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Module – I Introduction to Design Process
Module – I
Introduction to Design Process

Dr. A. Vinoth Jebaraj, SMEC VIT University, Vellore

Text Books

1.

Joseph Edward Shigley and Charles, R. Mischke, (2000), Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw –Hill International Editions.

2.

2. Joseph Edward Shigley and Charles, R. Mischke, (2008) Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw –Hill International Editions. Eighth Edition.

3.

Bhandari.V.B. Design of Machine elements”, ( 2010) Tata Mc Graw Hill Book Co, Third Edition.

4.

R.S.Khurmi, J.K.Gupta. “Machine Design”, (2008) Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Revised Edition.

Reference Books

1. V.B. Bhandari, Design of Machine elements, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2001

2. Design Data – PSG College of Technology, DPV Printers, Coimbatore., 1998 1. Design Data book– PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore., 2006

3. Juvinal, R.C., Fundamentals of Machine component Design, John Wiley, 2002.

Mode of Evaluation Quiz/Assignment/ Seminar/Written Examination

Basics of Solid Mechanics

Varying cross section
Varying cross section
Constant cross section
Constant cross section
Solid Mechanics Varying cross section Constant cross section There is a variation in the cross section
Solid Mechanics Varying cross section Constant cross section There is a variation in the cross section
Solid Mechanics Varying cross section Constant cross section There is a variation in the cross section

There is a variation in the cross section of the wind mill pillar. But, not in the sign board. Why?

Simple Design
Simple Design
Image courtesy: NPTEL
Image courtesy: NPTEL
Simple Design Image courtesy: NPTEL

Elementary Equations

Elementary Equations For Direct loading or Axial loading For transverse loading For tangential loading or twisting
Elementary Equations For Direct loading or Axial loading For transverse loading For tangential loading or twisting

For Direct loading or Axial loading

Elementary Equations For Direct loading or Axial loading For transverse loading For tangential loading or twisting
Elementary Equations For Direct loading or Axial loading For transverse loading For tangential loading or twisting

For transverse loading

For Direct loading or Axial loading For transverse loading For tangential loading or twisting Where I

For tangential loading or twisting

Where I and J Resistance properties of cross sectional area

I Area moment of inertia of the cross section about the axes lying on the section (i.e. xx and yy)

J Polar moment of inertia about the axis perpendicular to the section

Pure Bending

Pure Bending

If the length of a beam is subjected to a constant bending moment and no shear force ( zero shear force) then the stresses will be set up in that length of the beam due to bending moment only then it is said to be in pure bending.

Under bending, top fibers subjected to compressive stresses and bottom fiber subjected to tensile stresses and vice versa.

In the middle layer (neutral axis), there is no stress due to external load.

Assumptions in the Evaluation of Bending stress

Assumptions in the Evaluation of Bending stress

Practical Application of Bending Equation

 In actual situation , when you consider any structure bending moment varies from point
 In actual situation , when you consider any structure
bending moment varies from point to point and it
also accompanied by shearing force.
 In large number of practical cases, the bending
moment is maximum where shear force is zero.
 It seems justifiable that to apply bending equation at
that point only.
 Hence our assumptions in pure bending (zero shear
force) is a valid one.

Plane of Bending

Under what basis Ixx, Iyy and Izz (J) have to be selected in bending and
Under what basis Ixx, Iyy and Izz (J)
have to be selected in bending and
torsional equations?
Bending X – Plane
Bending
X – Plane
Bending Twisting Y - Plane Z - Plane
Bending
Twisting
Y - Plane
Z - Plane
Gear Reaction Torque Torque Applied Key Resisting Tangential force Shaft
Gear
Reaction Torque
Torque Applied
Key
Resisting Tangential force
Shaft

Torsion – Example

Torsional Equation R = Radius of shaft, L = Length of the shaft T =
Torsional Equation
R
= Radius of shaft, L = Length of the shaft
T
= Torque applied at the free end
C
= Modulus of Rigidity of a shaft material
τ = torsional shear stress induced at the cross section
Ø = shear strain, θ = Angle of twist
Design for Bending
Design for Bending

When a shaft is subjected to pure rotation, then it has to be designed for bending stress which is induced due to bending moment caused by self weight of the shaft.

Example: Rotating shaft between two bearings.

Design for Bending & Twisting
Design for Bending & Twisting

When a gear or pulley is mounted on a shaft by means of a key, then it has to be designed for bending stress (induced due to bending moment) and also torsional shear stress which is caused due to torque induced by the resistance offered by the key .

Example: gearbox shaft (splines)

Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
Shear stress distribution in solid & hollow shafts
On what basis, we have to design a machine component?
On what basis, we have
to design a machine
component?
Introduction to Design Process
Introduction to
Design Process
Introduction to Design Process Image courtesy: NIOT website
Introduction to Design Process Image courtesy: NIOT website

Image courtesy: NIOT website

Necking
Necking

Ductile fracture of Al-Mg-Si alloy

Why ductile materials fail in 45° plane?

of Al-Mg-Si alloy Why ductile materials fail in 45° plane? Brittle fracture of Cast Iron Why

Brittle fracture of Cast Iron

Why brittle materials fail in 0° plane?

Stress in an Inclined Plane  The plane perpendicular to the line of action of
Stress in an Inclined Plane
 The plane perpendicular to the line of action of the load is a principal
plane. [Because, It is having the maximum stress value and shear stress in
this plane is zero.]
 The plane which is at an angle of 90° will have no normal and tangential
stress.
stress in this plane is zero.]  The plane which is at an angle of 90°
Max. shear stress = ½ Normal stress

Max. shear stress = ½ Normal stress

Uniaxial loading Biaxial loading Triaxial loading
Uniaxial loading Biaxial loading Triaxial loading
Uniaxial loading Biaxial loading
Uniaxial loading Biaxial loading

Uniaxial loading

Uniaxial loading Biaxial loading

Biaxial loading

Uniaxial loading Biaxial loading
Uniaxial loading Biaxial loading Triaxial loading

Triaxial loading

Types of Loading

Types of Loading
Pure shear Normal stress σ n = τ sin 2θ  At θ = 45°
Pure shear
Normal stress σ n = τ sin 2θ  At θ = 45° σ n = σ max = τ
Shear stress τ = τ cos 2θ  At θ = 0°, τ max = τ

Under pure shear, ductile materials will fail in 0° plane and brittle materials will fail in 45° plane. Because, at 0° plane shear stress is maximum and at 45° plane normal stress is maximum.

Principal Stresses

When a combination of axial, bending and shear loading acts in a machine member ,
When a combination of axial, bending and shear loading acts in a machine
member , then identifying the plane of maximum normal stress is difficult
. Such a plane is known as principal plane and the stresses induced in a
principal plane is known as principal stresses. Principal stress is an
equivalent of all stresses acting in a member.
is known as principal stresses. Principal stress is an equivalent of all stresses acting in a
Combined loading
Combined loading
is known as principal stresses. Principal stress is an equivalent of all stresses acting in a
Biaxial and shear loading Max principal normal stresses Max principal shear stresses

Biaxial and shear loading

Max principal normal stresses
Max principal
normal stresses
Max principal shear stresses
Max principal
shear stresses

Eccentric loading

Eccentric load on bolts

Eccentric loading Eccentric load on bolts Eccentric load on column Eccentric load on crane hook Eccentric

Eccentric load on column

loading Eccentric load on bolts Eccentric load on column Eccentric load on crane hook Eccentric load

Eccentric load on crane hook

Eccentric load on bolts Eccentric load on column Eccentric load on crane hook Eccentric load on

Eccentric load on hydraulic punching press

Eccentric load on bolts Eccentric load on column Eccentric load on crane hook Eccentric load on
Eccentric Loading
Eccentric Loading

If the line of action of a load is not passing through the Centroid of the machine component, then that is knows as eccentric load.

There are different kinds of stresses will be induced eccentric loading

For eccentric axial load,

Direct stress and bending stress

during

To find out the magnitude of resultant stress, these combination of stresses have to be super imposed.

For eccentric plane load,  Direct shear and torsional shear stress
For eccentric plane load,  Direct shear and torsional shear stress

For eccentric plane load,

Direct shear and torsional shear stress

Theories of Failure
Theories of Failure

Predicting failure in the members subjected to uniaxial stress is very simple and straightforward. Because all failure criterions are reaching the critical limit at an instant.

criterions are reaching the critical limit at an instant. much complicated. Because, predicting the cause of

much

complicated. Because, predicting the cause of failure i.e. which quantity of failure criterion is causing failure is difficult to find.

But,

in

multi

axial

loading

the

prediction

of

failure

is

Thus, theories were formulated to predict this issue, which are known as failure theories.

Real life examples for Combined loading

Real life examples for Combined loading Torsion and bending Crank Shaft Side thrust from cylinder wall,

Torsion and bending

Crank Shaft

Side thrust from cylinder wall, force due to piston

Shaft Side thrust from cylinder wall, force due to piston Connecting rod Coupling Tensile and direct

Connecting rod

Coupling

cylinder wall, force due to piston Connecting rod Coupling Tensile and direct shear Thrust and torsional

Tensile and direct shear

to piston Connecting rod Coupling Tensile and direct shear Thrust and torsional shear Lifting Jack Propeller

Thrust and torsional shear

Lifting Jack

Propeller shaft
Propeller shaft

Axial, bending and Torsion

Why failure theories? Principal stress < Yield stress [safe] but, Shear stress exceeds its limit.
Why failure theories?
Principal stress < Yield stress [safe]
but, Shear stress exceeds its limit.
Ductile fracture
Ductile fracture
Ductile fracture Shear plane Brittle fracture Normal plane

Shear plane

Brittle fracture
Brittle fracture
Ductile fracture Shear plane Brittle fracture Normal plane

Normal plane

Purpose of Tensile test

1
1
3
3
2
2
4
4
Simple Tension Test
Simple Tension Test

In simple tension test, all six quantities reaches its critical values simultaneously (at a single instant).

Any one of the following will cause failure.

Principal normal stress

Principal shear stress

Principal strain energy

Principal

strain

Distortion energy

yield stress σ max = σ y or σ u

yield shear stress τ max = σ y /2

strain energy at yield point U total = ½ y ε y ]

strain at yield point

ε max = σ y /E (or) σ u /E

distortion energy at yield point

U distortion =

y 2 ]

Maximum Principal or Normal Stress Theory (Rankine’s Theory)
Maximum Principal or Normal Stress Theory
(Rankine’s Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the maximum principal or normal stress in a bi-axial stress system reaches the limiting strength of the material in a simple tension test.

This theory is based on failure in tension or compression and ignores the possibility of failure due to shearing stress, therefore it is not used for ductile materials.

For Brittle materials which are relatively strong in shear but weak in tension or compression, this theory is generally used.

Max principal stress [σ 1 ] ≥ [σ ] yield stress

(In a multi axial loading)

y

(In a simple tension test)

σ 2 σ 1
σ
2
σ
1
Maximum Shear Stress Theory
Maximum Shear Stress Theory
Maximum Shear Stress Theory
σ 2 σ 1
σ
2
σ
1
Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky and Von Mises Theory)
Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky
and Von Mises Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the distortion strain energy (shear strain energy) per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches the limiting distortion energy (distortion energy per unit volume) as determined from a simple tension test.

reaches the limiting distortion energy (distortion energy per unit volume) as determined from a simple tension
reaches the limiting distortion energy (distortion energy per unit volume) as determined from a simple tension

Total strain energy U = U v + U d

Total strain energy U = U v + U d U d = U - U

U d = U - U v

For triaxial loading, the distortion energy

U d = (1+µ) / 6E [(σ 1 - σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 - σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 σ 1 ) 2 ]

For uniaxial tension test

U d = (1+µ) / 6E [(σ 1 2 + σ 1 ) 2 ]

U d = (1+µ) / 6E [(σ 1 2 + σ 1 ) 2 ] [When

[When σ 1 reaches σ y ]

U d = (1+µ) / 3E [σ y 2 ]

=
=
= Thus, the left side of the Equation is a single, equivalent, or effective stress for

Thus, the left side of the Equation is a single, equivalent, or effective stress for the entire general state of stress given by σ 1 , σ 2 , and σ 3 . This effective stress is usually called the von Mises stress, σ′, named after Dr. R. von Mises, who contributed to the theory.

The load on a bolt consists of an axial pull of 10 kN together with a

transverse shear force of 5 kN. Find the diameter of bolt required

according to

1. Max shear stress theory (Ans: d = 13.42 mm)

2. Max distortion energy theory (Ans: d = 13.4 mm)

Take permissible tensile stress at elastic limit = 100 MPa.

Question: Give the justification for the variation in diameter using two different theories.
Question: Give the justification for the variation in diameter using
two different theories.

What is VonMises Stress?

= + +
=
+ +

Where ε 1 , ε 2 , ε 3 are strain three principal directions

= [

= [

three principal directions ∈ = [ ∈ = [ − + ] − + ] ∈

+ ]

directions ∈ = [ ∈ = [ − + ] − + ] ∈ = [

+ ]

= [ + ]

] − + ] ∈ = [ − + ] Substituting the above equations, = [(

Substituting the above equations,

= [( + + ) – 2μ ( + + ) ]
= [( + + ) – 2μ ( + + ) ]
Total strain energy U = U v + U d
Total strain energy U = U v + U d

Therefore,

components

the

corresponding

stresses

are

resolved

into

three

= + ; = + ; = + + + =

=

=

=

∈ + ∈ + ∈ = ∈ = ∈ = ∈ = [ − + ]

[ + ]

= ∈ = ∈ = ∈ = [ − + ] [ − + ] [

[ + ]

∈ = [ − + ] [ − + ] [ − + ] − (

[ + ]

( + + ) = 0

] [ − + ] − ( + + ) = 0 − ≠ Therefore, (
] [ − + ] − ( + + ) = 0 − ≠ Therefore, (
] [ − + ] − ( + + ) = 0 − ≠ Therefore, (

Therefore, ( + +

) = 0

+ + =
+ + =

Strain energy for volume change U v

Strain energy for volume change U v = 3 Volumetric Strain ∈ = [ − [

= 3

Volumetric Strain = [ [ + ]

= ( )

U v

U v

= ( )

=

[ + ] ∈ = ( ) U v U v = ( ) = U
[ + ] ∈ = ( ) U v U v = ( ) = U

U d = U - U v

U d = ( ) [ − + − + − ]
U d = ( )
[
− +
− +
− ]

Distortion strain energy in triaxial loading

U d = ( ) [ − + − + − ]
U d = ( )
[
− + − + − ]

In simple tension test, when yielding starts = = =

Distortion strain energy in uniaxial loading

U d = ( )
U d = ( )

Therefore, Failure criterion is,

( ) = ( ) [ − + − + − ]
( )
= ( )
[ − + − + − ]
= [ − + − + − ]
= [ − + − + − ]

VonMises stress in FEA analysis

VonMises stress in FEA analysis
VonMises stress in FEA analysis
Maximum Principal Strain Theory (Saint Venant’s Theory)
Maximum Principal Strain Theory (Saint
Venant’s Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the maximum principal strain in a multi axial stress system reaches the limiting value of strain (strain at yield point) as determined from a simple tension test.

(strain at yield point) as determined from a simple tension test. The strain in the direction

The strain in the direction of σ 1 [ε 1 ] =

(strain at yield point) as determined from a simple tension test. The strain in the direction

According to this theory of failure, σ 1 could be increased to a value somewhat higher than σ y without causing yielding if the second normal stress σ 2 is a tensile stress. But if σ 2 is a compressive stress the maximum value of σ 1 that could be applied without causing yielding would be somewhat smaller than σ y .

This theory is not applicable if the failure in elastic behavior is by yielding. It is applicable when the conditions are such that failure occurs by brittle fracture.

Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s Theory)
Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s
Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the strain energy per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches the limiting strain energy (strain energy at yield point) per unit volume as determined from the simple tension test.

Stress Tensor
Stress Tensor
Stress Tensor  To define a stress at any point in a member subjected to multi

To define a stress at any point in a member subjected to multi axial loading, an infinitesimally small cube around a point is assumed to indicate the stress components in three mutually perpendicular planes.

Plane Stress - Examples
Plane Stress - Examples
Planar Assumptions
Planar Assumptions

All real world structures are three dimensional.

For planar to be valid both the geometry and the loads must be constant across the thickness.

and the loads must be constant across the thickness. When using plane strain, we assume that
and the loads must be constant across the thickness. When using plane strain, we assume that
and the loads must be constant across the thickness. When using plane strain, we assume that
and the loads must be constant across the thickness. When using plane strain, we assume that

When using plane strain, we assume that the depth is infinite. Thus the effects from end conditions may be ignored.

Plane Stress  All stresses act on the one plane – normally the XY plane.
Plane Stress
 All stresses act on the one plane – normally the XY
plane.
 Due to Poisson effect there will be strain in the Z
direction. But We assume that there is no stress in
the Z – direction.
 σ x , τ xz , τ yz will all be zero.
Plane Strain
 All strains act on the one plane – normally the XY
plane. And hence there is no strain in the z-direction.
 σ z will not equal to zero. Stress induced to prevent
displacement in z – direction.
 ε x , ε xz , ε yz will all be zero.
 A thin planar structure with constant thickness and loading within the plane of the
 A thin planar structure with constant thickness and loading within the plane of the
structure (xy plane).
 A long structure with uniform cross section and transverse loading along its length (z –
direction).