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Table of Contents

Task – 1 Ethics.............................................................................................................................2
Task – 2 Project Management Lifecycle and Strategy.................................................................4
Task – 3 Risk................................................................................................................................7
Task – 4 Software Deployment..................................................................................................10
Task – 5 Service Management within the IT sector...................................................................12
Task – 6 Software Quality..........................................................................................................14

Table of Figure
Figure 1 Waterfall Methodology Lifecycle................................................... (Zulqadar, 2019)
Professional Issues In IT

TBTR Ltd is a large company that deals with production of mobile phone components. At
present, TBTR has a calendar system which is installed on PCs of each employee. The issue in
this calendar system is that only employees have access to this calendar system. Due to this
legacy calendar system TBTR is facing difficulties in communicating process among all
employees, in scheduling meetings, even if the meetings are scheduled not all employees do
attend the meetings. In order to takeover these problems TBTR Ltd had developed a new
calendar system by the help of which management will be taking total control over employee’s
activities. Since, this system will be dealing with employee’s personal data. In order to figure out
all these issues, Managing Director of TBTR has hired me.

Task – 1 Ethics
a. Answer

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According to the scenario, the Managing Director should have

i. Informed all the employees via HR- Department that their personal data are being
collected and will be used in the new calendar system and should have listened all the
feedbacks and reviews from each and every employee of the organization.

ii. Asked HR- Department to give comprehensive explanation to data subject about to whom
their personal data might be disclosed. To what degree their data will be kept secret and
to extent their data will be disclosed.

iii. Announce a formal meeting on discussion about this matter in the involvement of
Managing Director himself. The meeting should have given intelligible report on the
specific data being held about each employee.

iv. Promised them that their data will be processed only under the UK’s Data Protection Act
2018. The way their personal data will be processed should be kept transparent to them.
The HR- Department and Managing Director should have promised that their data will be
erased totally after they left the company as per the contract signed during the time of

v. Should have explained how the company will be collecting their personal data so that
data might be used as further information in future if needed. Some data will be collected
from internal source and some data will be collected from data subject’s social sites links.

The System Analyst should have

Made the involvement all the employee (End Users) in the initial phase of system development
so that any issues if arises in future could be settled down taking reference of initial
documentation read and promised by data subject. Or to minimize the issues of privacy of

b. Answer
The British Computer Society - BCS is the professional body I have chosen.
BCS is a professional body that is responsible to set rules and standards, conduct certification to
direct the behavior of its members in professional issues.
Following points are to be considered to make sure that TBTR Ltd implement BCS Code of
i. Should focus of Public Interest
ii. Focus of Professional Competence and Integrity

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iii. Assign Duty to Relevant Authority and

iv. Duty to the profession
Public Interest
i. should focus on public health, privacy, security and well-being of other and environment.
ii. should consider the legitimate rights of Third party.
iii. TBTR should carry out the organizational professional activities without discrimination
regarding gender, age group, nationality, race, religion and ethnicity.
iv. Should promote IT and its benefits in the society whenever the opportunities arise.
[ CITATION BCS15 \l 1033 ]

Task – 2 Project Management Lifecycle and Strategy

a. Answer
Project execution is the third phase of project management life cycle in which all the plans that
were made are turned into actions. Some major actions performed in this phase are time
management, cost management, quality management and risk management. In this phase project
manager will ensure that the work of developing the new calendar system is on the track. The
project manager will organize team members and motivate them to work. The project manager
will make suitable timeline to complete development of new calendar system and ensure that the
team members are not overworked.
I have chosen Waterfall Software Development Methodology for the development of new
calendar system of TBTR.
Waterfall Model is linear sequential model that can be implemented in software development.
Waterfall Model consists of six phases in which next phase depends upon deliverables of
pervious phase i.e. each phase needed to be completed before going to another phase. The work
flow of Waterfall methodology is shown in the picture below.

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Figure 1 Waterfall Methodology Lifecycle [ CITATION

Amn19 \l 1033 ]

The significance of each phase and the participants for each stage from the scenario are:

i. Requirement Analysis

In this phase all the requirements will be gathered from all the business roles of TBTR
Ltd. participating in system development process. Interviews and Questionnaire will be
used as requirement gathering tools. Feasibility study (time, cost and feature and other)
will be done. Based on the requirements, vision (long term strategic goals that can be
achieved) and scope will be set to make the project transparent. Managing Director,
Department Heads, Project Manager, End Users and System Analyst would be

participating in this phase of system development.

ii. System Design

Taking references from the documentation of analysis phase, system analyst and the team
of programmer will design a model of the new Calendar System. Tools like Rich Picture
or Data Flow Diagram will be used in the process. Paper Prototyping will be done in this
phase. Project Manager will be informed about the progress.

iii. Implementation

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In this phase, coding of new Calendar system will be done. Role of system analyst is vital
in this phase because analyst is the person who know better what the system should be
and how it should perform. Coding will be performed by team of programmers.

iv. Testing

As per the roles given in the scenario, testing will be performed by the programmers and
system analyst in the involvement of end users. End users will be providing review and
feedbacks but if any changes are needed whole process will be repeated again.

v. Deployment

Programmers and system analyst will be setting the system up as real world working
software. End users (employees of TBTR Ltd) are the one who will be using the system

vi. Maintenance

System maintenance of TBTR’s Calendar System as promised in the contract will be

performed regularly by the system analyst and team of programmers.

b. Answer

Advantages of Waterfall Model

i. Each and every phase in waterfall model is well-documented. These documents can be of
greater use in future. For example: The current system analyst got a new job in USA and
ready to leave the current job. Here is the actual use of previously created documents. If
new analyst got hired s/he can easily understand the overall process of system being
developed by looking the documents and can save the project from heavy loss.

ii. It is easy to measure the track the milestones of the project. Since each phase has a fixed
deadline and deliverables which make easy to measure the work progress.

iii. Since all the constraint and feasibility for TBTR’s new Calendar System are measured in
the analysis stage so it will be easier for project manager to plan the project. Defining all
the requirements in the beginning helps in better resources optimization and scheduling.
Clear vision and scope make the process cost effective.
[CITATION Tut19 \l 1033 ]

Disadvantages of Waterfall Model

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i. User involvement (Employees of TBTR Ltd) is made in the analysis and testing phase.
End Users are kept blind in designing and implementation stages. Due to this issue,
although the project may be delivered earlier but user’s expectations towards system are
not considered. Since, there is no room for user feedback.

ii. Delayed testing may lead to delayed bugs detection since, the system will be dealing with
personal data of employees, so any bugs that result in data breaching won’t be acceptable.

iii. Working software is delivered at the end of overall development phases. Final System
won’t be deployed until the Managing Director Approve this system in TBTR Ltd.
[CITATION TRY19 \l 1033 ]

Task – 3 Risk
Risk is an ongoing or upcoming concern that is caused by internal or external vulnerabilities.
[ CITATION Bus19 \l 1033 ] In order to keep the product development, risk should be identified
and mitigating measures should be taken as soon as possible. Risk identification is the process of
listing-out all the possible risks along with their characteristics. [ CITATION Eri18 \l 1033 ]

a. Answer
Methods of identifying risk during software development are given below:

i. Interviewing the stakeholders

Involvement of stakeholders from different level of management provides broader sense

of risk items that might cause risks to occur in the system. Different level of users might
have faced different difficulties in using system, interviewing the stakeholders helps to
get to know the issue.

ii. Using Risk Template

Risk template is a document of a database system that tracks and assess the risk, their
impact and mitigating measures at the beginning of the project. i.e. proactive risk
management. By the help of this document the management team can easily make
strategic plan on proper resources optimization.

iii. Previous project plans

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Referring to previous project plans, similar kinds of risks can be identified and examined.
iv. Data Analysis

Data analysis technique like SWOT (Strength Weakness Opportunities and Threats), Root
Cause Analysis can be used to identify risks during software development.

v. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FEMA)

FEAM is another famous technique used to identify risks of the system. It can be used
throughout the development phase and even after the product deployment. It finds out the
failure modes, defects, bugs in the system and analyze the kind of effects could occur.

b. Answer
The three possible that might occur in the new Calendar System are:
i. Lack of Accountability

Having no accountability refers that there is no one responsible. In this new calendar
system, it is very necessary to track each user activities as the system will be dealing with
data of all the employees of TBTR Ltd. User won’t be responsible of their actions if
administrator fails to track their activities. To overcome this risk, each user must be
tracked with their activities and employees should not be provided with more than the
required information. Make sure accountability must be maintained not Autonomy.

ii. Cost Related Risk

Cost is given major concern while developing new Calendar system development. If any
new features are needed to be added obviously more budget is required. Cost risk may
result is schedule risk i.e. if cost is reduced product will be delivered late. So, it is very
important to estimate budget during the phase of analysis.
iii. Employee Sabotage

Employee sabotage is an action that is totally against ethics and law. The destruction,
damage or illegal use of data done by unhappy employee is called employee sabotage.
This kind of threat hampers the organization’ s reputation. In order to minimize this
threat, it is very necessary to track each and every user’s activity. HR can play vital role
to identify the root cause of this risk. Each and every employee’s thoughts and ideas most
be listened, employees must be motivated towards work and finally adopt good security
measures. Noticing the behavior of employees is another way of preventing employee

c. Answer

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Proactive risk management is a technique used to identify all possible risks earlier before the
incident takes place. Taking current safety level, predictions are made and all the possible
mitigating measures are identified in early stage. It is considered more flexible type of risk
management technique than reactive risk management because it involves creative thinking and
prediction. Unlike reactive risk management, it saves time of the project because all the
preventive measured to be taken are documented earlier.
Reactive risk management is a technique used to solve the risk after the risk occurrence. It has
ability to reduce the tendency of repeating same kind of risk again in future.
[ CITATION Ket15 \l 1033 ]

d. Answer
ISO 31000 is one of the risk management standards that provides guidelines, frameworks,
principles and process for effective risk management. Its aim is to provide a best practice for risk
Objectives of ISO31000 are to
i. Replace all existing risk management standards
ii. Provide a single standardization across all industries regardless of subject area.

The purpose of framework is to integrate risk management in all management system rather to
govern the whole management system.
Following are the major tasks done in this framework.
i. Developing the framework

Framework will be designed for managing risks regularly.

ii. Implementing a Risk Management framework

The RM framework that was designed previously will be implemented in all management
systems for managing risks.

iii. Monitoring and Reviewing Risk Management Framework

The performance and the progress of RM framework will be monitored and reviewed if
the RM framework working still appropriate.
[CITATION Int19 \l 1033 ]
According to the scenario, TBTR Ltd wants to access employee’s personal data through new
Calendar System. Making use of someone’s personal data can bring unimagined risks in the
organization. Adopting ISO 31000 increases likelihood to achieve organizations goals. ISO
31000 RM framework encourages proactive management which will tell the Project Manager
what to do if any issues arises in future. It makes management team aware about the risk and
enable reliable decision making.

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Task – 4 Software Deployment

a. Answer
The process of launching a new service, product or a system focusing a specific market
requirement or taking user or group of users in to consideration is called product release.
[ CITATION Tec191 \l 1033 ]
Methods that can be used in product releasing
i. Big Bang

This approach involves implementing a new system simultaneously to get rid of

existing system. Implementation of this approach is faster than that of other methods
like parallel, pilot etc. The process of implementation is so quick that user don’t even
get to know about the new system clearly and this can be considered in a negative
side of big bang approach. If proper testing is not done then there is high possibility
of getting unpredictable problems during the time of implementation and after
implementation (and testing is done if the system goes live). Installing new Calendar
system in TBTR Ltd will be risk. [ CITATION Mar14 \l 1033 ]

ii. Parallel

In this approach both new and the old system are run alongside each other. If new
Calendar system operates successfully then the new system will be deployed as the
only system running in the organization. TBTR employees can be trained easily with
new Calendar system since systems are going parallel. In TBTR if any problems
found in new Calendar system the old system can still be used. Since TBTR is a large
implementing this approach will be more beneficial.

iii. Web
This approach is more common in today’s software industry market. This approach
does not require any installation. This approach is considered as one of the consistent
approaches for software installation, very few chances of changes. This approach
relies on IT resources that are available in the respective organization.
iv. Pilot Installation

With pilot installation approach the new Calendar system can be implemented in
TBTR Ltd in small scale i.e. new Calendar system can be introduced in one or two
departments of TBTR Ltd i.e. in isolation. Since this method will be introduced in
small scale it will be easy to control and of Low risk. It will be easy to train the staffs

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of TBTR by letting them know the company has adopted new Calendar system. If
Pilot installation is successful then it can be extended until it replaces the old system
of TBTR Ltd. Since TBTR is a large implementing this approach will be more

[ CITATION IBM04 \l 1033 ]

b. Answer

Parallel Installation would be the feasible approach for installation of new Calendar system in
TBTR Ltd. TBTR is a large organization and implementing a new system directly would be
possible but it is quite difficult for user to cooperate with new Calendar system and it can cause
difficulty in using the system. Using new Calendar system alongside with old Calendar system
will allow users to use both system at the same time due to which users will get to know about
the new system properly. Comparison between two system is very necessary before installing
new system and by the help of parallel installation approach comparison between is possible.
Adopting parallel installation approach allow in good training opportunities for system users.

Task – 5 Service Management within the IT sector

a. Answer

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Outsourcing is the practice of handing over some responsibilities (business functions and
processes) under some terms, contracts and negotiations to third-parties (team of expertise).
i. TBTR’s Ltd can focus on its other internal core competences if outsourcing of new
calendar system is done. The staffs in TBTR can be assigned to other activities that
involved in-house development.

ii. Outsourcing ensures to handover the task to the group of expertise, so the amount of
work done in certain time will be more and project can be delivered in very little amount
of time with better quality.

iii. Outsourcing ensure to get the work done at low cost and the amount of money saved can
be used in other areas of business like training the staffs. For example: The wage pattern
in Nepal and UK may not be the same. Working long hours in Nepal may pay low and
vice versa in UK and Nepal.

i. Because of some instability the outsourcing company may go out of business and the
product development may be hampered. Always select the loyal and reputed outsourcing

ii. Outsourcing means handing over all the resources (documentation done during analysis)
required to develop new Calendar system to another vendor. Data confidentiality and
security issues may arise. Always follow security policies to overcome this issue.

iii. Issues related in deliver of new Calendar system may arise. Changes in the policies due to
(social, economic and governmental factor) and management in outsourcing partner’s
side adversely affect delivery duration and product may be below exception.
[ CITATION Nib19 \l 1033 ]

b. Answer
In-house development refers to carrying out all the activities like development of new product or
service within in the organization by development team.
TBTR Ltd will be benefited in following ways if the company adopt in-house development.
i. Since all the members of development team will be the employees of TBTR Ltd, they all
are familiar with culture and background of the company. The product that is going to be
developed will be more objective focused (there will be freedom to choose what features
TBTR wants to include in the system).
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ii. It will be the cost-effective way too. The programmers who will be hired for coding of
new Calendar system all are employees of TBTR Ltd so, there is no need to pay extra
amount to the development team. On the other hand, TBTR Ltd will not have to pay
annual expenses to the vendors of the software as a service payment. For example: we
pay certain amount in turn of using MS-Word (if it is not a pirated or cracked version of

iii. There will be increased level of data security. In outsourcing, the external parties will be
provided with some companies details and business process but in in-house development
the information about TBTR’s will not go out of the company no chance or very less
chances that the competitors will know about internal business issues and process.

iv. The development team and end-users both lies within the same organizations. User
involvement of all level of management will be possible and review and feedback process
will be quick as compared to outsourcing.

v. There will be increase level of controlling in the system. Any maintenance and update
required will be done by development team that reside within the TBTR Ltd.’s premises.
Every time when maintenance is required there is no need to hire other third-party.

vi. There will be very less chance of occurring communication gap and errors between the
end-users and the development team. Communication between stakeholders is very vital
in software development.

vii. There will be user involvement is several development phases so it will be easy to
perform risk identification processes. Interviewing the stakeholders, Root cause analysis,
data analysis can be done in efficient manner.

viii. If TBTR’s team of developers were involved in similar system development then the code
reusability will be possible which will obviously save time and effort.

[ CITATION Rav18 \l 1033 ]

Task – 6 Software Quality

ISO 8402-1986 standard defines quality as “the totality of features and characteristics of a
product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.” [ CITATION Int86 \l
1033 ] Time, cost and features are the major factors that affect software quality.

a. Answer
Two ways to measure software quality are briefly discussed below

i. Qualitative Measure

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Quantitative measures can’t be calculated. They depend on human’s judgements and

emotion and feelings of a user towards system. In TBTR new calendar system qualitative
software quality measurement can be done by incorporating reviews and feedback
system. Everything users feel about the system can be know from the kinds of feedbacks
and reviews they provide.

ii. Quantitative Measure

Quantitative measures are those that depends on numbers and can be calculated. Total
time taken by the program to load; execution time of the program denotes the quantitative
software quality.

b. Answer
Measuring only the qualitative factors of the new calendar system won’t give the desired results
regarding software quality. Both qualitative and quantitative measurements are equally important
to measure the quality of new Calendar system. Quantitative measurement involves calculating
code execution timing, program loading and so on. Qualitative measurement indicates how much
the employees of TBTR Ltd are obsessed with new Calendar system. Focus group and interviews
of TBTR Ltd members can be the possible solutions to carry out qualitative measurement. After
taking feedbacks from all end-users then the system can be updated as demanded by the users.

c. Answer

The processes, technique and standard within software quality plan for TBTR new Calendar
System are discussed below:

i. Requirements

ii. Methodology/philosophy

iii. Planning

iv. Measurements/metrics

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v. Standards/ frameworks

vi. Testing and validation

vii. Documentation

d. Answer
ISO 9126 is an international standard under International Organization of Standardization (ISO).
The objective of this standard is to evaluate the software quality. ISO 9126 is divided into 4 parts
which respectively address in following subject: quality model; external metrics; internal metrics;
and quality in use metrics.
ISO 9126 will measure the quality of TBTR new Calendar system based on following six main
i. Functionality

Does system perform all the functionalities for which it was developed? if the new
Calendar system perform all the activities perfectly the system is functionally sufficient.

ii. Reliability

This characteristic concerned with the ability of system to withstand the fault tolerance capacity,
recoverability and maturity. Will the new Calendar system in TBTR Ltd holds these
characteristics? Having all these characteristics make sure that the new Calendar system is
Reliable. When system shutdown because of some issues will the system resume from the same

iii. Usability

This characteristic focus on the understandability, learnability and operability of the new
Calendar system. User manual are part of this feature. Is the system easy to understand for
novice and experts? The system should be easy to operate.

iv. Efficiency

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It talks about the time and resource (CPU, memory, disk usage and so on) required to perform
certain function. Will the perform a task with minimum resources of maximum resources depends
on the behavior of the tasks.

v. Maintainability

This characteristic is concerned about the system testability, the effort required to bring
changes in the system (changeability), any positive of negative changes seen from
changeability. If any changes are required in new Calendar system will it be possible? If
possible, then system holds maintainability feature.

vi. Portability

It ensures about the robustness, instability and replaceability of the system. If new
Calendrer system will function in changing environments, easy to install in TBTR Ltd and
supports replacing of some system components then it is considered as portable system
according to ISO 9126.

[ CITATION SQA17 \l 1033 ]


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Finally, the project to complete new calendar system of TBTR Ltd is completed. While
developing this new calendar system issues related to ethics and what the managing director and
the analyst can do to not face those issues are discussed in task 1. The software development
method i.e. Water fall is chosen and is briefly discussed in task 2. Some risk identification
techniques and some possible risks to new Calendar system are discussed in task 3. The most
relevant software deployment technique is discussed in task 4 of this report. Task 5 describes
about in-house development and outsourcing.

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