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The Correlational Inquisition between the level of Bullying and Self-Esteem among

Adolescents in Our lady Fatima University

Angelica L. Borres 123, Gilbert Concan123, John Philander Cedillo 123, Zev Dela Torre123, Ma.
Alexandra Entrina123, Joy Mallari 123, Mark Ryan Manlucot 123, Von Martil 123,Clarence Suan123,
John Paul Pring123 ,Jericho Verceles123, Ms. Ma. Alea Reesa De Vera, LPT1234

1
Senior High School

2
Basic Education

3
Our Lady of Fatima University

4
Research Adviser

August 2019
1.0 Introduction

Bullying is considered a common form of violence in schools. Sharia et al. (2015)


reported that bullying is deemed and serious problem in academic settings in all part of the world.
Ammermueller (2012) found that being bullied has a significantly negative impact on present
and future student’s performance in school. Bullying is one of the most evident problems that
children face in education system; in addition, it is one of the most important health risks
(Raskauskas & Model, 2011). Bullies victim tends to suffer mental health difficulties, some
associated with conduct and anti-social disorders. Victimization on the other hand, has a negative
impact on the self-esteem and may results internalizing disorder such as anxiety. It is well known
that bullying is difficult to eliminate or to stop it in schools because it is used by students. Alison
(2016) stated that bullying is considered as global problem that affect emotional, social, and
physical well-being of school age children worldwide. It is also affect the academic achievement
since bullied children feel fear and weak and it in the same time it affects student’s personality
traits and self-confidence. Bullying may be classified into physical, verbal, and social, and social
forms (Phillips & Cornell, 2012). Verbal bullying involves repeated teasing, putting down, or
insulting someone, while social bullying involves getting others to repeatedly ignore or leave
someone out. Physical bullying involves repeated acts of kicking, hitting or shoving.

Low self-esteem has been shown to be correlated with a number of negative outcomes,
such as depression (Silverstone& Salsali, 2013). People with low self-esteem are more troubled
by failure, prone of bullying and tend to exaggerate events as being negative. They are more
likely to experience social anxiety low levels of interpersonal confidence. Students, who have low
self-esteem usually find difficulty in making friends, and tend to become isolated and lonely at
school. Olweus (2011) proposed that individuals who have low self- esteem usually are
unconfident, ignored, and have unbalanced emotions. According to Hunt (2012) bullying and
victim self-esteem has a negative relationship. Individuals with low self-esteem less likely to
generate positive feedback for themselves, are more concerned about their social impact on other
people and are more vulnerable to depression or rumination when they encounter setbacks or
stress.

According to Kerniss (2010) true self-esteem is fully functioning and motivated, when all
their needs are satisfied. Artificial boost to self-esteem did not lower defensiveness to mortality
reminders when threats were made in contingent domains. Conversely, low self-esteem may lead
to a number of emotional life problems (Shin, 2011). Self-esteem may be affected by students’
interaction with music and may also affect their interaction with others and students approach
task is also positively linked to students’ confidence as learners. These negative consequences can
reinforce a negative self-image and lead to increasingly self-destructive behavior (Frost, 2012). In
over all, factors affecting student’s self-esteem may also affect to the psychological well-being of
individual (Rickard et al., 2013).

Studies about peer bullying in the school showed many mental problems seem to be
related to bullying victimization such as depression, suicide attempts, and thoughts (Martunen,
2009). Another negative effect of stressful events is on self-esteem. Self-esteem, which is shaped
by evaluating how individuals are perceived by the others in their lives, can be considered as a
powerful source of struggle with the stress and suicide idea. It is thought the exposure to the
bullying and low self-esteem is related to each other. People with low self-esteem also tend to
have more adverse emotional and behavioural reactions to criticism or other kinds of personal
negative feedback (Lines, 2014). Victims of bullying when compared to other child, tend to
manifest the following: low self-confidence, low self-esteem, poor self-worth, depression,
anxiety, insecurity, incompetence, hypersensitivity, experience the feeling that they are unsafe,
more introverted, and fewer friendship (Duncan, 2009).The most extreme consequence of
bullying for victims and society of violence, in the form of both murder and suicide. The sense of
powerlessness experienced by children who are victimized may be so profound that some victims
of bullying react with self- destructive acts or lethal retaliation (Oyaziwo, 2015).

In this line, the aim of this research is to correlate the level of bullying and self- esteem
among in adolescent inside in the main campus of Our Lady of Fatima. This study also aims to
establish an empirical link between the level of bullying and self- esteem. Furthermore, the study
will assessing the relationship or if there is significant between the level of bullying and self-
esteem among in adolescent.

This research study is conducted to determine the serious effect of bullying to self-
esteem among adolescents and how to minimize it if not eradicated.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The main point of the study aimed to guide the researchers in achieving the goal and
avoid from drifting from the main point of the research study. These questions are:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of?


a. Bully

b. Victim

2. What are the level of bullying in terms of:

a. Physical bullying

b. Social bullying

c. Verbal bullying

3. What is the level of the respondents in terms of bullying risk factor?

4. What is the level of the respondents in terms of self-esteem?

5. What is the mean and standard deviation and p-value of:

a. level of bullying

b. self-esteem

6. What is the significant relationship between bullying and self-esteem?

1.2 Hypothesis of the Study

Continuing with the research questions of the study, the following simple hypothesis
were formatted in accordance to the study’s requirement:

Ho: There is no significant correlation between the level of bullying and self-esteem of the
adolescents.

1.3 Significance of study

The findings of this study can be helpful among those individual experienced bullying in school.
It will also guide and gives insight to the bully about the consequence of violent act which is
bullying. In this paper, may yield a greater investigation for the future researcher. Lastly, the
future researchers can benefit with this study for they can use the gathered information by the
present researchers to serve as a reference or basis to their research
1.4 Scope and Delimitation

This study focuses on in determining the relationship among the level of bullying and
self-esteem of adolescent who are victims of bullying and bullies who experienced bullying peers.
The researchers also want to correlate the links between the two variables.

1.5 Definitions of terms

Level of Bullying -

Self-Esteem –

Adolescent -

Social Bullying-

Physical Bullying-

Verbal Bullying-

2.0. Review of Related Literature

Not exclusively do individual elements influence taking jobs in forceful practices, for
example, harassing, however they likewise act working together with ecological conditions
(Casas, Del Rey, and Ortega, 2013; Hemphill et al., 2012). Similarly as certain examinations
feature, the relevant components will in general convey a more prominent explicative load in the
two marvels in any case, are marginally more signifi cant in tormenting than in cyberbullying
(Atik and Güneri, 2013; Feslt and Quandt, 2013; Hemphill et al., 2012; Law et al., 2012), maybe
because of the way that we can't get it these wonders autonomously from the setting where they
happen without considering their physical and social nature. It is likewise intriguing to take note
of the job of confidence as a hazard factor in the marvels. The findings show as hazard factors
both negative and positive confidence in the job of aggressors in harassing. These outcomes are
somewhat steady with Fanti and Henrich (2014) concerning low confidence in aggressors, and are
additionally in concurrence with different examinations (Brito and Oliveira, 2013) that
recommend a relationship between positive confidence and aggressors. The disparate outcomes in
confidence drives us to think of it as a temperamental character quality, increasingly much the
same as logical variables that could disclose the should be acknowledged by the gathering of
friends, which could be deciphered from the point of view that identifies the aggressors of
tormenting as schoolchildren that are not balanced in their associations with companions,
similarly as Rigby (2003) and Waterways and Noret (2010) found. For cyber victims, negative
confidence is displayed as a hazard factor. They are the ones who score the least in self-esteem
and the individuals who are all things considered hazard, similarly as Cénat et al. (2014) found.
This could be a sign that the character factors of the subject assume a significant job in inclusion
in cyber bullying because of cyber bullying's own defining attributes, for example, the obscurity
of the assailant or the difficulty of guarding oneself against assaults that are gotten through
computerized gadgets. Sexual orientation is consistently an oppressive variable in the
examinations on tormenting. Being a kid is a significance indicator in exploited people,
aggressors and menace unfortunate casualties, as made obvious via Carlerby et al. (2012). In
cyber bullying, sexual orientation is accounted for similar to a hazard factor that demonstrates
that understudies required as digital aggressors are generally male (Barlett and Coyne, 2014). It
might just be that the sexual orientation is rendered less significant in a domain where relational
correspondence happens in the internet. Taking everything into account, not exclusively do
individual variables influence inclusion in forceful conduct, yet it is additionally influenced by
ecological conditions (Casas, Del Rey, and Ortega, 2013; Hemphill et al., 2012). Logical
components will in general convey a more prominent explicative load in harassing and individual
factors in cyber bullying (Atik and Güneri, 2013; Feslt and Quandt, 2013; Hemphill et al., 2012;
Law et al., 2012), maybe because of the way that we can't comprehend the tormenting freely from
the social setting where it happens without considering its physical and social nature, and in cyber
bullying it is important to start to focus on the individual factors. These outcomes ought to be
taken with alert due to the methodological restrictions identified with the short age go and the
transversal nature of examination. It could be intriguing to rehash the think about with a bigger
number of elementary school reviews over various timeframes. It ought to be brought up that the
data gotten was self-announced; these outcomes ought to be supplemented with different
instruments and witnesses to keep away from predisposition or the impact of social attractive
quality. As a future line of research, it is intriguing to see how exploitation and animosity in
harassing and cyber bullying identify with other relevant components, for example, instructing
procedure or then again child rearing styles.

Effects of self-esteem and narcissism on bullying and victimization during early adolescence

Kostas A Fanti, Christopher C Henrich

The Journal of Early Adolescence 35 (1), 5-29, 2015

Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as ''the intentional use of
physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group
or community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death,
psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation''. Different forms of violence have been
showing increasing rates in Brazil, linked to a desire to destroy or annihilate the other, causing
damage to varying degrees, whether to the physical or moral integrity, possessions, or cultural
interests of one or several persons.2 As a social fact, it affects different environments, including
the school setting, in the form of intolerance and prejudice, among others. Bullying is a
worldwide problem that can be observed in any school; it is not limited to one type of institution
public, private, primary or secondary, urban, or rural6 -and brings, as consequence, fear, reduced
school performance, and school absenteeism, and can even result in the suicide of victims. The
aggressors may have antisocial behaviors that will often be repeated in other environments There
have been reports that violence in schools is linked to students' self-esteem levels.9 Studies have
described self-esteem as a significant form of well-being and assessment of the value or
importance that one gives to him or herself,10 ratified by individuals that are significant in the
education of children and adolescents, especially parents, teachers and friends.11 A good degree
of self-esteem is crucial to the adolescents' good social relations, as it helps them to believe in and
trust themselves.12 It is estimated that if relations are based on violence, they are likely to be
associated with low self-esteem of those involved. The importance of the investigation on
bullying focuses on identifying factors that favor its emergence and maintenance, so that policies
can be undertaken to reduce their impact; thus, studies are needed for a better understanding of
the issue and for developing more effective health promotion and bullying prevention actions The
absence of information on bullying and self-esteem in the school of Olinda (2009) indicates the
need for studies aimed at understanding this phenomenon, in order to establish a baseline that will
allow for a longitudinal follow-up of the problem and aid the planning of health surveillance
actions, including the implementation of an information system for school violence.

Title:Bullying and self-esteem in adolescents from public schools

J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) vol.89 no.6 Porto Alegre Nov./Dec. 2013

The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period,
between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The small correlation
found between self-esteem and narcissism suggests that the two constructs are distinct from one
another. Results from the Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses suggested that the combination
of low self-esteem with high narcissism may contribute to the continuation of both bullying and
victimization. Person-centered analyses clarified narcissism predicted membership into “bully”
and “bully-victim” groups, although “bullies” were distinguished by low self-esteem when
compared with uninvolved children. Current findings can help provide an explanation of the
inconsistency reported in the literature in terms of the association between self-esteem and
bullying behavior, in that low self-esteem is more strongly associated with bullying for
narcissistic youth.

A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological system analysis

Jun Sung Hong, Dorothy L Espelage

Aggression and violent behavior 17 (4), 311-322, 2012


Bullying and peer victimization in school are serious concerns for students, parents,
teachers, and school officials in the U.S. and around the world. This article reviews risk factors
associated with bullying and peer victimization in school within the context of Bronfenbrenner's
ecological framework. This review integrates empirical findings on the risk factors associated
with bullying and peer victimization within the context of micro- (parent–youth relationships,
inter-parental violence, relations with peers, school connectedness, and school environment

Bullying and self-esteem in adolescents from public schools

Camila C. Brito, Marluce T. Oliveira (2013)

Country: Brazil

Violence is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against
oneself, another person or against a group or community that either results in or has a high
likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation. The
most frequently observed types of violence are: physical, verbal, symbolic violence, and bullying,
defined by aggressive, intentional, and repetitive behaviors, which occur without apparent reason,
performed in an unequal power relationship, resulting in intimidation or harm to others. Bullying
is the worldwide problem in any school; it may be public, private, primary and secondary urban
or rural and brings as consequence of fear, reduce reduced school performance, and school
absenteeism, and can even result in the suicide of victims. The aggressors may have antisocial
behaviors that will often be repeated in other environment

Working environment bullying is the method in which an worker is subjected to visit


negative acts (e.g. at slightest once a week) for a moderately long period of time (e.g. 6 months)
by peers or bosses, against which protection or countering is prevented by the acknowledgment of
a formal or casual control awkwardness (Einarsen et al., 2011). The acts included may be work
related as well as individual related, and they contain coordinate acts, such as verbal hostility,
obstacle of work assignments and physical savagery, as well as backhanded practices, such as
social avoidance or hidden work disrupt (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2011). Working environment
bullying is experienced sometimes by at slightest 9–15 per cent of the common workforce, and to
a extreme degree by roughly 3–4 per cent (Zapf et al., 2011), and can in this way be portrayed as
a critical challenge for numerous representatives. The results are frequently endless, both for the
target, the witnesses and the association, enveloping a run of mental and physical wellbeing
Bullying frequently has gendered connotations. Whereas it is still common for ladies to be bullied
by men within the working environment, the Working environment Bullying Established
conducted a ponder in 2010 finding ladies bullies target other ladies 80% of the time. In spite of
the fact that not the conventional shape of sexism, woman-on-woman bullying frequently mimics
stereotypically male behaviors within the working environment (Chatel, 2011). Ladies may act as
numerous guys have over the years by bullying and scaring ladies to set, up and persistently re-
establish, the control structures frequently inalienable in conventional male–female relationships.
Bullying is regularly characterized by a few measured term and the intentional expectation “to
harmed another individual in such a way as to work out control over another person” (Raineri,
Frear, & Edmonds, 2011, p. 23). Bullying, at that point, is an issue of control, control, and
mishandle regularly freely used and continuously harming to the victim. Bullying regularly has
gendered undercurrents. Whereas it is still common for ladies to be bullied by many people

Self-esteem proceeds to be one of the foremost commonly inquire about concepts in


social brain research (Baumeister, 2011; Wells & Marwell, 2012; Wylie, 2010). Instructors,
directors and guardians are commonly concerned about student‟s self-esteem. Its centrality is
frequently overstated to the degree that moo self-esteem is seen as the cause of all fiendish and
tall self-esteem as the cause of all great (Keeping an eye on, Bear & Minke, 2013). Self-esteem is
associated with discouragement, uneasiness, inspiration and common fulfillment with one‟s life
(Harter, 2011; Rosenberg, 2014). Given these affiliations, children and young people who need
self-esteem may be more subordinate on their guardians and have lower scholastic and
professional objectives. Additionally the conviction is broad that raising an individual‟s self-
esteem (especially that of a child or pre-adult) would be advantageous for both the person and
society as a entirety

Self-esteem is isolated into two types‟ viz., worldwide self-esteem and particular self-
esteem. Worldwide self-esteem refers to and by and large assessment set with wide- extending
suggestion for self- involvement (Epstien, 2014). Particular self-steem alludes to self-assessment
in barely characterized spaces (Rosenberg, 2015). Each of these levels of self-esteem can lead to
valuable predications. Worldwide self-esteem scores may anticipate behavior over a wide extend
of situations, particularly when behavior is totaled over numerous circumstances (Epestein, 2011,
Epestein and O‟Brien, in press). On the other hand, particular self-esteem scores may permit
solid predication to be made in profoundly delimited behavioral spaces (Cray, 2013; Bandura,
2010).

2.1 Variable Discussion

Two variables is determined for this study namely, bullying and self-esteem. According
to O’moore and Kirkham (2001) it is increasingly recognized that peer relationship
problems as manifested in being bullied are associated with low self‐esteem. The
typology and frequency of bullying influenced the status of the specific domains of self‐
esteem.

2.1.1 Bullying
The first variable that is going to be discussed in this study is bullying which involve
possibilities to interpret one’s self-esteem. Bullying is defined as an interaction in which a
dominant individual, the bully, repeatedly exhibits aggressive behavior intended to cause distress
to less dominant individual, the victim (Lemstra, 2011).

According to Smith et.al. (2008) bullying involves repeated hurtful actions between peers
where an imbalance of power exist. Bullying is distinct from other forms of aggressive behaviors
by encompassing three elements. Bullying behavior refers to verbal, social or physical actions
such as threatening, taunting, spreading rumors, pushing and kicking, and excluding.

2.1.2 Self esteem

The next variable that the researchers can relate to bullying is the self-esteem. Self-
esteem is a popular and important construct in the social sciences and in everyday life. Most
individuals believe intuitively that “poor’ or “low” self-esteem is undesirable and indeed research
links low self-esteem with loneliness, depression, and social anxiety (Johnson, 2005).

According to Peplau and Perlman (2003) in common notion, self-esteem is the extent to
which one prizes, values, approves, or likes oneself. Self-esteem is a hypothetical construct that is
quantified, for example, as the sum of evaluations across salient attributes of one’s self or
personality. It is the overall affective evaluation of one’s own worth, value or importance.

2.2 Conceptual Framework

Victim
Types of
Self-esteem
Bullying
Bully

2.3 Theoretical Framework

2.3.1 Level of Bullying

Several theories have been conceptualized and intervene about how the level of bullying
affects the behavior of individual specifically the bully and victim (Weardon, 2015). It has been
demonstrated that the concept of bullying depends upon how the aggression is contextually
defined and that it fits within the common adopted definition. Bullying literature has pointed to
many different theoretical frameworks and perspectives, which endeavour to explain and uncover
the reasons why bullying occurs (Rigby, 2012). Theoretical frameworks for understanding the
level of bullying include: Social cognitive theory and Developmental theory.

2.3.1.1 Social Cognitive Theory

Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of
bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement of bullying (Bandura, 2016). Bullying
has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and
his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. Social cognitive theory emphasizes
the role of cognitions in determining individuals’ behaviors. This theory proposes that there is a
continuous interaction between the social environment (e.g., witnessing others’ behaviors),
internal stimuli (e.g., cognitions and feelings), and behaviors. This triadic interaction (e.i., social
environment, internal stimuli, and behaviors) is referred to as reciprocal determinism (Bussey &
Bandura, 2009). Thus, this triadic reciprocal determinism occurs when individuals in their social
environments and the consequences that follow those behaviors.

Social cognitive theory has been used to explain aggressive behaviors. It can be applied
to the study of bullying by explaining how individuals learn to bully (i.e., via observational
learning and reinforcement). Cognition regarding support for bullying and beliefs regarding
support for bullying and beliefs regarding the likelihood of positiveversus negative consequences
affect the likelihood that youths will bully others (Bowes, 2011). Children and adolescents who
socialize with aggressive peers are more likely to perpetrate acts of aggression than youths who
do not associate with aggressive peers (Mouttapa et al., 2009). Evidence suggest that youth who
live in neighborhoods judged to be less safe are more likely than those who live in safer
neighborhoods to engage in bullying behaviors (Youngblade et al., 2012). There is an possible
explanations for the correlation between exposure to bullying and other aggressive behaviors and
perpetration of bullying behaviors, social cognitive theory asserts that this link happens as a result
of observational learning. Consistent with this assertion, some research has found that
observational factors are mostly strongly related to bullying behaviors (Curtner, 2010).

2.3.1.2. Developmental Theory


Explanations of bullying draw upon an understanding of child development (Rigby,
2011). Point out that bullying begins in early childhood when individuals begin to assert
themselves at the expense of others in order to establish their social dominance. They tend at first
to do so crudely, for instance by hitting out at others, especially those less powerful than
themselves, in an attempt to intimidate them (Hawley 2009). Verbal and indirect forms of
bullying become more common than physical forms. Consistent with this view is evidence that
physical bullying is much more common in early childhood than later, and that what is identified
as bullying gradually becomes less and less apparent as children become older (Smith, 2009).
Nevertheless the developmental perspective is useful in providing guidance as to how
bully/victim problems can be tackled.

2.3.2 Rosenberg self-esteem scale

3.0 Research Methodology

3.1Research Design

According to Williams (2001) quantitative research method deals with quantifying and
analysis of variables in order to get results. It involves the utilization and analysis of numerical
data using specific statistical techniques to answer question like who, how much, what where,
when, how many and how. Quantitative research starts with the statement of problem, generating
of hypothesis or research question (Maxwell, 2003).

Correlational research design was used for as two variables are aimed to discover if a
significant relationship occurs between two variables and also provides information on the initial
link between variable or interest (Raacke, 2014). A correlation on the level of bullying and self-
esteem of adolescent will lead to a proper understanding if there is a factor attach within.

3.2 Research Locale

The data will be gathered in Valenzuela City specifically in Our Lady of Fatima
University. According to a recent DepEd report, 31 bullying incidents are reported daily in
Filipino schools. A total of 6363 cases of bullying in public as well as private high school, up
nearly 21 percent versus the 5236 documented in 2014
3.3 Population and Sampling

The researchers will use non-probability sampling in which samples are those in which
the probability that a subject is selected is unknown and results in selection bias in the study. A
purposive-quota sampling technique method refers to a study sample in which the researchers
identified desired characteristics and quotas of sample members to be included in the study. The
purposive sampling technique, also called judgment sampling, is the deliberate choice of an
informant due to the qualities the informant possesses. It is a nonrandom technique that does not
need underlying theories or a set number of informants. Simply put, the researcher decides what
needs to be known and sets out to find people who can and are willing to provide the information
by virtue of knowledge or experience (Bernard 2002, Lewis & Sheppard 2006). It sets a set of
criteria that is relevant to the topic under the study. The quota sampling technique is a sampling
procedure that ensures that a certain characteristic of a population sample will be represented to
the exact extent that the investigator desires (Acharya et.al., 2013). This method is well-suited for
a number of research purposes and is specifically applicable when the focus of the research study
is on a sensitive issue, possibly concerning a relatively private matter, and thus requires the
knowledge of insiders to locate people or participants for a study (Biernacki & Waldorf, 2004).

An independent sample of 100 senior high school students from Our Lady of Fatima
University will be selected for this study’s requirements. The researcher’s criterion is laid down
for age, victims and bullies. In terms of age, it should be 15-17 years old. Second one is being a
victim of bullying and lastly, being a bully. According to Caina (2011) approximately 21% of the
adolescents who are involved in bullying incidents are in the ages 15-17 years old. These
characteristics are what the researchers of the study deem as the most appropriate to be the
participants of this study.

3.4 Research Ethics

First, participants in the study should never be subjected to any form of situation that may
cause potential harm. Respect for the dignity of each of the people involved should always be the
priority. The researchers will provide informed consent for the participants, it will contain the
purpose, significance of the study, and information that their answers will be recorded. Consent
from the participants should be given and gathered before any data collecting activity.
Confidentiality of the study should always be observed. Anonymity of the participants should be
imposed at all times. Confidentiality and anonymity is important to this kind of study. The
assurance is anything that will be recorded during the data collection will remain private or a
secret. No effort should be exerted with exaggeration and any form of altering the data at hand.
Affiliations, sources of funding, conflicts of interest or any form that may cause bias in the study
should be declared forehand. Communication that is done inside the study should be done
responsibly, transparently and professionally; and any form of misleading information should be
disregarded to avoid and lessen the manifestation of bias inside the study. All of these principles
will be strictly imposed as to conducting the study. Bias and any form of misleading data that
may cause to lessen the level of credibility of the study will be strictly observe and as much as
possible, avoid. According to Bell & Bryman (2007) these principles of ethical consideration
should be considered in the field of research.

3.5 Research Instrument

There were two research questionnaire were utilized in this study. These are for the level
of bullying and self-esteem questionnaire. A brief description of each measuring tool will be
provided below to better understand what and how data was taken from independent samples. It
has the body literature to support the construct of validity. (Bradburry, Finchman & Beach, 2011).

3.5.1 Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument

To measure the level of bullying, the researchers of the study employed and conducted
200 respondents of adolescent ranging to 15-17 years old that is currently a senior high school
and used of Adolescent peer relations instrument that composed of six-scale APRI measures the
three types of behavior used to bully others (Physical, Verbal, and Social) and three ways of
being targeted (Physical, Verbal, and Social). In total 18 items were used to measure bullying
and 18 items used to measure being bullied. The validity of Adolescent peer relations instrument
examined by (Parada, 2010) with one independent and dependent sample of adolescent
(nmale=455, nyear five
=455). Two words, within the instrument were “remark” modified to
“comment”, and rediculed’ modified to ‘embarrassed’. All item were measured on a six-point
likert response scale (1=never, 2=sometimes, 3=once or twice a month, 4 once a week, 5= several
times a week, 6= every day). Any who student who scores for either bullying or victimization
total score has never been bullied or has never bullied others. There no cut off of scores for this
instrument. For the subscales, a score of 6 means the respondent has never bullied or has never
bullied others in that particular way. The first model structured resulted in a good fit to the data:
TLI=.98, CFI=.99 which suggest 98% of covariance can be explained among the variables. As
expected, the second first-order model resulted in a slightly smaller but still excellent fit to the
data than the first order (TLI=.98, CFI=99, RMSEA=.44. Reliabilities with a Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient of Bullying=.93, Target=.94)

3.5.2 Rosenberg Self-esteem scale

The Rosenberg self-esteem scale is a scale that aims to measure the self –esteem
of individual. It is a 10 item self-report measure a global self-esteem.it consist of 10
statements related to overall feelings of self-worth or self-acceptance. The items are
answered on a four-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. To score
the items, assign a value to each of the 10 items according to the instruction of the
following: for items 1,2,4,6,7: (Strongly agree=3, agree= 2, disagree=1 and strongly
disagree=0). For items 3,5,7,9, and 10(reverse in valence): (strongly agree= 0, agree=1,
disagree=2 and strongly disagree 3).the scale ranges from 0-30, with 30 indicating the
highest score possible. For example, you may assign values 1-4 rather than 0-3; then
scores will range from 10-40. Some researchers us 5-or 7-point likert scales, and again,
scale ranges would vary based on the addition of “middle” categories of agreement. The
reliability test was measured by Rosernberg in High school juniors and seniors: n=5,024.
Excellent test—retest reliability (ICC= 0.85-o. 88). While the measured validity of scale
predictive/concurrent by (Myers & Winters, 2012; n=1686).the excellent concurrent
validity (0.77 to 0.88).

3.6 Research Data Collection

Respondent were located through social media app Facebook and used purposive-
snowball or referral system by inquiring through friends of friends. The data gathering process
started with the formulation of the questionnaire of the study and gave a demographic sheet to be
filled out and served as the primordial measuring tools used to quantify the variables of the study.
After the survey in the given sample population we gathered and analyzed the mean scores for
statistical processes. Then we proceed in the interpretation of the study which is the correlated
variable of experimental and control group.

3.7 Data Analysis’