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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION -

GREEN METHOD

1 . INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

Plastic have become part of our today’s lifestyle. It is used for packaging, for protecting,

serving purpose, & even discharging all types of goods. With the industrial mass

production of goods and plastic would be a cheaper and good constituent. Using of

plastic non-biodegradable (Subjected to recent studies, plastics can stay for as long as

4200 years) product is growing speedily and leads problem in disposal of plastic waste.

Now a day, plastic wastes have been considered in pavement construction with great

interest in developing countries such as Ethiopia and India. The use of these materials

in road construction is totally based on economic, technical and ecological point of view

also. Ethiopia has a large network of metro cities located in different parts of the country

and many more are planned for future. Several metric tons plastic wastes are produced

every year in Ethiopia.

Keeping in mind that the need for bulk use of these plastic wastes in Ethiopia develops

specifications to enhance the use of these wastes in pavement construction,, in which

higher economic returns also possible. The use of these materials should be developed

for construction of low-volume roads in different region of our country. The necessary

specifications should be sort-out and attempts are to be made to maximize the use of

plastic wastes in different layers of the road pavement construction. Many highway

agencies are doing various studies on environmental suitability and performance of

recycled products in high construction. Use of these waste plastic in bituminous road
construction will help in disposal of vast quantities of plastic. Consumption of mineral

water bottles which are made up of high density polyethylene has increased abnormally.

These bottles are not readily biodegradable, environmental problems are created due to

dumping; these are either land filled or incinerated which are not ecofriendly which

pollute land and air.

On heating at 100 - 150°C, plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene and

polystyrene, soften and shows good binding properties. Blending plastic with a bitumen

results in a mix that is amenable for road laying. These roads have withstood loads due

to traffic, heavy rain and variation of temperature.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY AND JUSTIFICATION

Plastics and municipal solid waste are great concern. Finding proper use for the

disposed plastics waste is the need of the hour. On the other side, the road traffic also

increasing, hence need to increase the load bearing capacities of the pavements. As

there is increasing demand in highway construction, scientists and researchers are

constantly trying to improve the performance of bitumen pavement. Asphalt concretes

are widely used in pavements. Bitumen is the naturally occurring by product of crude oil.

Due to increase in vehicles in recent years the road surfaces have been exposed to

high traffic resulting in deformation of pavements due to excessive stress. Permanent

deformation happens when pavement does not have sufficient stability, improper

compaction and insufficient Pavement strength. The performance of pavement is

determined by the properties of bitumen. Bitumen is a viscoelastic material with suitable

mechanical and rheological properties for water proofing and protective covering for

roofs and roads, because of its good adhesion properties of aggregates. One of the
most important properties of bitumen mixture is its ability to resist shoving and rutting

under traffic.

Hence stability should be more enough to handle traffic adequately, but not more than

the traffic criteria require. Low stability causes unraveling and flow of the road surface.

Some improvements in asphalt properties have been achieved by selecting the proper

starting crude, to make asphalt. From practical experiences it is proved that the

modification of asphalt binder with polymer additives, offers several benefits. To

enhance various engineering properties of asphalt many modifiers such as styrene

based polymers, polyethylene based polymers, polychloroprene, Gilsonite, various oils

have been used in asphalt. Plastic usage has been increased in our daily life. Because

of all these there is an increased usage of plastic the disposal of plastic has become

difficult.

Some studies say that 10million tones of plastic are produced in India and only 2million

tones of plastic waste are recycled. Plastics have to be disposed or else it will be

hazardous to nature and environment. Thus one of the best ways of disposal of these

plastics is to use in bituminous road construction by melting them.

1.3 PROJECT ACTIVTIES

1.3.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The plastic wastes could be used in road construction and the field tests withstood the

stress and proved that plastic wastes used after proper processing as an additive would

enhance the life of the pavements and we can achieve road stability, minimizing cost of

the bitumen. The present study highlights the developments in using plastics waste to
make plastic pavements. The rapid rate of urbanization and development has led to

increasing plastic waste production. As plastic is non-biodegradable, it remains in

environment for numerous years and disposing plastic wastes at landfill are unsafe

since toxic chemicals percolate out into the earth, and under-ground water and pollute

the water bodies. Due to littering routines, insufficient waste management scheme,

plastic waste disposal to be a big problem for the civic authorities, especially in the

urban areas. As mentioned above, plastic disposal is one of the major problems for

developing countries like Ethiopia and India, at a same time Ethiopia needs a large

network of roads for its smooth economic and social development. Scarcity of bitumen

needs a deep thinking to ensure fast pavement construction. At present the disposal of

waste plastic has become a major waste management problem in the world. Hence in

this present investigation efforts have made to identify the potential application of waste

plastic in civil engineering projects. In present study the aim is to investigate the optimal

use of waste plastic in bitumen for road pavement construction.

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this experimental investigation is to provide tools to evaluate and

to improve the properties of pavement using waste plastic such that it may be more

confidently employed in roadways and driveways etc.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Keeping in view of the above point the following specific objectives have been set for

study.
 To study on polymer modified asphalt mixtures to evaluate engineering

properties using marshal stability.

 To study basic properties of aggregates and plain bitumen.

 To study the strength and stability characters of BC mix for 80/100 grade

bitumen.

 To study the effect of waste plastic on strength and stability characteristics of BC

mix.

 To study characteristics of bitumen. Study on performance of Stability characters

of BC mix.

 To study Strength characteristics of waste plastics Strength characteristics of BC

mix

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

There are many significance of present study as follows.

 To develop recycled plastics with enhanced physical and mechanical properties

and that are strong, chemically inert and environmental-friendly.

 To study the effects of type of reused plastics, content of recycled plastics as

replacement of aggregate.

 To select the optimum mix or mixes for use in the road by comparing and

standing various concrete mixes built on the performance measures in physical

properties (hardened density, water absorption etc..) and mechanical

performance (compressive and flexural strength, etc..). Increase the strength and

performance of pavement.

 Creating jobs for rag pickers.


 Develop a technology, which is eco-friendly.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study is to evaluate the performance of Plastic tar flexible pavement

road constructed using plastic coated aggregate bitumen mix.

METHODOLOGY

SOURCES OF DATA

Waste plastic and its source

ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

The basic materials are required such as

 Bitumen,

 Waste plastic

 Aggregate

Bitumen

Bitumen is a material which is a byproduct of petroleum refining process. It is a

highly viscous at temperature above 100 degrees Celsius and is solid at room

temperature. For this particular project different tests will take place.

Waste Plastic

The bottled water is the fastest growing beverage industry in the world. According to the

international bottled water association (IBWA), sales of bottled water have increased by

500 Percent over the last decade and 1.5 million tons of plastic are used to bottle water

every year. Plastic bottle recycling has not kept pace with the dramatic increase in virgin
resin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sales and the last imperative in the ecological

triad of reduce / reuse / recycle, has emerged as the one that needs to be given

prominence. Waste bottle plastic of water cans is made up of either High Density

Polyethylene (HDPE) or Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). Waste plastic bottles were

crushed and shredded and then the different laboratory taste will be done.

Aggregates

Course Aggregate with size of 20mm and 10 mm will be used and test will be done. The

following are the important test carried out for plastic coated flexible pavement.

 Moisture absorption and void measurement

 Soundness test

 Flakiness Index

 Aggregate crushing value test

 Aggregated impact value

 Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA)

 Marshall Stability

 Flash and fire point test

 Softening point test

 Penetration index test

 Ductility index test

PROJECT DESCRITION

GENERAL

Use of waste plastic has made a good progress in bituminous road construction in

recent years. This investigation is on attempt to evaluate the addition of waste plastic
bottles to bituminous concrete (BC) wearing course mix of aggregate gradation I along

with plain 80/100 bitumen.

OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC) MIX

Optimum bitumen content obtained for bituminous concrete grade I mix for 80/100

grade bitumen was 5.1% as per the specification of MORT&H standards.

ADDITION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES TO BITUMINOUS CONCRETE MIX

Waste shredded plastic bottle were added in the increasing percentage of 0% - 10% to

bituminous concrete mix.

EFFECT OF COATING METHOD ON THE MIX PARAMETERS OF BC

GRADE I MIX

Addition of 2% to 10% waste shredded plastic bottles by the weight of bitumen to B mix

has resulted in following.

FOR PLAIN 80/100 BITUMEN

a) The waste plastic which is added to aggregate mix by heating up to 260-2800C. Then

the bitumen is added to form the grade I bituminous concrete and optimum bitumen

content of 5% has shown the following results.

 The maximum stability was 1963 Kg at 8% waste plastic by the weight of

bitumen, 4.7mm flow at 8% waste plastic and 71.942 VFB(void filled with

bitumen) at 8% waste plastic

 Bulk density was found to be maximum of 2.394 gm/cc at 8% waste plastic and

then reduces to 2.315 gm/cc at 12% waste plastic.

 Voids in the total mix Vv varies from 8% to 10% by varying the waste plastic

content from 2% - 12% and at 8% waste plastic Vv was found to be 4.652%.


b) By blending shredded waste plastic to the bitumen by heating and then adding the

required aggregate to form BC mix grade I resulted in improper mix and stability

obtained is less than that of the optimum binder content [OBC]. This is due to following,

 Improper blending of plastic in bitumen. This is because the melting point of

polyethylene terephthalate [PET] is 260-2800C.

 Since the melting temperature of plastic is too high it is difficult to melt plastic

in bitumen to get a proper blend.

 Bitumen should be heated up to the temperature of 260-2800C in order to

obtain the proper blend. If this is done there will be a chance of bitumen to catch

fire and also there will be a loss in weight of bitumen.

All the parameters like stability, flow, bulk density, voids and VFB shows that, the

addition of waste plastic in mix has no much change in fluidity and rigidity parameters

as compared to that of plain bituminous mix.

Stability of 80/100 bitumen at 8% of waste plastic coated on aggregates has shown

higher value

WATER SENSITIVITY TEST

The water sensitivity measured in terms of the Marshall stability will shows the following

results

 The stability value of the mix in unsoaked condition has high values than

compared to the soaked specimens

 Stability value decreases as the soaking time of the specimen increases.

Specimen with 3days soaking results in least stability than that of 1day and 2day

soaking periods.
EXPECTED OUTPUT/RESULTS

In the present study, the importance was to add waste plastic bottles to bituminous

concrete (BC) mix and to evaluate the various mix properties like Marshall Stability,

flow, bulk density, voids in the mix and VFB helps to produce flexible pavement using

green method. The following are the expected results after using plastic for the

production of flexible pavement:

 Reuse of waste plastic will produce the flexible pavements

 Opportunity will be created for the students to conduct this research in the

university.

 Reduce the environmental pollution via using waste of plastics and to achieve the

economy status.

 Helps the community to use the end product of this research

IMPLEMANTATION PLAN AND TIME FRAME

The research will be conducted by using both experimental and analytical methods. The

following procedure is going to be used to conduct the proposed research.

Activities Time plan Remark

1. Collecting locally available materials September 2017

2. Laboratory test on aggregates and waste plastic November 2017

3. Laboratory test for bitumen November 2017

4. Data collection February 2018

5. Data analysis April 2018

6. Result and conclusion May 2018

7. Project report writing May 2018


8. Report writing and dissemination June 208 Tentative

Table 1: Implementation Plan and Time Frame

PLAN TO ENSURE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

The university takes a lead to ensure the community participation. Also the local

communities will be involved during the planning phase by locating the available

materials in their stock.

For the implementation of the project the communities and university are main

participants by giving their own support and suggestion for the research.

RISKS TO SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION

Construction industry has extensive linkages with the rest of economy. To be successful

the community and the research must work in coordination, unless it will affect the end

result of the research. The following are some of the risks to implement our research

project.

 Fluctuation in the prices of materials and laboratory tests

 Project completion on time with the standard quality with assigned budget.

 The availability of sufficient laboratory to conduct test in the Wolaita Sodo

university

 Environmental factors

PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION PLAN

The performance of the project will be tracked by achieving the end result of the

research which is producing flexible pavement using waste plastic material. So this

project will be managed by principal investigator of the project in partnership with co-

investigators, research and community service, vice president and other stakeholders.
PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY

This project will be sustainable if the all available materials were used efficiently and

effectively. The project will be sustained if all stakeholders of the project such as project

investigators, researchers, top managers, students and supportive staffs of the

university are committed to transfer flexible pavement using waste plastic technology.

PROJECT BUDGET

EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND LABORATORY TEST COST

1 Bitumen Barrel 3 28000 84,000

2 Course Aggregate M3 30 1000 30,000

3 Silt test for Coarse Aggregate No. 6 300 1,800

4 Specific gravity test for Coarse Aggregate No. 3 500 1,500

5 Unit Weight for Course Aggergate No. 5 500 2,500

6 Absorption for Coarse Aggregate No. 4 500 2,000

7 Sieve Analysis for Coarse Aggregate No. 3 500 1,500

8 Slump Test No. 6 500 3,000

9 Comression Test No. 6 1000 6,000

10 Impaction factor test No. 6 500 3,000

11 tesnile strength test No. 6 1000 6,000

12 Soundness test No. 10 1000 10,000

13 Aggregate crushing value test No. 10 2000 20,000

14 Flakiness Index No. 10 350 3,500

15 Aggregate impact value No. 8 2000 16,000

16 Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA) No. 6 2000 12,000


17 Water Permeability test No. 6 2000 12,000

18 Marshall Stability No. 6 3000 18,000

19 Flash and fire point test No. 6 2000 12,000

20 Softening point test No. 6 2300 13,800

21 Penetration index test No. 6 1500 9,000

22 Ductility index test No. 6 2000 12,000

23 Dentisty Test for Plastic Wastages No. 6 2000 12,000

24 WATER SENSITIVITY TEST No. 4 1500 6,000

25 Flash disk 32 GB No. 2 500 1,000

26 Photo copy No. 1 100 100

27 Blank CDs No. 5 10 50

28 Typing and Printing No. 1000 0.5 500

Sub Total 299,250

Table 2: Equipment, Materials and Laboratory Test Cost

PERSONNEL COST (INCLUDING TRANSPORTATION COST)

1. Researchers 2 30 107 6420 Field to the community

2. Researchers 2 30 171 10,260 Field to laboratory test in Hawassa

3. Researchers 2 30 206 12,360 Field to laboratory test in Addis Ababa

Labour COST (loading and unloading cost for materials)

1. Skilled Labour at each activities 15,000

2. Unskilled labour at each activities 10,000

BUDGET SUMMARY
1. Equipment, Materials And Laboratory Test Cost 299,250

2. Personnel Cost (Including Transportation Cost) 29,040

3. Labor Cost (Loading And Unloading Cost For Materials)

REFERENCES
[1]. ETHIOPIAN ROADS AUTHORITY (ERA), Pavement design manual volume 1, flexible
pavements -2013
[2]. South African specifications (CSRA, 1987) for wearing courses
[3]. British Standard method (BSI, 1989) & (BSI, 1990)
[4]. Mahabir Panda and Mayajit Mazumdar(1999). “Engineering Properties of EVA-Modified
Bitumen For Paving Mixes”. Journal of Materials In Civil Engineering ASCE / May 1999
[5]. Punith V.S and Veeraraghavan A (2007). “Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures with
Reclaimed Polyethylene as Additive”. Journal Of Materials In Civil Engineering ASCE / June
2007 / 501
[6]. Lee Zhen Hao (2009). “Performance Characteristics of Hot Mix Asphalt with Recycled
Materials”. Bachelor of Engineering Report, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Nayang Technological University Singapore.
[7]. Sabina, Tabrez A Khan, Sangita, Sharma D K and Sharma B M (2009). “Performance
Evaluation Of Waste Plastic/Polymer Modified Bituminous Concrete Mixes”. Journal of
scientific and industrial research Vol.68, November 2009, pp. 975-979.
[8]. Shivani Gupta and Veeraragavan A (2009). “Fatigue behavior of polymer modifies
bituminous concrete mixtures”. Journal of Indian road congress January-March 2009.
[9]. S. N. Nemade and P. V. Thorat: Utilization of Polymer Waste for road construction 206
[10]. American standard testing machine (ASTM) 1990.
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