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INSTRUCTIONS:

There are two tasks which include 10 multiple-choice questions each. For each question
there are three options and the student has to select “a”, “b” or “c”. Answer the multiple-choice
questions on the answer sheet. Each correct answer receives 0.4 points and 0.13 points are
subtracted for wrong answers. Time allowed: 70 minutes.
The minimum pass mark is 50%.
____________________________________________________________________________

READING (two tasks)


Text 1: Read the following text and choose the most suitable answer from the ones
provided below. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Poor night's sleep triggers brain chemical linked to Alzheimer's disease, scientists
find

Just one night of poor sleep is enough to trigger a spike in a brain chemical linked to
Alzheimer’s disease, a new study has shown.

Although scientists knew there was a link between dementia and lack of sleep, it was unclear
whether the disease was driving insomnia or vice versa. Now researchers at Stanford
University and Washington Medical School have discovered that even a single night of
disrupted sleep is enough to raise levels of amyloid beta - a substance which can clump
together and stop brain cells communicating with each other. Although the levels returned to
normal, scientists fear that continued sleep deprivation could allow an unhealthy build-up of
brain plaque which eventually kills off neurons and wipes memory. They also found that after
several nights of sleep disruption another chemical began to rise. Called tau, it is known to
cause tangles in the brain and is also linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

"We showed that poor sleep is associated with higher levels of two Alzheimer's-associated
proteins," said Professor David Holtzman, head Department of Neurology at Washington
Medical School. "We think that perhaps chronic poor sleep during middle age may increase
the risk of Alzheimer's later in life."

Around 800,000 people are currently living with dementia in Britain, and the majority have
Alzheimer’s disease, for which there is no cure. Although the incidence of dementia is
dropping as people adopt healthier lifestyles, the number of people living with the illness is
expected to rise to 1.2 million by 2040 because of the ageing population.

More than a third of Britons also sleep for less than six hours a night, according to The Sleep
Council. Previous studies have shown that poor sleep increases the risk of cognitive
problems. People with sleep apnea, for example, a condition in which people repeatedly stop
breathing at night, are at risk for developing mild cognitive impairment an average of 10 years
earlier than people without the sleep disorder. Mild cognitive impairment is an early warning
sign for Alzheimer's disease.
The researchers studied 17 healthy adults aged 35 to 65 with no sleep or cognitive problems.
Each participant wore an activity monitor on the wrist for two weeks to measure how much
time they slept at night. They were then monitored overnight in a sleep lab where they had
their rest regularly disrupted by loud beeps. After the experiment each underwent a spinal
tap so the researchers could measure the levels of amyloid beta and tau in the fluid
surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The researchers compared each participant's amyloid
beta and tau levels after the disrupted night to the levels after the uninterrupted night, and
found a 10 percent increase in amyloid beta levels after a single night of interrupted sleep.
Participants whose activity monitors showed they had slept poorly at home for the week
before the spinal tap also showed a spike in levels of tau.

"The main concern is people who have chronic sleep problems," said Professor Yo-El Ju,
of Washington University. "I think that may lead to chronically elevated amyloid levels, which
animal studies have shown lead to increased risk of amyloid plaques and Alzheimer's."

Dr. Laura Phipps of Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “There is mounting evidence of a link
between poor quality sleep and Alzheimer’s disease, but it is difficult to tease apart cause
and effect in this relationship and determine whether sleep problems might cause Alzheimer’s
brain changes or vice-versa. The development of Alzheimer’s is a process that takes many
years and is likely to depend on multiple genetic, health and lifestyle factors."

Prof. Ju emphasized that her study was not designed to determine whether sleeping more or
sleeping better reduce risk of Alzheimer's but, she said, neither can hurt. "Many, many people
are chronically sleep-deprived, and it negatively affects their health in many ways," she
added. “At this point, we can't say whether improving sleep will reduce your risk of developing
Alzheimer's. All we can really say is that bad sleep increases levels of some proteins that are
associated with Alzheimer's disease. But a good night's sleep is something you want to be
striving for anyway."

Source: The Telegraph

0. According to research, what happens after some nights of sleep disruption?

a. A chemical called tau, which is linked to Alzheimer’s, begins to rise.


b. The levels of a substance called amyloid beta decrease.
c. Your neurons are killed off by an unhealthy growing of brain cells.

1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

a. One single night of lack of sleep can trigger Alzheimer's disease.


b. Lack of sleep is linked to the rise of some proteins linked to Alzheimer's disease.
c. Sleeping less than six hours is common in Britain.

2. According to the text,

a. lack of sleep kills brain cells.


b. the only contributing factor towards an increased risk of Alzheimer's is lack of sleep.
c. higher levels of amyloid beta can stop the communication of brain cells.

3. Research has been done to prove that…

a. young people should start to have more sleep.


b. the lack of sleep in middle age may increase the future risk of Alzheimer's.
c. old people sleep less.

4. In the future, dementia incidence is expected to rise...

a. because Alzheimer’s incidence is expected to rise.


b. because people will get old.
c. because leading a healthy lifestyle is hard.

5. People with sleep apnea…

a. sometimes stop breathing in their sleep.


b. seldom develop any other problems than those related to lack of sleep.
c. develop mild cognitive problems about 10 years earlier than people without the disorder.

6. Currently, British people are more concerned about health,

a. what is contributing to fewer cases of dementia.


b. as they are sleeping longer hours.
c. and they are more aware of early signs of dementia.

7. Which statement is NOT true according to the text?

a. Lack of sleep damages health in general.


b. Improving sleep will not necessarily reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's.
c. In Britain the number of people suffering from dementia will lower in the next 20 years.

8. The Stanford University researchers…

a. studied a few healthy adults with no sleep or cognitive problems.


b. interrupted the sleep of those participants who slept poorly to see the effects of their
brains.
c. discovered that the results were different if the participants already had a sleep problem.

9. Dr. Phipps…

a. states that the relation between sleep problems and the future risk of Alzheimer's is
clear.
b. explains that it is difficult to decide what is the cause and what the effect between sleep
problems and brain changes.
c. confirms that there is enough evidence of the fast effect of sleeping problems and brain
disease.

10. Prof. Ju…

a. states that good sleep will reduce your risk of developing Alzheimer's .
b. concludes that levels of proteins related to Alzheimer's disease increase with poor sleep.
c. recommends sleeping more if you want to avoid health problems.

Text 2. Read the following text and match each paragraph (1 – 10) with the option that
best summarizes its content (a, b, c). There is an example at the beginning (0).
Top ten tips to kick-start your career in 2018

0. a. If you put some distance between yourself and your trainees you will miss their valuable
contributions.
b. If you are insecure when running a lab, you may lose control of what your trainees are
doing.
c. When you start your own lab, don’t be afraid of asserting control over other lab
members.

A lot of people who start their own labs are afraid to admit how clueless they really are. They
distance themselves from their students and postdocs because they want to assert control
and act like they know what they are doing. But that distance can be very damaging. Most
trainees have a lot to contribute.
11. a. You should try to choose a varied training while you are doing your PhD because it will
prove useful in the future.
b. Interdisciplinary careers require doing a postdoc after your PhD so that you can also
teach something to your adviser.
c. Instead of trying to learn many things at the same time, build a solid foundation by
focusing on the basics and try new paths afterwards.

Interdisciplinary skills are more important than ever. Many people try to prepare for an
interdisciplinary career by taking a lot of different courses during their PhD, but that should
be a time to focus on the fundamentals and build a strong technical background. After you
get a PhD, you can take your bag of tools and do a postdoc in a different field. You’ll learn
things from your new adviser, but you might be able to teach that adviser something as well.
12. a. I encourage you to change careers if you feel like it, even though you don’t get support
from others.
b. In all areas changing career paths is perceived as a weakness because you can’t stay
long enough to make an impact.
c. I recommend changing the course of your career only if your expectations have been
already fulfilled.

“I was at the peak of my career doing work on signal processing when I decided to follow my
interests and study data mining. I had become a full professor at the University of California,
Los Angeles, but decided to change course again to data science and machine learning. In
academia, though, moving through multiple types of experiences can be seen as a weakness,
and I don’t have the impact of someone who stayed in one field. Still, I’m very happy with my
career. I just don’t fit very well into a single box. I fit in many boxes.”

13. a. If you want to focus and be successful you need to learn how to say “no”.
b. Focus on your objectives and find the happy medium between accepting and rejecting
opportunities.
c. If you always accept new commitments you will never know how to recognize a good
chance.

Learning how to say “no” effectively is a common piece of advice in academia, and I
understand why. A lot of academics are overcommitted, and that’s a huge source of stress.
But it’s just as important to learn when to say “yes”. If you never say yes, you’re never going
to find the things you care about or have the impact you want to have. Think regularly and
clearly about your long-term goals, and you’ll know when to jump at an opportunity.

14. a. Work overtime only at the beginning of your career and it will pay off in the future.
b. People generally prioritize work and neglect their own lives but they shouldn’t do that.
c. In order to find balance between work and well-being you should seek professional help.

Don’t sacrifice your health and well-being for your career. Especially early in your career, it’s
easy to say: “I shouldn’t do this long-term, but if I work really long hours now, I can make up
for it in the future.” That’s a very common mindset, but it’s dangerous. On Twitter, people will
say: “Things are pretty bad but I’ll deal with it later.” They should deal with it now. That means:
keep working hours under control, make time to exercise, spend time with friends and family
and generally enjoy life. And if they need professional help, they shouldn’t wait.

15. a. The way you treat your lab members can influence their productivity and self-esteem
and benefit your work.
b. A supportive mentor can provide you with more opportunities to earn a good salary.
c. In order to have happier and more productive trainees, you need to encourage them to
discuss their problems.

Supporting your lab members and listening to their concerns could have a big pay-off. A
lot of trainees waste huge amounts of time dealing with setbacks and self-doubt. If you are
receptive to their worries and give them encouragement, you can have happier, more
energized, more productive lab members. You can’t do this alone.

16. a. The more you socialize the easier will be to find potential collaborations in a new place.
b. If you want to fit in when you get to a new place, find someone who can introduce you
to interesting people.
c. When you start a new job, do some research before introducing yourself.

I went from graduate school in Australia to postdoctoral positions in France and Germany
before getting this job in Austria. Whenever I start somewhere new, I always make sure to go
around and introduce myself. At the very least, it makes you known. You find out who has
what instrument — information that is not always readily available on the institution’s website.
Introducing yourself can lead to collaborations. If you’re really curious about what other
people are doing and what excites them about their research, you’ll naturally find the people
you can collaborate with.

17. a. If you constantly compare your work with that of your colleagues’, you will lose focus.
b. Find a mentor who can help you deal with your competitors when you can’t handle the
situation.
c. Instead of worrying about minor issues, your primary concern should be building a solid
professional network for the future.

I was stressed out because I wasn’t publishing as many papers as my colleagues were. You
always compare yourself to the people around you. But my mentor was very supportive: He
said my goal should be to fill my batteries with science. You have to have the freedom to
explore new things, meet people, travel to conferences and build up a database of potential
research topics in your mind. You can draw on those reserves when it’s time to set up your
own lab. Looking back, the things that worried me didn’t really matter in the big picture.

18. a. Your circumstances shouldn’t be the only crucial factor in your decision to accept a job.
b. Make sure you have calculated your savings and expenses before accepting a well-paid
job.
c. Negotiating can help you earn a higher salary if you know how to calculate your
expenses.
Before you accept any position, be ready to negotiate. Whether you’re transitioning from
graduate school to a postdoc position or from a postdoc to a permanent job, the number
they’ll offer you will look pretty great. But you have to put that salary into context. Think about
taxes and the money you want to put away for savings. And if you’re moving to a new city,
you’ll have to consider your change in living expenses.

19. a. If you limit your options you may miss the opportunity to do what you are really good at
and enjoy.
b. Keep your eyes open for new opportunities but never lose sight of your main goals.
c. When you have two jobs it is not always easy to figure out which one is more suitable
for you.

Many graduate students and postdocs have a goal to stay in academia, and that’s great. But
you don’t want to get *blinkered in. Keep an eye on side projects and outside activities that
you may end up really enjoying. That certainly happened with me. I thought I was on the path
to a faculty job, but I was doing advocacy work on the side. I eventually realized I was getting
a lot more traction and recognition for my advocacy than for my work with frogs. I couldn’t
have planned where I am now, but I’m here because I kept my options open.

20. a. You need to think twice before accepting a job opportunity that doesn’t fit your goals.
b. Being committed to your job can help you buy some time for other projects.
c. To use your time as much as possible, choose a job that don’t take you away from your
main goals.

One of my goals is to improve the climate of academia. Recognizing that made me rethink
whether I should work on so many editorial boards. That sort of commitment takes me away
from promoting diversity, equity and inclusion. When I was offered a chance to blog for
Dynamic Ecology the timing was terrible, but I knew I’d regret it if I didn’t take it. Blogging fits
with my goals. I can’t magically make more time, but I can make the most of the time I have.
Adapted from: Nature.com
*blinkered: blinkered opinions or attitudes are very limited, conservative, and often old-fashioned