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Module – I

Introduction to Design Process

Dr. A. Vinoth Jebaraj, SMEC VIT University, Vellore

Text Books

1. |
Joseph Edward Shigley and Charles, R. Mischke, (2000), Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw –Hill International Editions. |

2. |
2. Joseph Edward Shigley and Charles, R. Mischke, (2008) Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw –Hill International Editions. Eighth Edition. |

3. |
Bhandari.V.B. “Design of Machine elements”, ( 2010) Tata Mc Graw Hill Book Co, Third Edition. |

4. |
R.S.Khurmi, J.K.Gupta. “Machine Design”, (2008) Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Revised Edition. |

Reference Books

1. V.B. Bhandari, Design of Machine elements, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2001

2. Design Data – PSG College of Technology, DPV Printers, Coimbatore., 1998 1. Design Data book– PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore., 2006

3. Juvinal, R.C., Fundamentals of Machine component Design, John Wiley, 2002.

Mode of Evaluation Quiz/Assignment/ Seminar/Written Examination

Basics of Solid Mechanics

Varying cross section

Constant cross section

There is a variation in the cross section of the wind mill pillar. But, not in the sign board. Why?

Simple Design

Image courtesy: NPTEL

Elementary Equations

For Direct loading or Axial loading

For transverse loading

For tangential loading or twisting

Where I and J Resistance properties of cross sectional area

I Area moment of inertia of the cross section about the axes lying on the section (i.e. xx and yy)

J Polar moment of inertia about the axis perpendicular to the section

Pure Bending

If the length of a beam is subjected to a constant bending moment and no shear force ( zero shear force) then the stresses will be set up in that length of the beam due to bending moment only then it is said to be in pure bending.

Under bending, top fibers subjected to compressive stresses and bottom fiber subjected to tensile stresses and vice versa.

In the middle layer (neutral axis), there is no stress due to external load.

Assumptions in the Evaluation of Bending stress

Practical Application of Bending Equation

In actual situation , when you consider any structure

bending moment varies from point to point and it

also accompanied by shearing force.

In large number of practical cases, the bending

moment is maximum where shear force is zero.

It seems justifiable that to apply bending equation at

that point only.

Hence our assumptions in pure bending (zero shear

force) is a valid one.

Plane of Bending

Under what basis Ixx, Iyy and Izz (J)

have to be selected in bending and

torsional equations?

Bending

X – Plane

Bending

Twisting

Y - Plane

Z - Plane

Gear

Reaction Torque

Torque Applied

Key

Resisting Tangential force

Shaft

Torsion – Example

Torsional Equation

R

= Radius of shaft, L = Length of the shaft

T

= Torque applied at the free end

C

= Modulus of Rigidity of a shaft material

τ = torsional shear stress induced at the cross section

Ø = shear strain, θ = Angle of twist

Design for Bending

When a shaft is subjected to pure rotation, then it has to be designed for bending stress which is induced due to bending moment caused by self weight of the shaft.

Example: Rotating shaft between two bearings.

Design for Bending & Twisting

When a gear or pulley is mounted on a shaft by means of a key, then it has to be designed for bending stress (induced due to bending moment) and also torsional shear stress which is caused due to torque induced by the resistance offered by the key .

Example: gearbox shaft (splines)

Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts

On what basis, we have

to design a machine

component?

Introduction to

Design Process

Image courtesy: NIOT website

Necking

Ductile fracture of Al-Mg-Si alloy

Why ductile materials fail in 45° plane?

Brittle fracture of Cast Iron

Why brittle materials fail in 0° plane?

Stress in an Inclined Plane

The plane perpendicular to the line of action of the load is a principal

plane. [Because, It is having the maximum stress value and shear stress in

this plane is zero.]

The plane which is at an angle of 90° will have no normal and tangential

stress.

Max. shear stress = ½ Normal stress

Uniaxial loading

Biaxial loading

Triaxial loading

Types of Loading

Pure shear

Normal stress σ n = τ sin 2θ At θ = 45° σ n = σ max = τ

Shear stress τ = τ cos 2θ At θ = 0°, τ max = τ

Under pure shear, ductile materials will fail in 0° plane and brittle materials will fail in 45° plane. Because, at 0° plane shear stress is maximum and at 45° plane normal stress is maximum.

Principal Stresses

When a combination of axial, bending and shear loading acts in a machine

member , then identifying the plane of maximum normal stress is difficult

. Such a plane is known as principal plane and the stresses induced in a

principal plane is known as principal stresses. Principal stress is an

equivalent of all stresses acting in a member.

Combined loading

Biaxial and shear loading

Max principal

normal stresses

Max principal

shear stresses

Eccentric loading

Eccentric load on bolts

Eccentric load on column

Eccentric load on crane hook

Eccentric load on hydraulic punching press

Eccentric Loading

If the line of action of a load is not passing through the Centroid of the machine component, then that is knows as eccentric load.

There are different kinds of stresses will be induced eccentric loading

For eccentric axial load,

Direct stress and bending stress

during

To find out the magnitude of resultant stress, these combination of stresses have to be super imposed.

For eccentric plane load,

Direct shear and torsional shear stress

Theories of Failure

Predicting failure in the members subjected to uniaxial stress is very simple and straightforward. Because all failure criterions are reaching the critical limit at an instant.

much

complicated. Because, predicting the cause of failure i.e. which quantity of failure criterion is causing failure is difficult to find.

But,

in

multi

axial

loading

the

prediction

of

failure

is

Thus, theories were formulated to predict this issue, which are known as failure theories.

Real life examples for Combined loading

Torsion and bending

Crank Shaft

Side thrust from cylinder wall, force due to piston

Connecting rod

Coupling

Tensile and direct shear

Thrust and torsional shear

Lifting Jack

Propeller shaft

Axial, bending and Torsion

Why failure theories?

Principal stress < Yield stress [safe]

but, Shear stress exceeds its limit.

Ductile fracture

Shear plane

Brittle fracture

Normal plane

Purpose of Tensile test

1

3

2

4

Simple Tension Test

In simple tension test, all six quantities reaches its critical values simultaneously (at a single instant).

Any one of the following will cause failure.

• Principal normal stress

• Principal shear stress

• Principal strain energy

• Principal

strain

• Distortion energy

yield stress σ _{m}_{a}_{x} = σ _{y} or σ _{u}

yield shear stress τ _{m}_{a}_{x} = σ _{y} /2

strain energy at yield point U _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} = ½ [σ _{y} ε _{y} ]

strain at yield point

ε _{m}_{a}_{x} = σ _{y} /E (or) σ _{u} /E

distortion energy at yield point

^{U} distortion ^{=}

[σ _{y} ^{2} ]

Maximum Principal or Normal Stress Theory

(Rankine’s Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the maximum principal or normal stress in a bi-axial stress system reaches the limiting strength of the material in a simple tension test.

This theory is based on failure in tension or compression and ignores the possibility of failure due to shearing stress, therefore it is not used for ductile materials.

For Brittle materials which are relatively strong in shear but weak in tension or compression, this theory is generally used.

Max principal stress [σ _{1} ] ≥ [σ ] yield stress

(In a multi axial loading)

y

(In a simple tension test)

σ

2

σ

1

Maximum Shear Stress Theory

σ

2

σ

1

Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky

and Von Mises Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the distortion strain energy (shear strain energy) per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches the limiting distortion energy (distortion energy per unit volume) as determined from a simple tension test.

Total strain energy U = U _{v} + U _{d}

_{U} _{d} _{=} _{U} _{-} _{U} _{v}

For triaxial loading, the distortion energy

U _{d} = (1+µ) / 6E [(σ _{1} - σ _{2} ) ^{2} + (σ _{2} - σ _{3} ) ^{2} + (σ _{3} – σ _{1} ) ^{2} ]

For uniaxial tension test

U _{d} = (1+µ) / 6E [(σ _{1} ^{2} + σ _{1} ) ^{2} ]

[When σ _{1} reaches σ _{y} ]

_{U} _{d} _{=} _{(}_{1}_{+}_{µ}_{)} _{/} _{3}_{E} _{[}_{σ} _{y} 2 _{]}

=

Thus, the left side of the Equation is a single, equivalent, or effective stress for the entire general state of stress given by σ _{1} , σ _{2} , and σ _{3} . This effective stress is usually called the von Mises stress, σ′, named after Dr. R. von Mises, who contributed to the theory.

The load on a bolt consists of an axial pull of 10 kN together with a

transverse shear force of 5 kN. Find the diameter of bolt required

according to

1. Max shear stress theory (Ans: d = 13.42 mm)

2. Max distortion energy theory (Ans: d = 13.4 mm)

Take permissible tensile stress at elastic limit = 100 MPa.

Question: Give the justification for the variation in diameter using

two different theories.

What is VonMises Stress?

=

+ +

Where ε _{1} , ε _{2} , ε _{3} are strain three principal directions

∈ _{} = _{} [ _{}

∈ _{} = _{} [ _{}

− _{} + _{} ]

− _{} + _{} ]

∈ _{} = _{} [ _{} − _{} + _{} ]

Substituting the above equations,

= [( + + ) – 2μ ( + + ) ]

Total strain energy U = U v + U d

Therefore,

components

the

corresponding

stresses

are

resolved

into

three

_{} = _{}_{} + _{} ; _{} = _{}_{} + _{} ; _{} = _{}_{} + _{} ∈ _{}_{} + ∈ _{}_{} + ∈ _{}_{} =

∈ =

∈ =

∈ =

_{} [ _{}_{} − _{}_{} + _{}_{} ]

_{} [ _{}_{} − _{}_{} + _{}_{} ]

_{} [ _{}_{} − _{}_{} + _{}_{} ]

− ( _{}_{} + _{}_{} + _{}_{} ) = 0

− ≠

Therefore, ( _{}_{} + _{}_{} + _{}_{}

) = 0

+ + =

Strain energy for volume change U _{v}

= 3 ^{} ^{} ^{} ^{}

Volumetric Strain ∈ _{} = _{} [ _{} − [ _{} + _{} ]

∈ = ( ) _{}

U v

U v

= ( ) _{}

= _{} _{} _{} ^{}

U _{d} = U - U _{v}

U d = ( )

[

− +

− +

− ]

Distortion strain energy in triaxial loading

U d = ( )

[

− + − + − ]

In simple tension test, when yielding starts _{} = _{} _{} = _{} =

Distortion strain energy in uniaxial loading

U d = ( )

Therefore, Failure criterion is,

( )

= ( )

[ − + − + − ]

= [ − + − + − ]

VonMises stress in FEA analysis

Maximum Principal Strain Theory (Saint

Venant’s Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the maximum principal strain in a multi axial stress system reaches the limiting value of strain (strain at yield point) as determined from a simple tension test.

The strain in the direction of σ _{1} [ε _{1} ] =

According to this theory of failure, σ _{1} could be increased to a value somewhat higher than σ _{y} without causing yielding if the second normal stress σ _{2} is a tensile stress. But if σ _{2} is a compressive stress the maximum value of σ _{1} that could be applied without causing yielding would be somewhat smaller than σ _{y} .

This theory is not applicable if the failure in elastic behavior is by yielding. It is applicable when the conditions are such that failure occurs by brittle fracture.

Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s

Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the strain energy per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches the limiting strain energy (strain energy at yield point) per unit volume as determined from the simple tension test.

Stress Tensor

To define a stress at any point in a member subjected to multi axial loading, an infinitesimally small cube around a point is assumed to indicate the stress components in three mutually perpendicular planes.

Plane Stress - Examples

Planar Assumptions

All real world structures are three dimensional.

For planar to be valid both the geometry and the loads must be constant across the thickness.

When using plane strain, we assume that the depth is infinite. Thus the effects from end conditions may be ignored.

Plane Stress

All stresses act on the one plane – normally the XY

plane.

Due to Poisson effect there will be strain in the Z

direction. But We assume that there is no stress in

the Z – direction.

σ x , τ xz , τ yz will all be zero.

Plane Strain

All strains act on the one plane – normally the XY

plane. And hence there is no strain in the z-direction.

σ z will not equal to zero. Stress induced to prevent

displacement in z – direction.

ε x , ε xz , ε yz will all be zero.

A thin planar structure with constant thickness and loading within the plane of the

structure (xy plane).

A long structure with uniform cross section and transverse loading along its length (z –

direction).

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