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Natural Gas Engineering

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Properties of Natural Gas

IIT
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C
O
O Dr Pankaj Tiwari
M

IIT Guwahati
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Properties of Natural Gas

Natural Gas

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 Natural gas is a complex mixture of light hydrocarbons with a minor amount of inorganic compounds: Field/Reservoir
 Natural gas properties vary significantly with pressure, temperature and gas composition

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 Compositions of the natural gas can be found through measurements; Gas chromatography
 Properties can be estimated using established correlations- Lab measurements

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 Designing and analyzing natural gas production and processing and transportation: Changes in properties

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O  Unrefined Natural Gas
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 Natural gas sold to consumer is methane

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Properties of Natural Gas

Properties and compositions of natural gas

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 Gas-specific gravity,

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 Pseudo-critical properties [pressure and temperature]
 Viscosity

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 Evaluation of Gas Reservoir and Gas Well
 Density- Vapor density
 Production, Prediction and Evaluation
 Compressibility factor- Behavior

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 Separation and Processing
 Formation and expansion volume

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 Heat of combustion – energy content
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 Measurements
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 Safety – Explosive properties- flash and fire points, volatility, flammability (5% LEL and 15% UEL)

ASTM methods
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Properties of Natural Gas

 Density, need z-factor and molecular weight

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 Flow in wells, need z-factor and viscosity

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 Pressure drop in pipelines, need density and viscosity

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 Temperature in pipelines, need heat capacity

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 Molecular weight, need relative density (gravity)

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 Reynolds number, need density and viscosity
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 Hydrates and water, need water vapour in natural gas (diagram or PVT package)
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Properties of Natural Gas

Properties of pure components

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Component MWi Tci, (oR) pci (psia) Mole Fraction (Example)
C1 16.04 344 673 0.775

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C2 30.07 550 709 0.083
C3 44.10 666 618 0.021

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i-C4 58.12 733 530 0.006
n-C4 58.12 766 551 0.002

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i-C5 72.15 830 482 0.003
n-C5 72.15 847 485 0.008

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n-C6 86.18 915 434 0.001
n-C7 114.23
O 1024 361 0.001
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N2 28.02 492 227 0.050
CO2 44.01 548 1073 0.030
H2S 34.08 1306 672 0.020

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Properties of Natural Gas

Gas Law

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Ideal Gas Law PV = n RT = NKT

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Psc = 14.7 psi
Tsc = 520°R

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Real Gas Law PV = Zn RT

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A natural gas mixture under reservoir conditions is nonideal

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Properties of Natural Gas

Compressibility Factor

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Hydrocarbon gases

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Standing and Katz (1942)

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O
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Properties of Natural Gas

Pseudo critical properties of natural gas


Brown at al. (1948)

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O
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Properties of Natural Gas

Pseudo critical properties of natural gas


Inorganic gases

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Pseudocritical temperature adjustment factor, ε3

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Wichert and Aziz, 1972

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𝑇′∝ = 𝑇𝑝𝑐 −∈3

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𝑝𝑝𝑐 𝑇′𝑝𝑐
𝑝′𝑝𝑐 =

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𝑇∝ +𝑦𝐻2 𝑆 1−𝑦𝐻2 𝑆 ∈3

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M

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Properties of Natural Gas
Viscosity of natural gas

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IIT
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O Viscosity ratio at elevated pressure( Carr et al 1954)
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Viscosity of natural gas at 1 atm ( Carr et al 1954)


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Properties of Natural Gas
Viscosity of natural gas

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Viscosity of gases at 1 atm ( Carr et al 1954)


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Properties of Natural Gas

Specific Gravity

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 Gas-specific gravity (γg): The ratio of the apparent molecular weight of a natural gas to that of air.

IIT
The molecular weight of air is usually taken as equal to 28.97 (approximately 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen)

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𝑀𝑊𝑎
𝛾𝑔 =
28.97

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 yi is the mole fraction of component i,
 Apparent molecular weight (MWa):  MWi is the molecular weight of component i,

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 Nc is the number of components
𝑁𝑐

𝑀𝑊𝑎 = ෍ 𝑦𝑖 𝑀𝑊𝑖
O
𝑛𝑖
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𝑖=1
𝑦𝑖 =
𝑛
 For pure methane = 0.55
𝑝𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖𝑃
 For rich or heavy gas = 0.9
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Properties of Natural Gas

Pseudo critical properties of natural gas

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IIT
 Gas pseudo-critical pressure (ppc)
𝑁𝑐

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𝑝𝑝𝑐 = ෍ 𝑦𝑖 𝑝𝑐𝑖
𝑖=1

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 Gas pseudo-critical temperature (Tpc)
𝑁𝑐

𝑇𝑝𝑐 = ෍ 𝑦𝑖 𝑇𝑐𝑖
O
M
𝑖=1

 pci is critical pressure of component i


 Tci is critical temperature of component i IIT Guwahati
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Properties of Natural Gas
 Example Determine
 apparent molecular weight,
 pseudo-critical pressure,

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 Pseudo critical temperature of the gas.
Gas composition Component Mole Fraction

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C1 0.775
C2 0.083

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C3 0.021
i-C4 0.006

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using mixing rule
n-C4 0.002

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i-C5 0.003
n-C5 0.008
n-C6
O 0.001
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n-C7 0.001
N2 0.050
CO2 0.030
H2S 0.020
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Properties of Natural Gas
 Solution
Compound yi MWi Tci, (oR) pci (psia) yiMWi yipci (psia) yiTci (oR)

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C1 0.775 16.04 344 673 12.43 521.58 266.60
C2 0.083 30.07 550 709 2.50 58.85 45.65

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C3 0.021 44.10 666 618 0.93 12.98 13.99
i-C4 0.006 58.12 733 530 0.35 3.18 4.40

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n-C4 0.002 58.12 766 551 0.12 1.10 1.53
i-C5 0.003 72.15 830 482 0.22 1.45 2.49
n-C5 0.008 72.15 847 485 0.58 3.88 6.78

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C6 0.001 86.18 915 434 0.09 0.43 0.92

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C7+ 0.001 114.23 1024 361 0.11 0.36 1.02
N2
CO2
0.050
0.030
O 28.02
44.01
492
548
227
1073
1.40
1.32
11.35
32.19
24.60
16.44
M
H2S 0.020 34.08 1306 672 0.68 13.45 26.12

1.000 MWa = Tpc = ppc =


𝑀𝑊𝑎 20.71 661 411
𝛾𝑔 = =0.71
28.97
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Properties of Natural Gas

Pseudo critical properties of Natural Gas


 If the gas composition is not known but gas-specific gravity is given,

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the pseudo-critical pressure and temperature can be determined from
various charts or correlations developed based on the charts.

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 Gas pseudo-critical pressure 𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 709.604 − 58.718𝛾𝑔

 Gas pseudo-critical temperature 𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 170.491 − 307.344𝛾𝑔

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which are valid for H2S < 3%, N2 < 5%, and total content of inorganic compounds less than 7
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 Correlations with impurity corrections for mixture pseudo-critical properties : Ahmed 1989
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𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 678 − 50 𝛾𝑔 − 0.5 − 206.7𝑦𝑁2 + 440𝑦𝐶𝑂2 + 606.7𝑦𝐻2𝑆
𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 326 + 315.7 𝛾𝑔 − 0.5 − 240𝑦𝑁2 − 83.3𝑦𝐶𝑂2 + 133.3𝑦𝐻2 𝑆
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Properties of Natural Gas

Pseudo critical properties of Natural Gas


Inorganic gases

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Pseudocritical temperature adjustment factor, ε3

IIT
Wichert and Aziz, 1972

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𝑇′∝ = 𝑇𝑝𝑐 −∈3
𝑝𝑝𝑐 𝑇′𝑝𝑐
𝑝′𝑝𝑐 =

C
𝑇∝ +𝑦𝐻2 𝑆 1−𝑦𝐻2 𝑆 ∈3

O
O
M

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Properties of Natural Gas
Pseudo critical properties of natural gas Correlations

Sutton (1985)

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ppc = 756.8 − 131.07γg − 3.6γ2g Gases rich in heptane plus with minor amount of CO2
Tpc = 169.2 − 349.5γg − 74.0γ2g and N2 and no H2S and, 0.57 < γg < 1.68

IIT
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Guo and Ghalambur (2005)

𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 709.604 − 58.718𝛾𝑔

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Valid for N2 <5% and no H2S < 3% and
𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 170.491 + 307.344𝛾𝑔 total content of inorganic compound less than 7%

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Standing (1981)
O Natural gas without nonhydrocarbon gases
𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 706 − 51.7𝛾𝑔 − 11.1𝛾𝑔2
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𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 187 − 330𝛾𝑔 − 71.5𝛾𝑔2

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Properties of Natural Gas
Correlations
Pseudo critical properties of Natural Gas
Elsharkawy et al. (2000)

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IIT
Suitable for gas condensate
𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 787.06 − 147.34𝛾𝑔 − 7.916𝛾𝑔2
𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 149.18 − 358.14𝛾𝑔 − 66.976𝛾𝑔2

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Ahmed (1989)

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𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 678 − 50 𝛾𝑔 − 0.5 − 206.7𝛾𝑔2 + 440𝛾𝐶𝑂2 + 606.7𝛾𝐻2 𝑆 Applicable for mixture with

O
impurities such as N2, CO2, H2S
𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 326 + 315.7 𝛾𝑔 − 0.5 − 240𝛾𝑔2 − 83.3𝛾𝐶𝑂2 + 133.3𝛾𝐻2 𝑆
O
M

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Properties of Natural Gas

Pseudo critical properties of Natural Gas

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IIT
 pseudo-reduced pressure

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𝑝
𝑝𝑝𝑟 =
𝑝𝑠𝑐

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 pseudo-reduced temperature

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𝑇
O
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𝑇𝑝𝑟 =
𝑇𝑠𝑐

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Properties of Natural Gas
𝑀𝑊𝑎
 Gas-specific gravity 𝛾𝑔 =
28.97 𝑁𝑐

 Apparent molecular weight 𝑀𝑊𝑎 = ෍ 𝑦𝑖 𝑀𝑊𝑖

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𝑖=1 𝑁𝑐

IIT
 Gas pseudo-critical pressure 𝑝𝑝𝑐 = ෍ 𝑦𝑖 𝑝𝑐𝑖
𝑖=1 𝑁𝑐
 Gas pseudo-critical temperature 𝑇𝑝𝑐 = ෍ 𝑦𝑖 𝑇𝑐𝑖

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𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 709.604 − 58.718𝛾𝑔 𝑖=1

𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 170.491 − 307.344𝛾𝑔

C
Correlations with impurity corrections

O
𝑝𝑝𝑐 = 678 − 50 𝛾𝑔 − 0.5 − 206.7𝑦𝑁2 + 440𝑦𝐶𝑂2 + 606.7𝑦𝐻2 𝑆
O
𝑇𝑝𝑐 = 326 + 315.7 𝛾𝑔 − 0.5 − 240𝑦𝑁2 − 83.3𝑦𝐶𝑂2 + 133.3𝑦𝐻2𝑆
M
 Pseudo-reduced pressure and temperature
𝑝 𝑇
𝑝𝑝𝑟 = 𝑇𝑝𝑟 =
𝑝𝑠𝑐 𝑇𝑠𝑐
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