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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related literature
The 4Ps program started last 2008 under the previous
administration and continued in massive scale in Aquino
Administration; This CCT entails several provision which still unfamiliar
to both school administrators and teachers alike. Presently the
government spending staggering amount of money per year,44 billion by
2013 and 62 billion in 2014 to sustain the program; which eventually
added to fiscal national debt. In order to implement the program
Philippine Government has granted the amount of $800 million from
World Bank and Asian Development Bank; therefore we can conclude
that the funding of the program came from loan and eventually paid by
tax payers.

One of the targets of the CCT program is to decrease the drop-out


rate among the poorest high school it only mean that teachers must be
aware on the program. The first thing we have to understand is the
monetary subsidence of the program; 4Ps recipient is receiving the
amount of 300 pesos for educational assistance per qualified household
and additional 500
pesos for health and nutrition per household monthly. Subsequently, 4Ps
recipient is required to participate in community-school related program
such as clean drive, brigade eskwela and family day session.
Furthermore, students or pupils under 4Ps program must attend and
complete the 85% of monthly attendance. Conversely, they should have
an average grade of 75.4ps recipient must coordinate and cooperate to
any school related activities since there is educational assistance given to
them. In addition 4ps recipient who is no longer in school should be
removed from the program.

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) as a conditional cash


transfer (CCT) program that transfers cash to beneficiary families if they
follow its conditionalities. Just like other CCT programs, the Pantawid
Pamilyang Pilipino Program aims in reducing and alleviating existing
poverty by supplementing the income of the poor to address their current
consumption poverty, especially in the education and health of their
family members while making them follow certain conditionalities that
can boost their human development investment and ensure its compliance
so that they can
have more opportunities in breaking the intergenerational cycle of
poverty in the long run (Fernandez and Olfindo 2011). The Pantawid
Pamilyang Pilipino Government version. According to Brul (2009) this
program helps the penniless people and most of them are living in
squatter area and family who can’t provide their basic needs.
Cited by Department of Social Welfare and Development (2010),
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is a poverty reduction strategy that
provides to extremely poor households to help improve their health,
nutrition and education of children aged 0-14. The 4Ps is patterned after
the successful Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) Programs in Latin
America and Africa. CCT has been cited as one of the key factors behind
the positive socio-economic outcomes achieved by Brazil where 11
million families are currently enrolled in the program, and other
countries. The poorest households in the country selected through a
uniform, objective and transparent set of criteria.

There are three steps in identifying the beneficiaries: Provinces were


selected using the following criteria: a) 20 poorest provinces based on
the 2006 Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES); b) Poorest
provinces in six regions without a province in the list of the 20 poorest
provinces; c) Five cities in the NCR, two in the Visayas, two in
Mindanao and one in the Cordillera.

1. The selection of the poorest municipalities from the above


provinces based on the Small Area Estimates (SAE) and
FIES where saturation surveys of households are being
conducted.
2. Computerized selection of the poorest households based on
a ranking system using Proxy Means Test developed for the
program.

The PMT
socio-economic characteristics such as: ownership of assets, type of
housing unit, level of educational attainment of household heads, and
access to water and sanitation facilities. The DSWD selects the
beneficiaries based on the targeting system developed for the program.
4Ps provides conditional grants to the beneficiaries such as:

• P6000 a year or P500 per month per household for health and
nutrition expenses, and

• P3000 for one school year or 10 months or 300 / month per


child for educational expenses. A maximum of three children
per household is allowed.

A household with three qualified children can have a subsidy of


P1, 400 per month or P15, 000 annually as long as they comply with the
conditions. To avail cash grants, beneficiaries should comply with the
following conditions:

• Pregnant women must get pre and post natal care, and be
attended by a skilled/trained professional during a child birth.

• Parents or guardians must attend responsible family


development sessions.

• Children 0-5 years old must receive regular preventive health


checkups and vaccines.

• Children 3-5 years old must attend day care or pre school
classes at least 85% of the time.
• Children 6-14 years old must enroll in elementary or high
school and attend at least 85% of the time.

Students or pupils who are 4ps recipient with more than a week
absent without prior notice must not receive their monthly educational
assistance. Hence, only DSWD can add or remove any person under the
4ps program.
CCT Program is strategically designed to invest in human capital by
providing quality and accessible education for everyone, therefore it is
mandate that we need a clear understanding on the provision entails in the
program.

Why we should support the 4Ps?

The 4Ps program is and continues to be a good investment - Here’s


why a recent forum on the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (or 4Ps)
held at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, experts from
different government agencies and academic institutions discussed the
rationale and the feasibility of extending and expanding the program.
Under the management of Department of Social Welfare and
Development (DSWD), the 4Ps is widely known to be the lynchpin of the
government’s anti-poverty efforts. One of its key interventions is the
provision of small cash transfers to mothers, as long as they commit to
investing in their children, such as by ensuring their children go to
school, as well as get deworming, vaccination and regular health check-
ups to name a few other aspects of the program. 4Ps operates in 79
provinces covering 1484 municipalities and 143 key cities in all 17
regions nationwide.

As of June 2013, the program covered almost 4 million


households. The planned extension of the 4Ps program will include an
additional 2 million children to the current 8.5 million in the program. A
special emphasis will be placed on providing additional support to
children from poor families who would like to go to high school.
Yet, even as the budget for 4Ps is set to increase, some people seem
impatient about its pay-off, which most assume will be immediate—such
as reducing the number of poor and hungry people in the country. Several
opposition politicians have even resorted to calling the government
program a “dole-out”. Some question the size of the allocations dedicated
to the 4Ps. Their typical argument is that there are better alternative uses
for these funds. Noting that the 4Ps program is and continues to be a
good investment. Here’

First, the 4Ps is NOT the only program in the anti-poverty


strategy of the government, yet it’s quite possibly the most important
component. The reason is that this program attacks one of the root
causes of poverty—weak education, health and other human
development characteristics that disadvantage a poor person.

No amount of job creation will employ and lift out of poverty


millions of under skilled and unhealthy citizens. No business would get
into such an enterprise, and no government can sustain economic
growth and job creation on such a weak foundation. Therefore, human
capital build-up is, first and foremost, the key ingredient in this strategy.
What is often poorly understood about the 4Ps program is that it’s
less focused on adults, and more focused on the next generation. The
economic pay-off from these investments, therefore, will take some
years to fully manifest in the form of more educated and healthy
citizens and more productive workers.
If we are serious about poverty reduction (and dare I say, poverty
eradication), investing in children is where we should really begin.
Otherwise, a never ending stream of people with weak education and
health will add to the ranks of the poor. Of course, human capital is not
enough. Access to the other factors of production and growth will also
need to dramatically improve for the vast majority of the population —
such as through microfinance and lending to SMEs (improving access
to capital); and true agrarian reform (access to land).

Foreign studies
Based on the findings of the School enrolment and performance
of the selected student’s of Mexican have been improving. The major
breaking point in school attendance occurs at entry in secondary school.
In primary school, continuation rates reach at least 95% in every grade,
with the result that 85% of the children that start primary school
complete the cycle. However, only 72.4% of the children that
successfully complete primary school enrol in the first year of
secondary school. The gender difference is very pronounced at this
decisive step, with 75.1% of the boys entering secondary school and
only 69.4% of the girls. Progresa is targeted at poor families and has
three components: health, nutrition, and education.

Education is, however, by far the program’s most important


component in terms of cash transfers. It consists in payments to families
with children attending school between the third grade of primary and the
third grade of secondary. The conditionality requires presence at school in
at least 85% of school days no more than 3 absences a month.1 after three
years in the program, families may renew their status as beneficiaries,
subject to revaluation of their socio-economic condition. The level of the
transfers increases as children progress to higher grades in order to match
the rising income they would contribute to their families if they were
working (Progresa, 2000). The transfers are slightly higher for girls than
for boys in secondary school.

According to the Article that learning effort depends on children’s


exogenous characteristics and cannot be adjusted once presence at
school is required.

According to the United Nations, our country is expected to


reach its peak number of young people by around 2040-2050, roughly
25-30 years from today. This means the brunt of our future labor force
is comprised of infants already being born today andtheir future
capabilities depend heavily on the policy choices we make.

4P’s can help ensure that the majority of our young people do not
fall through the cracks. For every 1.8 to 2 million children born every
year in the Philippines, at least about onethird (or up to six hundred
thousand) are born to poor families according to some estimates.
Because of 4Ps, children will grow up to be educated, healthy, and
productive members of Philippine society, contributing to the country’s
economic competitiveness in the longer term. Therefore, the 4Ps is not
merely a matter of charity for poor children as far as the country is
concerned—our long run economic growth depends

in large part on how successfully we equip our future citizens and


workers to compete.
The key role that that school performance plays on the decision
to continue. Throughout primary school continuation rates are higher
among those that passed than among those that failed their grade. There
is here again a striking discontinuity at entry into secondary school. The
performance rates is the lowest in the first year of secondary school and
drop-out rates after a first year of trying secondary school without
success are very high. In the last year of each cycle there are very large
re-enrolment rates upon failure, suggesting important incentives to
complete a cycle.

Nevertheless, the 4Ps prepares future workers; but it does not in


itself create jobs. It is imperative that more jobs are created and more
entrepreneurship encouraged in order to spur economic development
that is inclusive for the vast majority of the youth.

Local studies

Based on the findings of the study of academic performance among


selected pupils at Inopacan District, Leyte SY 2013-2014, the drop-out
rate among the poorest elementary and high school were decreased. The
parents and pupils who are 4Ps recipients attended regular participation in
all school activities. On the part of Department of Education, there is an
increase of enrolment every school year. The inconsistent results for older
children between 13-17 years old (age as of 2011) the majority of whom
are outside the age cut-off for CCT education grant eligibility as
suggested by insignificant coefficients across specifications, could be
explained by a number of factors.

Direct costs may be incurred in the form of school fees, supplies,


transportation costs, and so on. For example, since there are less high
schools than primary schools, high school children are generally more
likely to travel farther away from the homestead to school, requiring
households to spend more money on transportation. As children grow
older, the opportunity cost also increases as they could earn money from
working instead of studying in school. To address this issue, many CCT
programs (e.g., in Bangladesh, Brazil, Mexico, 30 Honduras, and Turkey)
provide larger cash transfers to older children to compensate for the
higher implicit/explicit cost associated with schooling.

Furthermore, the estimated CCT impact varied depending on the


number of school children in the household, with positive impacts among
young children in small households. As discussed earlier, basic DD
suggested a 7 percent increase in school enrolment among the sample of
younger children from beneficiary households with three or fewer school-
aged children.

The economic status significantly affects their levels of academic


achievement. However, residing in a first class municipality does not
guarantee high-paying permanent jobs or non-permanent jobs to working
members of both non 4ps- and 4ps families. Some students from low
income have difficulties to understand or learn as fast as others. Their
stressful lives may also affect their grades because the children’s arte left
on their own and no one cares about their success are failure in school
(Jensen,2013)
Students, in non 4ps families have signicantly higher daily
allowance compared to 4ps recipients. In terms of income, without the
cash grant, each person from 4ps families had about PhP 7,740 to cover
his/her expenses for the entire 6 months. On the average, students in non
4ps families recorded and average attendance of 62.8 % compared to
60.70 % among 4ps beneficiaries, both lower than the 85 % requirements.
Lower school attendance among 4ps beneficiaries maybe associated with
the number of factors such hunger, distance of school from home
(Valeroso,2012) and allowing children in high school to work to earn
income for their families (Maligalig and Albert, 2008).

The positive association indicates that a significant improvement in


the extent of study skill had a positive effect on the academic
performance of both non 4ps and 4ps beneficiaries. However, the
negative association indicates that a significance improvement in the
extent of study skills had a negative effect on the academic performances
of students in 4ps families indicating that living in the first class
municipality does not immediately guarantee an improvement in
academic performance. Despite living in a first class municipality,
students in 4ps families are more likely enrolled in low performing
schools.
The comprehensive quantitative impact evaluation currently
underway will provide more robust evidence on the impact of the CCT
program, based on data collected from a much larger sample size and
information collected on a vast range of issues. This study was conducted
to serve as a rapid assessment of the Pantawid Pamilya focused on school
enrolment, while waiting for the comprehensive impact evaluation
(Chaudhury and Okamura,2012).

The study looks into some significant information about the 4Ps
beneficiaries of Balamban Elementary School where their children are
enrolled. For the school year 2014-2015, it had a pupil population of 257,
where 120 are male and 137 are female. It has eleven teachers and is
headed by an Elementary School Principal I.
This shows that the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is
instrumental in sending all student’s to the next higher level of education.
This explains that if a student’s is 85% absent or more of the monthly
school days, they will not be given the allotted educational grant for that
month. It strengthens the supposition that a better attendance leads to
better academic time and better learning. And it shows that the 4p’s has a
big impact to the academic performances of the students. And it has a big
help for the development of the recipients in terms of education.

https://www.academia.edu/37474467/REVIEW_OF_RELATED_LITER
ATURE_AND_STUDIES_Related_literature