressure. (4M)

b) A cylindrical shell l0 m long and 50 cm in diameter and 12mm thick is at atmospheric pressure. What

would be its dimensions when it is subjected to an internal pressure of 2 MN/ m2? E = 200 GN/ m2 and m

= 4. (10M)

8. a) A boiler shell is to be made of 15mm thick plate having a limiting tensile stress of 100 MN/m2. If the

longitudinal and circumferential efficiencies are 70% and 30% respectively, determine what maximum

diameter of the shell would be allowed for a maximum pressure of 2 MN/ m2.(7M)

b) A vertical cylindrical gasoline storage tank, made of 20mm thick mild steel plate has to withstand

maximum pressure of 1.5 MN/m2. Calculate the diameter of the tank if stress if 240 MN/m2, factor of Safety

2 and joint efficiency 70%. (7M)

9.Determine the maximum and minimum hoop stress across the section of a pipe of 400 mm internal diameter

and 100 mm thick, when the pipe contains a fluid at a pressure of 8 N/mm2. Also sketch the radial pressure

distribution and hoop stress distribution across the section? (14M)

10.A closed cylindrical vessel made of steel plates 4 mm thick with plane ends, carries fluid under a pressure

of 3N/mm2. The diameter of the cylinder is 25 cm and length is 75 cm, calculate the longitudinal and hoop

stress in the cylinder wall and determine the change in the in diameter, length and volume of the cylinder.

Take E= 2.1x105 N/mm2 and Poisson’s ratios is 0.286. (14M)

UNIT -6

1. Derive the expression for the crippling load by Rankine’s method. (14M)

2. a) A solid cylindrical shaft is to transmit 300kW power at 100 r.p.m. If the shear stress is not to exceed

80N/ mm2, find its diameter. (7M)

b) Derive the expression for the crippling load when both ends of the column are hinged. (7M)

3. a) A solid round bar 6 cm in diameter and 2.5 m long is used as a strut. One end of the strut is fixed while

its other end is hinged. Find the safe compressive load for this strut using Euler’s formula. Assume E = 200

GPa and factor of safety = 3. (7M)

b) Derive the equivalent length of column fixed at one end and hinged at other. (7M)

4. a) Two shafts of same material and same lengths are subjected to same torque, if the first shaft is a solid

circular section and the second shaft is hallow circular section whose internal diameter is 2/3 of the outside

diameter. And the maximum shear stress developed in each shaft is the same, compare the weights of the

shafts.(7M)

b) A simply supported beam of length 4m is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 30 kN/m over the

whole span and deflects 15mm at the center. Determine the Crippling loads when this beam is used as a

column with the following conditions. (i) One end fixed and other end hinged (ii) both the ends pin jointed

(7M)

5.A solid shaft transmits 2000 kW at the 200 rpm. The maximum torque developed in the shaft is 1.8 times

the mean torque. The distance between the bearings is 1.8 meters with a flywheel weighing 50 kN midway

between the bearings. Determine the shaft diameter if (i) the maximum permissible tensile stress is 60 MPa

(ii) the maximum permissible shearing stress is 40 MPa. (14M)

6. A steel shaft of diameter 200 mm runs at 300 rpm. This steel shaft has a 30 mm thick bronze bushing

shrunk over its entire length of 8 meters. If the maximum shearing stress in the steel shaft is not to exceed

12 MPa, find i) power of the engine ii) torsional rigidity of the shaft. Take G steel = 84000 N/mm²; G

bronze = 42000 N/mm². (14M)

7. Derive an expression for the Euler’s crippling load for a long column with following end conditions: (i)

both ends are hinged (ii) both ends are fixed.(14M)

8. Derive an expression for the shear stress produced in a circular shaft which is subjected to torsion. What

are the assumptions made in the derivation? (14M)

9. a) A simply supported beam of length 4m is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 30 kN/m over

the whole span and deflects 15 mm at the center. Determine the crippling load when the beam is used as

column with both the ends pin jointed? (7M)

b) Derive the relation for a circular shaft when subjected to torsion as T/J = τ/R = Gϴ/L Where T is torque

transmitted, J = polar moment of inertia, τ = Max. Shear stress, R = radius of shaft, G= modulus of rigidity,

ϴ = angle of twist, L= length of shaft. (7M)

10. Determine the crippling load for a T- section of dimensions 10 cm x10 cm x 2 cm and of length 5 m

when it is used as strut with both of its ends hinged. Take young’s modulus, E= 2.0 x105 N/mm2. (14M)

Short Answer Questions

UNIT-1

1.What do you mean by “a bar of uniform strength”?(2M)

2. What are the General sign conventions for shear force and bending moment in general? (2M)

3. Define elasticity and plasticity? (2M)

4. Define volumetric strain? (2M)

5. Write the types of stresses and strains? (2M)

6. Draw stress – strain diagram for mild steel? (2M)

7. Define working stress and factor of safety? (2M)

8. Draw the Stress- Strain diagram for Cast Iron and mention the Salient points?(2M)

9. What are the effects of inclined load on the Beam? (2M)

11. Define the terms: a) Bulk modulus b) Resilience (2M)

12.Define the terms: principal planes and principal stresses.(2M)

13.State the Hooke's law.(2M)

UNIT-2

1. Write about different types of beams and different loadings.(3M)

2.Draw the B.M.D of simply supported beam with uniformly varying load with zero at free ends and w per

metre run at the centre. (3M)

3.Derive the relation between the shear force and bending moment in a beam.(3M)

4.Draw the shapes of shear force and bending moment diagrams for a cantilever beam of length L carrying

an end point load.(3M)

5. Write the types of beams?(2M)

6. Write the types of loads?(2M)

7. Define shear force and bending moment ?(2M)

UNIT-3

1.A beam 4m long, simply supported at its ends, carries a point load W at its center. If the slope at the beam

is not to exceed 10, find the deflection at the center of the beam. (2M)

2.Write the methods of determining Slope and Deflection at a section in a loaded beam (2M)

3.Define Section modulus (2M)

4.State the assumptions made in the theory of simple bending. (2M)

5.Define bending stress? (2M)

6. Define section modulus? (2M)

7.Write the equation of bending? (2M)

8.What is the section modulus and how it will affect the strength of the beam? (2M)

9.A wooden beam of 100 mm wide and 150 mm deep is simply supported over a span of 4 m. If shear force

at a section of the beam is 4500 N, find the shear stress at a distance of 25 mm above the Neutral axis? (3M)

UNIT-4

1.Find an expression for section modulus of a rectangular section of a beam (2M)

2.What are statically indeterminate beams. (2M)

3.Define the terms a) neutral axis b) moment of resistance (2M)

4.Write the Assumptions for theory of Simple Bending. (2M)

5.Write Mohr’s theorems? (3M)

6.Define slope, deflection and radius of curvature? (3M)

7.What is moment area method? (3M)

8.Write the differential equation for the elastic line of a beam? (3M)

9.State the Mohr’s theorem I & II to determine the Deflection of the beam? (3M)

10.What is a Macaulay’s method? Where it is used? (2M)

UNIT-5

1.Which ratio decides whether cylinder is thin or thick (3M)

2.Differentiate hoop & longitudinal stress. (3M)

3.Draw the Shear stress diagram for I- section (3M)

4.Define volumetric strain? (2M)

5.Write about circumferential stress? (2M)

6.Write about longitudinal stress? (2M)

7.Write Lame’s equation? (2M)

8.A vessel in the shape of spherical shell of 1.20 m internal diameter and 12 mm shell thickness is subjected

to pressure of 1.6 N/mm2. Determine the stresses induced in the material of shell? (3M)

9.Define the term Polar Modulus? Find the expression for polar modulus for a solid shaft? (3M)

UNIT-6

1.Derive the equation of maximum torque transmitted by a circular solid shaft. (2M)

2.What are the limitations of Euler’s formula. (2M)

3.Define torsional rigidity & power transmitted by shaft. (2M)

4.Write the limitations of Euler’s Formula? (3M)

5.Write about buckling and stability? (3M)

6.Write about shafts in parallel? (3M)

7.Write about shafts in series? (3M)

8.Define the torsional rigidity of the shaft? What does it represent? (2M)

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