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S.

Chand’s IIT Foundation Series


A Compact and Comprehensive Book of

IIT Foundation
Mathematics
CLASS – IX
S.Chand’s IIT Foundation Series

A Compact and Comprehensive Book of

IIT Foundation
Mathematics
CLASS – IX

S.K. GUPTA
ANUBHUTI GANGAL
EURASIA PUBLISHING HOUSE
(An imprint of S. Chand Publishing)
A Division of S. Chand And Company Pvt. Ltd.
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© 2014. S.K. Gupta, Anubhuti Gangal

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First Published in 2014


Reprints 2016 (Thrice)

ISBN : 978-93-837-4662-0   Code : 1014A 680


PREFACE AND A NOTE FOR THE STUDENTS

ARE YOU ASPIRING TO BECOME


AN ENGINEER AND AN IIT SCHOLAR ?
Here is the book especially designed to motivate you, to sharpen your intellect, to develop the right
attitude and aptitude, and to lay a solid foundation for your success in various entrance examinations like IIT,
EAMCET, WBJEE, MPPET, SCRA, J&K CET, Kerala PET, OJEE, Rajasthan PET, AMU, BITSAT, etc.

SALIENT FEATURES
1. Content based on the curriculum of the classes for CBSE, ICSE, Andhra Pradesh and Boards of School
Education of Other States.
2. Full and comprehensive coverage of all the topics.
3. Detailed synopsis of each chapter at the beginning in the form of ‘Key Concepts’. This will not
only facilitate thorough ‘Revision’ and ‘Recall’ of every topic but also greatly help the students in
understanding and mastering the concepts besides providing a back-up to classroom teaching.
4. The books are enriched with an exhaustive range of hundreds of thought provoking objective questions
in the form of solved examples and practice questions in practice sheets which not only offer a great
variety and reflect the modern trends but also invite, explore, develop and put to test the thinking,
analysing and problem-solving skills of the students.
5. Answers, Hints and Solutions have been provided to boost up the morale and increase the confidence
level.
6. Self Assessment Sheets have been given at the end of each chapter to help the students to assess and
evaluate their understanding of the concepts and learn to attack the problems independently.
We hope this book will be able to fulfil its aims and objectives and will be found immensely useful by
the students aspiring to become top class engineers.
Suggestions for improvement and also the feedback received from various sources would be most
welcome and gratefully acknowledged.

AUTHORS

Disclaimer : While the authors of this book have made every effort to avoid any mistakes or omissions and have used their
skill, expertise and knowledge to the best of their capacity to provide accurate and updated information, the authors and
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contained in this publication.
Further, the appearance of the personal name, location, place and incidence, if any; in the illustrations used herein is purely
coincidental and work of imagination. Thus the same should in no manner be termed as defamatory to any individual.

(v)
CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Logarithms 1-1 to 1-15

Chapter 2. Polynomials 2-1 to 2-16

Chapter 3. Quadratic Equations 3-1 to 3-19

Chapter 4. Inequalities 4-1 to 4-26

Chapter 5. Relations 5-1 to 5-13

Chapter 6. Plane Geometry–Triangles 6-1 to 6-22

Chapter 7. Quadrilaterals 7-1 to 7-26

Chapter 8. Permutations and Combinations 8-1 to 8-30

Chapter 9. Probability 9-1 to 9-31

Chapter 10. Trigonometry 10-1 to 10-25

Chapter 11. Coordinate Geometry 11-1 to 11-28

Chapter 12. Area and Perimeter 12-1 to 12-14

Chapter 13. Volume and Surface Area of Solids 13-1 to 13-18

(vii)
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-1

1 Logarithms

KEY FACTS
1. Definition: If a and n are positive real numbers such that a ≠ 1 and x is real, then ax = n ⇒ x = logan.
Here x is said to be the logarithm of the number n to the base a.
1
Ex. 43 = 64 ⇒ log4 64 = 3, 10–1 = = 0.1 ⇒ log10 0.1 = – 1, 5 x = 4 ⇒ x = log54,
10
a0 = 1 ⇒ loga 1 = 0, a1 = a ⇒ loga a =  1.
2. Some Important Facts about Logarithms
● logan is real if n > 0
● logan is imaginary if n < 0
● logan is not defined if n = 0
● The logarithm of 1 to any base a, a > 0 and a ≠ 1 is zero. log a 1 = 0
● The logarithm of any number a, a > 0 and a ≠ 1, to the same base is 1. log a a = 1
log x
● If a and x are positive real numbers, where a ≠ 1, then a a = x
Proof. Let logax = p. Then, x = a p (By def.) ⇒ x = alogax (Substituting the value of p)
Ex. 3log3 7 = 7, 2log2 9 = 9, 5log5 x = x
● For a > 0, a ≠ 1, logax1 = logax2 ⇒ x1 = x2 (x1, x2 > 0)
● If a > 1 and x > y, then logax > logay.
● If 0 < a < 1 and x > y, then logax < logay
3. Laws of Logarithms
For x > 0, y > 0 and a > 0 and a ≠ 1, any real number n
● logaxy = logax + logay Ex. log2(15) = log2(5 × 3) = log25 + log23
3
● loga(x/y) = logax – logay Ex. log 2   = log 2 3 − log 2 7
7
n
● loga(x) = n logax Ex. log (2)5 = 5 log 2,
 a3  3 3
log  3  = log a – log b = 3 log a – 3 log b
 b
1 1
● logax = Ex. log5 2 =
log x a log 2 5
1 1 1
● log a n x = log a x Ex. log87 = log23(7) = log 2 7, log 5 3 = log (5) 1 (3) = log51/2 (3) = log5 3 = 2log5 3
n 3 2 1/2
m m 4 4
● log a n x = log a x Ex. log 25 5 = log 2 5
n 5
Ch 1-1
Ch 1-2 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Base changing formula


● logax = logbx.logab Ex. log12 32 = log16 32. log1216. (The base has been changed from 12 to 16)
↑ ↑
Old base New base

● xlogay = ylogax Ex. 3log 7 = 7log 3 (It being understood that base is same)
y→
[Proof. x log a = x
log x y . log a x
(Base changing formula)
log x
= ( x log x y )
a
(Using n loga x = (loga  x)n)
log a x
= y (Using x logx y = y.)
log b
● logab = (It being understood that base is same)
log a
● If logab = x for all a > 0, a ≠ 1, b > 0 and x ∈ R, then log1/a b = – x, loga 1/b = – x and log1/a 1/b = x
4. Some Important Properties of Logarithms
● a, b, c are in G.P. ⇔ logax, logbx, logcx are in H.P.
● a, b, c are in G.P. ⇔ logxa, logxb, logxc are in A.P.
5. Natural or Naperian logarithm is denoted by logeN, where the base is e.
 1 
Ex. loge7, loge   , logeb, etc.
 64 
● Common or Brigg’s logarithm is denoted by log10N, where the base is 10.
1
Ex. log105, log10   , etc.
 81 
● logax is a decreasing function if 0 < a < 1
● logax is an increasing function if a > 1.
6. Characteristic and Mantissa
● Characteristic: The integral part of the logarithm is called characteristic.
(i) If the number is greater than unity and there are n digits in integral part, then its characteristic = (n – 1)
(ii) When the number is less than 1, the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal
point and the first significant digit of the number and is negative. It is written as (n + 1) or Bar (n + 1).

Ex. Number Characteristic Number Characteristic


4.1456 0 0.823 1
24.8920 1 0.0234 2
238.1008 2 0.000423 4
7. Arithmetic Progression. A sequence a1, a2, a3, ........, an is said to be in arithmetic progression, when
a2 – a1 = a3 – a2 = .......... = an – an – 1, i.e., when the terms in the sequence increase or decrease by a constant
quantity called the common difference.
Ex. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, .... 6, 11, 17, 23, .... – 5, –2, 1, 4, 7, ....
● Sum of first ‘n’ terms of an Arithmetic Progression
n n
Sn = [2a + ( n – 1)d ] = [a + l ],
2 2
where a = first term, n = number of terms, d = common difference, l = last term.
● Sum of first “n” natural numbers.
n( n + 1)
Sn = 1 + 2 + 3 + ............ + n = .
2
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-3

n( n + 1)
Also, written as Sn =
2
● Also, if a, b, c are in A.P. then 2b = a + c
8. Geometric Progression : A sequence a1, a2, a3, ............, an is said to be in Geometric Progression when,
a2 a a a
= 3 = 4 = ............ = n = r (say)
a1 a2 a3 an – 1
where a1, a2, a3, .......... are all non zero numbers and r is called the common ratio.
Ex. 3, 6, 12, 24, .................. r = 2;
1 1 1 1
64, 16, 4, 1, , . , ............ r =
4 16 64 4
a ( r n – 1) a (1 – r n ) lr – a
● Sum of first n terms of a G.P. Sn = if r > 1 = if r < 1 =
( r – 1) (1 – r ) r –1
where, a = first term, r = common ratio, l = last term
a
● Sum of an infinite G.P. S∞ = , where a = first term, r = common ratio.
1–r
● For three terms a, b, c to be in G.P., b2 = ac
9. Harmonic Progression : A series of quantities a1, a2, a3, ............, an are said to be in H.P. when their reciprocals
1 1 1 1
, , , .........., are in A.P.
a1 a2 a3 an
2ac
● When three quantities a, b, c are in H.P., then, b = .
a+c

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex. 1. If loga5 + loga25 + loga125 + loga625 = 10, then find the value of a.
Sol. loga5 + loga25 + loga125 + loga625 = 10

⇒ loga (5 × 25 × 125 × 625) = 10
⇒ loga (51 × 52 × 53 × 54) = 10

⇒ loga 510 = 10 ⇒ a10 = 510 ⇒ a = 5.
[Using loga x = n ⇒ x = an]

Ex. 2. Solve for x : log10 [log2 (log39)] = x.


Sol. log10 [log2 (log39)] = x
⇒ log2 (log39) = 10x

⇒ log2 (log3 32) = 10x

⇒ log2 (2 log33) = 10x

⇒ log2 2 = 10x ⇒ 10x = 1 = 100 ⇒ x = 0.

3 5 2 n −1
Ex. 3. Find the value of logxx + log x x + log x x + ........ + log x x .
3 5 2n − 1
Sol. logxx + log x x + log x x + ........ + log x x = log x x + 3 log x x + 5 log x x + ......... + (2n – 1) log x x
n 2  n 
= 1 + 3 + 5 + ............ + (2n – 1) = [1 + (2n – 1)] = n  Using log x x = 1 and for A.P. Sn = 2 (a + l ) 
2
Ch 1-4 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

1+ x   2x 
Ex. 4. If f (x) = log   , show that f  2  = 2 f (x).
1– x 1+ x 
 2x 
 1+ 
 2x  1 + x2 1 + x 2 + 2 x   (1 + x) 2  1 + x 
Sol. f  = log   = log  log = 2log 
2 
1 – 2 x 2  =  2  = 2f (x).
1+ x   1 + x – 2 x   (1 – x)  1 – x 
 1 + x2 
 
Ex. 5. If a = log2412, b = log36 24, c = log4836, then prove that 1 + abc = 2bc.
Sol. 1 + abc = 1 + log2412. log3624. log4836 = 1 + log3612. log4836
= 1 + log4812 = log4848 + log4812 [Q logax. logba = logbx]
= log48 (48 × 12) = log48 (24 × 24)
= log48 (24)2 = 2 log4824. ...(i)
Also, 2bc = 2 log3624. log4836 = 2 log4824 ...(ii)
From (i) and (ii), we have RHS = LHS.
Ex. 6. Solve log2x + 3 (6x2 + 23x + 21) = 4 – log3x + 7 (4x2 + 12x + 9).
Sol. Given, log(2x + 3) (6x2 + 23x + 21) = 4 – log(3x + 7) (4x2 + 12x + 9)
⇒ log(2x + 3) (2x + 3) (3x + 7) = 4 – log(3x + 7) (2x + 3)2
⇒ log(2x + 3) (2x + 3) + log(2x + 3) (3x + 7) = 4 – 2 log(3x + 7) (2x + 3)

⇒ log(2x + 3) (3x + 7) + 2 log(3x + 7) (2x + 3) = 4 – 1 = 3 [Since log2x + 3 (2x + 3) = 1]
2  1 
⇒ log (2 x + 3) (3 x + 7) +
= 3  Using log a x = log a 
log (2 x + 3) (3 x + 7)  x 

Let log(2x + 3)(3x + 7) = t. Then,


2 2
t + = 3 ⇒ t – 3t + 2 = 0 ⇒ (t – 1) (t – 2) = 0 ⇒ t = 1, 2
t
t = 1 ⇒ log(2x + 3)(3x + 7) = 1 ⇒ log(2x + 3)(3x + 7) = log(2x + 3)(2x + 3) [Replacing 1 by log(2x + 3) (2x + 3)]
⇒ 3x + 7 = 2x + 3 ⇒ x = – 4.
t = 2 ⇒ log(2x + 3)(3x + 7) = 2 ⇒ log(2x + 3)(3x + 7) = log(2x + 3)(2x + 3)2
⇒ (3x + 7) = (2x + 3)2 ⇒ 4x2 + 9x + 2 = 0 ⇒ (4x + 1) (x + 2) = 0 ⇒ x = – 1/4, –2
1
But x = – 4 and –2 are extraneous solutions, so x = – .
4

a 2 b2
Ex. 7. If logx (a – b) – logx (a + b) = logx (b/a), find + . (CAT 2012)
b2 a 2

 ( a – b)  b
Sol. Given, logx(a – b) – logx(a + b) = logx(b/a) ⇒ log x 
 = log x  
 ( a + b)  a
⇒ a(a – b) = b(a + b) ⇒ a2 – ab = ab + b2
2
a a
⇒ a2 – b2 = 2ab ⇒ a2 – 2ab – b2 = 0 ⇒   – 2   – 1 = 0
b b
a  b
This is a quadratic equation in and the product of the roots is –1 i.e, if a/b is a root, then  −  is the other
b  a
root. Also, sum of its roots = 2
2 2 2
a b a 2 b2  a  b  2
\   +   = 2 + 2 =  +  –   + 2 = 2 + 2 = 6.

b a b a  b  a 
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-5

Ex. 8. If loge2. logb625 = log1016. loge10, then find the value of b.

Sol. Given, loge2. logb625 = log1016. loge10 ⇒ loge2. logb54 = log1024. loge10
⇒ loge2. 4 logb5 = 4 log102. loge10
log10 2. log e10 log e 2
⇒ logb5. = = = 1 ⇒ b1 = 5 ⇒ b = 5. [Q log a x. log x b = log a b]
log e 2 log e 2
Ex. 9. If (x4 – 2x2y2 + y2)a –1 = (x – y)2a (x + y)–2, then the value of a is
log( x – y )
(a) x2 – y2 (b) log (xy) (c) (d) log (x – y)
log ( x + y )
Sol. Given, (x4 – 2x2y2 + y2)a –1 = (x – y)2a (x + y)–2
⇒ [(x2 – y2)2]a –1 = (x – y)2a (x + y)–2

⇒ (x – y)2(a – 1) (x + y)2(a –1) = (x – y)2a (x + y)–2

( x – y ) 2( a –1) ( x + y ) 2( a –1)

⇒ . = 1 ⇒ ( x – y ) –2 ( x + y ) 2 a = 1
( x – y )2a ( x + y ) –2
⇒ log [(x – y)–2 (x + y)2a] = log 1 ⇒ –2 log (x – y) + 2a log(x + y) = log 1

log ( x – y )
⇒ 2a log (x + y) = 2 log (x – y) ⇒ a =
. [Since log 1 = 0]
log ( x + y )
Ex. 10. If logxa, ax/2 and logbx are in GP, then x is
(a) loga (logba) (b) loga (logea) + loga(logeb)
(c) – loga (logab) (d) loga (logeb) – loga (logea)
2
Sol. If logxa, ax/2 and logbx are in GP, then ( a ) = (logbx) × (logxa)
x /2

⇒ ax = logba ⇒ log ax = log (logba) ⇒ x log a = log (logba) ⇒ x loga a = loga (logba)
⇒ x = loga (logba).
Ex. 11. What is the least value of the expression 2 log10x – logx (1/100) for x > 1 ?

1 log10 10 – 2  log x b
= 2 log10 x –
Sol. 2 log10x – log x  Using log a b = log
100 log10 x  x a 
2  1 
= 2log10 x + = 2  log10 x +
log10 x  log10 x 
Given, x > 1 ⇒ log10x > 0
But since AM ≥ GM
 1 
 log10 x + log x  1
10 
\ 
≥ log10 x ×
 2  log10 x
1  1 
⇒ log10 x +
≥ 2 ⇒ 2 log10 x + ≥4
log10 x  log10 x 
For x = 10, 2[log10x + log10x] ≥ 4
 1 
Hence, the least value of log10 x – log x is 4.
 100 
Ex. 12. If log32, log3 (2x – 5) and log3 (2x – 7/2) are in A.P., then what is the value of x ?
Sol. Given, log32, log3(2x – 5) and log3(2x – 7/2) are in A.P.
x  x 7
⇒ 2 log3 (2 – 5)  = log3 2 + log3  2 – 
 2
Ch 1-6 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX


⇒ log3 – (2x
= log3 [2 ×5)2 – 7/2)] (2x
x 2
⇒ (2 – 5) = (2 x + 1 – 7) ⇒ 2 – 10.2x + 25 = 2.2x – 7
2x

⇒ 22x – 12.2x + 32 = 0 ⇒ y2 – 12y + 32 = 0


[Let y = 2x]
⇒ (y – 8) (y – 4) = 0 ⇒ y = 8 or 4 ⇒ 2x = 8 or 2x = 4 ⇒ x = 3 or 2.

Ex. 13. Let u = (log2x)2 – 6(log2x) + 12, where x is a real number. Then the equation xu = 256 has :
(a) No solution for x (b) Exactly one solution for x
(c) Exactly two distinct solutions for x (d) Exactly three distinct solutions for x (CAT 2004)
Sol. Given, u = (log2x)2 – 6(log2x) + 12 = p2 – 6p + 12 (where p = log2x) ...(i)
Also, given, xu = 256
Taking log to the base 2 of both the sides, we have
8
u log2x = log2256 = log228 = 8 log22 ⇒ u log2x = 8 ⇒ u =
= 8/p ...(ii)
log 2 x
8
= p 2 – 6 p + 12
From (i) and (ii)
p
⇒ 8 = p3 – 6p2 + 12 ⇒ p3 – 6p2 + 12p – 8 = 0

⇒ (p – 2)3 = 0 ⇒ p = 2.
[Using (a – b)3 = a3 – 3a2b + 3ab2 – b3]
\ log2x = 2 ⇒ x = 22 = 4

Hence the equation u4 = 256 has exactly one solution.

Ex. 14. If logyx = (a. log z y) = (b. logxz) = ab, then which of the following pairs of values for (a, b) is not
possible ?
 1  1
(a)  –2,  (b) (1, 1) (c) (0.4, 2.5) (d)  π ,  (e) (2, 2)
 2  π
(CAT 2004)
Sol. Given, logyx = (a. logz y) = (b logxz) = ab

log y x log y x
⇒ a= and b =
log z y log x z
 log x   log x 
 log y   log y 
log y x log y x  log x 
3
× =  ×  = (log y x)3 = (ab)3
\a×b=
= 
log z y log x z  log y   log z   log y 
 log z   log x 
   
⇒ ab – a3b3 = 0 ⇒ ab(1 – a2b2) = 0 ⇒ ab = ±1

\ Only option (e) does not satisfy the condition, sin(2, 2) is not a possible value of (a, b).

PRACTICE SHEET
LEVEL–1 (iii) The solution of log99 (log2 (log3 x)) = 0
1. (i) The solution of logp (log2 (log7 x)) = 0 is (a) 4 (b) 9 (c) 44 (d) 99
(a) 2 (b) p2 (c) 72 (d) None of these (BCECE 2006)
(WBJEE 2008) 2. If x = logb a, y = logc b, z = loga c, then xyz is
Similar questions (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) abc (d) a + b + c
1 (UPSEE 2003)

(ii) log27 (log3 x) = ⇒x=
3 2 log 5
3. (i) 7 7 is equal to
(a) 3 (b) 6 (c) 9 (d) 27 (a) 5 (b) 25 (c) log7 25 (d) log7 35
(EAMCET 2004) (KCET 2007)
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-7
Similar question Similar question
2
(ii) The real roots of the equation 7log7 (x – 4x + 5) 1999
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 3 and 4 (d) 3 and 4 (ii) If x = 1999!, then ∑ log n x is equal to
(DCE 2001) x =1
 1 1  (a) – 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 1999
1999.
4.  +  is
log
 3 12 log 4 12  (AMU 2003)
1 log x log y log z
(a) 0 (b) (c) 1 (d) 2 14. If = = , then the value of xb + c . yc + a
2 b−c c−a a−b
(WBJEE 2009)
5. If a, b, c do not belong to the set {0, 1, 2, 3 .... 9}, then . za + b is
 a + 10b + 102 c  (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) abc (d) xyz
log10  −4 −3 −2  is equal to (KCET 2011)
 10 a + 10 b + 10 c  15. If logx484 – logx4 + logx14641 – logx1331 = 3, then the value
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 of x is
(EAMCET 2005) (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 11 (d) None of these
6. Assuming that the base is 10, the value of the expression (DCE 2008)
log 6 + 2 log 5 + log 4 – log 3 – log 2 is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 LEVEL–2
16. If log 5 = a and log 2 = b , then log 300 is equal to
a2 b2 c2 3 3 3
7. log + log + log equals
bc ac ab (a) a + b + 1 (b) 2(a + b + 1)
(c) 2(a + b + 2) (d) (a + b + 4)  (Kerala 2007)
(a) –1 (b) abc (c) 3 (d) 0
17. If log72 = λ, then the value of log49(28) is
8. If logr6 = m and logr 3 = n, then what is logr (r/2) equal
1
to ? (a) (2λ + 1) (b) (2λ + 1)
2
(a) m – n + 1 (b) m + n – 1 (c) 1 – m – n (d) 1 – m + n
3
(CDS 2009) (c) 2 (2λ + 1) (d) (2λ + 1)
2
9. The value of 25
( −1/4 log5 25)
is   (WBJEE 2011)
1 1 18. The value of x satisfying log2(3x – 2) = log 1 x is
(a) (b) – (c) –25 (d) None of these 2
5 25
1 1
2 (a) – 1 (b) − (c) (d) 1
10. If log10x – log10 x = , find the value of x. 3 3
log10 x
(AMU 2011)
1 1
(a) 10 (b) –1 (c) 100, (d) 19. log3 2, log6 2, log12 2 are in
100 1000
(CAT 2004) (a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) None of these
11. If log4 2 + log4 4 + log4 x + log4 16 = 6, then x is equal to (Raj PET 2006, 2001)
(a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 32 (d) 64 log 3 5 × log 25 27 × log 49 7
20. (i) The value of is
(KCET 2006) log81 3
2
12. If 2x . 3x + 4 = 7x, then x is equal to (a) 1 (b) (c) 3 (d) 6
3
3 log e 4 4 log e 3 (WBJEE 2010)
(a) (b)
log e 7 − log e 6 log e 6 − log e 7  1 
(ii) log 3 2   is equal to
3 log e 4 4 log e 3 4 4  1024 
(c) (d)
log e 6 − log e 7 log e 7 − log e 6 (a) – 5 (b) – 3 (c) 3 (d) 5
(MPPET 2009) (COMEDK 2010)
13. (i) If n = 1000 !, then the value of 21. If 2
log10 3 3
=3k log10 2
then the value of k is :
1 1 1 3
+ + ... + is (a) 1 (b) 1/2 (c) 2 (d)
log 2 n log 3 n log1000 n 2
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 10 (d) 103 1 1 1
22. + + is equal to :
(KCET 2009, Kerala PET 2006, DCE 2005) (log a bc) + 1 (log b ac) + 1 (log c ab) + 1
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) abc
Ch 1-8 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

23. What is the value of (log 1/2 2) (log 1/3 3) (log 1/4 4) 3 3
3 9
..... (log1/10001000) ? (c) M = (d) N =
N M
(a) 1 (b) –1 (c) 1 or –1 (d) 0 (CAT 2003)
(CDS 2007) log x log y log z
36. If = = , then
a 2 + ab + b 2 b 2 + bc + c 2 c 2 + ca + a 2
24. The value of log10 10 10 10 10 ....... to ∞ is
xa – b. yb – c. zc – a =
(a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1
(a) 0 (b) –1 (c) 1 (d) 2
1 37. If x, y, z are distinct positive numbers different from 1,
25. If loga m = x, then log1/a   equals
m such that (logyx. logzx – logxx) + (logx y.logz y – logy y)
1 1 + (logx z. logy z – logz z) = 0 then xyz equals
(a) (b) –x (c) – (d) x
x x (a) 100 (b) –1 (c) 10 (d) 1
26. Find the value of x if the base is 10 : th th th
38. If a, b, c be the p , q , r terms of a GP, then the value of
5logx – 3log x –1 = 3log x + 1 – 5log x –1 (q – r) log a + (r – p) log b + (p – q) log c is :
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 100 (d) 10 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –1 (d) pqr
log a log b log c 39. If 1, log9 (31–x + 2) and log3 (4.3x –1) are in A.P., then x is
27. If = = , then aabbcc equals :
b–c c–a a–b equal to
(a) –1 (b) 0 (c) abc (d) 1 (a) log43 (b) log34 (c) 1 + log34 (d) log3(3/4)
40. What is the sum, of 'n' terms in the series :
28. The value of log b a log 3 c b log 4 a c is :
 m2   m3   m4 
(a) 1 (b) 10 (c) 24 (d) 0 log m + log   + log  2  + log  3  + ........
 n  n  n 
29. Evaluate x if log3 (3 + x) + log3 (8 – x) – log3 (9x – 8)
n /2 n /2
= 2 – log39  n( n – 1)   mm 
(a) log  ( n + 1)  (b) log  n 
(a) 2 (b) –2 (c) 4 (d) –4 m  n 
30. If x = logabc, y = logbca, z = logcab, then n /2 n /2
 m(1 – n )   m(1 + n ) 
(a) xyz = x + y + z + 2 (b) xyz = x + y + z + 1 (c) log  (1 – m )  (d) log  ( n – 1) 
n  n 
(c) x + y + z = 1 (d) xyz = 1 (CAT 2003)
41. Find x, if log 2 x x + log 2 x = 0:
LEVEL–3 x

(a) 1, 2–5/6
(b) 1, 2–6/5
(c) 4, –2 (d) None of these
1 1 1
31. Given, log ax = , log b x = , log c x = , then log abcx 42. The number of solutions satisfying the given equation
α β γ  2 9 
equals : (log3 x ) – 2 log3 x + 5
x = 3 3 for x ∈ R are :
1
(a) abg (b) (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
αβγ
43. Solve the following equations for x and y.
1
(c) a + b + g (d) 1
α+β+γ log100 |x + y| = , log10 y – log10 | x | = log1004
2
1 1
32. If y = 1 − log x , z = 1 – log y and x = ak, then k =  8 16   10 20 
a a a a (a)  ,  , (–8, –16) (b)  ,  , (+10, 20)
3 3   3 3 
1 1 1 1
(a) 1 – log z (b) (c) (d)  10 20 
a a 1 – log a z 1 + log z a 1 – log z a (c)  – , –  , (70, 20) (d) None of these
 3 3 
33. Solve for x if a > 0 and 2 logxa + logaxa + 3 log a 2 x a = 0
44. If log (a + c) + log (a – 2b + c) = 2 log (a – c), then a, b, c are in
(a) a3/2 (b) a1/2 (c) a3/4 (d) a–4/3 (a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) None of these
34. Find the value of x, if log2 (5.2x + 1), log4(21–x + 1) and 3x 2
45. If 5
log10 2
= 2( x + 1/2)log10 25 , then the value of x is :
1 are in A.P.
(a) 1 + log52 (b) 1 – log25 (c) log210 (d) log25 + 1 1 1
(a) –1 (b) 2 (c) (d) –
(AIEEE 2002) 2 3
1 46. The number log27 is :
35. If log 3 M + 3log 3 N = 1 + log 0.008 5, then
3 (a) a prime number (b) a rational number
9 9 99 (c) an irrational number (d) an integer    (DCE 2000)
(a) M = (b) N =
N M
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-9
47. If x, y, z are in G.P. and (log x – log 2y), (log 2y – log 3z) 49. The value of
and (log 3z – log x) are in A.P., then x, y, z are the lengths 
of the sides of a triangle which is :  1 1 1 1 1
6 + log 3  4– 4– 4– 4– ... is
(a) acute angled (b) equilateral 2 
3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2
(c) right angled (d) obtuse angled 8 4
(a) (b) (c) 8 (d) 4
(Rajasthan PET 2006) 3 2 3
48. In a right-angled triangle, the sides are a, b and c with c as (IIT 2012)
hypotenuse and c – b ≠ 1, c + b ≠ 1. Then the value of 3/4(log 2 x ) 2
+ (log 2 x ) – 5/4
50. The equation x = 2 has
 log c + b a + log c – b a  (a) at least one real solution
  is
 2 log c + b a × log c – b a  (b) exactly one irrational solution
1 (c) exactly three real solutions
(a) –1 (b) (c) 1 (d) 2
2 (d) all of the above. (IIT 1989)
(WBJEE 2010)

ANSWERS
1. (i) (c) (ii) (d) (iii) (b) 2. (b) 3. (i) (b) (ii) (b) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (a)
10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (i) (b) (ii) (c) 14. (a) 15. (c) 16. (b) 17. (a) 18. (d) 19. (c)
20. (i) (c) (ii) (b) 21. (d) 22. (a) 23. (b) 24. (d) 25. (d) 26. (c) 27. (d) 28. (c)
29. (c) 30. (a) 31. (d) 32. (b) 33. (d) 34. (b) 35. (b) 36. (c) 37. (d) 38. (a)
39. (d) 40. (d) 41. (b) 42. (d) 43. (b) 44. (c) 45. (d) 46. (c) 47. (d) 48. (c)
49. (d) 50. (c)

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. (i) logp (log2 (log7 x)) = 0
a2 b2 c2  a 2 b2 c2 
⇒ (log2 (log7 x) = p0 = l [Using logam = x ⇒ m = ax] 7. log + log + log = log  × × 
bc ca ab  bc ac ab 
⇒ log7 x = 21 = 2 ⇒ x = 72.  a 2 b2 c2 
log e a log e b = log  2 2 2  = log 1 = 0.
2. Hint. x = logba ⇒ x = , y = log c b ⇒ y = a b c 
log e b log e c
8. Given, logr 6 = m and logr 3 = n
log e c
z = logac ⇒ z = . Since, logr 6 = logr (2 × 3) = logr2 + logr3
log e a
⇒ logr 2 + logr 3 = m
2log 5 log 5 2
log x
⇒ logr 2 + n = m ⇒ logr 2 = m – n
3. (i) 7 7 = 7 7 = 5           Using a a = x 
2
Now, logr (r/2) = logrr – logr2 = 1 – (m – n) = 1 – m + n.
log ( x 2 − 4 x + 5)
(ii) 7 7 =x–1  1 
 – 4 log5 25  
2
⇒ x – 4x + 5 = x – 1. Now, solve. 9. 25  = 5[2(–1/4) log5 25)]
1 1 (–1/2 log5 25) –1/ 2 1
+ = 5 = 5log5 (25) = 25–1/2 =
4. Hint. = log123 + log124 5
log 3 12 log 4 12
log x
 1  (Q a a = x )
 Using log a x = log a  10. Given, log10x – log10 x=
2
 x 
log10 x
 4  a + 10b + 102 c    x  2
5. Hint. Given exp. = log10 10  2  ⇒ log10   = log x
  a + 10b + 10 c    x 10
6. Given exp. = log 6 + 2 log5 + log 4 – log 3 – log 2 2 1 2
⇒ log10 x = ⇒ log10 x =
= log 6 + log (5)2 + log 4 – log 3 – log 2 log10 x 2 log10 x
= log 6 + log 25 + log 4 – (log 3 + log 2) ⇒ (log10 x)2 = 4 ⇒ log10 x = ± 2
= log (6 × 25 × 4) – log (3 × 2) If log10 x = + 2 then x = 102 = 100
 6 × 25 × 4  If log10 x = –2 then x = 10–2 = 1/100.
2
= log 
3 × 2  = log10 100 = log10 10 11. Hint. Given, log4 (2 × 4 × x × 16) = 6 ⇒ log4 (128x) = 6
 
= 2 log10 10 = 2 × 1 = 2. ⇒ 128x = 46   [Using loga x = n ⇒ x = an]

Ch 1-10 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

12. Hint. 2x . 3x + 4 = 7x ⇒ loge (2x . 3x + 4) = loge 7x


⇒ log3 2, log6 2, log12 2 and in H.P.
Taking log to the same base on both sides  1 
 Using log a x = log a 
⇒ x log 2 + (x + 4) log 3 = x log 7
 x 
⇒ x (log 7 – log 2 – log 3) = 4 log 3 3
log 3 5 × log 25 27 × log 49 7 log 3 5 × log 52 3 × log 72 7
1 1 1 20. (i) =
13. (i) Given, 1000! = n. Now, + + ... + log81 3 log 34 3
log 2 n log 3 n log1000 n
3 1
log 3 5 ×
log 5 3 × log 7 7
 1  2 2
= logn 2 + logn 3 + ... + logn 1000  Using = log a b  =
 log a  1
b log 3 3
4
= logn (2 × 3 × 4 × ... × 1000) = logn (1000!) = logn n = 1.
 m m 1 
14. Hint.
log x log y log z
= = = k (suppose)  Using log a n x = n log a x, log a n x = n log a x 
b−c c−a a−b
= 3 (log3 5 × log5 3) = 3 × 1 = 3  [Using logb a × loga b = 1]
⇒ loge x = k (b – c) ⇒ x = ek (b – c) 1 4 10
log y = k (c – a) ⇒ y = ek (c – a) 3 2+
2 2 4
e (ii) Hint. Since 4. 4 = 2 .(2 ) 3 = 2 3 = 2 3 and
log z = k (a – b) ⇒ z = ek (a – b)
e 1024 = 210, therefore,
\ xb + c . yc + a . za + b − 10
 1  − 10
= ek (b – c) (b + c) . ek (c – a) (c + a) . ek (a – b) (a + b) log 3 2   = log 210/3 (2 ) = 10 log 2 2
4. 4  1024 
Now, complete. 3
15. Hint. logx 484 – logx 4 + logx 14641 – logx 1331 = 3  m m 
⇒ logx (22 × 112) – logx (22) + logx (114) – logx (113) = 3
= – 3 × 1 = – 3.  Using log a n x = n log a x .

⇒ 2 logx 2 + 2 logx 11 – 2 logx 2 + 4 logx 11 – 3 logx 11 = 3 3/ 2
21. 2
log10 3 3
= 3k log10 2 ⇒ 2log10 (3 )
= 3k log10 2
⇒ 3 logx 11 = 3 ⇒ logx 11 = 1 ⇒ x1 = 11 ⇒ x = 11.
log 2 (33/ 2 ) . log10 2
2 ⇒ 2
= 3k log10 2 [Using logax = logbx . logab]
 2
16. Hint. log 3 300 = log 3 ( 3 ) .10  log10 2
⇒  2
log 2 (33/ 2 )  3/ 2
 = (3k )log10 2 ⇒ 2log 2 3 = 3k
= 2 log 3
3 + 2 log 3
10 = 2 + 2 log 3
(2 × 5)
3
2
17. log 49 (28) = log 72 (7 × 2 ) = log 72 7 + log 72 2
2 ⇒ 3

3/2
= 3k ⇒ k = (Q a log a x = x)
2
1 2 1 1 1
= log 7 7 + log 7 2 22. + +
2 2 log a bc + 1 log b ac + 1 log c ab + 1
 1 m m  1 1 1
 Using log a n x = n log a x, log a n ( x ) = n log a x  = + +
log a bc + log a a log b ac + log b b log c ab + log c c
1 1
= + λ = ( 2λ + 1) . 1 1 1
2 2 = + +
18. Given, log 2 (3 x − 2) = log 1 x ⇒ log 2 (3 x − 2) = log 2− 1 x log a (abc) log b (abc) log c (abc)
2 = logabc(a) + logabc(b) + logabc(c) = logabcabc = 1
1  1  1 
⇒ log 2 (3 x − 2) =
log 2 x     Using log a n x = log a x 
−1  n   Using log a b = log a 
 b 
⇒ log2 (3x – 2) = (– 1) log2 x = log2 x– 1

1
[Using n loga x = loga xn]
23. (log1/22) (log1/33) (log1/44) ......... log
( 1 1000
1000
)

⇒ (3x – 2) = = x– 1
⇒ 3x2 – 2x – 1 = 0  log 2   log 3   log 4   log 1000 
x =  .......... 
1 1 1 1 
1  log   log   log   log 
⇒ (3x + 1) (x – 1) = 0 ⇒ x = −
or 1  2 3 4  1000 
3
1  log 2   log 3  log 4   log 1000 

⇒x = 1, since log2 (3x – 2) is not defined when x = −. =      ..........  
3  – log 2   − log 3  − log 4   – log 1000 
19. Since log2 3 + log2 12 = log2 (3 × 12) = log2 36 = log2 62 1
(Q log = log 1 – log 2 = 0 – log 2 = – log 2 and
= 2 log2 6, therefore, 2
log2 3, log2 6 and log2 12 in A.P. similarly for others)
1 1 1 = (–1) × (–1) × (–1) × ......... × (–1) = –1
⇒ , , and in H.P. (Q Number of terms is odd )
log 2 3 log 2 6 log 2 12
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-11
24. Given exp. = log10 (101/2 101/4 101/8 .......... to ∞) 1 1 1
+ +
x +1 y +1 z +1
1 1 1 
 + + + ........... to ∞  \ abc = (abc)

= log10 10 2 4 8 
1 1 1
1 1 1 
⇒ + + = 1 ⇒ (y + 1) (z + 1) + (x + 1)
=  + + + ........ to ∞  . log10 10 x +1 y +1 z +1
2 4 8  (z + 1) + (x + 1) (y + 1) = (x + 1) (y + 1) (z + 1)
[Using loga xn = n loga x]
⇒ yz + y + z + 1 + xz + x + z + 1 + xy + y + x + 1 = xyz + xy
1/2
= ×1 =1 + yz + zx + x + y + z + 1
(1 – 1/2)
⇒ x + y + z + 2 = xyz.
 a 
 Using sum of GP of infinite terms = 1 – r  1 1 1
  31. a = ,β= ,γ=
log a x log b x log c x
25. logam = x ⇒ ax = m ⇒ a = logx a, b = logx b, g = logx c
log1/a 1/m = y ⇒ (1/a)y = 1/m ⇒ m = ay ⇒ ay = ax ⇒ y = x ⇒ a + b + g = logx a + logx b + logx c = logx(abc)
26. 5log x – 3log x –1 = 3log x + 1 – 5log x –1 1 1
⇒ 5log x – 3log x × 3–1 = 3log x. 3 – 5log x. 5–1 ⇒ = = log abc x.
α + β + γ log x (abc)
1 log x 1 1
⇒ 5log x – × 3 = 3 × 3log x – × 5log x 32. y = = a –(1 – log a x )
3 5 1– log a x
a
 1  log x  1 10 6 1 1
⇒ 3 + 3 = 1 +  5log x ⇒ × 3log x = × 5log x ⇒ logay =
and log a z =
 3  5 3 5 1 – log a x 1 – log a y
log x 2
3log x 6 3 9 3 3 1 1 – log a x

⇒ log x
= × = ⇒  =  \ logaz =
=
5 5 10 25 5 5  1  – log a x
2
⇒ log10 x = 2 ⇒ x = 10 = 100 1– 
 1 – log a x 
log a log b log c 1 1
27. Let = = =k
b–c c–a a–b ⇒ – log a z = –1 +
⇒ = 1 – log a z
log a x log a x
⇒ log a = k(b – c), log b = k(c – a), log c = k(a – b) 1
Now let a ab bc c = p. Then, ⇒ loga x =

1 – log a z
log p = loga a + logb b + logc c = a log a + b log b + c log c 1
1 – log a z 1
= a × k (b – c) + b × k(c – a) + c × k (a – b) ⇒ x=a
= ak ⇒ k = .
= k(ab – ac + bc – ba + ca – cb) = 0 1 – log a z
⇒ log p = log 1      (Putting log 1 for 0) 1 1 1
33. Since log ax a = = = and
⇒ p = 1 ⇒ aa bb cc = 1. log a ax log a a + log a x 1 + log a x
m m 1 1 1
28. Using the formula log a n x = log a x, we have log a 2 x a =
2
= 2
=
n log a a x log a a + log ax x 2 log a a + log ax x
b log a log 3c b log 4a c = log b1/ 2
a log c1/3 b log a1/ 4 c 1
=
= 2 logba × 3 logcb × 4 logac 2 + log a x
log a log b log c Given, 2 logxa + logaxa + 3 log a 2 x a = 0
= 24 × × = 24.
log b log c log a 2 1 3
⇒ + + =0
29. log3 (3 + x) + log3 (8 – x) – log3 (9x – 8) = 2 – log39 log a x 1 + log a x 2 + log a x
⇒ log3 (3 + x) + log3 (8 – x) – log3 (9x – 8) + log39 = 2 2 1 3
Now let logax = t, then + + =0
 (3 + x) (8 – x) (9)  t 1+ t 2 + t
⇒ log 3 
(9 x – 8) =2 ⇒ 2(1 + t) (2 + t) + t(2 + t) + 3t (1 + t) = 0
 
9(24 + 8 x – 3 x – x 2 ) ⇒ 2(2 + 2t + t + t2) + 2t + t2 + 3t + 3t2 = 0

⇒ = 32 = 9 ⇒ 4 + 6t + 2t2 + 2t + t2 + 3t + 3t2 = 0
(9 x – 8)
⇒ 6t2 + 11t + 4 = 0
⇒ –x2 + 5x + 24 = 9x – 8 ⇒ x2 + 4x – 32 = 0
⇒ (3t + 4) (2t + 1) = 0 ⇒ t = –1/2, – 4/3
⇒ (x + 8) (x – 4) = 0 ⇒ x = – 8, 4. 1 –1/2
Taking the positive value x = 4. When t = – 1/2, logax = – ⇒ x = a
2
30. x = logabc ⇒ ax = bc ⇒ ax + 1 = abc ⇒ a = (abc)1/(x + 1) 4 4 –4/ 3
When t = – , log a x = – ⇒ x = a
Similarly, b = (abc)1/(y + 1), c = (abc)1/(z + 1) 3 3
Ch 1-12 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

34. Given, log2 (5.2x


+ 1), log4 (21 – x
+ 1), 1 are in A.P.
(log x) 2 (log y ) 2 (log z ) 2
x 1 – x
⇒ log2 (5.2 + 1) + 1 = 2 log4 (2 + 1)
\ LHS = –1 + –1 + –1
log y. log z log z. log x log x. log y
1− x
⇒ log2 (5.2x + 1) + log22 = 2 log 22 (2
+ 1)
(log x)3 + (log y )3 + (log z )3 – 3log x. log y. log z
= =0
1 log x. log y. log z
⇒ log2 (5.2x + 1).2 = 2 ×
log 2 (21 – x + 1)
2 (given)
 1 
Q log a n x = log a x  ⇒ (log x)3 + (log y)3 + (log z)3 – 3 log x. log y. log z = 0
 n  ⇒ log x + log y + log z = 0
⇒ log2 (10.2x + 2) = log2 (21 – x + 1)
(if a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc)
2
⇒ 10.2x + 2 = 21 – x + 1 ⇒ 10.2x + 2 = x + 1 ⇒ log xyz = 0 ⇒ xyz = 1.
2 38. Let h be the first term and k be the common ratio of a GP,
Let 2x = a, then
then
2 2 2
10. a + 2 = + 1 ⇒ 10a + 1 = ⇒ 10a + a – 2 = 0 a = hk p – 1, b = hk q – 1, c = hk r – 1
a a
\ (q – r) log a + (r – p) log b + (p – q) log c
2 2
⇒ (5 a – 2) (2a + 1) = 0 ⇒ a = ⇒ 2 =
x = log [hkp –1]q – r + log [hkq –1]r – p + log[hkr –1]p – q
5 5 = log(hq – r + r – p + p – q) (kp – 1)q – r (kq –1)r – p (kr –1)p – q
 x 1
Q 2 > 0, reject a = –  = log(hº kº) = log 1 = 0.
 2
2 39. 1, log9 (31 – x + 2), log3 (4.3x –1) are in A.P.
x
⇒ log 2 = log ⇒ log33 , log3 (31– x + 2)1/2, log3 (4.3x – 1) are in A.P.

5
⇒ x log2 2 = log2 2 – log2 5 ⇒ x = 1 – log2 5. ⇒ 3, (31 – x + 2)1/2, (4.3x – 1) are in G.P.

1  1− x 1− x 1 1− x
35. log 3 M + 3 log3 N = 1 + log 0.008 5
3
Since log 9 (3 + 2) = log 32 (3 + 2) = 2 log 3 (3 + 2),
⇒ log3 M1/3 + log3N3 = 1 + log0.0085 1
1

⇒ log3 M1/3 N3 = 1 + log0.0085 using log a n x = log a x = log 3 (31 − x + 2) 2 


n 
(1 + log 5)
⇒ M1/3 N3 = 3
0.008 ⇒ [[31–x + 2]1/2]2 = 3.(4.3x – 1)
log
⇒ M1/3 N3 = 31 . 3 0.008

5 ⇒ 31 – x + 2 = 4.3x + 1 – 3
27 3 log 0.0085 3
⇒ N 9 =
(3 ) ⇒ 4.3x + 1 – 31– x = 5 ⇒ 12.3x – x = 5
M 3

⇒ N 9
= (
27 log(0.2)3 (5 )
3
3
) Let 3x = y, then 12y –
3
y
= 5 ⇒ 12y2 – 5y –3 = 0
M
27 log0.2 5  m  1 3
⇒ N 9 = (3 ) Q log a n x m = log a x ⇒ (3y + 1) (4y – 3) = 0 ⇒ y = –
,
M  n  3 4
27 1 9 3
⇒ N 9 = (3log1/5 5 ) = (27) (3–1 ) = . \ Rejecting the negative value, we have 3x =

M M M 4
3
36. Let each ratio = k and base = e ⇒ x = log 3
.
4
⇒ loge x = k(a2 + ab + b2)
m2 m3
⇒ (a – b) loge x = k (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2) 40. S = log m + log + log 2 + ......... n terms
3 n n
k (a – b3 )
⇒ loge xa – b = k(a3 – b3) ⇒ xa – b = e
 m m 2 3
mn   m(1+ 2 + 3 + 4 + ........ + n ) 
k (b 3
– c3 ) 3
– a3 ) = log  m · · 2 ......... n –1  = log  (1+ 2 + 3 + ....... ( n –1) 
Similarly, yb – c = e , z c – a = ek (c  n n n   n 
3
k (a – b3 ) 3
– c3 ) 3
– a3 )
\ xa – b . yb – c . zc – a = e
. e k (b . ek (c  n ( n + 1)  n/ 2
m 2   mn + 1 
= e
k [ a 3 – b3 + b3 – c 3 + c 3 – a 3 ]
= e = 1. 0 = log  n ( n – 1)  = log  n – 1  .
 n 2  n 
log x log x (log x) 2
37. logyx . logzx – logxx = . –1= –1
log y log z log y. log z 41. log 2 x x + log 2 x x = 0 ...(i)
(log y ) 2 Let log2 x = t. Then,
Similarly, logx y . logz y – logy y = – 1 and 1
log x. log z log 2 x
log 2 x 2 t /2
(log z ) 2 log 2 x x = = =
logx z. logy z – logz z = –1 log 2 2 x log 2 2 + log 2 x 1 + t
log x. log y
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-13

log 2 x log 2 x t 3 x 2 log10 2


 1
 x +  log10 25
log 2 x= = = 45. 5 = 2 2
x
log 2 2 x log 2 + 1 log x 1 + t /2
2 2  2x + 1
2 3 x 2 log10 2   × 2 log10 5
\ Substituting in (i), we get ⇒ 5
= 2 2  = 2(2 x + 1) log10 5
t /2 t t 2t 3 x 2 log10 2
+ =0⇒ + =0 ⇒ 5
= 2(2 x + 1) log 2 5. log10 2
1 + t 1 + t /2 2 + 2t 2 + t (using loga x = logb x . loga b)
⇒ t(2 + t) + 2t (2 + 2t) = 0 ⇒ 2t + t2 + 4t + 4t2 = 0
3 x 2 log10 2
= [2log 2 5
(2 x + 1)
]log10 2
⇒ 5

6 2
⇒ 5t2 + 6t = 0 ⇒ t(5t + 6) = 0 ⇒ t = 0 or –
3 x log 2
⇒ (5 ) 10 = (5

2 x + 1 log10 2
) log x
     Using a a = x 
5
6 ⇒ 3x2 = 2x + 1 ⇒ 3x2 – 2x – 1 = 0

⇒ log2 x = 0 ⇒ x = 20 = 1 and log2 x = –
⇒ x = 2–6/5
5
⇒ (x – 1) (3x + 1) = 0
\ x = 1 or 2–6/5 1
⇒ x = 1, –
.
42. Taking log of both the sides to base 3, we have, 3
46. Let us assume log27 be a rational number. Then,
 2 9  3
(log 3 x) – 2 log 3 x + 5 log3x = log33 = 2 (Q log33 = 1)
3/2
p
log27 = , where p,q ∈ I and q ≠ 0
⇒ 2(log3x)3 – 9(log3x)2 + 10 log3x – 3 = 0 q
⇒ 2y3 – 9y2 + 10y – 3 = 0 (Take log3x = y) ⇒ 2p/q = 7 ⇒ 2p = 7q
This is not true as 2 is even and 7 is odd.
⇒ (y – 1) (y – 3) (2y – 1) = 0 (Factorising)
\ Hence our assumption that log27 is a rational number is
⇒ (log3x– 1) (log3x – 3) (2 log3x – 1) = 0 wrong.
⇒ log3x = 1, log3x = 3, 2 log3x = 1 ⇒ x = 31, x = 33, x2 = 31 \ log27 is an irrational number.
⇒ x = (3, 27, 3 )
47. x, y, z are in G.P. ⇒ y2 = xz ...(i)

\ There are three solutions. (log x – log 2y), (log 2y – log 3z) and (log 3z – log x) are in A.P.
1 ⇒ 2(log 2y – log 3z) = (log x – log 2y) + (log 3z – log x)
1
43. log100|x + y| = ⇒ | x + y | = 100 2 3
2 ⇒ 3 log 2y = 3 log 3z ⇒ log 2y = log 3z ⇒ y = z .
2
⇒ |x + y| = 10 as (–10 is inadmissible) ...(i) \ Putting the value of y in (i), we have
log10y – log10| x | = log1004 2
3  9
y  z  = xz ⇒ x = z.
⇒ log10 = log102 22 = log10 2 2  4
|x| Now, by the cosine rule of triangles,
m C
 m y 2 + z 2 – x2
          Using log a n ( x ) = log a x cos A = , x
 n 2 yz y
y where x is the length of the
⇒ = 2 ⇒ y = 2 | x | ...(ii) B
|x| side opposite ∠A. A z
2 2
Substituting the value of y from (ii) in (i), we get 3  2 9  9 2 81 2
 z + z –  z z + z2 – z
| x + 2| x || = 10 2  4  = 4 16
10 ⇒ cos A =
If x > 0, then 3x = 10 ⇒ x = 3 3z 2
3 2× z× z
2
If x < 0, then x = 10. 9 81
10 20 +1–
\ If x = , then y = and if x = 10, y = 20. = 4 16 = 1 ×  36 + 16 – 81  = – 29 < 0
3 3 3 3  16  48
44. Given, log (a + c) + log (a – 2b + c) = 2 log (a – c)  cos A is less than 0, i.e, negative, ∠A is obtused and the
⇒ log (a + c) (a – 2b + c) = log (a – c)2
triangle is obtuse angled.
⇒ (a + c) (a – 2b + c) = (a – c)2
48. In a right angled triangle with a, b as sides and c as
2 2 2 2
hypotenuse,
⇒ a + ca – 2ba – 2bc + ac + c = a – 2ac + c
c2 = a2 + b2 (Pythagoras’ Theorem)
⇒ 4ac = 2ba + 2bc ⇒ 2ac = b(a + c)
log c + b a + log c – b a
2ac Now, given expression =
\b=
⇒ a, b, c are in H.P. 2 × log c + b a × log c – b a
a+c 1 1 1 
=  +
2  log c – b a log c + b a 
Ch 1-14 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

1 1 –2
= [log a (c – b) + log a (c + b)] = [log a [(c – b) (c + b)]
3
= 6 + log 3   = 6 – 2 log 3 3/2 = 6 – 2 = 4.
2 2 2
2 2
1 2 2 1 2
= [log a (c – b )] = log a a = log a a = 1.
2 2 2
3/4(log 2 x )
50. Given, x + log 2 x − 5 / 4 = 2
49. Let
A=6+ Taking log to the base 2 of both the sides, we have
  3 (log 2 x) 2 + (log 2 x) – 5/4 
log 3 
1
4–
1
4–
1
4–
1
4–
1  4  log2x = log 2 2
....
2 
3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 1/2 1 1
= log 2 2 = log 2 2 =
2 2
1 1 1 1
Let p = 4– 4– 4– 4– .... Let us assume log2x = a. Then,
3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2
3 2 5 1 3 2
 a + a –  a = ⇒ 3a + 4a – 5a = 2
1 1 1 4 4 2
⇒p=
4– p ⇒ p2 = 4 – p ⇒ p2 + p – 4= 0
3 2 3 2 3 2 ⇒ 3a3 + 4a2 – 5a – 2 = 0.
Using hit and trial method check for a = 1.
1 1 1 17 f (a) = 3a3 + 4a2 – 5a – 2 ⇒ f(1) = 3.13 + 4.12 – 5.1 – 2 = 0
– ± + 16 – ±
3 2 18
⇒ p=
= 3 2 3 2 \ (a – 1) is a factor of 3a3 + 4a2 – 5a – 2
2 2 \ Now by dividing 3a3 + 4a2 – 5a – 2 by (a – 1), we get
(Applying the formula for roots of Q.E.) 3a3 + 4a2 – 5a – 2 = (a – 1) (3a + 1) (a + 2) = 0
16 –18 8 3 1
⇒p=
or = or – ⇒ a = 1 or a = – or a = – 2
3× 2 2 3× 2 2 3 2 2 3
1
–3 8 ⇒ log2x = 1 or log2x = – or log2x = – 2
Neglecting p = as p ≥ 0, we have p = 3
2 3 2 1
 1 8  4 ⇒ x = 21 = 2 or x = 2–1/3 or x = 2–2 =
× 4
\ A = 6 + log 3 
 = 6 + log 3  9  \ The given equation has exactly three real solutions,
2
3 2 3 2  2
wherein x = 2–1/3 is irrational.

SELF ASSESSMENT SHEET


1. If log2 [log7(x2 – x + 37)] = 1, then what could be the value (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) lmn (d) 2
of x ? a – 2b
6. If a = log12m and b = log18m, then equals
(a) 3 (b) 5 (c) 4 (d) None of these b – 2a
(CAT 1997) (a) log32 (b) log23 (c) 0 (d) 1
7. If x = log2aa, y = log3a2a, z = log4a3a, then xyz – 2yz equals
2. log 3
3 3 3 3 =
(a) a3 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) –1
31 15 7 15
(a) (b) (c) (d) n
2x
32 16 16 8 8. The sum of n terms of the series ∑ log 3x – 1 is :
x =1
3. Find the sum of ‘n’ terms of the series :
2 3 4 3 n – 1  n /2  2n – 1 
n /2
x x x x (a) log  n + 1  (b) log  n + 1 
log 2   + log 4   + log8   + log16   + .........
2  3 
 y  y  y  y
n /2 n /2
x
4n
x  3n + 1   2n + 1 
(a) log 2   (b) n log 2   (c) log  n – 1  (d) log  n – 1 
 y  y 2  3 
n – 1 n ( n + 1) (UPSEE 2011)
x  1 x
(c) log 2  n – 1  (d) log 2   9. The number of meaningful solutions of
y  2  y   log4(x – 1) = log2 (x – 3) is
4. If logxa, ax/2 and logbx are in GP, then x is equal to : (a) zero (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
(a) loga (logba) (b) loga (logea) – loga (logeb) (IIT 2001)
1/2
(c) –loga (logab) (d) both (a) and (b)  1 1
log 2.5 + +
1
+ ...... + ∞  


10. The value of 0.16  3 32 33  is:
log x log y log z
5. If = = , then xyz is equal to :
l + m – 2n m + n – 2l n + l – 2m (a) –1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) None of these
(AMU 2009)
LOGARITHMS Ch 1-15

SELF ASSESSMENT SHEET


1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (d)

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. log2 [log7(x2 – x + 37)] = 1 log a log 2a
7. x = log2a a = , y = log 3a 2a =
⇒ log7(x2 – x + 37) = 21 = 2 log 2a log 3a
⇒ x2 – x + 37 = 72 = 49 ⇒ x2 – x – 12 = 0
log 3a
Now solve for x. z = log 4 a 3a =

log 4a
1 1 1 1
+ + +
2. Given expression = log 32 4 8 16 log a log 2a log 3a log 2a log 3a
3 \ xyz – 2yz =
. . –2 .
15 15 log 2a log 3a log 4a log 3a log 4a
15/16
= log 31/ 2 3 = × 2 log 3 3 = .
16 8 log a log 2a log a – 2 log 2a
3. Given series = –2 =
log 4a log 4a log 4a
2 3 4
x x x x
= log2   + log 22   + log 23   + log 24   + ...... log a – log (2a ) 2 log a /4a 2 log (4a ) –1 −1.log 4a
y
  y
  y
   y = = = = = – 1.
log 4a log 4a log (4a ) log 4a
x x x x
= log 2   + log 2   + log 2   + log 2   + ....n terms n
2x  21   22   23   2n 
y
  y
  y
   y 8. ∑ log 3x –1 = log  0  + log  1  + log  2  + ... + log  n – 1 
3  3  3  3 
x x x x  x =1
= log 2  . . . . ...... n terms 
 y y y y   21 22 23 2n 
n
= log  0 . 1 . 2 . ........ n – 1 
x  x 3 3 3 3 
= log2   = n log 2   .
y
   y   n ( n + 1) n/ 2
 21 + 2 + 3 + ....... + n    2n + 1 
2 2
4. logxa, ax/2, logbx are in GP ⇒ [ax/2]2 = logxa . logbx = log  1 + 2 + 3 + ...... + ( n – 1)  = log
 = log  n ( n – 1)
 
3    3n – 1 
 3 2
log a log x
⇒ ax = .
log x log b 9. log4(x – 1) = log2(x – 3) ⇒ log 22 ( x − 1) = log2(x – 3)
log a 1
⇒ ax = = log b a ⇒ log 2 ( x –1) = log 2 ( x – 3) ⇒ log 2 ( x –1) = 2 log 2 ( x – 3)

log b 2
⇒ x = loga (logba)  n n 
 log e a   Using log a m (b ) = m log a b 
= log a   = log a (log e a ) – log a (log e b)
 log e b  ⇒ log2(x – 1) = log2(x – 3)2
log x log y log z ⇒ (x – 1) = (x – 3)2 ⇒ x – 1 = x2 – 6x + 9
5. Let = = = k . Then
l + m – 2n m + n – 2l n + l – 2m ⇒ x2 – 7x + 10 = 0 ⇒ (x – 2) (x – 5) = 0 ⇒ x = 2 or 5
log x = k(l + m – 2n), log y = k(m + n – 2l); log z = k(n + l – 2m) Neglecting x = 2 as log2(x – 3) is defined when x > 2.
⇒ log x + log y + log z = k(l + m – 2n) + k(m + n – 2l)
⇒ There is only one meaningful solution of the given
+ k(n + l – 2m) equation.
⇒ log(xyz) = 0 ⇒ log(xyz) = log 1 ⇒ xyz = 1. 1/2 1/2
 1 1
log 2.5  + +
1
+ ....... ∞  
   1/3  
2 log 2.5 
a – 2b log12 m – 2 log18 m   3 32 33  

1 – 1/3  
6. = 10. (0.16)  = (0.4) 
b – 2a log18 m – 2 log12 m
 First term 
log m
–2
log m Q Sum of infinite GP = 1 – common ratio 
log 12 log 18 log m log18 – 2 log m log12  
= =
log m log m log m log12 – 2 log m log 18
–2
log 18 log 12  log5/ 2   
 1   1 
log5/ 2  2   log −1 (2)−1 
 2

=  (0.4)  =
   (0.4)  = 0.4 (2/5) 
log18 – 2 log 12 log (32 × 2) – 2 log(22 × 3)
= =
log12 – 2 log 18 log(22 × 3) – 2 log (32 × 2)  bn n 
Q log a m = m log a b 
2 log 3 + log 2 – 4 log 2 – 2 log 3 –3 log 2 log 2
= = = = log 3 2. log 2/5 2 log 0.4 2
2 log 2 + log 3 – 4 log 3 − 2 log 2 –3log 3 log 3 = 0.4 = 0.4 = 2.     Using a log a x = x 
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-1

2 Polynomials

KEY FACTS
1. A function f (x) of the form f (x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .......... + anxn
where a0, a1, a2, ........., an are real numbers, an ≠ 0 and n is a non negative integer is called a polynomial in x.
The real numbers a0, a1, a2, .........., an are called coefficients of the polynomial.
Ex. (a) 6x2 – 8x + 5 is a polynomial with integral coefficients.
9 3 4 2
(b) x + x – 8 is a polynomial with rational coefficients.
5 7
(c) 6x4 – 3 x 2 + 3 5 is a polynomial with real coefficients.
2. Types of Polynomials
1 2
● Monomial : A polynomial having only one term as 9, 2 x, x , etc.
4
● Binomial : A polynomial having only two terms as 4x – 5, 6x2 + 8x, etc.
1
● Trinomial : A polynomial having only three terms as 4x2 – 2 x +
3
3. Degree of a Polynomial :
● The degree of a polynomial in one variable is the highest exponent of the variable in that polynomial.
Degree of 9x7 – 6x5 + 4x3 + 8 is 7.
● The degree of a polynomial in more than one variable is the highest sum of the powers of the variables.
Degree of 4x5 – 6x2y4 + 8 – 3xy6 is 1 + 6 = 7.
● A polynomial is said to be linear, quadratic, cubic or biquadratic if its degree is 1, 2, 3 or 4 respectively.
● A constant is a polynomial of degree 0.
4. Division of a Polynomial by Another Polynomial.
If f (x) and g(x) are two polynomials, g(x) ≠ 0, such that f (x) = g(x). q(x) + r(x) where degree of r(x) < degree of
f (x), then f (x) is divided by g(x), and it gives q(x) as quotient and r(x) as remainder.
Note : If r(x) = 0, then the divisor g(x) is a factor of f (x).
5. Remainder Theorem : If f (x) be any polynomial of degree ≥ 1, and a be any number, then if f (x) is divided
by (x – a), the remainder is f (a).
Ex. (a) The remainder when f (x) = (5x2 – 4x – 1) is divided by (x – 1) is f (1) = 5.12 – 4.1 – 1 = 0.
(b) The remainder when f (x) = x4 + 2x3 – 3 is divided by (x + 2) is f (–2) = (–2)4 + 2.(–2)3 – 3 = 16 – 16 – 3 = –3.
6. Factor Theorem : Let f (x) be a polynomial of degree n > 0. If f (a) = 0, for any real number a, then (x – a) is
a factor of f (x).
Conversely, if (x – a) is a factor of f (x), then f (a) = 0.
Ex. f (x) = x3 – 6x2 + 11x – 6 is exactly divisible by (x – 1) as f (1) = 13 – 6.12 + 11.1 – 6 = 0.
Ch 2-1
Ch 2-2 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

7. Some useful Identities :


● (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ● (a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab
● (a + b) (a – b) = a2 – b2 ● (a + b)2 + (a – b)2 = 2(a2 + b2)
● (a + b)2 – (a – b)2 = 4ab ● (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b)
● (a – b)3 = a3 – b3 – 3ab (a – b) ● a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 + b2 – ab)
● a3 – b3 = (a – b) (a2 + b2 + ab) ● (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 (ab + bc + ca)
● (a3 + b3 + c3) – 3abc = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – ca – bc)
● a + b + c = 0 ⇒ a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc ● (an – bn) is divisible by (a – b) for all values of n.
● (an – bn) is divisible by (a + b) for only even values of n.
● (an + bn) is never divisible by (a – b) ● (an + bn) is divisible by (a + b) only when n is odd.
8. Note : When a polynomial f (x) is divided by (x – a) and (x – b), the respective remainders are A and B. Then, if
the same polynomial is divided by (x – a) (x – b), then the remainder will be :
A–B Ba – Ab
x+ .
a–b a–b
9. Homogeneous Expressions : If all the terms of an algebraic expression are of the same degree, then such
an expression is called homogeneous expression.
● Homogeneous expressions in (x, y) of ● Homogeneous expression in (x, y, z) of
Degree 1 → px + qy Degree 1 → px + qy + rz
Degree 2 → px2 + rxy + qy2 Degree 2 → px2 + qy2 + rz2 + sxy + tyz + uzx
Degree 3 → px3 + rx2y + sxy2 + qy3 Degree 3 → ax3 + by3 + cz3 + dx2y + exy2 + fy2z + gyz2 + hz2x + kzx2.
10. Symmetric Expression : An algebraic expression f (x, y) in two variables x, y is called a symmetric expression
if f (x, y) = f (y, x).
An algebraic expression f (x, y, z) is said to be a cyclic expression, if f (x, y, z) = f (y, z, x) = f (z, x, y)
e.g. f (a, b, c) = a(b – c) + b(c – a) + c(a – b)
● ∑ (Sigma) is used for the sum of the terms of a cyclic expression.

Ex. ∑ x ( y – z ) = x3 (y – z) + y3(z – x) + z3(x – y)


3

x, y , z

● p (Pi) is used for the product of the terms of a cyclic expression.


Ex. π (a – b) = (a – b) (b – c) (c – a)
a , b, c

11. Horner’s Method of Synthetic Division for Factorization


Ex. Divide 3x3 – 2x2 – 19x + 22 by (x – 2)
2 3 –2 –19 22
Sol. 0 6 8 22
Multiplier × 2 × 2 × 2
3 4 –11 0 Remainder
\ f (x) = (x – 2) + 4x – 11)(3x2
Step 1: Write the coefficients of the descending powers of x in the first horizontal row.
Step 2: The multiplier is obtained by putting the divisor (x – 2) = 0 ⇒ x = 2.
Step 3: Now below the 1st coefficient, i.e., 3 in the first horizontal row, put 0 and add 3 + 0, i.e., 3.
Now 3 × multiplier = 3 × 2 = 6 = 2nd element of 2nd horizontal row. –2 + 6 = 4
Now 4 × multiplier = 4 × 2 = 8 = 3rd element of 2nd horizontal row. –19 + 8 = – 11
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-3
For the last element again –11 × 2 = 22 and 22 + (– 22) = 0.
The first three figures in the third row stand for the coefficients of descending powers of x of quotient and the last
entry is for the remainder.

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex. 1. For what value of p is the coefficient of x2 in the product (2x – 1) (x – k) (px + 1) equal to 0 and the constant
term equal to 2 ? (CDS 2005)
Sol. (2x – 1) (x – k) (px + 1) = (2x – 1) (px2 + x – kpx – k)
= 2px3 + 2x2 – 2kpx2 – 2kx – px2 – x + kpx + k
= 2px3 + x2 [2 – 2kp – p] –x [2k + 1 – kp] + k
Here constant term = k = 2.

Coefficient of x2 = 2 – 2kp – p = 2 – 4p – p = 2 – 5p
2
Given, 2 – 5p = 0 ⇒ p = .
5
Ex. 2. For what value of m will the expression 3x3 + mx2 + 4x – 4m be divisible by x + 2 ? (CDS 2005)
Sol. f (x) = 3x3 + mx2 + 4x – 4m
f (x) is divisible by (x + 2) if f (–2) = 0

Now f (–2) = 3(–2)3 + m(–2)2 + 4(–2) – 4m = – 24 + 4m – 8 – 4m = – 32 ≠ 0
\ No such value of m exists for which (x + 2) is a factor of the given expression.

Ex. 3. If x5 – 9x2 + 12x – 14 is divisible by (x – 3), what is the remainder ? (CDS 2011)
Sol. Let f (x) = x5 – 9x2 + 12x – 14
f (x) is divisible by (x – 3) so remainder = f (3).

\ f (3) = (3)5 – 9(3)2 + 12(3) – 14 = 243 – 81 + 36 – 14 = 184.

Ex. 4. If the expressions (px3 + 3x2 – 3) and (2x3 – 5x + p) when divided by (x – 4) leave the same remainder,
then what is the value of p ?
Sol. Let f (x) = px3 + 3x2 – 3
g(x) = 2x3 – 5x + p
When divisible by x – 4, the remainders for the given expressions are f (4) and g(4) respectively.
f (4) = p(4) 3 + 3(4)2 – 3 = 64p + 48 – 3 = 64p + 45
g(4) = 2(4)3 – 5(4) + p = 128 – 20 + p = 108 + p.
Given, f (4) = g(4) ⇒ 64p + 45 = 108 + p ⇒ 63 p = 63 ⇒ p = 1.
Ex. 5. What is/are the factors of (x29 – x24 + x13 – 1) ?
(a) (x – 1) only (b) (x + 1) only (c) (x – 1) and (x + 1) (d) Neither (x – 1) nor (x + 1)
(CDS 2008)
Sol. For (x – 1) to be a factor of the given expression, the value of expression at x = 1 is
(1)29 – (1)24 + (1)13 – 1 = 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 = 0
\ (x – 1) is a factor of x29 – x24 + x13 – 1

Similarly for (x + 1) to be the factor, the value of expression at x = – 1 is
(–1)29 – (–1)24 + (–1)13 – 1 = – 1 – 1 – 1 – 1 = – 4 ≠ 0
\ (x + 1) is not a factor of x29 – x24 + x13 – 1.

Hence, (a) is the correct option.
Ch 2-4 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Ex. 6. Which one of the following is one of the factors of x2 (y – z) + y2 (z – x) – z (xy – yz – zx) ?
(a) (x – y) (b) (x + y – z) (c) (x – y – z) (d) (x + y + z)
(CDS 2007)
Sol. x2 (y – z) + y2 (z – x) – z(xy – yz – zx)
= x2y – x2z + y2z – y2x – zxy + yz2 + z2x
= xy(x – y – z) + z2(x + y) – z (x2 – y2)
= xy(x – y – z) – z (x + y) (x – y – z) = (x – y – z) (xy – yz – zx)
Hence, (c) is the correct option.
Ex. 7. Without actual division show that 2x4 – 6x3 + 3x2 + 3x – 2 is exactly divisible by x2 – 3x + 2.
Sol. Let f (x) = 2x4 – 6x3 + 3x2 + 3x – 2 and g(x) = x2 – 3x + 2 = x2 – 2x – x + 2 = x(x – 2) – 1 (x – 2) = (x – 2) (x – 1)
For f (x) to be exactly divisible by g(x), (x – 1) and (x – 2) should be the factors of f (x), i.e.,
f (1) = 0 and f (2) = 0.
Now, f (1) = 2. (1)4 – 6.(1)3 + 3.(1)2 + 3.1 – 2 = 2 – 6 + 3 + 3 – 2 = 0
f (2) = 2.(2)4 – 6(2)3 + 3(2)2 + 3.2 – 2 = 32 – 48 + 12 + 6 – 2 = 0.
\ (x – 1) and (x – 2) are factors of f (x) ⇒ f (x) is exactly divisible by g(x).

Ex. 8. If a + b + c = 0, then what is the value of a4 + b4 + c4 – 2a2b2 – 2b2c2 – 2c2a2 ? (CDS 2005)
Sol. Given, a + b + c = 0.
Now, a4 + b4 + c4 – 2a2b2 – 2b2c2 – 2c2a2 = (a2 + b2 + c2)2 – 4a2b2 – 4b2c2 – 4c2a2
= [(a + b + c)2 – 2ab – 2bc – 2ca]2 – 4a2b2 – 4b2c2 – 4c2a2
= [02 – 2ab – 2bc – 2ca]2 – 4a2b2 – 4b2c2 – 4c2a2
= 4a2b2 + 4b2c2 + 4c2a2 + 8ab2c + 8abc2 + 8a2bc – 4a2b2 – 4b2c2 – 4c2a2
= 8ab2c + 8abc2 + 8a2bc = 8abc (b + c + a) = 8abc. 0 = 0.
a–b b–c c–a 1+ x 1+ y 1+ z
Ex. 9. If x = ,y= ,z= , then what is the value of . . ? (CDS 2006)
a+b b+c c+a 1– x 1– y 1– z
a–b 1 a+b
Sol. x = ⇒ =
a+b x a–b
1 + x a + b + a – b 2a 1+ x a

⇒ = = ⇒ = (Applying componendo and dividendo)
1 – x a + b – a + b 2b 1– x b
1+ y b 1+ z c 1+ x 1+ y 1+ z a b c
Similarly, = , = \ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = 1.
1– y c 1– z a 1− x 1− y 1− z b c a
3 3 3
 ( y – z – x)   (z – x – y)   ( x – y – z) 
Ex. 10. If x + y + z = 0, then what is   +  +  equal to ?
 2   2   2
3 3 3
 y – z – x  z – x – y  x – y – z
Sol.   +  + 
 2   2   2 
3 3 3
 y – ( z + x)   z – ( x + y )   x – ( y + z ) 
=   +  + 
 2   2   2 
3 3 3
 y – (– y )   z – (– z )   x – (– x) 
=   +  +  (Q x + y + z = 0)
 2   2   2 
3 3 3
 2 y   2z   2x  3 3 3
=   +   +   = y + z + x = 3xyz. (Q a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc, if a + b + c = 0)
 2   2   2 
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-5

1
Ex. 11. If x2 – 4x + 1 = 0, then what is the value of x3 + ?
x3
Sol. x2 – 4x + 1 = 0  Roots quadratic eqn ax 2 + bx + c = 0 
 2

4 ± 16 – 4 × 1 × 1 4 ± 2 3  − b ± b – 4ac 
⇒x=
= =2± 3 = 2a 
2 ×1 2  Here a = 1, b = − 4, c = 1 
 
3
1 1  (2 – 3) × 1 

\ x3 + = (2 + 3)3 + = (2 + 3) 3
+ 
3
 = (2 + 3) + (2 – 3)
3
x3 (2 + 3) 3
 (2 + 3) (2 – 3) 
3 3 3 3
= 2 + ( 3) + 3 × 2 × 3(2 + 3) + 2 – ( 3) – 3 × 2 × 3 (2 – 3)
1
= 8 + 18 + 8 + 18 = 52. Similarly for x = 2 – 3, x3 + = 52.
x3

Ex. 12. If 1 1 2
+ = , then what is ( x 2 + y 2 ) equal to ?
y+z z+x x+ y
1 1 2
Sol. + =
y+z z+x x+ y
1 1 1 1 ( x + y ) – ( y + z ) ( z + x) – ( x + y )

⇒ – = –   ⇒  =
y+z x+ y x+ y z+x ( y + z) ( x + y) ( x + y ) ( z + x)
x–z z– y
⇒ = ⇒ ( x – z ) ( x + z ) = ( z – y ) ( z + y )   ⇒  x2 – z2 = z2 – y2 ⇒ x2 + y2 = 2z2.
y+z z+x
Ex. 13. If the sum and difference of two expressions are 5a2 – a – 4 and a2 + 9a – 10 respectively, then what is their
LCM ?
Sol. Let P and Q be the two expressions. Then,
P + Q = 5a2 – a – 4 ...(i)
P – Q = a2 + 9a – 10 ...(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii)
⇒ 2P = 6a2 + 8a – 14 ⇒ P = 3a2 + 4a – 7 = (a – 1) (3a + 7)
From (i), Q = (5a2 – a – 4) – (3a2 + 4a – 7) = 2a2 – 5a + 3 = (a – 1) (2a – 3)
\ LCM of P and Q = (a – 1) (2a – 3) (3a + 7).
Ex. 14. Without actual division, show that (x – 1)2n – x2n + 2x – 1 is divisible by 2x3 – 3x2 + x.

Sol. Let f (x) = (x – 1)2n – x2x + 2x – 1


g(x) = 2x3 – 3x2 + x = x(2x2 – 3x + 1)
Now g(x) = 0 ⇒ x[2x2 – 3x + 1] = 0 ⇒ x[2x2 – 2x – x + 1] = 0
1
⇒ [2x (x – 1) –1(x – 1)] = 0 ⇒ (2x – 1) (x – 1) = 0 ⇒ x = ,1
2
1
\ For f (x) to be exactly divisible by g(x), f   = f (1) should be all zero.

2
2n 2n 2n 2n 2n 2n
1 1  1 1  1 1 1 1
f   =  – 1 –   + 2 × – 1 =  –  –   + 1 – 1 =   –  +1–1= 0
2 2  2 2  2 2 2 2
2n 2n
f (1) = (1 – 1) – 1 + 2 × 1 – 1 = 0 – 1 + 2 – 1 = 0.
\ [(x – 1) – x2n + 2x – 1] is completely divisible by 2x3 – 3x2 + x.
2n
Ch 2-6 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Ex. 15. If the HCF of (x2 + x – 12) and (2x2 – kx – 9) is (x – k), then what is the value of k ? (CDS 2008)

Sol. Since (x – k) is the HCF of (x2 + x + 12) and (2x2 – kx – 9)


(x – k) will be a factor of 2x2 – kx – 9
\ 2.k2 – k.k – 9 = 0 ⇒ k2 – 9 = 0 ⇒ k = ± 3
Also, the factors of (x2 + x – 12) = (x + 4) (x – 3) \ k = 3.

PRACTICE SHEET

LEVEL–1 remainder 6 when divided by x + 2, then the values of a, b


and c are respectively,
1. When x13 + 1 is divided by x –1, the remainder is :
(a) 1, 1, 4 (b) 2, 2, 4 (c) 3, 3, 4 (d) 4, 4, 4
(a) 1 (b) –1 (c) 0 (d) 2
2. If x3 + 5x2 + 10k leaves remainder – 2x when divided by x4
12. f (x) = – 2x3
+ 3x2
– ax + b is a polynomial such that
x2 + 2, then what is the value of k ? when it is divided by (x – 1) and (x + 1), the remainders are
respectively 5 and 19. Determine the remainder when f (x)
(a) –2 (b) –1 (c) 1 (d) 2
is divided by (x – 2).
(CDS 2012)
4 3 3 3 4 3 (a) 6 (b) 10 (c) 2 (d) 8
3. x + xy + x y + xz + y + yz is divisible by :
2 4 3 2
13. If (x – 1) is a factor of ax + bx + cx + dx + e, then :
(a) (x – y) only (b) (x3 + y3 + z3) only
(a) a + c + e = 0 (b) ace = 1
(c) both (x + y) and (x3 + y3 + z3)
(c) b + d = 0 (d) Both (a) and (c)
(d) None of the above (CDS 2012)
4. For what value of k, will the expression (3x3 – kx2 + 4x + 16) x 2 – 3x + 2 x2 – 5x + 4
14. What is 2
÷ equal to ?
be divisible by (x – k/2) ? x – 5x + 6 x 2 – 7 x + 12
(a) 4 (b) –4 (c) 2 (d) 0 x+3 x +1
(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) 2
(CDS 2007) x–3 x –1
(CDS 2011)
5. When (x3 – 2x2 + px – q) is divided by (x2 – 2x – 3),
the remainder is (x – 6), What are the values of p and q 15. If the expression (px3 + x2 – 2x – q) is divisible by (x – 1)
respectively ? and (x + 1), then the values of p and q respectively are ?
(a) –2, –6 (b) 2, – 6 (c) –2, 6 (d) 2, 6 (a) 2, – 1 (b) –2, 1 (c) –2, –1 (d) 2, 1
(CDS 2009) (CDS 2010)
3 2
x + ax + bx + 4 LEVEL–2
6. If is a polynomial of degree 1 in x, then
x2 + x – 2 16. When x40 + 2 is divided by x4 + 1, what is the remainder ?
what are the values of a, b respectively ? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
(a) –1, –4 (b) –1, 4 (c) 3, –4 (d) 3, 4 (CDS 2009)
(CDS 2005) 17. If the remainder of the polynomial a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .......
1/3 2/3
7. When a + b + c + 3a b + 3a b is divided by 2/3 1/3
+ anxn when divided by (x – 1) is 1, then which one of the
a1/3 + b1/3 + c1/3, what is the remainder ? following is correct ?
(a) 3a (b) 3b (c) 0 (d) c2/3 (a) a0 + a2 + ...... = a1 + a3 + ......
(CDS 2005) (b) a0 + a2 + ...... = 1 + a1 + a3 + ......
8. If the polynomials ax3 + 4x2 + 3x – 4 and x3 – 4x + a leave the (c) 1 + a0 + a2+ ...... = – (a1 + a3 + ......)
same remainder when divided by (x – 3), the value of a is : (d) 1 – a0 – a2 – ...... = a1 + a3 + ...... (CDS 2009)
(a) 2 (b) –3/2 (c) –1 (d) 4 18. The remainder when 1 + x + x2 + x3 + ........ + x1007 is divided
9. Let R1 and R2 be the remainders when the polynomials by (x – 1) is
x3 + 2x2 – 5ax – 7 and x2 + ax2 – 12x + 6 are divided by (a) 1006 (b) 1008 (c) 1007 (d) 0
(x + 1) and (x – 2) respectively. If 2R1 + R2 = 6, the value 19. A cubic polynomial f (x) is such that f (1) = 1, f (2) = 2,
of a is : f (3) = 3 and f (4) = 5, then f (6) equals :
(a) –2 (b) 1 (c) –1 (d) 2 (a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 10 (d) 13
10. If both (x – 2) and (x – 1/2) are factors of px2 + 5x + r, then: 6 5 4 2
20. If the polynomial x + px + qx – x – x – 3 is divisible by
(a) p = 2r (b) p + r = 0 (c) p = r (d) p × r = 1 x4 – 1, then the value of p2 + q2 is :
11. If the expression ax2 + bx + c is equal to 4, when x = 0, (a) 1 (b) 9 (c) 10 (d) 13
leaves a remainder 4 when divided by x + 1 and leaves a (CDS 2001)
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-7
x8 x4
21. The factors of + + 1 are : by (x + a) and (x – a), then the remainder when p(x) is
(a) (x4 + 1 – x2) (x2 + 1 + x) (x2 + 1 – x) divided by (x2 – a2) is
(b) (x4 + 1 – x2) (x2 – 1 + x) (x2 + 1 + x) (a) –2x (b) –x (c) 0 (d) 2a
(EAMCET 2003)
(c) (x4 – 1 + x2) (x2 – 1 + x) (x2 + 1 + x)
31. If 9x2 + 3px + 6q when divided by (3x + 1) leaves a remainder
(d) (x4 – 1 + x2) (x2 + 1 – x) (x2 + 1 + x) (CDS 1999)  3
22. If the polynomial x19 + x17 + x13 + x11 + x7 + x5 + x3 is divided  –  and qx2 + 4px + 7 is exactly divisible by (x + 1), then
 4
by (x2 + 1), then the remainder is : the values of p and q respectively will be :
(a) 1 (b) x2 + 4 (c) –x (d) x 7 7 7
(a) 0, (b) – , 0 (c) Same (d) , 0
23. If (x + k) is a common factor of x 2 + px + q and 4 4 4
x2 + lx + m, then the value of k is 3 2
32. What should be subtracted from 27x – 9x – 6x – 5 to make
p+q p–l q+m q–m it exactly divisible by (3x – 1)
(a) (b) (c) (d) (a) –5 (b) –7 (c) 5 (d) 7
l+m q–m q+l p–l
(CDS 2009)
24. If (x – 1) is a factor of Ax3 + Bx2 – 36x + 22 and 2B = 64A, 33. The values of a, b and c respectively for the expression
find A and B ? f (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + c, if f (1) = f (2) = 0 and f (4) = f (0) are :
(a) A = 4, B = 16 (b) A = 6, B = 24 (a) 9, 20, 12 (b) –9, –20, 12
(c) A = 2, B = 12 (d) A = 8, B = 16 (c) –9, 20, –12 (d) –9, –20, –12
25. When a polynomial f (x) is divided by (x – 3) and (x + 6), the 34. The remainder, when x200 is divided by x2 – 3x + 2 is
respective remainders are 7 and 22. What is the remainder (a) (2200 – 1) x + (–2200 + 2)
when f (x) is divided by (x – 3) (x + 6) ? (b) (2200 + 1) x + (–2200 – 2)
–5 7 5 7 (c) (2200 – 1) x + (–2200 – 2)
(a) x + 12 (b) – x + 14 (c) – x + 16 (d) – x + 12
3 3 3 3 (d) 2100
35. (i) For a ≠ b, if x + k is the HCF of x2 + ax + b and x2 + bx
26. If p(x) is a common multiple of degree 6 of the polynomials
f (x) = x3 + x2 – x – 1 and g(x) = x3 – x2 + x – 1, then which + a, then the value of a + b is equal to
one of the following is correct ? (a) – 2 (b) – 1 (c) 0 (d) 2
(a) p(x) = (x – 1)2 (x + 1)2 (x2 + 1) (Type Raj PET 2004, Kerala PET 2004)
(b) p(x) = (x – 1) (x + 1) (x2 + 1)2 (ii) If (x + k) is the HCF of ax2 + ax + b and x2 + cx + d,
(c) p(x) = (x – 1)3 (x + 1) (x2 + 1) then what is the value of k ?
(d) p(x) = (x – 1)2 (x4 + 1) (CDS 2012) b+d a+b a–b
(a) (b) (c)
27. Which one of the following is divisible by (1 + a + a5) and a+c c+d c–d
(1 + a4 + a5) individually ? (d) None of these (CDS 2008)
(a) (a2
+ a + 1) (a3
+ + 1) a2 (a3
+ a + 1) LEVEL–3
(b) (a4 – a + 1) (a3 + a2 + 1) (a3 + a – 1)
(c) (a4 + a + 1) (a3 – a2 + 1) (a3 + a + 1) (a – b)3 + (b – c)3 + (c – a)3
36. The value of is :
(a – b) (b – c) (c – a )
(d) (a2 + a + 1 ) (a3 – a2 + 1) (a3 – a + 1) (CDS 2005)
28. Consider the following statements : (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 1/3 (d) Zero
1. an + bn is divisible by a + b if n = 2k + 1, where k is a (CDS 2000)
37. If a2 = by + cz, b2 = cz + ax, c2 = ax + by, then the value of
positive integer.
x y z
2. an – bn is divisible by a – b if n = 2 k, where k is a positive + + will be:
a+x b+ y c+z
integer. Which of the statements given above is/are
correct ? 1 1 1
(a) a + b + c (b) + + (c) 1 (d) 0
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only a b c
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (CDS 2001)
(CDS 2005) 38. If x + y + z = 0, then x (y – z)3 + y (z – x)3 + z (x – y)3 equals
29. If (x – 2) is a common factor of the expressions x2 + ax + b (a) 0 (b) y + z (c) 1 (d) (z + x)2
b–d
and x2 + cx + d, then is equal to 1 1 1 1
c–a 39. If + + = , where a + b + c ≠ 0, abc ≠ 0,
(a) –2 (b) –1 (c) 1 (d) 2 a b c (a + b + c)
(EAMCET 2004) what is the value of (a + b) (b + c) (c + a) ?
30. Let a ≠ 0 and p(x) be a polynomial of degree greater than 2. If (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –1 (d) 2
p(x) leaves remainders a and –a, when divided respectively (CDS 2005)
Ch 2-8 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

x y 47. If x + y + z = 2s, then what is


40. If =
(b – c) (b + c – 2a ) (c – a ) (c + a – 2b) (s – x)3 + (s – y)3 + 3(s – x) (s – y)z equal to :
z
= , what is the value of x + y + z ? (a) z3 (b) –z3 (c) x3 (d) y3
(a − b) (a + b – 2c)
(CDS 2007)
(a) (a + b + c) (b) a2 + b2 + c2 1 1
48. If x + = p, then x6 + 6 equals to :
(c) 0 (d) 1 (CDS 2005) x x
41. If a + b + c = 0, then find the value of : (a) p6 + 6p (b) p6 – 6p
a2 b2 c2 (c) p6 + 6p4 + 9p2 + 2 (d) p6 – 6p4 + 9p2 – 2
2 + 2 + 2 (CDS 2007)
a – bc b – ca c – ab
49. If x + y + z = 0, then what is the value of :
(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0
1 1 1
(MAT 2005) 2 2 2
+ 2 2 2
+ 2 ?
x +y –z y +z –x z + x2 – y 2
( x – y )3 + ( y – z )3 + ( z – x )3
42. The value of is : 1
( x 2 – y 2 )3 + ( y 2 – z 2 )3 + ( z 2 – x 2 )3 (a) 2 (b) 1
x + y2 + z2
–1
(a) 1 (b) [2( x + y + z )] (c) –1 (d) 0 (CDS 2010)
(c) [(x + y) (y + z) (z + x)]–1 (d) 0 (CDS 2004) x 2
y 2
z2
50. If x + y + z = 0, then + + =
43. If a + b + c = 0, then a2 + ab + b2 is equal to : 2
2 x + yz 2
2 y + zx 2
2 z + xy
(a) b2 – bc + c2 (b) c2 – ab (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 1
(c) b2 + bc + c2 (d) 0 (CDS 2004) 51. If (b + c – a)x = (c + a – b)y = (a + b – c)z = 2, then
1 1
44. If pqr = 1, the value of +  1 1   1 1  1 1 
[1 + p + q ] [1 + q + r –1 ]  y + z   z + x   x + y  is equals:
–1
   
1
+ will be equal to : (a) a2b2c2 (b) abc (c) a2b2 (d) (abc)2
[1 + r + p –1 ]
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) –1 (d) –2 52. If ax = (x + y + z)y, ay = (x + y + z)z, az = (x + y + z)x, then:
(CDS 2004) (a) 3(x + y + z) = a (b) 2a = x + y + z
xy xz yz (c) x + y + z = 0 (d) x = y = z = a/3
45. If a = , b= and c = , where a, b and c
x+ y x+ z y+z 1 1 1
are non-zero, then what is x equal to ? 53. If x + = a, then what is the value of x3 + x2 + 3 + 2 ?
x x x
2abc 2abc
(a) (b) (a) a3 + a2 (b) a3 + a2 – 5a
ac + bc – ab ab – ac + bc
(c) a3 + a2 – 3a – 2 (d) a3 + a2 – 4a – 2
2abc 2abc
(c) (d) (CDS 2012)
ab + bc + ac ab + ac – bc
54. If x1/3 + y1/3 + z1/3 = 0, then what is (x + y + z)3 equal to ?
(CDS 2006)
46. If a + b + c = 0, then what is the value of (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 3xy (d) 27xyz
a 2 + b2 + c2
2a 2b 2c (b – c) (c – a ) (a – b)
(a − b) 2 + (b − c) 2 + (c − a ) 2 55. + + + equals
a + b b + c c + a (b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)
1
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) (d) 0 (CDS 2006) (a) 0 (b) –1 (c) 3 (d) 2
3

ANSWERS
1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (d) 10. (c)
11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (d) 16. (c) 17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (b) 20. (c)
21. (a) 22. (c) 23. (d) 24. (c) 25. (a) 26. (a) 27. (b) 28. (c) 29. (d) 30. (b)
31. (d) 32. (b) 33. (c) 34. (a) 35. (i) (b) (ii) (d) 36. (b) 37. (c) 38. (a) 39. (a)
40. (c) 41. (b) 42. (c) 43. (b) 44. (a) 45. (a) 46. (c) 47. (a) 48. (d) 49. (d)
50. (d) 51. (b) 52. (d) 53. (c) 54. (d) 55. (c)
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-9

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


Now x3 + y3 + z3 + 3xy2 + 3x2y
1. Remainder when x13 + 1 is divided by (x – 1) = 113 + 1 = 2. 3 2 2 3 3
x+5 = x + 3 xy + 3 x y + y + z
2 3 2 = (x + y)3 + z3
2. x + 2 x + 5 x + 10k
2 2
x 3
+ 2x = [ x + y + z ] [( x + y ) − ( x + y ) z + z ].

5 x 2 – 2 x + 10k \ Given expression is completely divisible by (x + y + z),
2
+ 10 i.e., by a1/3 + b1/3 + c1/3.
−5 x − = Remainder
–2 x + 10k – 10 8. Let f (x) = ax3 + 4x2 + 3x – 4
g(x) = x3 – 4x + a.

Given, –2x + 10k – 10 = – 2x
Remainders when f (x) and g(x) are divided by (x – 3) are
⇒ 10k = 10 ⇒ k = 1.
f (3) and g(3) respectively. Now,
3. Hint. x4 + xy3 + x3y + xz3 + y4 + yz3 f (3) = a. (3)3 + 4.(3)2 + 3.3 – 4
= (x4 + xy3 + xz3) + (x3y + y4 + yz3) = 27a + 36 + 9 – 4 = 27a + 41 ...(i)
= x(x3 + y3 + z3) + y(x3 + y3 + z3) g(3) = (3)3 – 4.(3) + a = 27 – 12 + a = 15 + a ...(ii)
= (x + y) (x3 + y3 + z3) Given, f (3) = g(3)
4. Let f (x) = 3x3 – kx2 + 4x + 16. Then, f (x) will be divisible \ 27a + 41 = 15 + a ⇒ 26a = – 26 ⇒ a = – 1.
by (x – k/2) if f (k/2) = 0 9. Let f (x) = x3 + 2x2 – 5ax – 7
⇒ 3.(k/2)3 – k.(k/2)2 + 4(k/2) + 16 = 0
\ R1 = f (–1) = (–1)3 + 2. (–1)2 – 5.a. (–1) –7
3k 3 k 3 4k = –1 + 2 + 5a –7 = 5a – 6

⇒ – + + 16 = 0
8 4 2 g(x) = x3 + ax2 – 12x + 6
R2 = g(2) = (2)3 + a.(2)2 – 12.(2) + 6
3k 3 – 2k 3 + 16k + 128

⇒ =0 = 8 + 4a – 24 + 6 = 4a – 10
8
Given, 2R1 + R2 = 6 ⇒ 2(5a – 6) + (4a – 10) = 6
⇒ k3 + 16k + 128 = 0 ⇒ (k + 4) (k2 – 4k + 32) = 0
⇒ k + 4 = 0 ⇒ k = – 4. ⇒ 10a – 12 + 4a – 10 = 6
x ⇒ 14a – 22 = 6 ⇒ 14a = 28 ⇒ a = 2.
2 3 2 10. Let f (x) = px2 + 5x + r
5. x – 2 x – 3 x – 2 x + px – q
 1
x3 – 2 x 2 – 3x Since, (x – 2) and  x –  are the factors of f (x), therefore,
+ +  2
( p + 3) x – q
Given, (p + 3)x – q = x – 6 1
f (2) = 0 and f   = 0.
2
⇒ p + 3 = 1 and q = 6
\ f (2) = p × (2)2 + 5 × 2 + r = 4p + 10 + r = 0 ...(i)
⇒ p = – 2, q = 6
2
x + (a – 1)  1  1 1 p 5
f   = p ×   + 5 × + r = + + r = p +10 + 4r = 0 ...(ii)

2 3 2  2  2 2 4 2
6. x + x – 2 x + ax + bx + 4
3 2
x + x − 2x (i) and (ii) ⇒ 4p + 10 + r = p + 10 + 4r ⇒ 3p = 3r ⇒ p = r.
– − +
11. Given exp. f (x) = ax2 + bx + c
(a – 1) x 2 + (b + 2) x + 4
(a – 1) x 2 + (a – 1) x − 2(a – 1) \ When x = 0, a.0 + b.0 + c = 4 ⇒ c = 4.
− − + The remainders when f (x) is divided by (x + 1) and (x + 2)
(b – a + 3) x + (2a + 2) respectively are f (–1) and f(–2).
As the given polynomial is of degree 1, the degree of the \ f (–1) = a.(–1)2 + b.(–1) + c = 4
remainder should be less than 1, i.e., 0, i.e., the remainder ⇒ a – b + c = 4 ⇒ a – b + 4 = 4 ⇒ a – b = 0 ...(i)
has only a constant term.
f (–2) = a.(–2)2 + b(–2) + c = 6
⇒ b – a + 3 = 0 and 2a + 2 = 0 ⇒ a = – 1 ⇒ 4a – 2b + 4 = 6 ⇒ 4a – 2b = 2 ...(ii)
\ b – (–1) + 3 = 0 ⇒ b = – 4. Solving (i) and (ii) simultaneously we get, a = 1, b = 1.
\ a = – 1, b = – 4. 12. When f (x) = x4 – 2x3 + 3x2 – ax + b is divided by (x – 1) and
7. Let a1/3 = x, b1/3 = y, c1/3 = z. Then, (x + 1), the remainders are 5 and 19 respectively.
a + b + c + 3a1/3 b2/3 + 3a2/3 b1/3 = x3 + y3 + z3 + 3xy2 + 3x2y i.e., f (1) = 5 and f (–1) = 19
and a1/3 + b1/3 + c1/3 = x + y + z. ⇒ 1 – 2 + 3 – a + b = 5 and 1 + 2 + 3 + a + b = 19
⇒ –a + b = 3 and a + b = 13
Ch 2-10 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Adding the two equations, we get 2b = 16 ⇒ b = 8 ⇒ a = 5 Putting values of a, b, c, d in f(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, we
\ f (x) = x4 – 2x3 + 3x2 – ax + b get the polynomial f (x) = x ⇒ f (6) = 6.
= x4 – 2x3 + 3x2 – 5x + 8 20. f (x) = x6 + px5 + qx4 – x2 – x – 3
\ Remainder, when f (x) is divided by (x – 2) is equal to f (2) = x4 . x2 + p.x4 x + q.x4 – x2 – x – 3
\ f (2) = 24 – 2.23 + 3.22 – 5.2 + 8 As (x – 1) is a factor of f (x), so putting x4 = 1, we get
4

= 16 – 16 + 12 – 10 + 8 = 10. x2 + px + q – x2 – x – 3 = 0
13. Let f (x) = ax4 + bx4 + cx2 + dx + e be the given polynomial. ⇒ (p – 1)x + (q – 3) = 0 ⇒ p – 1 = 0 and q – 3 = 0
Then, (x2 – 1) is a factor of f (x). ⇒ p = 1 and q = 3.
⇒ (x – 1) (x + 1) is a factor of f (x) \ p2 + q2 = 1 + 9 = 10.
⇒ (x – 1) and (x + 1) are factors of f (x) 21. x8 + x4 + 1 = x8 + 2x4 + 1 – x4 (Adding and subtracting x4)
⇒ f (1) = 0 and f (–1) = 0 = (x4 + 1)2 – (x2)2 = (x4 + 1 + x2) (x4 + 1 – x2)
⇒ a + b + c + d + e = 0 and a – b + c – d + e = 0. = [(x4 + 2x2 + 1) – x2] (x4 + 1 – x2)
Adding and subtracting the two equations, we get = [(x2 + 1)2 – (x)2] (x4 + 1 – x2)
2(a + c + e) = 0 and 2(b + d) = 0 = (x2 + 1 + x) (x2 + 1 – x) (x4 + 1 – x2)
⇒ a + c + e = 0 and b + d = 0. 22. f (x) = x19 + x17 + x13 + x11 + x7 + x5 + x3
Putting x2 = – 1, we get
x 2 – 3x + 2 x2 – 5x + 4
14. 2
÷ f (x) = (x2)9.x + (x2)8.x + (x2)6.x + (x2)5.x + (x2)2.x + x2.x
x – 5x + 6 x 2 – 7 x + 12
= (–1)9x + (–1)8.x + (–1)6.x + (–1)5.x + (–1)2.x + (–1).x
( x – 1) ( x – 2) ( x – 4) ( x – 1) = – x + x + x – x + x – x = – x.
= ÷
( x – 3) ( x – 2) ( x – 3) ( x – 4) 23. Let f (x) = x2 + px + q
( x – 1) ( x – 1) ( x – 1) ( x – 3) g(x) = x2 + lx + m.
= ÷ = × = 1.
( x – 3) ( x – 3) ( x – 3) ( x – 1) Since (x + k) is a common factor of f (x) and g(x),
15. px3 + x2 – 2x – q is divisible by (x – 1) and (x + 1) f (–k) = k2 – pk + q = 0
⇒ p(1)3 + (1)2 – 2(1) – q = 0 ⇒ p – q = 1     ...(i) g (–k) = k2 – lk + m = 0
and p(–1)3 + (–1)2 – 2(–1) – q = 0 ⇒ p + q = 3   ...(ii) ⇒ k – px + q = k2 – lk + m
2

Solving (i) and (ii) p = 2, q = 1. q–m


16. Put x4 = – 1 in f (x) = x40 + 2 ⇒ q – m = (p – l)k ⇒ k =
p–l
Remainder = (x4)10 + 2 = (–1)10 + 2 = 3. 24. Since (x – 1) is a factor of Ax3 + Bx2 – 36x + 22
17. Let f (x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ......... + anxn \ A(1)3 + B(1)2 – 36(1) + 22 = 0
Given, f (1) = 1 ⇒ A + B = 14 ...(i)
⇒ a0 + a1 + a2 + ........ + an = 1
and 2B = 64A ⇒ 2B = (26)A ⇒ B = 6A ...(ii)
⇒ 1 – a0 – a2 – ........ = a1 + a3 + ........ .
\ From (i) and (ii) A = 2, B = 12.
18. Required remainder = f (1)
25. The function f (x) is not known. Here,
= 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 ......... + 1 (1008 times)
a = 3, b=–6
= 1008 × 1 = 1008.
A = 7, B = 22 [Refer to Key Fact 8]
19. Let the cubic polynomial be :
A–B Ba – Ab
f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. \ Required remainder = x+
a–b a–b
Given, f (1) = 1 ⇒ a + b + c + d = 1 ....(i)
f (2) = 2 ⇒ 8a + 4b + 2c + d = 2 ...(ii) 7 – 22 22 × 3 – 7 × (–6) –5
= x+ = x + 12 .
f (3) = 4 ⇒ 27a + 9b + 3c + d = 3 ...(iii) 3 – (–6) 3 – (–6) 3
f (4) = 5 ⇒ 125a + 25b + 5c + d = 5 ...(iv) 26. f (x) = x3 + x2 – x – 1
g(x) = x3 – x2 + x – 1
(ii) – (i) ⇒ 7a + 3b + c = 1 ...(v)
f (x) . g(x) = (x3 + x2 – x – 1) . (x3 – x2 + x – 1)
(iii) – (ii) ⇒ 19a + 5b + c = 1 ...(vi)
5 4 3 5 4 3 2
(iv) – (iii) ⇒ 98a + 16b + 2c = 2 ...(vii) = x6 – x + x – x + x – x + x − x
(vi) – (v) ⇒ 12a + 2b = 0 ⇒ 6a + b = 0 ...(viii) – x 4 + x3 – x 2 + x – x3 + x 2 − x + 1
(vii) – 2 (vi) ⇒ 60a + 6b = 0 ⇒ 10a + b = 0 ...(ix) = x6 – x4 – x2 + 1
Solving (viii) and (ix), we get a = 0 ⇒ b = 0 \ p(x) = x6 – x4 – x2 + 1
Putting a = 0, b = 0 in (v), we, get c = 1 = x4 (x2 – 1) – (x2 – 1) = (x2 – 1) (x4 – 1)
Also from (i), a = 0, b = 0, c = 1 ⇒ d = 0. = (x – 1) (x + 1) [(x2)2 – 1]
= (x – 1) (x + 1) [(x2 – 1) (x2 + 1)]
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-11
= (x – 1) (x + 1) [(x – 1) (x + 1) (x2
+ 1)] (3x – 1), the remainder obtained on division should be
2 2 2
= (x – 1) (x + 1) (x + 1). subtracted. 3 2
 1 1 1 1
27. The given expression has to be divided by (1 + a + a5) Remainder =  f +  = 27 ×   – 9 ×   – 6 × –5
and (1 + a4 + a5) individually, so highest power of a is  3 3 3 3
5 + 5 = 10, followed by 5 + 4 = 9, and both are positive.  1
Q 3 x –1 = 0 ⇒ x = 
 3
In options (a) and (d) the highest power of a is 8, hence       = 1 – 1 – 2 – 5 = – 7.
these options are not acceptable. 33. Given, f (x) = x3 + lx2 + mx + n.
The only choices are (b) and (c), but in option (c) a10 is f (1) = f (2) = 0 ⇒ (x – 1) and (x – 2) are factors of f (x).
positive but a9 is negative and in (b) both a10 and a9 are Since, f (x) is polynomial of degree 3, it shall have three
positive. Hence (b) is the correct option. linear factors. So, let the third factor be (x – k).
28. Statement (1) is correct as for k = 1, n = 2 × 1 + 1 = 3. Then, f (x) = (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – k)
\ a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 + b2 – ab) which is divisible by ⇒ f (x) = x3 + lx2 + mx + n = (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – k)
(a + b), statement (2) is also correct as for k = 1, n = 2,
Given, f (4) = f (0)
\ a2 – b2 = (a – b) (a + b) which is divisible by (a – b).
⇒ (4 – 1) (4 – 2) (4 – k) = (–1) (–2) (–k)
29. (x – 2) is a common factor of (x2 + ax + b) and (x2 + cx + d)
⇒ 24 – 6k = – 2k ⇒ 4k = 24 ⇒ k = 6
⇒ 4 + 2a + b = 0 ...(i)
\ f (x) = (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 6) = (x2 – 3x + 2) (x – 6)
and 4 + 2c + d = 0 ...(ii)
= x3 – 9x2 + 20x – 12
b–d
\ 2a + b = 2c + d ⇒ b – d = 2(c – a) ⇒ = 2. \ x3 + lx2 + mx + n = x3 – 9x2 + 20x – 12
c–a
⇒ l = – 9, m = 20, n = – 12.
30. Let rx + t be the remainder, q(x) be the quotient when p(x)
is divided by x2 – a2. 34. Let x200 = (x2 – 3x + 2). Q(x) + lx + m ...(i)
\ p(x) = (x2 – a2). qx + rx + t ...(i) where, Q(x) = quotient and (lx + m) is the remainder
Given, p(x) leaves remainders a and –a respectively when Now (x2 – 3x + 2) = 0 ⇒ (x – 1) (x – 2) = 0 ⇒ x = 1, 2.
divided by (x + a) and (x – a). Substituting x = 1 in (i), we have,
\ p(–a) = a and p(a) = – a 1200 = 0. Q.(x) + l + m ...(ii)
Putting x = – a in (i), we get Similarly, for x = 2,
p(–a) = 0. q(–a) + (– ra + t) 2200 = 0. Q(x) + 2l + m ...(iii)
⇒ a = – ra + t ...(ii) \ l + m = 1, 2l + m = 2200
Putting x = a, in (i), we get Solving we get, l = 2200 – 1 and m = 2 – 2200
­Hence remainder = lx + m = (2200 – 1) x + (–2200 + 2).
p(a) = 0.q (a) + (ra + t)
⇒ –a = ra + t ...(iii) 35. (i) Since x + k is the HCF of the given expressions,
\ Adding (ii) and (iii), we get 2t = 0 ⇒ t = 0 ⇒ r = –1 therefore, x = – k will make each expression zero.
\ Required remainder = rx + t = – x. k2 – ak + b = 0 ...(i)
31. Given, (9x2 + 3px + 6q), when divided by (3x + 1) leaves a k2 – bk + a = 0 ...(ii)
3 Solving (i) and (ii) by the rule of cross multiplication,
remainder –
4 k2 k 1
 3  2 3 2 2
= =
\ f(x) = 9x + 3px + 6q –  –  =  9 x + 3 px + 6q + 
2 −a + b b − a − b +a
 4  4 b−a
From last two relations, k = = −1
is exactly divisible by (3x + 1) − (b − a )
2
 1  1  1 3 k2 1 ( −1) 2 1
\ f  –  = 0 ⇒ 9  –  + 3 p.  –  + 6q + = 0
\ 2 2
= ⇒ 2 2
=
 3  3  3 4 −a + b − b + a −a + b − b +a
7 1 −1
⇒ 6q – p + = 0 ⇒ = ⇒ a + b = − 1.
4 (b − a ) (b + a ) (b − a )
⇒ 24q – 4p + 7 = 0 ...(i) (ii) Hint. ak2 – ak + b = 0
Now, the expression g(x) = qx2 + 4px + 7 is exactly divisible k2 – ck + d = 0
by x + 1 Solving by the rule of cross multiplication,
⇒ g(–1) = 0 ⇒ q – 4p + 7 = 0 ...(ii) k2 k 1
= =
7 − ad + bc b − ad − ac + a
Solving equations (i) and (ii), we get q = 0, p = .
4 b − ad bc − ad
⇒k=
, .
32. To make f (x) = 27x3 – 9x­2 – 6x – 5 exactly divisible by a (1 − c) b − ad
Ch 2-12 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

a3
36. Since a + b + c = 0 ⇒ + + = 3abc. b3 c3 x y
So, as (a – b) + (b – c) + (c – a) = 0 40. Let =
(b – c) (b + c – 2a ) (c – a ) (c + a – 2b)
⇒ (a – b)3 + (b – c)3 + (c – a)3 = 3(a – b) (b – c) (c – a) z
3(a – b) (b – c) (c – a ) = = k.
\ Given expression = = 3. (a – b) (a + b – 2c)
(a – b) (b – c) (c – a )
37. a2 = by + cz ⇒ a2 + ax = ax + by + cz Then, x = k(b – c) (b + c – 2a)
⇒ a(a + x) = ax + by + cz ...(i) y = k(c – a) (c + a – 2b)
Similarly, b2 = cz + ax ⇒ b(b + y) = ax + by + cz ...(ii) z = k(a – b) (a + b – 2c)
and c2 = ax + by ⇒ c(c + z) = ax + by + cz ...(iii)
\ x + y + z = k(b – c) (b + c – 2a) + k(c – a) (c + a – 2b)
x y c
Hence, + + + k(a – b) (a + b – 2c)
a+ x b+ y c+ z
= k(b2 – c2 – 2ab + 2ca) + k(c2 – a2 – 2bc + 2ab)
ax by cz
=
+ + + k (a2 – b2 – 2ca + 2bc)
a (a + x) b(b + y ) c(c + z )
= k(b2 – c2 – 2ab + 2ca + c2 – a2 – 2bc + 2ab + a2 – b2
x.a y.b z.c
= + + – 2ca + 2bc)
ax + by + cz ax + by + cz ax + by + cz
= k × 0 = 0.
ax + by + cz
=
= 1. 41. a + b + c = 0
ax + by + cz
⇒ a2 = (b + c)2 or a = – b – c

38. Now, x + y + z = 0
⇒ x = –y – z, y = – x – z, z = – x – y a2 b2 c2

\ Given expression = 2
+ 2
+ 2
\ x (y – z)3 + y (z – x)3 + z (x – y)3 a – bc b – ca c – ab
= (– y – z) (y – z)3 + (– z – x) (z – x)3 + (– x – y) (x – y)3 (b + c) 2 b2 c2
= + +
= – (y + z) (y – z)3 – (z + x) (z – x)3 – (x + y) (x – y)3 (b + c) – bc 2 2
b + c(b + c) 2
c + b(b + c)
= – [(y2 – z2) (y – z)2 + (z2 – x2) (z – x)2 + (x2 – y2) (x – y)2] 2 2
(b + c) b c2
= – [(y2 – z2) (y2 – 2yz + z2) + (z2 – x2) (z2 – 2xz + x2) = + +
b 2 + c 2 + bc b 2 + c 2 + bc c 2 + b 2 + bc
+ (x2 – y2) (x2 – 2xy + y2)]
4 4 2 2 4 4 b 2 + c 2 + 2bc + b 2 + c 2 2(b 2 + c 2 + bc)
= – [( y – z ) – 2 yz ( y – z ) + ( z – x ) = = = 2.
b 2 + c 2 + bc (b 2 + c 2 + bc)
– 2 xz ( z 2 – x 2 ) + ( x 4 – y 4 ) – 2 xy ( x 2 – y 2 )]
( x – y )3 + ( y – z )3 + ( z – x )3
42.
= 2yz (y2 – z2) + 2xz (z2 – x2) + 2xy (x2 – y2) ( x 2 – y 2 )3 + ( y 2 – z 2 )3 + ( z 2 – x 2 )3
= 2 (y3z – yz3 + z3x – x3z + x3y – xy3) 3( x – y ) ( y – z ) ( z – x)
=
= 2 [x3 (y – z) + y3 (z – x) + z3 (x – y)] 3( x – y 2 ) ( y 2 – z 2 ) ( z 2 – x 2 )
2

= 2 [– (y – z) (z – x) (x – y) . (x + y + z)] Q a + b + c = 0 ⇒ a 3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc 
= 0. ( x + y + z = 0)  
 Here ( x − y ) + ( y − z ) + ( z − x) = 0 
1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2 
39. + + = and ( x − y ) + ( y − z ) + ( z − x ) = 0 
a b c a+b+c
3( x – y ) ( y – z ) ( z – x)
 bc + ac + ab  =
⇒ (a + b + c)   = 1 3( x + y ) ( x – y ) ( y + z ) ( y – z ) ( z + x) ( z – x)
 abc
1
⇒ (a + b + c) (bc + ac + ab) = abc = = [( x + y ) ( y + z ) ( z + x )]–1
( x + y ) ( y + z ) ( z + x)

⇒ abc + a2c + a2b + b2c + abc + ab2 + bc2 + ac2 + abc = abc
43. If a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc = 0
⇒ a2(c + b) + bc(c + b) + ab(c + b) + ac(c + b) = 0
⇒ (a + b) (a2 – ab + b2) + c3 = 3abc

⇒ (b + c) (a2 + bc + ab + ac) = 0
⇒ (– c) (a2 – ab + b2) + c3 = 3abc
[ (a + b) = – c]
⇒ (b + c)
(a2 + ab + bc + ac) = 0
⇒ a2
– ab + b2 – c2 = – 3ab
⇒ (b + c) [a(a + b) + c(a + b)] = 0

⇒ a2 – ab + b2 + 2ab – c2 = – 3ab + 2ab

⇒ (b + c) (a + b) (c + a) = 0.

= a2 + ab + b2 = c 2 – ab.
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-13

1 1 1
44. –1
+ –1
+ a 2 + b2 + c2
1+ p + q 1+ q + r 1 + r + p –1 =
2 (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) – (2ab + 2bc + 2ca)
1 1 1
= + +
1 1 1 a 2 + b2 + c2
1+ p + 1+ q + 1+ r + =
q r p 2 (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) + (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )
q r p a 2 + b2 + c2 1
= + + = = .
q + pq + 1 r + qr + 1 p + pr + 1 2
3 (a + b + c ) 2 2
3
q r p 47. x + y + z = 2s
= + + [Q pqr = 1]
1 1
q + + 1 r + + 1 p + pr + 1 Also, (s – x) + (s – y) + (– z) = 2s – (x + y + z)
r p = 2s – 2s = 0.
qr pr p ⇒ (s – x)3 + (s – y)3 + (– z)3 – 3 (s – x) (s – y) (– z) = 0
= + +
qr + 1 + r pr + 1 + p p + pr + 1 Q a + b + c = 0 
⇒ a 3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc = 0 
qr pr p  
= + +
1 pr + 1 + p p + pr + 1 3 3
⇒ (s – x) + (s – y) + 3 (s – x) (s – y) (z) = z 3
+1+ r
p 2
1  1 2
pqr pr p 48. Given, x + = p ⇒ x +  = p
= + + x  x
1 + p + pr pr + 1 + p p + pr + 1
2 1 1
pqr + pr + p 1 + pr + p ⇒ x +
2
+ 2 = p2 2
⇒ x + 2
= p2 – 2
= = = 1. x x
1 + p + pr 1 + p + pr
3
 2 1  2 3
yz ⇒  x + 2  = ( p – 2)

45. Given, c = ⇒ cy + cz = yz ⇒ yz – cz = cy ⇒ z ( y – c) = cy  x 
y+z
6 1  1 
cy ⇒ x +
+ 3  x2 + 2 6 2 2
 = p – 8 + 6 p ( p – 2)
⇒z= x6  x 
y–c
6 1
xz bx ⇒ x +
+ 3 ( p 2 – 2) = p 6 – 8 + 6 p 2 ( p 2 – 2)

Also b = ⇒z= x6
x+z x–b
1
cy bx
6
⇒ x + = p6 – 6 p4 – 9 p 2 – 2

\ = ⇒ cyx – cyb = bxy – bxc x6
y–c x–b 49. Given, x + y + z = 0 ⇒ x + y = – z
⇒ cyx – cyb – bxy = – bxc
⇒ x2 + y2 + 2xy = z2 ⇒ x2 + y2 = z2 – 2xy
⇒ – y(bx + bc – cx) = – bxc
1 1 1 1
\ 2 = 2 = =–
bxc x +y –z2 2
z – 2 xy – z 2
– 2 xy 2 xy
⇒y=

bx + bc – cx
1 1 1 1
xy ax Similarly, =– and 2 =–

Now, a = ⇒y= . y 2 + z 2 – x2 2 yz z + x2 – y 2 2 zx
x+ y x–a
bxc ax 1 1 1

\ =
\ 2 2 2
+ 2 2 2
+
bx + bc – cx x – a x +y –z y +z –x z + x2 – y 2
2

⇒ abx2 + abcx – acx2 = bx2c – abcx


1 1 1 1 z + x + y
= – – – = –  =0
⇒ 2abcx = x2 (bc + ac – ab) ⇒ x =
2abc 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx 2  xyz 
(bc + ac – ab) [ x + y + z = 0]
46. a + b + c = 0 ⇒ (a + b + c)2 = 0 50. x + y + z = 0 ⇒ x = – y – z ...(i)
⇒ a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca = 0 y = – x – z ...(ii)
⇒ a2 + b2 + c2 = – (2ab + 2bc + 2ca) z = – x – y ...(iii)
a 2 + b2 + c2 x2 y2 z2
Now, Now, + +
(a – b) 2 + (b – c) 2 + (c – a) 2 2 x 2 + yz 2 y 2 + zx 2 z 2 + xy
a 2 + b2 + c2 x2 y2 z2
= 2 2 2 2 2 2 = + +
a + b – 2ab + b + c – 2bc + c + a – 2ca x 2 + x . x + yz y 2 + y . y + zx z 2 + z . z + xy
Ch 2-14 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

52. ax
. . = (x + y + z)x + y + z
ay az
x2 y2
= + ⇒ ax + y + z = (x + y + z)x + y + z
x 2 + x (– y – z ) + yz y 2 + y (– x – z ) + zx ⇒ a = (x + y + z)
z2 Now, (x + y + z)y = ax (given)
+ 2 ⇒ (x + y + z)y = (x + y + z)x ⇒ y = x
z + z (– x – y ) + xy
Similarly, y = z and z = x.
x2 y2 x+ y+z a
= 2
+ 2
\x=y=z=
= .
x – xy – xz + yz y – yx – zy + zx 3 3

z2 1
+ 53. Given, x + = a.
2
z – zx – zy + xy x
1 1  3 1   2 1 
Now, x3 + x2 + 3 + 2 =  x + 3  +  x + 2 
x2 y2 x x  x   x 
= +
x ( x – y ) – z ( x – y ) y ( y – x) – z ( y – x)  1 
3
1  1
2
=  x +  – 3  x +  +  x +  – 2
z2  x  x  x
+
z ( z – x) – y ( z – x) = a3 – 3a + a2 – 2 = a3 + a2 – 3a – 2.
54. If x1/3 + y1/3 + z1/3 = 0, then
x2 y2 z2
= + + (x1/3)3 + (y1/3)3 + (z1/3)3 = 3x1/3 y1/3 z1/3
( x – y ) ( x – z ) ( y – x) ( y – z ) ( z – x) ( z – y )
Q a + b + c = 0 
  
x2 y2 z2 3 3 3
⇒ a + b + c = 3abc 
= – – –
1/3
⇒ x + y + z = 3x  y  z 1/3 1/3
( x – y ) ( z – x) ( x – y ) ( y – z ) ( z – x) ( y – z )
Now taking the cube of both the sides, we have
 x 2 ( y – z ) + y 2 ( z – x) + z 2 ( x – y ) 
= −   (x + y + z)3 = (3x1/3 y1/3 z1/3)3 = 27 xyz.
 ( x – y ) ( y – z ) ( z – x)  55. Given expression
 − ( x – y ) ( y – z ) ( z – x)  2a (b + c) (c + a ) + 2b (a + b) (c + a ) + 2c (a + b) (b + c)
  =
= –   = – (–1) = 1. (a + b) (b + c) (c + a )
 ( x – y ) ( y – z ) ( z – x) 
Factorising the numerator. (b – c) (c – a ) (a – b)
+
51. Given, (b + c – a) x = (c + a – b) y = (a + b – c) z = 2 (b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)
2 2 2 2a (bc + c 2 + ab + ac) + 2b (ac + bc + a 2 + ab)
⇒ x=
;y= ;z=
+ 2c (ab + b 2 + ac + bc) + (bc – c 2 – ab + ac) (a – b)
(b + c – a ) (c + a – b ) (a + b – c) =
(b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)
1 b+c–a 1 c+a–b 1 a+b–c

\ = ; = ; = 2abc + 2ac 2 + 2a 2b + 2a 2 c + 2abc + 2b 2 c + 2ba 2
x 2 y 2 z 2
+ 2ab 2 + 2abc + 2cb 2 + 2ac 2 + 2bc 2 + abc – ac 2
 1 1   c + a – b a + b – c  2a – a 2b + a 2 c – b 2 c + bc 2 + ab 2 – abc
\  + =
+ = =a =
 y z  2 2  2 (b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)
 1 1   a + b – c b + c – a  2b 6abc + 3ac 2 + 3a 2 b + 3a 2 c + 3b 2 c + 3ab 2 + 3bc 2
 + =
+ = =b =
z x  2 2  2 (b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)
 1 1   b + c – a a + c – b  2c
 x + y  = 
+ = =c 3 [2abc + ac 2 + a 2 b + a 2 c + b 2 c + ab 2 + bc 2 ]
  2 2  2 =
(b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)
1 11 11 1
\  +   +   +  = a . b . c = abc.
3 (b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)
 y z z x x y = = 3.
(b + c) (c + a ) (a + b)

SELF ASSESSMENT SHEET


1. (xn – an) is divisible by (x – a) (c) 5a2 + 9a + 17 = 0 (d) a = 131
(a) for all values of n (b) for even values of n (CDS 2004)
3. When x3 + 2x2 + 4x + b is divided by (x + 1), the quotient
(c) for odd values of n (d) only for prime values of n
is x2 + ax + 3 and the remainder is – 3 + 2b. What are the
2. If (x + 1) is a factor of x4 + 9x3 + 7x2 + 9ax + 5a2, then : values of a and b respectively ?
(a) a = 137 (b) 5a2 – 9a – 1 = 0 (a) 1, 0 (b) –1, 0 (c) 1, 1 (d) –1, –1
(CDS 2005)
POLYNOMIALS Ch 2-15
x3 x3
4. If + px + q and + qx + p have a common factor, then 1
which of the following is correct ? 8. If y = x + , then x4 + x3 – 4x2 + x + 1 = 0 can be reduced
x
(a) p + q = 0 (b) p + q – 1 = 0 to which one of the following ? (x ≠ 0)
(c) (p + q + 1) = 0 (d) p – q + 1 = 0 (a) y2 + y – 2 = 0 (b) y2 + y – 4 = 0
(CDS 2005) (c) y2 + y – 6 = 0 (d) y2 + y + 6 = 0
3 3 3
5. (2x – 3y) + (3y – 4z) + (4z – 2x) can be factorised into (CDS 2006)
which one of the following ? 2 2 2
9. If x = y + z, y = z + x, z = x + y, then what is the value of :
(a) (2x + 3y + 4z) (2x – 3y – 4z)
1 1 1
(b) (2x + 3y – 4z) (2x – 3y + 4z) + + ?
x +1 y +1 z +1
(c) (2x – 3y) (3y – 4z) (4z – 2x)
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) –1 (d) 2
(d) 6 (2x – 3y) (3y – 4z) (2z – x) (CDS 2005) (CDS 2007)
6. If ax3 + bx2 + x – 6 has (x + 2) as a factor and leaves a
(a 2 – b 2 )3 + (b 2 – c 2 )3 + (c 2 – a 2 )3
remainder 4, when divided by (x – 2), the value of a and b 10. on simplification is
respectively are : (a – b)3 + (b – c)3 + (c – a)3
(a) 1, –2 (b) 2, 1 (c) 0, 2 (d) 1, –1 equal to :
7. If 4x2 – 6x + m is divisible by x – 3, which one of the (a) 1 (b) (a – b) (b – c) (c – a)
following is the greatest divisor of m ?
(c) (a + b) (b + c) (c + a) (d) 0
(a) 9 (b) 12 (c) 18 (d) 36
(CDS 2006)
ANSWERS
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (a) 10. (c)

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


2. Let f (x) = x4 + 9x3 + 7x2 + 9ax + 5a2. 4. Let the common factor be x – a, then x = a will make the
given expressions zero, i.e.,
If (x + 1) is a factor of f (x), then
a2 + pa + q = 0
f (–1) = 0 ⇒ (–1)4 + 9 (–1)3 + 7 (–1)2 + 9a (–1) + 5a2 = 0
a2 + qa + p = 0
⇒ 1 – 9 + 7 – 9a + 5a2 = 0 ⇒ 5a2 – 9a – 1 = 0. Solving by the rule of cross-multiplication, we have
3. Let f (x) = x3 + 2x2 + 4x + b.
α2 α 1
When divided by (x + 1), the remainder = f (–1) 2 2
= =
p −q q− p q− p
Given, remainder = – 3 + 2b From, last two relation, a = 1.
\ –3 + 2b = f (–1) = (–1)3 + 2 (–1)2 + 4 (–1) + b
⇒ –3 + 2b = –1 + 2 – 4 + b p2 − q2
⇒ a2 =
⇒ 1 = – (p + q) ⇒ p + q + 1 = 0.
⇒ –3 + 2b = –3 + b. q− p
This is only possible when b = 0. 5. Since (2x – 3y) + (3y – 4z) + (4z – 2x) = 0, therefore,
\ f (x) = x3 + 2x2 + 4x. (2x – 3y)3 + (3y – 4z)3 + (4z – 2x)3
Now dividing f (x) by (x + 1), we see that                    Take out 2 common
x2+x+3
x + 1 x3 + 2x2 + 4x = 3.(2x – 3y)(3y – 4z) (4z – 2x)
x3 + x2 = 6.(2x – 3y)(3y – 4z)(2z – x).
– – 6. Let f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + x – 6
x2 + 4x
(x + 2) is a factor of f (x) ⇒ f (–2) = 0
x2 + x
\ f (–2) = –8a + 4b – 2 – 6 = 0
– –
3x ⇒ –8a + 4b – 8 = 0 ⇒ –2a + b = 2 ...(i)
3x + 3 (x – 2) leaves a remainder 4, when dividing f (x) ⇒ f (2) = 4
– – \ f (2) = 8a + 4b + 2 – 6 = 4 ⇒ 8a + 4b – 8 = 0

–3
⇒ 2a + b = 2
...(ii)
\ Quotient = x2 + ax + 3 = x2 + x + 3 ⇒ a = 1.
\ From (i) and (ii) b = 2, a = 0.

Ch 2-16 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

7. If f (x) =4x2 – 6x + m is divisible by (x – 3), then f (3) = 0 9. x2 = y + z ⇒ x2 + x = x + y + z


2
⇒ 4 (3) – 6.3 + m = 0 ⇒ 36 – 18 + m = 0 ⇒ m = –18. x 1
⇒ x (x + 1) = x + y + z ⇒
=
The greatest divisor of m = 18. x + y + z x +1
8. x4 + x3 – 4x2 + x + 1 = 0 1 y 1 z
Similarly, = and =
2 1 1 y +1 x + y + z z +1 x + y + z
⇒ x + x–4+ + 2 =0
x x
1 1 1 x y
2 1 1
\ + + = +
⇒ x + 2 + x+ –4=0 x +1 y +1 z +1 x+ y+z x+ y+z
x x
z x+ y+z
 1 
2
1 + = = 1.
⇒ x +  – 2+x +  – 4=0
x+ y+z x+ y+z
 x  x
 1  10. Use the identity, if a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.
⇒ y2
+ y – 6 = 0 Q x + = y 
 x 
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-1

3 Quadratic Equations

KEY FACTS
1. An equation in which the highest power of the variable is 2 is called a quadratic equation.
ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b, c are constants is a general quadratic equation and a ≠ 0, and a, b, c ∈ R.
2. Solving a Quadratic Equation : To find the roots of a quadratic equation is called solving a quadratic
equation.
(a) Method I : Factorising the quadratic equation into linear factors.
The quadratic expression ax2 + bx + c = 0 can be expressed as a product of two linear factors as the degree of
the algebraic expression here is 2.
Let ax2 + bx + c = (mx + n) (ex + f ), where m ≠ 0, e ≠ 0.
Then, ax2 + bx + c = 0 ⇒ (mx + n) (ex + f ) = 0
⇒ (mx + n) = 0 or (ex + f ) = 0
n f
⇒x=– or x = –
m e
–n −f
\ The two roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 are and .
m e
(b) Method II : Using the formula.
ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a ≠ 0)
⇒ ax2 + bx = – c (Transposing the constant term)
b c
⇒ x2 + x = – a (Dividing by the coefficient of x2)
a
b  2 
b2 b2 c
Adding  b  on both the sides to make LHS a perfect square
 
⇒ x2 + x + 2 = 2 – a   2a 
a 4a 4a  
The formula
⇒  x + 2a = ( )
b 2 b2 – 4ac
4a 2
⇒x+
b ± b2 – 4ac
2a
=
2a                
x=
−b ± b 2 − 4ac
2a
b b2 – 4ac – b ± b2 – 4ac
⇒ x = – ± =
2a 2a 2a
– b + b2 – 4ac – b – b2 – 4ac
Hence, the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are and
2a 2a
These two values are called the roots of the equation and are also called the zeros of the function defined by
f (x) = ax2 + bx + c.

Ch 3-1
Ch 3-2 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

3. Equations Reducible to Quadratic Equations


Type I : ax2n + bxn + c = 0
In this type of an equation, we put xn = y. So, ax2n + bxn + c = 0 reduces to ay2 + by + c = 0.
Now solve for y and hence for x.
Example. Solve : 41 + x + 41 – x = 10 for x.
4
Sol. 41 + x + 41 – x = 10 ⇒ 41.4x + 41.4–x = 10  ⇒ 4.4x + x = 10
4
⇒ 4.42x + 4 = 10 × 4x  ⇒ 4.42x – 10.4x + 4 = 0.
Let 4x = y. Then, the given equation becomes 4y2 – 10y + 4 = 0
1
⇒ 2y2 – 5y + 2 = 0   ⇒ (y – 2) (2y – 1) = 0 ⇒ y = 2 or .
2
1 1 −1
⇒ 4x = 2 or, 4x = + ⇒ 22x = 21 or 22x = 2–1 ⇒ 2x = 1 or 2x = – 1 ⇒ x = or .
2 2 2
b
Type II : az + = c , where a, b, c are constants.
z
2x 2 + x + 2 2
Example. If 2
+ 2 x 2+ 3x + 1 – 3 = 0, find x.
x + 3x + 1 2x + x + 2
2 x2 + x + 2 1
Sol. Let 2
= y . Then, y + 2 × –3=0
x + 3x + 1 y
⇒ y2 – 3y + 2 = 0  ⇒ (y – 1) (y – 2) = 0 ⇒ y = 1 or 2
2 x2 + x + 2
2 x2 + x + 2
\ y = 1 ⇒ =1 ⇒ = 1   ⇒ 2x2 + x + 2 = x2 + 3x + 1
2
x + 3x + 1 x2 + 3x + 1
⇒ x2 – 2x + 1 = 0  ⇒ (x – 1)2 = 0 ⇒ x = 1.
2 x2 + x + 2
2 x2 + x + 2
y=2⇒ =2 ⇒ =4
2
x + 3x + 1 x2 + 3x + 1
⇒ 2x2 + x + 2 = 4x2 + 12x + 4  ⇒ 2x2 + 11x + 2 = 0
–11 ± 121 – 4× 2× 2 –11 ± 121 – 16 –11 ± 105 –11 ± 105 .
\x= = = .   \  x = 1,
2× 2 4 4 4

Type III : Equations of type (x + a) (x + b) (x + c) (x + d) + k = 0, where the sum of two of the quantities a, b, c, d
is equal to the sum of the other two.
xample. (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3) (x + 4) + 1 = 0
E
Sol. [(x + 1) (x + 4)] [(x + 2) (x + 3)] + 1 = 0 (Q 1 + 4 = 2 + 3 = 5)
⇒ (x2 + 5x + 4) (x2 + 5x + 6) + 1 = 0
Let x2 + 5x = y. Then, (y + 4) (y + 6) + 1 = 0
⇒ y 2 + 10y + 24 + 1 = 0 ⇒ y 2 + 10y + 25 = 0  ⇒ (y + 5)2 = 0 ⇒ y = – 5
–5 ± 25 – 20 –5 ± 5
\ x2 + 5x = – 5 ⇒ x2 + 5x + 5 = 0.  ⇒  x = = .
2 2
4. Important Properties of Inequalities
1. An inequality will still hold after each side has been increased, diminished, multiplied or divided by the same
positive quantity.
2. In an inequality any term may be transposed from one side to the other if its sign is changed.
3. Both the sides of an inequality can be multiplied or divided by the same negative number by reversing the
sign of inequality.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-3

5. Nature of Roots. A quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, has two roots which by the quadratic formula
are as under :
– b + b2 – 4ac – b – b2 – 4ac
           and
2a 2a
2
The expression b – 4ac is called the discriminant.
Examining the nature of the roots means to see what type of roots the equation has, that is, whether they are real
or imaginary, real or irrational, equal or unequal. The nature of the roots depends entirely on the value of the
discriminant D = b2 – 4ac
Thus, if a, b, c are rational, then
I. If D = b2 – 4ac > 0 (i.e, positive), the roots are real and unequal.
Also,
(a) If D = b2 – 4ac is a perfect square, the roots are rational.
(b) If D = b2 – 4ac is not a perfect square, the roots are irrational.
–b
(c) If D = b2 – 4ac = 0, the roots are equal, each being equal to .
2a
So, ax2 + bx + c = 0 is a perfect square if D = 0.
II. If D = b2 – 4ac < 0 (i.e., negative), the roots are imaginary (complex).
Example. Examine the nature of the roots of the equations:
(i) 2x2 + 2x + 3 = 0 (ii) 2x2 – 7x + 3 = 0
(iii) x2 – 5x – 2 = 0 (iv) 4x2 – 4x + 1 = 0.
Sol. (i) 2x2 + 2x + 3 = 0 (Here, a = 2, b = 2, c = 3)
\ D = b2 – 4ac = (2)2 – 4 × 2 × 3 = 4 – 24 = – 20 < 0
Hence, roots are imaginary.
(ii) 2x2 – 7x + 3 = 0 (Here, a = 2, b = – 7, c = 3)
\ D = b2 – 4ac = 49 – 24 = 25 > 0 and a perfect square
Hence, roots are real and rational.
(iii) x2 – 5x – 2 = 0. (Here, a = 1, b = – 5, c = – 2)
\ D = b2 – 4ac = 25 + 8 = 33 > 0 and not a perfect square
Hence, roots are real and irrational.
(iv) 4x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 (Here, a = 4, b = – 4, c = 1)
\ D = b2 – 4ac = 16 – 16 = 0.
Hence, roots are real and equal.
6. Sum and Product of Roots:
If the two roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 obtained by the quadratic formula be denoted by a and
b, then we have
– b + b2 – 4ac – b – b2 – 4ac
a= ,β=
2a 2a

−b + b2 – 4ac – b – b2 – 4ac −2b – b


\ Sum of roots = a + b = – + = =
2a 2a 2a a
 – b + b2 – 4ac   – b – b2 – 4ac 
Product of roots = ab =   ×  

 2a   2a 
   

(– b) 2 – ( b2 – 4ac ) 2 b2 – (b2 – 4ac) 4ac c


= = = 2= .
4a 2 4a 2 4a a
Ch 3-4 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

– Coeff. of x Constant term


Thus, Sum of roots = 2
;  Product of roots =
Coeff. of x Coeff. of x 2
Thus, if a, b be the roots of the equation 6x2 – 5x + 7 = 0, then a + b = – (– 5/6) = 5/6, ab = 7/6.
7. Values of the Symmetric Functions of the Roots
If a, b be the roots of a given quadratic equation and we wish to find the value of a symmetric function of a and b,
we can do so by proceeding as follows :
Method:
Step I. Write the values of a + b and ab from the given equation.
Step II. Express the given function in terms of a + b and ab.
Step III. Substitute the values of a + b and ab from step 1.

Caution: Do not find the values of α and β separately.
he following algebraic relations can be very useful :
T
1. a2 + b2 = (a + b)2 – 2ab
2. (a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab
2
3. a2 – b2 = (a + b) (a – b) = (a + b) (α + β) – 4αβ
4. a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 – ab + b2) = (a + b) [(a + b)2 – 3ab] = (a + b)3 – 3ab (a + b)
5. a3 – b3 = (a - b) (a2 + ab + b2) = (a – b) [(a – b)2 + 3ab] = (a – b)3 + 3ab (a – b)
6. a4 – b4 = (a2 + b2)2 – 2a2b2 = [(a + b)2 – 2ab]2 – 2(ab)2
7. a4 – b4 = (a2 - b2) (a2 + b2) = (a – b) (a + b) (a2 + b2) = (α + β) 2 – 4αβ (α + β) [(α + β) 2 – 2αβ]

8. Formation of Equations with given Roots :


Suppose we have to form the equation whose roots are a and b. Then, as x = a, x = b are the roots of the equation,
so (x – a) = 0 and (x – b) = 0
\ (x – a) (x – b) = 0
⇒ x2 – (a + b) x + ab = 0
⇒ x2 – (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0.
Thus, the equation whose roots are 5 and 7 is x2 – (5 + 7) x + 5 × 7 = 0  ⇒  x2 – 12x + 35 = 0.
9. To find the condition when a relation between the two roots is given
Step I. Let one root be a. Write the other root using the given relation.
Step II. Write the sum and product of the roots.
Step III. Eliminate α from the two relations obtained in Step II.
Ex. Find the condition that one root of ax2 + bx + c = 0 may be four times the other.
Sol. Let the roots be a and 4a. Then,
b
a + 4a = 5a = – …(i)
a
c
a . 4a = 4a2 = …(ii)
a
b
From (i) a = –
5a
( ) b 2 c
∴  From (ii) 4. – 5a = a ⇒
4b2
25a 2
c
= ⇒ 4b2 = 25 ac.
a
10. Special Roots: For a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R
whose roots are a and b.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-5
(a) Reciprocal roots
1 c
If a = , then ab = 1 ⇒ ab = = 1 ⇒ c = a
β a
Thus the roots of a quadratic equation will be reciprocal of each other if coefficient of x2 = constant term.
(b) Zero roots
Case I : When one root is zero, say a = 0.
c
Then, ab = 0 ⇒ = 0, ⇒ c = 0 as a ≠ 0
a
Case II : When both roots are zero, i.e, a = 0, b = 0
Then, a + b = 0 and ab = 0
b c
⇒ – a = 0 and = 0   ⇒  b = 0 and c = 0 as a ≠ 0.
a
(c) Infinite roots
Let a, b be the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 ...(i)
1 1
Then, the equation whose roots are , is cx2 + bx + a = 0 ...(ii)
α β
1
Now if one root of (ii) is zero then a = 0 ⇒ the corresponding root of (i) is = ∞.
0
If both the roots of (ii) are zero, then a = 0, b = 0 ⇒ both the corresponding roots of (i) are infinitely large.
Thus, For one root to be infinite, a = 0 ;
For both roots to be infinite, a = 0, b = 0
11. Signs of the Roots
b c
(a) Positive roots : Both the roots will be positive if α + β and αβ are both positive, i.e, – and are
a a
positive. It will be so when b and a are of opposite signs and c and a are of the same sign.
b
(b) Negative roots : Both the roots will be negative if a + b is negative and ab is positive, i.e., – a is negative
c
and is positive, i.e., when a, b and c all have the same sign.
a
(c) Roots of opposite signs. It will occur when ab is negative, i.e., c and a are of opposite signs.
b
(d) Roots equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. It will occur if a + b = 0, i.e., – = 0, i.e. b = 0.
a
For real solutions the signs of c and a should be opposite.
12. Common Roots
1. To find the condition that two quadratic equations may have one common root.
Let the two quadratic equations be ax2 + bx + c = 0, a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 and let a be their common root. Then,
aa2 + ba + c = 0 ...(i)
2
a1a + b1a + c1 = 0 ...(ii)
α2 α 1
Solving them by the rule of cross-multiplication, we have, = =
bc1 – cb1 ca1 – ac1 ab1 – a1b
bc1 – cb1 ca – ca1
a2 = ,α = 1
ab1 – a1b ab1 – a1b
bc1 – cb1 (ca1 – ac1 ) 2

⇒ = 2
⇒ (bc1 – cb1 ) (ab1 – a1b) = (ca1 – ac1 )2
ab1 – a1b (ab1 – a1b)
Ch 3-6 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

2. To find the condition that the two quadratic equations may have both the roots common.
Let the common roots of the equations ax2 + bx + c = 0 and a1x2 + b1x + c1 = 0 be a and b. Then,
b c
From first equation, a + b = – , αβ =
a a
b c
From second equation, a + b = – 1 , αβ = 1
a1 a1
b b c c a b c
So, – = – 1 and = + 1 ⇒ = = .
a a1 a a1 a1 b1 c1

13. Transformed Equations


If f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0 is a quadratic equation, then the equation whose roots are the :
1 a b
(a) Reciprocals of the roots of f (x) = 0 is f   = 0 i.e., 2 + + c = 0 ⇒ cx2 + bx + a = 0.
 x x x
(b) Roots of f (x) = 0, each increased by a constant k is f (x – k) = 0, i.e., a(x – k)2 + b(x – k) + c = 0.
(c) Roots of f (x) = 0, each decreased by a constant k is f (x + k) = 0, i.e., a(x + k)2 + b(x + k) + c = 0.
(d) Roots of f (x) = 0 with signs changed is f (– x) = 0, i.e. a(–x)2 + b(–x) + c = 0 ⇒ ax2 – bx + c = 0.
2
 x  x  x
(e) Roots of f(x) = 0 with each multiplied by k ≠ 0 is f   = 0 i.e. a   + b   + c = 0 i.e., ax2 + kbx
 k  k  k
+ k2c = 0
14. Relation between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients.
Let the cubic equation be x3 + S1x2 + S2x + S3 = 0, where S1, S2, S3 are the coefficients.
Let a, b, g be the roots of the given cubic equation. Then,
S1 = – (α + β + γ), S2 = (αβ + βγ + γα), S3 = – (αβγ)
Conversely, if the roots of a cubic equation are given as a1, b1, g, then its equation can be written as :
x3 – S1x2 + S2x – S3 = 0, where
S1 = (a + b + g), S2 = (ab + bg + ga) and S3 = abg.
15. Relation between the roots of a bi-quadratic equation (degree 4) and its coefficients.
A bi-quadratic equation, whose roots are a, b, g and d is
x4 – S1 x3 + S2 x2 – S2x + S4 = 0
where S1 = a + b + g + d, S2 = ab + ag + ad + bg + bd + gd, S3 = abg + abd + agd + bgdL, S4 = abgd.

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex. 1. What are the roots of the equation (a + b + x)–1 = a–1 + b–1 + x–1 ? (CDS 2007)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sol. Given, = + + ⇒ – = +
a+b+ x a b x a+b+ x x a b
x – (a + b + x) a + b – ( a + b) a+b

⇒  =   ⇒  =   ⇒  – ab = x2 + (a + b)x
x(a + b + x) ab x(a + b + x) ab
⇒  x2 + (a + b)x + ab = 0  ⇒  (x + a) (x + b) = 0  ⇒  x = – a, – b.

2x 3– x 3
Ex. 2. What is one of the roots of the equation – = ?
3– x 2x 2
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4     (CDS 2008)
2x 3– x 3
Sol. Given equation is – =
3– x 2x 2
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-7

2x 1 3
Let = a. Then, the given equation reduces to a – =
3– x a 2
⇒ 2(a2 – 1) = 3a  ⇒  2a2 – 3a – 2 = 0  ⇒  2a2 – 4a + a – 2 = 0


⇒ 2a (a – 2) + 1 (a – 2) = 0  ⇒  (2a + 1) (a – 2) = 0
1
⇒ a – 2 = 0  ⇒  a = 2 or (2a + 1) = 0  ⇒  a = –

2
                or
2x 2x 1 2x 1
\ = 2   ⇒  2x = 4(3 – x) = –   ⇒  =
3– x 3– x 2 3– x 4
1
⇒ 6x = 12  ⇒  x = 2 ⇒ 8x = 3 – x  ⇒ 9x = 3 ⇒ x = .
3
Hence, according to the given options, (b) is correct.
Ex. 3. If 3x + 27 (3–x) = 12, then what is the value of x ? (CDS 2009)
Sol. Given, 3x + 27 (3–x) = 12
27
Let 3x = y. Then, y + = 12   ⇒  y2 – 12y + 27 = 0
y
⇒ y2 – 9y – 3y + 27 = 0  ⇒ (y – 3) (y – 9) = 0  ⇒  y = 3, 9

⇒ 3x = 3 or 3x = 9  ⇒  x = 1 or 2.

Ex. 4. What is the ratio of sum of squares of roots to the product of the roots of the equation 7x2 + 12x + 18 = 0?
(CDS 2009)
Sol. Let a, b be the roots of the equation 7x2 + 12x + 18 = 0.

 b c
 For a quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0, sum of roots = – a , product of roots = + a 
2
 
12 18
\a+b=– and αβ =
7 7
2
 –12  2 2 144

⇒ (a + =  ⇒ α + β + 2αβ =
b)2
 7  49
2 2 144 36 −108
⇒ α +β =
– =
49 7 49
–108
6
\ Required ratio = a2 + b2 : ab = 49 = – = – 6 : 7.

18/7 7

Ex. 5. What is the value of a for which the equation 2x2 + 2 6 x + a = 0 has equal roots ? (Kerala PET 2010)

Sol. The equation 2x2 + 2 6x + a = 0 has equal roots if the discriminant D = 0.


2
\ Here, D = (2 6) – 4 × (2) × (a ) = 0 [D = b2 – 4ac for ax2 + bx + c = 0]

⇒ 24 – 8a = 0 ⇒ a = 3.

Ex. 6. Of the following quadratic equations, which is the one whose roots are 2 and – 15 ?
(a) x2 – 2x + 15 = 0 (b) x2 + 15x – 2 = 0 (c) x2 + 13x – 30 = 0 (d) x2 – 30 = 0.   (MAT)
Sol. Sum of roots = 2 + (– 15) = – 13; Product of roots = 2 × (– 15) = – 30.
\ Required equation is x2 – (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0
⇒ Reqd. equation = x2 – 13x – 30 = 0.
Ch 3-8 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Ex. 7. If one of the roots of the equation x2 + ax + 3 = 0 is 3 and one of the roots of the equation x2 + ax + b = 0
is three times the other root, then what is the value of b ? (J&K CET 2005)
Sol. Let 3 and a be the roots of the equation x2 + ax + 3 = 0
Then, sum of roots = 3 + a = – a ...(i),    Product of roots = 3a = 3  ...(ii)
From (ii) a = 1.  \ Substituting a = 1 in (i), we get a = – 4.
\ The second equation x2 + ax + b = 0 becomes x2 – 4x + b = 0.
Let b and 3b be the roots of this equation. Then, sum of roots = b + 3b = 4 ⇒ 4b = 4 ⇒ b = 1
and Product of roots = b × 3b = b ⇒ 3b2 = b ⇒ b = 3.
Ex. 8. If α, β be the two roots of the equation x2 + x + 1 = 0, then the equation whose roots are α/β and β/α is ?
(a) x2 – x – 1 = 0 (b) x2 – x + 1 = 0 (c) x2 + x – 1 = 0 (d) x2 + x + 1 = 0
(UPSEE 2005)
2
Sol. Let a, b be the roots of the equations x + x + 1 = 0. Then,
Sum of roots = a + b = – 1, Product of roots = ab = 1
α β
Now the equation whose roots are and is
β α
α β α β
x2 –  +  x +  ×  = 0.

β α β α
α β α 2 + β2 (α + β) 2 – 2αβ (–1) 2 – 2(1) α β
+ = = = = – 1 and × = 1.
β α αβ αβ 1 β α
2
\ Required equation = x + x + 1 = 0.

Ex. 9. If the difference in the roots of the equation x2 – px + q = 0 is unity, then which one of the following is
correct ?
(a) p2 + 4q = 1 (b) p2 – 4q = 1 (c) p2 + 4q = – 1 (d) p2 – 4q = – 1.
(CDS 2005)
2
Sol. Given, x – px + q = 0
Let a, b be the roots of the given equation. Then,
(– p ) q
a + b = – = p  ...(i),   ab = = q  ...(ii)
1 1
Also, a – b = 1 (given) ...(iii)
p +1
\ From (i) and (iii), 2a = p + 1 ⇒ a =
2
p −1
\ From (i) and (iii), 2b = p – 1 ⇒ b =
2
 p + 1  p – 1
Substituting these values of a and b in (ii), we have   =q
 2  2 
p2 – 1
⇒ = q ⇒ p 2 – 1 = 4q ⇒ p 2 – 4q = 1.
4

Ex. 10. If the roots of the equation x2 + x + 1 = 0 are in the ratio of m : n, then which one of the following relation
holds ?
m n m n
(a) m + n + 1 = 0 (b) + + 1 = 0 (c) m + n + 1 = 0 (d) + + 1 = 0.
n m n m
(CDS 2005)
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-9

Sol. x2 + x + 1 = 0
–1± 1– 4 –1 ± 3 i  – b ± b 2 – 4ac 

\ Roots are = = (where = i = –1) Q Roots = .
2 2  2a 
 
–1 + 3 i
2 m –1 + 3 i m

Given, = ⇒ =
–1 – 3 i n –1 – 3 i n
2
m + n (– 1 + 3 i ) + (–1 – 3 i ) –2

⇒ = = (Applying componendo and dividendo)
m – n (–1 + 3 i ) – (–1 – 3 i ) 2 3 i

m+n –1 i2 i

⇒ = = = (Q i2 = –1)
m–n 3i 3i 3
2 2
 m + n  i  m 2 + n 2 + 2mn −1 (m 2 + n 2 + 2mn) + (m 2 + n 2 – 2mn) –1 + 3

⇒  =   ⇒ =   ⇒  =
 m – n  3 m 2 + n 2 – 2mn 3 (m 2 + n 2 + 2mn) – (m 2 + n 2 – 2mn) –1 – 3
2(m 2 + n 2 ) 2 m2 + n2 1 m2 + n2 m n
⇒ = ⇒ =   ⇒  = –1 ⇒ + + 1 = 0.
2 (2mn) –4 2mn –2 mn n m

Ex. 11. If the roots of the equation x2 – 2ax + a2 + a – 3 = 0 are real and less than 3, then which one of the following
is correct ?
(a) a < 2 (b) 2 < a < 3 (c) 3 < a < 4 (d) a > 4   (CDS 2012)
x2 a2
Sol. If the roots of the equation – 2ax + – a – 3 = 0 are real and less than 3, then D ≥ 0 and f (3) > 0.
⇒ 4a2 – 4(a2 + a – 3) ≥ 0 and (3)2 – 2a (3) + a2 + a – 3 > 0
⇒ a2 – a2 – a + 3 ≥ 0 and 9 – 6a + a2 + a – 3 > 0
⇒ –a + 3 ≥ 0 and a2 – 5a + 6 > 0  ⇒ a – 3 ≤ 0 and (a – 2) (a – 3) > 0
⇒ a ≤ 3 and a < 2 or a > 3  ⇒  a < 2.
Ex. 12. What are the number of solutions for real x, which satisfy the equation
          2 log2 log2x + log1/2 log2 (2 2x ) = 1?

Sol. 2 log2 log2x + log1/2 log2 (2 2 x) = 1


⇒ 2 log2 log2x – log2 log2 (2 2 x) = 1 (Q log1/a x = – logax)

⇒ log2 (log2x)2 – log2 (log2 (2 2 x) ) = log2 2

(log 2 x) 2 (log 2 x) 2

⇒ log2 = log 2 2   ⇒  = 2   ⇒ (log 2 x) 2 = 2 log 2 (2 2 x)
log 2 (2 2 x) log 2 (2 2 x)
3 
⇒ (log2x)2 = 2 log2 (23/2x)
⇒ (log2x)2 = 2  log 2 x  = 2[3/2 {log22 + log2x}]
2 
⇒ (log2x)2 = 3 + 2 log2x
⇒ (log2x)2 – 2 log2x – 3 = 0
1
⇒ (log2x – 3) (log2x + 1) = 0 ⇒ log2x = 3 or log2x = – 1  ⇒  x = 23 = 8 or x = 2–1 =

2
1 1
But for x = , log 2 log 2   is undefined so x = 8 is the only possible value of x.
2 2

Ex. 13. If α, β, γ are the roots of the equation x3 + ax2 + bx + c = 0, then what is α–1 + β–1 + γ–1 is equal to ?
Sol. Given a, b, g are the roots of the equation x3 + ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then,
Ch 3-10 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

coefficient of x 2 coefficient of x
S1 = a + b + g = –
3
= – a ;  S2 = ab + bg + ag = =b
coefficient of x coefficient of x3
– constant term
S3 = abg =
=–c
coefficient of x3
1 1 1 βγ + αγ + αβ S2 b b
\ a–1 + b–1 + g–1 = + + =
= = =– .
α β γ αβγ S3 – c c

1 1
Ex. 14. If α, β are the roots of the equation 9x2 + 6x + 1 = 0, then write the equation with roots , .
α β
6 2 1
= – , ab =
Sol. As a, b are the roots of the equation 9x2 + 6x + 1 = 0, a + b = –
9 3 9
\ Required equation = x2 – (Sum of roots)x + Product of roots = 0

 1 1 1 1 β+ α 1
i.e., x2 –  +  x + . = 0 ,  i.e., x2 –  x + =0
 α β  α β  γβ  αβ
 –2/3 
 x + 9 = 0 ,  i.e., x + 6x + 9 = 0
i.e., x2 –  2
 1/9 
Alternatively,

 1 1
The equation whose roots  ,  are the reciprocals of the roots (a, b) of the equation 9x2 + 6x + 1 = 0 can
α β
1
be obtained by replacing x by in the given equation.
x
2
1 1
\ Required equation is : 9   + 6   + 1 = 0   ⇒  x2 + 6x + 9 = 0.

 x  x
Ex. 15. Find the values of k for which the equations x2 – kx – 21 = 0 and x2 – 3kx + 35 = 0 will have a common
root?
Sol. Let a be the common root of both the given equations. Then a satisfies both the equations. So,
a2 – ka – 21 = 0 ...(i)
2
a – 3ka + 35 = 0 ...(ii)
Solving equations (i) and (ii) simultaneously, we get
α2 α 1  a x + b y + c = 0; a x + b y + c = 0 
= =  1 1 1 2 2 2

–35k – 63k –21 – 35 –3k + k  x y 1 
= =
b c – b c c a – c a a b – a b 
–98k –56 28  1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

⇒a = 2 = 49 and α = =
–2k –2k k
2
 28  2 28 × 28
\ 49 =   ⇒ k =
= 16 ⇒ k = ± 4.
 k  49

PRACTICE SHEET
1. What are the roots of the equation log10 (x2 – 6x + 45) = 2? 5 7 9 11
(a) 9, –5 (b) –9, 5 (c) 11, – 5 (d) –11, 5 (a) (b) (c) (d)
13 13 13 3
(CDS 2010) (CDS 2007)
2. What is one of the values of x in the equation x
3. What are the roots of the equation 4 – 3.2 x + 2 + 32 = 0 ?
x 1– x 13 (a) 1, 2 (b) 3, 4 (c) 2, 3 (d) 1, 3
+ =
1– x x 6 (CDS 2010)
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-11
4. What are the roots of the quadratic equation (b) (a3 c)1/4 + (ac3)1/4 + b = 0
a2 b2 x2 – (a2 + b2)x + 1 = 0 ? (c) (a3 b)1/4 + (ab3)1/4 + c = 0
1 1 1 1 (d) (b3 c)1/4 + (bc3)1/4 + a = 0    (Kerala PET 2003)
(a) 2
, 2
(b) – 2
,–
a b a b2 14. If the roots of the equation a(b – c) x 2 + b(c – a)x
1 1 1 1 + c(a – b) = 0 are equal, then a, b, c are in :
(c) , – 2 (d) – 2 , 2   (CDS 2011)
a2 b a b (a) AP (b) GP
5. If the roots of the equation (c2 – ab)x2 – 2(a2 – bc)x + (c) HP (d) None of these
(b2 – ac) = 0 for a ≠ 0 are real and equal, then the value of 15. If an integer P is chosen at random in the interval 0 ≤ p ≤ 5,
a3 + b3 + c3 is : the probability that the roots of the equation x2 + px
(a) abc (b) 3abc p 1
+ + = 0 are real is
(c) 0 (d) None of these 4 2
(MAT 2003) 2 2 3 4
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6. If sin q and cos q are the roots of the equations 3 5 5 5
ax2 – bx + c = 0, then which of the following is correct? 16. Two students A and B solve an equation of the form
(a) a2 + b2 + 2ac = 0 (b) a2 – b2 + 2ac = 0
x2 + px + q = 0. A starts with a wrong value of p and obtains
(c) a2 + b2 + 2ab = 0 (d) a2 – b2 – 2ac = 0. the roots as 2 and 6. B starts with a wrong value of q and
(CDS 2011) gets the roots as 2 and –9. What are the correct roots of the
equations ?
7. The roots of the quadratic equation x2 – 2 3 x – 22 = 0
are: (a) 3 and –4 (b) –3 and –4 (c) –3 and 4 (d) 3 and 4
(a) imaginary (b) real, rational, equal (CDS 2012)
(c) real, rational, unequal (d) real, irrational, unequal 17. If a and b are the roots of the equation x2 – 6x + 6 = 0, what
(WBJEE 2010) is a3 + b3 + a2 + b2 + a + b equal to ?
8. Which one of the following is the equation whose roots (a) 150 (b) 138 (c) 128 (d) 124
are respectively three times the roots of the equation (CDS 2011)
ax2 + bx + c = 0 ? 18. If a and b are the roots of the equation x2 + px + q = 0, then
(a) ax2 + 3bx + c = 0 (b) ax2 + 3bx + 9c = 0 –a–1 and –b–1 are the roots of which one of the following
2
(c) ax – 3bx + 9c = 0 (d) ax2 + bx + 3c = 0 equations ?
(CDS 2007) (a) qx2 – px + 1 = 0 (b) q2 + px + 1 = 0
9. If a, b are the roots of the quadratic equation (c) x2 + px – q = 0 (d) x2 – px + q = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0, then ab2 + a2b + ab equals : (CDS 2010)
bc c ( a – b) 19. The number of solution of log4 (x – 1) = log2 (x – 3) is :
(a) 2
(b) 0 (c) abc (d)
–a a2
(a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 2 (d) 3
(AMU 2000)
10. For what value of m the ratio of the roots of the equation (AMU 2007)
12x2 – mx + 5 = 0 is 3 : 2 ? 20. The equation esin x
– e–sin x – 4 = 0 has
(a) 5 10 (b) 10 5 (c) 25 2 (d) 15 5 (a) no real roots (b) exactly one real root
(c) exactly four real roots (d) infinite number of real roots.
(Rajasthan PET 2002)
2
11. If the roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 are equal in (AIEEE 2012)
x x
magnitude but opposite in sign, then which one of the 56  1   1 
21. If 5     > 1, then x satisfies :
following is correct ? 5 5
(a) a = 0 (b) b = 0 (a) [0, 49) (b) (49, 64] (c) [0, 64) (d) [49, 64)
(c) c = 0 (d) b = 0, c ≠ 0, a ≠ 0. (DCE 2007)
(CDS 2005) 1 1 1
12. If 2x2 – 7xy + 3y2 = 0, then the value of x : y is 22. The sum of the roots of the equation + = is
x+a x+b c
(a) 3 : 2 (b) 2 : 3 zero. What is the product of the roots of the equation ?
(c) 3 : 1 and 1 : 2 (d) 5 : 6
( a + b) ( a + b)
(MAT 2003) (a) – (b)
2 2
13. If a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation
(a 2 + b 2 ) (a 2 + b 2 )
ax2 + bx + c = 0, such that b = a1/3, then (c) – (d)   (CDS 2010)
2 2
(a) (a3 b)1/4 + (ac3)1/4 + a = 0
Ch 3-12 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

23. For what value of k will the roots of the equation 32. The equation whose roots are the negatives of the roots of
kx2 – 5x + 6 = 0 be in the ratio 2 : 3 ? the equation x7 + 3x5 + x3 – x2 + 7x + 2 = 0 is :
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –1 (d) 2 (a) x7 + 3x5 + x3 – x2 – 7x – 2 = 0
(b) x7 + 3x5 + x3 – x2 + 7x – 2 = 0
(CDS 2010)
(c) x7 + 3x5 + x3 + x2 – 7x + 2 = 0
24. The number of real solutions of the equation
2|x|2 – 5|x| + 2 = 0 is : (d) x7 + 3x5 + x3 + x2 + 7x – 2 = 0    (EAMCET 2001)
(a) 0 (b) 4 33. Given that a, g are the roots of the equation Ax2 – 4x + 1 = 0
and b, d are the roots of the equation Bx2 – 6x + 1 = 0, then
(c) 2 (d) None of these the values of A and B respectively such that a, b, g and d
25. If p, q, r are positive and are in A.P., the roots of quadratic are in H.P are :
equation px2 + qx + r = 0 are real for :
(a) –5, 9 (b) 3/2, 5
r p (c) 3, 8 (d) None of these
(a) – 7 ≥ 4 3 (b) –7 ≥4 3
p r 34. Let a, b be the roots of the equation (x – a) (x – b) = c, c ≠ 0,
(c) all p and r (d) no p and r then the roots of the equation (x – a) (x – b) + c = 0 are :
26. The values of x which satisfy the expression (a) a, c (b) b, c (c) a, b (d) a + c, b + c
2 2
(5 + 2 6) x

+3
+ (5 – 2 6)
x –3
= 10 are : 35. If the roots of the equation x3 – ax2 + bx – c = 0 are three
consecutive integers, then what is the smallest possible value
(a) ± 2, ± 3 (b) ± 2, ± 4 (c) ±2, ± 2 (d) 2, 2, 3 of b ?
27. If a, b, g are the roots of the equation 2x3 – 3x2 + 6x + 1 1
(a) – (b) –1 (c) 0 (d) 1  (CAT)
= 0, then a2 + b2 + g2 is equal to 3
–15 –9 13 36. If two equations x2 + a2 = 1 – 2ax and x2 + b2 = 1 – 2bx have
(a) (b) (c) (d) 4
4 4 4 only one common root, then
(KCET 2005)
3 (a) (a – b) = – 1 (b) |a – b| = 1
28. If a, b, g are the roots of the equation x + 4x + 1 = 0, then
(c) a – b = 1 (d) |a – b| = 2   (DCE 2004)
(a + b)–1 + (b + g)–1 + (g + a)–1 is equal to
37. If a, b, g are the roots of the equation x3 – 3x + 11 = 0, then
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 the equation whose roots are (a + b), (b + g), (g + a) is :
(UPSEE 2003) (a) x3 + 3x + 11 = 0 (b) x3 – 3x + 11 = 0
29. If the roots of x3 – 12x2 + 12x – 28 = 0 are in A.P, their
(c) x3 + 3x – 11 = 0 (d) x3 – 3x – 11 = 0
common difference is 2
38. If a, b are the roots of ax + bx + c = 0, and a + k, b + k are
(a) ± 3 (b) ± 2 the roots of px2 + qx + r = 0, then k =
(c) ± 1 (d) None of these
1
(Rajasthan PET 2001) (a) – (a /b – p /q ) (b) (a/b – p/q)
2
30. The quadratic equation whose roots are three times the roots
of 3ax2 + 3bx + c = 0 is 1
(c) ( b /a – q /p ) (d) (ab – pq)
(a) ax2 + bx + 3c = 0 (b) ax2 + 3bx + c = 0 2
(c) ax2 + 3bx + 3c = 0 (d) 9ax2 + 9bx + c = 0. 39. Find the value of 6 + 6 + 6 + .... ∞
(WBJEE 2009)
2
(a) –4 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 6
31. If a and b are the roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 and
40. The roots of (x – a) (x – a – 1) + (x – a – 1) (x – a – 2)
1– α 1–β + (x – a) (x – a – 2) = 0, a ∈ R are always :
if px2 + qx + r = 0 has roots and , then r equals:
α β (a) imaginary (b) real and distinct
(a) abc (b) a + 2b (c) a + b + c (d) ab + bc + ca. (c) equal (d) rational and equal

ANSWERS
1.
(c) 2.
(c) 3.
(c) 4.
(a) 5.
(b) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (a)
11. (d) 12. (c) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (a) 16. (b) 17. (b) 18. (a) 19. (b) 20. (a)
21. (a) 22. (c) 23. (b) 24. (b) 25. (b) 26.
(c) 27.
(a) 28.
(c) 29.
(a) 30. (c)
31. (c) 32. (d) 33. (c) 34. (c) 35. (b) 36. (d) 37. (d) 38. (c) 39. (c) 40. (b)
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-13

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. Given, log10 (x2 – 6x + 45) = 2  ⇒ x2 – 6x + 45 = 102 = 100 ⇒ 4[a4 + b2c2 – 2a2bc – c2b2 + ac3 + ab3 – a2bc) = 0
⇒ x2 – 6x – 55 = 0  ⇒  x2 – 11x + 5x – 55 = 0 ⇒ 4a (a3 + b3 + c3 – 3 abc) = 0
⇒ x(x – 11) + 5(x – 11) = 0 ⇒ (x + 5) (x – 11) = 0 ⇒ a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.
⇒ x = – 5 or 11. 6. As sin q and cos q are the roots of the equation
x ax2 – bx + c = 0.
2. Let = y. Then, the given equation reduces to b c
1– x \ sin q + cos q = and sin θ cos θ =
a a
1 13 b2
y+
= ⇒ 6 (y2 + 1) = 13 y ⇒ (sin q + cos q)2 =

y 6 a2
⇒ 6y2 – 13y + 6 = 0 ⇒ 6y2 – 9y – 4y + 6 = 0
b2
⇒ sin2q + cos2q + 2 sin q cos q =


⇒ 3y (2y – 3) – 2(2y – 3) = 0 a2
2 3 2c b 2 2c b 2 b2 – a 2
⇒ (3y – 2) (2y – 3) = 0  ⇒  y = and

⇒1+ = 2 ⇒ = –1=
3 2 a a a a2 a2
2 x 2 x 4 2 2 2 2
⇒ 2ac = b – a ⇒ a – b + 2ac = 0.
when y = , = ⇒ =
3 1– x 3 1– x 9 7. Given equation is x2 – 2 3 x – 22 = 0 .
4 Discriminant = D = b2 – 4ac (for ax2 + bx + c = 0)
⇒ 9x = 4 – 4x ⇒ 13x = 4 ⇒ x =
13
2
= (–2 3) – 4(–22) = 12 + 88 = 100
3 x 3 x 9 As D > 0 and is a perfect square, the roots are real, rational
when y = , = ⇒ =
2 1– x 2 1– x 4 and unequal.
9 8. Let a, b be the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then,
⇒ 4x = 9 – 9x ⇒ 13x = 9 ⇒ x =
. b c
13 a + b = – , αβ = .
3. 4x – 3.2x + 2 + 32 = 0 a a
⇒ 22x – 3.22.2x + 32 = 0  ⇒ 22x – 12.2x + 32 = 0 By the given condition, roots of the required equation are
3a and 3b.
Let 2x = a. Then, a2 – 12a + 32 = 0
3b
⇒ (a – 8) (a – 4) = 0  ⇒  a = 8 and 4
\ Sum of roots = 3a + 3b = 3(a + b) = –
a
⇒ 2x = 8 and 2x = 4  ⇒  x = 3 and x = 2.
9c
4. Let the roots of the equation a2b2x2 – (a2 + b2)x + 1 = 0 be Product of roots = 3a . 3b = 9ab =
a
a and b. Then,
\ Required equation
a 2 + b2 1 = x2 – (sum of roots)x + (product of roots) = 0
a + b = 2 2
....(i ), αβ = 2 2
...(ii )
a b a b  –3b  9c
⇒ x2 – 
x + =0
2  a  a
a – b = (α + β) – 4αβ
⇒ ax2 + 3bx + 9c = 0.
2 2 2
a +b  4 9. Given, a, b are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.
=  2 2  – 2 2 Then, a + b = – b/a , ab = c/a
 a b  a b
Then, ab2 + a2b + ab = ab (a + b) + ab = (c/a) (–b/a) + c/a
a 4 + b 4 + 2a 2 b 2 – 4a 2 b 2 bc c – bc + ac c (a – b )
= = – + = = .
(a 2b 2 )2 2
a a a2 a2
10. Given, the roots of the given equation 12x2 – mx + 5 = 0 are
(a 2 – b 2 )2 a 2 – b2
= = ...(iii) in the ratio 3 : 2. Let the roots of the given equation be 3a
(a 2b 2 )2 a 2b2 and 2a. Then,
m m
1 1 Sum of roots = 3a + 2a = ⇒ 5α = ...(i)

\ On solving (i) and (ii), we get a = 2
,β = 2 . 12 12
b a
5 5 5
5. Given that the roots are real and equal, and (3a) (2a) = ⇒ 6α 2 = ⇒ α 2 =
12 12 72
D = 0 ⇒ b2 – 4ac = 0 for ax2 + bx + c = 0. 5
⇒ α= ...(ii)
\ [–2(a2 – bc)]2 – 4(c2 – ab) (b2 – ac) = 0
72
Ch 3-14 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX


\ From (i) and (ii) p 1
15. The equation x2 + px + + = 0 has real roots if the
5 m 5 5 5 4 2
5. = ⇒ m = 60 = 60. = 10 discriminant D ≥ 0.
72 12 72 6 2 2
 p 1 2
5 2 10 ⇒ p2 – 4  +  ≥ 0 ⇒ p – p – 2 ≥ 0
= 10 ⋅ . = . 10 = 5 10 .  4 2
2 2 2
⇒ p2 – 2p + p – 2 ≥ 0 ⇒ p(p – 2) + 1 (p – 2) ≥ 0
11. Given equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0. ⇒ (p – 2) (p + 1) ≥ 0
– b ± b 2 – 4ac ⇒ (p – 2) ≥ 0 and (p + 1) ≥ 0
\ Roots are x =
⇒ p ≥ 2 or p ≤ –1
2a
 – b + b 2 – 4ac   – b – b 2 – 4ac  The condition p ≤ –1 is not admissible as 0 ≤ p ≤ 5.
Given  =–  Now p ≥ 2 ⇒ p can take up the value 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 from
 2a   2a  the given values. {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
   
\ Probability (Roots of given equation are real)
⇒–b+
b 2 – 4ac = b + b 2 – 4ac
Number of values p can take 4 2
⇒ 2b = 0 ⇒ b = 0. but a ≠ 0, c ≠ 0. = = = .
Given number of values 6 3
12. 2x2 – 7xy + 3y2 = 0
2 16. Let the roots of the quadratic equation x2 + px + q = 0 be
x x a and b. According to the given condition, A starts with a
⇒ 2   – 7  + 3 = 0

 y  y wrong value of p and obtains the roots as 2 and 6. But this
2 time, the value of q is correct.
x –b ± b – 4ac 7 ± 49 – 24 7 ± 5 1

\ = = = = 3, \ q = Product of roots = ab = 2 × 6 = 12.
y 2a 4 4 2
According to the second condition, B starts with a wrong
\ x : y = 3 : 1 and 1 : 2. value of q and obtains the roots as 2 and –9. But this time,
13. Let a, b be the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then, the value of p is correct.
b \ p = sum of roots = a + b = 2 + (–9) = –7 ...(i)
a + b = – ...(i)
a 2 2 2
\ (a – b) = (a + b) – 4ab = (–7) – 4.12 = 49 – 48 = 1
c
ab = ...(ii) ⇒ a – b = 1 ...(ii)
a
\ Solving equations (i) and (ii), we get α = – 3 and β = – 4.
and b = a1/3 ...(iii)
17. a + b = 6, ab = 6
3/4
c c c \ (a + b)2 = 62 ⇒ a2 + b2 + 2ab = 36
\ From (ii) and (iii), a . (a)1/3 =
⇒ α 4/3 = ⇒ α =  
a a a ⇒ a2 + b2 = 36 – 2 × 6 = 24
1/3
  c 3/ 4  c
1/4 Now, a3 + b3 + a2 + b2 + a + b

\ b =     =   = (a + b) (a2 + b2 – ab) + (a2 + b2) + (a + b)
 a   a
 
= 6(24 – 6) + 24 + 6 = 6 × 18 + 30 = 138.

\ Putting these values of a and b in eqn. (i), we have
3/4
18. Since, a and b are the roots of the equation x2 + px + q = 0,
c 1/4 b \ a + b = – p and ab = q
  + ( c /a ) = –

a a Now, equation whose roots are –a–1 and –b–1 is
⇒ a. a c + a. a c1/4 = – b
–3/4 3/4 –1/4
x2 – (sum of the roots) x + product of the roots = 0
⇒ a1/4 c3/4 + a3/4 c1/4 + b = 0
i.e.,  x2 – (– a–1 – b–1)x + (–a–1) (–b–1) = 0
⇒ (ac3)1/4 + (a3 c)1/4 + b = 0.  1 1 α +β p
14. If the roots of the equation a(b – c)x2 + b(c – a)x + c(a – b) –a–1 –b–1 = –  +  = –  =
α β  αβ  q
= 0 are equal, then Discriminant (D) = 0, i.e.,
1 1
⇒ b2 (c – a)2 – 4a(b – c) c(a – b) = 0. and (–a–1) (–b–1) = =
αβ q
⇒ b2 (c2 + a2 – 2ac) – 4ac (ab – ca – b2 + bc) = 0
⇒ b2c2 + b2 a2 – 2ab2c – 4a2bc + 4a2c2 + 4ab2c – 4abc2 = 0 p 1
\ Required equation = x2 –
x + =0
⇒ a2b2 + b2c2 + 4a2c2 + 2ab2c – 4a2bc – 4abc2 = 0 q q
⇒ (ab + bc – 2ac)2 = 0 ⇒ ab + bc – 2ac = 0 ⇒ qx2 – px + 1 = 0.
1 1 2 19. log4 (x – 1) = log2 (x – 3)
⇒ ab + bc = 2ac ⇒ + = ⇒ a, b, c are in H.P.
c a b ⇒ log 22 ( x – 1) = log 2 ( x – 3)
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-15

1 23. Let the roots of the equation kx2


– 5x + 6 = 0 be a and b.

⇒ log 2 ( x – 1) = log 2 ( x – 3) Then, a + b = 5/k ...(i)
2
 1  ab = 6/k ...(ii)
 Using log mn ( x) = n log m x  2 2
Given a/b = ⇒ α = β
⇒ log2 (x – 1) = 2 log2 (x – 3) 3 3
⇒ log2 (x – 1) = log2 (x – 3)2 \ From (i) and (ii),
⇒ (x – 1) = (x – 3)2 ⇒ (x – 1) = x2 – 6x + 9 2 5 2 2 6
β + β = and β =
⇒ x2 – 7x + 10 = 0 ⇒ (x – 2) (x – 5) = 0 ⇒ x = 2 or 5. 3 k 3 k
x = 2 is inadmissible as log2 (x – 3) is not defined when x = 2. 5 5 2 9 3 2 9
\ x = 5. ⇒ β = and β =   ⇒  b = and β =

3 k k k k
20. Given, esin x – e–sin x – 4 = 0 9 9
Let esin x = y. Then, the given equation becomes
⇒ 2
= ⇒ 9k 2 – 9k = 0 ⇒ k (k – 1) = 0 ⇒ k = 0 or 1
k k
1 2
   y – = 4 ⇒ y – 4 y – 1 = 0 But k = 0 does not satisfy the condition, so k = 1.
y
24. 2| x |2 – 5| x | + 2 = 0
4 ± 16 + 4 ⇒ (2| x | – 1) (| x | – 2) = 0
⇒ y = =2± 5
2 1 1
⇒ esin x = 2 ± 5 ⇒ sin x = loge (2 ± 5) ⇒ | x | = , 2   ⇒  x = ± , ± 2
2 2
⇒ sin x = loge (2 + 5)
So, there are 4 solutions.
( (2 – 5) < 0 and so loge (2 − 5) is not defined) 25.  p, q, r are in A.P.
p+r
Now (2 + 5) > 4 ⇒ log e (2 + 5) > 1 q= [Q p + r = 2q]
2
But the value of sin x lies between –1 and 1, both values
For the real roots q2 – 4pr ≥ 0    [Disct. > 0]
inclusive, so sin x ≠ loge (2 + 5)
2

\ There are no possible real roots of the given equation.  p+r

⇒   – 4 pr ≥ 0
x x  2 
56  1   1 
21. 5     >1 ⇒ p2 + r2 – 14pr ≥ 0

5 5 2
–x x  p  p
56
⇒ 5 ×5 ×5


> 1   ⇒  556 − x − x
> 50 ⇒   – 14   + 1 ≥ 0

r r
⇒ 56 − x –
x > 0   ⇒  x + x – 56 < 0 2
p  p
x ⇒  – 7  ≥ 48 =
– 7 ≥ 4 3.
⇒ y2
+ y – 56 < 0, where y = r  r
⇒ (y + 8) (y – 7) < 0  ⇒  –8 < y < 7  ⇒  –8 <
x <7 1
26. Let y = 5 + 2 6. Then = 5 – 2 6 . Thus the given

⇒0≤ x < 7 as x cannot be negative y
⇒ 0 ≤ x < 49 ⇒ x ∈ [0, 49)
x2 – 3
x2 – 3 1
1 1 1 expression reduces to y +  = 10
22. Given, + =  y
x+a x+b c 2
x –3
Again let y = t. Then,
( x + b) + ( x + a ) 1 2x + b + a 1

⇒ =   ⇒  2 = 1
( x + a ) ( x + b) c x + (a + b) x + ab c    t + = 10 ⇒ t 2 – 10t + 1 = 0
t
⇒ 2cx + (a + b)c = x2 + (a + b)x + ab
⇒ x2 + (a + b – 2c)x + ab – ac – bc = 0 10 ± 100 – 4 10 ± 96

⇒ t = =
Let a, b be the roots of this equation. Then, 2 2
a + b = – (a + b – 2c) = 0 (Given) 10 ± 4 6
= =5±2 6
⇒ a + b = 2c and ab = ab – ac – bc = ab – (a + b)c 2
( a + b) \ (5 + 2 6)

x 2
–3
= 5 ± 2 6 = (5 + 2 6) ± 1
= ab – (a + b)
2
⇒ x2 – 3 = 1    or   x2 – 3 = – 1
2 2 2
a + b 2 
2ab – (a + b + 2ab) ⇒ x2 = 4     or   x2 = 2
= =–   .
2  2  ⇒ x = ± 2    or   x = ± 2
Ch 3-16 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

27. Given, a, b, g are the roots of the 2x3 – 3x2 + 6x + 1 = 0. 1 – α 1 – β  1 – α 1 – β


x2 – 
+  x+ . =0
β 
2
Coefficient of x  –3  3  α β   α
Since S1 = – ⇒ S1 = α + β + γ = –   =
3
Coefficient of x  2  2 1– α 1– β β – αβ + α – αβ α + β – 2αβ α + β
  Now, + = = = –2
Coefficient of x 6 α β αβ αβ αβ
S2 = 3
⇒ S2 = αβ + βγ + αγ = = 3
Coefficient of x 2 −b /a b b − 2c
       = −2=− −2=−
Coefficient of constant term 1 c /a c c
S3 = – ⇒ S3 = αβγ = –
Coefficient of x3 2  1 – α 1 – β  1– α – β + αβ 1 – (α + β) + αβ
and  . = =
Now, a2 + b2 + g2 = (a + b + g)2 – 2 (ab + bg + ga)  α β  αβ αβ
2
3 9 –15 1 α+β a b a+b+c
=   − 2×3= − 6 = . = – +1= + +1=
2 4 4 αβ αβ c c c
28. Given, a, b, g are the roots of the equation x3 + 4x + 1 = 0.
\ The required equation is
\ S1 = a + b + g = 0 (Coefficient of x2 = 0)  (b + 2c)  a + b + c
S2 = ab + bg + ag = 4   x2 –  –
c x+  c =0
   
S3 = abg = – 1 ⇒ cx2 + (b + 2c)x + (a + b + c) = 0 ...(i)
\ (a + b)–1 + (b + g)–1 + (g + a)–1
2
Compairing eqn. (i) with the given equation px + qx + r  =  0,
1 1 1 we get r = a + b + c.
= + +
α+β β+γ γ+α 32. To find the equation whose roots are the negatives of the
roots of the given equation, we replace x by (–x) in the given
1 1 1 equation.
= + +
– γ – α –β \ Required equation is
Q α + β + γ = 0  (–x)7 + 3(–x)5 + (–x)3 – (–x)2 + 7(–x) + 2 = 0
 ⇒ α + β = – γ , β + γ = – α, γ + α = – β  i.e, –x7 – 3x5 – x3 – x2 – 7x + 2 = 0
 
i.e.,  x7 + 3x5 + x3 + x2 + 7x – 2 = 0.
 1 1 1  βγ + αγ + αβ  4
= –  + +  = – 
α β γ αβγ  = –  –1  = 4. 33. As, a, g are the roots of the equation Ax2 – 4x + 1 = 0, so
      4
a + g = ...(i)
29. Let (a – d), a, (a + d) be the three roots of the given cubic A
equation x3 – 12x2 + 12x – 28 = 0 1
\ S1 = (a – d) + a + (a + d) = 12 and ag = ...(ii)
A
⇒ 3a = 12 ⇒ a = 4 Given, b, d are the roots of the equation Bx2 – 6x + 1 = 0,
and S3 = (a – d) . a. (a + d) = 28 6
so b + d = ...(iii)
⇒ (4 – d) . 4. (4 + d) = 28 B
⇒ 16 – d 2 = 7 ⇒ d 2 = 9 ⇒ d = ± 3. 1
and bd = ...(iv)
30. Let a, b be the roots of the equation 3ax2 + 3bx + c = 0. We B
have to find the equation whose roots are 3a and 3b, which Given, a, b, g, d are in H.P., so
can be got by putting y = 3x in the given equation, i.e.,
2αγ 2/A 1
y b = = =
substituting x for in the given equations. α + γ 4/A 2
3
 y
2
 y 2βδ 2/B 1
\ The required equation is : 3a   + 3b   + c = 0 g = = = .
3
  3 β + δ 6/B 3
2
ay Also b is the root of the equation Bx2 – 6x + 1 = 0, so
⇒  + by + c = 0   ⇒  ay2 + 3by + 3c = 0
3 1 1
Bb2 – 6b + 1 = 0 ⇒ B × – 6 × + 1 = 0
4 2
⇒  ax2 + 3bx + 3c = 0.
31. As a, b are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, so B B

⇒   – 2=0⇒ =2⇒ B =8
4 4
b c

a + b = – , ab = Given, g is the root of the equation Ax2 – 4x + 1 = 0, so
a a
Ag2 – 4g + 1 = 0
1– α 1−β
The equation whose roots are and can be 1 1 A 1
α β ⇒ A × – 4 × + 1 = 0   ⇒ 
– = 0 ⇒ A = 3.
written as : 9 3 9 3
A, B = 3, 8 respectively.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-17
34. The given equation is (x – a) (x – b) = c 1
⇒ x2 – (a + b)x + (ab – c) = 0 \ a2 = ab + 1 and a = –
( a + b)
2
As a, b are the roots of this equation, so 1

⇒ (ab + 1) = ( a + b) 2
a + b = a + b and ab = ab – c 4
Let g, d be the roots of the equation (x – a) (x – b) + c = 0 ⇒ a2 + b2 + 2ab = 4ab + 4
i.e., g, d are the roots of the equation x2 – (a + b)x + (ab + c) = 0 ⇒  a2 + b2 – 2ab = 4  ⇒ (a – b)2 = 4 ⇒ |a – b| = 2.
\ g + d = a + b = a + b ...(i) 37. Given equation is x3 – 3x + 11 = 0
gd = ab + c = ab – c + c = ab ...(ii) If a, b, g are the roots of the given equation, then
\ From (i) and (ii) we can infer that the roots of the equation S1 = a + b + g = 0
⇒ b + g = – a, g + a = – b and a + b = – g
(x – a) (x – b) + c = 0 are a and b.
\ The equation whose roots are (a + b), (b + g), (g + a) is
35. Let the roots of the equation x3 – ax2 + bx – c = 0 be the equation whose roots are –g, –a, – b.
(a – 1), a, (a + 1) \ We can obtain the required equations by replacing x by
\ S2 = (a – 1)a + a(a + 1) + (a + 1) (a – 1) = b (–x) in the given equation.
⇒ a2 – a + a2 + a + a2 – 1 = b \ Required equation is (–x)3 –3(–x) + 11 = 0
i.e, – x3 + 3x + 11 = 0
⇒ 3a2 – 1 = b
i.e., x3 – 3x – 11 = 0.
\ Minimum value of b = – 1, when a = 0. 38. As a, b are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, so
36. The given equations are written as : b c
x2 + 2ax + a2 – 1 = 0 ...(i) a + b = – , αβ =
a a
x2 + 2bx + b2 – 1 = 0 ...(ii) Also, (a + x), (b + x) are the roots of the equation
If a is the common root of both the equations, a satisfies q
both the equations, so, px2 + qx + r = 0, then a + x + b + x = –
p
a2 + 2aa + (a2 – 1) = 0 ...(iii) r q
and (α + x) (β + x) =   ⇒  a + b + 2x = –
2
a + 2ba + (b – 1) = 0 2 ...(iv) p p
Solving equations (iii) and (iv) simultaneously –b q 1 b q
⇒ + 2x = – ⇒ K =  –  .
a p 2 a p
α2 α 1
= =
2a (b 2 – 1) – 2b(a 2 – 1) (a 2 – 1) – (b 2 – 1) 2b – 2a 39. Let x = 6 + 6 + 6 + ..... ∞
2
α α 1

⇒ = = ⇒x= 6+ x
2ab 2 – 2ba 2 + 2(b – a ) (a 2 – b 2 ) 2(b – a )
⇒ x2 = 6 + x ⇒ x2 – x – 6 = 0
α2 α 1 ⇒ (x – 3) (x + 2) = 0

⇒ = =
2ab (b – a ) + 2(b – a ) –(a + b) (b – a ) 2(b – a ) ⇒ x = 3 or – 2
⇒ x = 3 as x = – 2 does not satisfy the given equation.
α2 α 1

⇒ = = 40. The equation is (x – a) (x – a –1) + (x – a – 1) (x – a – 2)
2(b – a ) (ab + 1) − (a + b) (b – a ) 2(b – a ) + (x – a) (x – a – 2) = 0.
By the rule of cross-multiplication, Let (x – a) = y, then the equation becomes
the solution of two simultaneous equations : y (y – 1) + (y – 1) (y – 2) + y (y – 2) = 0
⇒ y2 – y + y2 – 3y + 2 + y2 – 2y = 0
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 ⇒ 3y2 – 6y + 2 = 0
a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 is \ Discriminant = D = b2 – 4ac = 36 – 4 × 3 × 2
x y 1 = 36 – 24 = 12 > 0
= = \ Roots are real and distinct.
b1c2 – b2 c1 c1a2 – c2 a1 a1b2 – a2 b1

SELF ASSESSMENT SHEET


1. If the sum as well as the product of roots of a quadratic (a) a = b (b) b = c (c) ac = 1 (d) a = c
equation is 9, then the equation is: (CDS 2012)
(a) x2 + 9x – 18 = 0 (b) x2 – 18x + 9 = 0
2
3. If one root of the equation ax2 + x – 3 = 0 is –1, then what
(c) x + 9x + 9 = 0 (d) x2 – 9x + 9 = 0.
is the other root ?
(CDS 2010)
x2 x 1 1 1 3
2. If one root of the equation + + = 0 is reciprocal of (a) (b) (c) (d) 1
a b c 4 2 4
the other, then which of the following is correct ? (CDS 2010)
Ch 3-18 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

4. If the equation (a2 + b2) x2 – 2 (ac + bd)x + (c2 + d2) = 0 has 9. If a, b, g are the roots of x3 – 2x2 + 3x – 4 = 0, then the value
equal roots, then which one of the following is correct ? of a2 b2 + b2 g2 + g2 a2 is :
(a) ab = cd (b) ad = bc (a) –7 (b) –5 (c) –3 (d) 0
(c) a2 + c2 = b2 + d 2 (d) ac = bd (CDS 2010)
5. If a, b are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, then (EAMCET 2007)
what is the value of a3 + b3 ? x2
10. If a, b are the roots of the equations + 4x + 3 = 0, then
b3 + 3abc a 3 – b3 3abc – b3 b3 – 3abc the equation whose roots are 2a + b and a + 2b is
(a) (b) (c) (d)
a3 3abc a3 a3 (a) x2 – 12x – 33 = 0 (b) x2 – 12x + 35 = 0
(CDS 2008) (c) x2 + 12x – 33 = 0 (d) x2 + 12x + 35 = 0.
6. If the sum of the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is
(J&K CET 2009)
equal to the sum of their squares, then which one of the
following is correct ? 11. The equation whose roots are twice the roots of the equation
(a) a2 + b2 = c2 (b) a2 + b2 = a + b x2 – 3x + 3 = 0 is
(c) 2ac = ab + b2 (d) 2c + b = 0 (a) x2 – 3x + 6 = 0 (b) x2 – 4x + 8 = 0
7. One root of x2 + kx – 8 = 0 is the square of the other, then (c) x2 – 6x + 12 = 0 (d) x2 – 8x + 6 = 0
the value of k is : 2 2
12. If x + mx + n = 0 and x + px + q = 0 have a common root,
(a) 2 (b) 8 (c) –8 (d) –2 then the common root is
(CAT 1995)
q–n q–n
8. Let p and q be the roots of the quadratic equation (a) (b)
x2 – (a – 2)x – a – 1 = 0. What is the minimum possible m– p m+ p
value of p2 + q2 ? q+n
(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 (c) (d) None of these
m+ p
(CAT 2003)
ANSWERS
1. (d) 2. (d) 3.
(c) 4.
(b) 5.
(c) 6. (c) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (d)
11.
(c) 12.
(a)

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. Equation : x2 – (Sum of roots)x + Product of roots = 0 5. a + b = – b/a, ab = c/a.
⇒ x2 – 9x + 9 = 0. a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 + b2 – ab)
1 2 1 1 = (a + b) {(a + b)2 – 2ab – ab}
2. The equation can be written as x + x + = 0.
a b c = (a + b) [(a + b)2 – 3ab]
i.e., bcx2 + acx + ab = 0.
Let a, 1/a be the roots of the given equation, then b  b 2 3c 
=–  − 
a  a2 a 
1 ab ab
product of roots = a × =   ⇒  = 1 ⇒ a = c.
α bc bc – b3 3bc 3abc – b 3
= + =
3. Let the other root of the equation ax2 + x – 3 = 0 be a. a3 a2 a3
As (–1) is a root of the given equation, it satisfies the given 6. Let a, b be the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then,
equation, i.e., a (–1)2 + (–1) –3 = 0 ⇒ a – 1 – 3 = 0 ⇒ a = 4. a + b = – b/a, ab = c/a
\ The equation becomes 4x2 + x – 3 = 0. Given, a + b = a2 + b2
i.e., a + b = (a2 + b)2 – 2ab
3
Now, product of roots = a × (–1) = – −b b 2 2c
4
⇒ = 2 –
3 a a a

\a= . 2
4 ab b 2ac
⇒ – 2 = 2 − 2   ⇒  ab + b2 = 2ac.
4. Equal roots ⇒ Discriminant = 0 a a a
⇒ 4(ac + bd)2 – 4(a2 + b2) (c2 + d 2) = 0 7. Let a and a2 be the roots of the equation x2 + kx – 8 = 0.
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Then, product of roots = a . a2 = – 8
⇒ [ a c + b d + 2acbd ] –[ a c + b c + a d + b d ] = 0
a3 = – 8  ⇒  a = – 2
⇒ –[b2c 2 + a2d 2 – 2acbd] = 0
\ The root (–2) satisfies the given equation, i.e.,
⇒ (bc – ad)2 = 0 ⇒ bc = ad.
(–2)2 + k . (–2) –8 = 0
4 – 2k – 8 = 0  ⇒ –2k = 4 ⇒ k = – 2.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ch 3-19
8. If p and q are the roots of the equation = x2 – (2α + β + α + 2β) x + (2α + β) (α + 2β) = 0
x2 – (a – 2)x – (a + 1) = 0. Sum of roots Product of roots

\ Sum of roots = p + q = (a – 2) Sum = 2a + b + a + 2b = 3a + 3b = 3 (a + b)


Product of roots = pq = – a – 1 = 3 × –4 = – 12
\ p2 + q2 = (p + q)2 – 2pq Product = (2a + b) (a + 2b) = 2a2 + ba + 4 ab + 2b2
= (a – 2)2 + 2(a + 1) = 2(a2 + b2) + 5ab
= a2 + 4 – 4a + 2a + 2 = (a + 1)2 + 5 = 2(a2 + b2 + 2ab) + ab
2 2
p + q will be minimum when a = 0. = 2(a + b)2 + ab = 2 × 16 + 3 = 35
\ Minimum value of p2 + q2 = 5. \ Reqd. equation is x2 – 12x + 35 = 0.
9. Given, a, b, g are the roots of x3 – 2x2 + 3x – 4 = 0. Then, 11. Let a, b be the roots of the given equation x2 – 3x + 3 = 0.
S1 = a + b + g = 2 Given, a + b = + 3, ab = 3
S2 = ab + bg + ga = 3 By the given condition, the roots of the required equation
S3 = abg = 4 are 2a and 2b.
Now, (ab + bg + ga)2 \ Sum of roots = 2a + 2b = 2(a + b) = 2 × 3 = 6
= a2b2 + b2g2 + g2a2 + 2ab2g + 2bg2a + 2a2bg Product of roots = 2a . 2b = 4ab = 4 × 3 = 12.
= a2b2 + b2g2 + g2a2 + 2abg (b + g + a) \ Required equation is x2 – 6x + 12 = 0
⇒ a2b2 + b2g2 + g2a2 = (ab + bg + ga)2 – 2abg (a + b + g) 12. Let a be the common root of the equations x2 + mx + n =  0
= 32 – 2 × 4 × 2 = 9 – 16 = – 7. and x2 + px + q = 0. Then,
10. Given, a, b are the roots of the quadratic equations x2 + 4x + 3 = 0, a2 + ma + n = 0 ...(i)
2
a + pa + q = 0 ...(ii)
⇒ Sum of roots = a + b = – 4 ...(i)
Product of roots = ab = 3 ...(ii) Solving (i) and (ii) simultaneously, we get
Given, 2a + b and a + 2b are the roots of the required α2 α 1 n–q q–n
equation, so = =   ⇒  a = = .
mq – np n – q p – m p–m m– p
Required equation is
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-1

4 Inequalities

KEY FACTS

I. An inequality is a statement involving quantities (variables or constants) connected to each other with signs
of inequality, i.e., <, <, >, >.
Thus, x < y, x < y, x > y and x > y represent inequalities.
II. Note on the use of brackets for open and closed intervals.
Sometimes the domains of variation, i.e., the intervals are denoted as follows:
(a) ‘a < x < b’ is denoted by (a, b) and is called the open interval of the variable x.
(b) ‘a < x < b’ is denoted by [a, b] and is called a closed interval of the variable x, as x can take up values ‘a’
and ‘b’ also.
(c) Any ‘x’ is denoted by (– ∞, ∞). Here, it should be noted that the symbols – ∞, ∞ are not numbers in any
sense whatsoever.
(d) ‘x ≥ a’ is denoted by [a, ∞) and ‘x < b’ is denoted by (– ∞, b].
(e) ‘a < x < b’ is denoted by [a, b), ‘a < x < b’ is denoted by (a, b]. These are called semi-closed intervals.
III. Important Properties of Inequalities.
For all a, b, c ∈ R  
(i) If a > b and b > c, then a > c.   (ii)  If a > b, then for all c,
Ex. 4 > 2 and 2 > –1 ⇒ 4 > –1      a + c > b + c and a – c > b – c.
   Ex. 7 > 4 ⇒ 7 + 2 > 4 + 2 ⇒ 9 > 6
7 > 4 ⇒ 7 – 2 > 4 – 2 ⇒ 5 > 2
a b a b
> .   (iv)  If a > b and c < 0, then ac < bc and < .
(iii) If a > b and c > 0, then ac > bc and
c c c c
Ex. 4 > 2 ⇒ 4 × 3 > 2 × 3 ⇒ 12 > 6    Ex. 8 > 6 ⇒ 8 × –2 < 6 × – 2 ⇒ –16 < –12
4 2 8 6
4 > 2 ⇒ > ⇒ 2 >1      8 > 6 ⇒ < ⇒−4< −2
2 2 −2 −3
1 1
(v) If a ≠ 0, b ≠ 0 and a > b > 0, then < .  (vi)  If a1 > b1, a2 > b2, ............, an > bn then
a b •  a1 + a2 + a3 + ............ + an > b1 + b2 + b3
1                  + ............ + bn
Ex. 3 > 1 > 0 ⇒
<1
3 •  a1 . a2 . a3 ............ an > b1 . b2 . b3 ............ bn
Ex. 6 > 4, 2 > 1, 4 > 3
⇒ • 6 + 2 + 4 > 4 + 1 + 3, i.e., 12 > 8
⇒ • 6 × 2 × 4 > 4 × 1 × 3, i.e., 48 > 12
Ch 4-1
Ch 4-2 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

(vii) (a) If m > 0, then for a > b > 0 (b) Similarly, if m > 0 and a < b, a > 0, b > 0, then
• am > bm • a–m < b–m • a1/m > b1/m •  am < bm •  a–m > b–m •  a1/m < b1/m
Ex. Let a = 3, b = 2 and m = 3, then
• 33 > 23 since 27 > 8
1 1 1 1
• 3–3 < 2–3, i.e., 3
< 3
since <
3 2 27 8
• 31/3 > 21/3
(viii) (a) If a > 1 and m > 0, then • am > 1 and • 0 < a–m < 1
1
Let a = 2, m = 2 ⇒ 22 = 4 > 1 and 0 < 2–2 < 1 as 0 < <1
4
(b) If 0 < a < 1 and m > 0, then 0 < am < 1 and a–m > 1
2 −2
1 1 1 1
Let a = , m = 2, then 0 <   < 1 since 0 < < 1 and   > 1 since 4 > 1
2 2 4 2
(ix) (a) If a > 1 and m > n > 0, then am > an
  Ex. a = 2, m = 3, n = 2, then 23 > 22
(b) If 0 < a < 1 and m > n > 0 then am < an
3 2
1 1 1 1 1
  Ex. a = , m = 3, n = 2, then   <   since <
3 3 3 27 9
(x) If 0 < a < 1 < b and r is a positive rational number, (xi) (a) If a > 1 and x > y > 0, then logax > logay
then   Ex.  a = 3, x = 27, y = 9
•  0 < ar < 1 < a–r and •  0 < b–r < 1 < br
  ⇒ log327 > log39 ⇒ log333 > log332 ⇒ 3 > 2
1
Ex. If 0 < < 1 < 3 and r = 3, then (b) If 0 < a < 1 and x > y > 0, then loga x < loga y
2
3 −3   Ex.  a = 1/3,  x = 27,  y = 9
1 1 1
•  0 <   < 1 <  
since 0 < < 1 < 8   ⇒ log1/327 < log1/39 ⇒ log1/333 < log1/332
2 2 8
1 3 2
−3 3   ⇒log3–133 <log3–132 ⇒ < since – 3 < –2
•  0 < (3) < 1 < (3) since 0 <
< 1 < 27 −1 −1
27
(xii) (a) If a > 1, then af (x) > ag (x) ⇔ f (x) > g (x) (xiii) Recall Modulus Properties
(b) If 0 < a < 1, then af (x) > ag (x) ⇔ f (x) < g (x) (a) a < |a|
(b) |ab| = |a| |b|
(c) If a > 1, then loga f (x) > logag (x) ⇔ f (x) > g (x) > 0
a |a|
(d) If 0 < a < 1, then loga f (x) > loga g (x) ⇔ 0 < f (x) < g (x) (c) =
b |b|
(e) If a > 1, then logax > p ⇒ x > ap
(d) • |a + b| < |a| + |b|
Ex.  log4 x > 3 ⇒ x > 43 ⇒ x > 64
• | a − b | > | a | − | b |
(f) If 0 < a < 1, then logax > p ⇒ 0 < x < a p

(e) • |a + b| = |a| + |b| if ab > 0
Ex. log1/2 x > 3 ⇒ 0 < x < (1/2)3 • |a – b| = |a| – |b| if ab < 0
1
       ⇒ 0 < x <
8
(g) If 0 < a < 1, then 0 < logax < p ⇒ a p < x < 1
2
 1 1
Ex. 0 < log1/3 x < 2  ⇒    < x < 1 ⇒ < x < 1
 3 9
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-3

(xiv) For any positive real number a,


(a) |x| < a ⇒ –a < x < a ⇒ x∈ (– a, a)  Ex. |x| < 5 ⇒ – 5 < x < 5
(b) |x| < a ⇒ – a < x < a ⇒ x∈ [– a, a] 
(c) |x| > a ⇒ x < – a or x > a ⇒ x∈ (– ∞, – a)  (a, ∞)  Ex. |x| < 7 ⇒ x < – 7 or x > 7
(d) |x| > a ⇒ x < – a or x > a ⇒ x∈ (– ∞, – a]  [a, ∞) 
Note: i.e., square brackets mean that the point inside it is inclusive.
(xv) Let r be a positive real number and a be fixed real number. Then,
(a) |x – a| < r ⇒ a – r < x < a + r ⇒ x∈ (a – r, a + r)  Ex. |x – 2| < 5 ⇒ 2 – 5 < x < 2 + 5

(b) |x – a| < r ⇒ a – r < x < a + r ⇒ x∈ [a – r, a + r]  ⇒–3<x<7
Ex. |x – 3| > 8
(c) |x – a| > r ⇒ x < a – r or x > a + r ⇒ x∈ (– ∞, a – r)  (a + r, ∞) 
 ⇒ x < 3 – 8 or x > 3 + 8
(d) |x – a| > r ⇒ x < a – r or x > a + r ⇒ x∈ (– ∞, a – r]  [a + r, ∞) 
⇒ x < –5 or x > 11
(xvi) Let a, b be positive real numbers. Then,
(a) a < |x| < b ⇒ x∈ (– b, – a)  (a, b)
(b) a < |x| < b ⇒ x∈ [– b, – a]  [a, b]
(c) a < |x – c| < b ⇒ x∈ (– b + c, – a + c)  (a + c, b + c)
(d) a < |x – c| < b ⇒ x∈ [– b + c, – a + c]  [a + c, b + c]
To find the solution set of a quadratic inequation of the form x2 + ax + b < 0 or x2 + ax + b > 0, the following steps
are to be followed:
Step 1. Set inequality to zero Step 2. Factorise the inequality
Step 3. Set each factor equal to zero to obtain critical points Step 4. Place critical points on the number line
Step 5. Use interval method for testing Step 6. Write the solution set.
2
Ex. Find the solution set of x – 5x + 6 > 0.
Sol. x2 – 5x + 6 > 0 ⇒ (x – 3) (x – 2) > 0.
The critical points are 3 and 2.
Plotting 2 and 3 on the number line, we have it as shown below:
–∞ 2 3 +∞
The number line is divided into three parts. Now we examine the sign of the expression (x – 3) (x – 2) in each
of these three intervals.
As (x – 3) (x – 2) > 0, the points 2 and 3 are included here.
When  x < 2, (x – 3) (x – 2) > 0  ⇒  x∈ (– ∞, 2]
When  x > 3, (x – 3) (x – 2) > 0  ⇒  x∈ [3, ∞)
When  2 < x < 3, (x – 3) (x – 2) < 0
\ x∈ (– ∞, 2]  [3, ∞)
These solutions can be further remembered as given below:
(xvii) Quadratic Inequalities or Quadratic Inequations
If a < b, then
(a) (x – a) (x – b) > 0 (b) (x – a) (x – b) > 0
⇒ x < a or x > b ⇒  x < a or x > b
or x∈ (– ∞, a)  (b, ∞) or x∈ (– ∞, a]  [b, ∞)
or x∈ R – [a, b] or  x∈ R – (a, b)
Ex. (x – 3) (x – 5) > 0 ⇒ x < 3 or x > 5 Ex. (x – 2) (x + 5) > 0
or x∈ (– ∞, 3)  (5, ∞) ⇒  (x – 2) (x – (–5)) > 0
or x∈ R – [3, 5] Here – 5 < 2
∴ x < – 5 or x > 2
or x∈ (– ∞, – 5]  [2,∞)
Ch 4-4 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

(c) (x – a) (x – b) < 0 (d) (x – a) (x – b) < 0


⇒  a < x < b ⇒  a < x < b
⇒  x∈ (a, b) ⇒  x∈ [a, b]
Ex. (x – 4) (x + 2) < 0 Ex. (x – 2) (x – 3) < 0
⇒ (x – 4) (x – (–2)) < 0 ⇒ 2 < x < 3
⇒  –2 < x < 4  ( – 2 < 4) ⇒  x∈ [2, 3].
⇒  x∈ (–2, 4)
IV. Important Inequalities
1 1
(a) (i) If a > 0, then a + ≥ 2 ,     (ii) If a < 0, then a + ≤ −2
a a
(b) Arithmetic-Geometric Mean Inequality
For distinct positive real numbers,
Arithmetic mean > Geometric mean, i.e.,
If a1, a2, a3, ..........., an are n distinct positive real numbers, then
a1 + a2 + ......... + an
> (a1, a2 ..........., an)1/n, i.e., A.M. > G.M.
n
Also if a1 = a2 = a3 ........... = ........... = an, then A.M. = G.M.
Hence for positive real numbers, A.M. ≥ G.M.
(i) In particular,
a+b a+b+c 3 a+b+c+d
≥ ab , ≥ abc , ≥ (abcd )1/4
2 3 4
(ii) Also A.M. > G.M. > H.M., i.e.,
a1 + a2 + ........ + an n
≥ (a1 .a2 ........an )1/ n ≥
n 1 1 1 
 a + a + ......... a 
 1 2 n 
(c) (i) If the sum of two positive quantities a1 and a2 is constant, then their product is greatest when a1 =  a2.
(ii) If the product of these quantities is a constant, then their sum is least when a1 = a2.
In general, if a1, a2, ..........., an are n positive quantities such that their sum
a1 + a2 + a3 + ........... + an = C (constant), then the product (a1.a2.a3 ........... an) is maximum
n
C C 
when a1 = a2 = a3 = ........... = an = and the maximum product =   .
n n

Also, if a1, a2, ........... an are n positive quantities such that their product a1.a2 ........... an = P (constant),
then their sum (a1 + a2 + ........... + an) is least when a1 = a2 = a3 = ........... = an = (P)1/n and the least sum
= n (P1/n).
(d) Weighted A.M. – G.M. inequality
If a1, a2, a3 ........... an are n positive real numbers and m1, m2, m3 ........... mn are n positive rational numbers,
1
m a + m2 a2 + ......... + mn an
then 1 1 > (a1m1 a2m2 .... a3mn ) m1 + m2 + ...+ mn
m1 + m2 + .........mn
Weighted A.M. > Weighted G.M.
(e) If a1, a2, a3, ........, an are unequal positive real numbers and m is a positive rational number different from
0 and 1, then
 a m + a2m + .... + anm   a1 + a2 + .... + an  m
(i)  1 <  if 0 < m < 1
 n   n 
The arithmetic mean of the mth powers of n positive quantities is less than the mth power of
their arithmetic mean if m lies between 0 and 1.
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-5

 a m + a2m + .... + anm   a1 + a2 + .... + an  m


(ii)  1 >  if m < 0 or m > 1
 n   n 
The arithmetic mean of the mth powers of n positive qualities is greater than the mth power of
their arithmetic mean if m < 0 or m > 1.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Ex. 1. Solve the following linear inequations:


(i) 4x – 12 < 0 (ii) – 5x + 10 < 0 (iii) 7x – 35 > 0 (iv) 11x + 9 > 53, where x∈W.
Sol. (i) 4x – 12 < 0  ⇒  4x < 12 ⇒ x < 3
\ Solution set of given inequation is (─ ∞, 3]
(ii) –5x + 10 < 0  ⇒  –5x < – 10
−5 x −10
⇒ > [ Dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number reverses the inequality]
−5 −5
⇒ x > 2   ⇒  Solution set is (2, ∞)
(iii) 7x – 35 > 0 ⇒ 7x > 35 ⇒ x > 5 (iv) 11x + 9 > 53 ⇒ 11x > 44 ⇒ x > 4
⇒ Solution set is [5, ∞) \ Solution set is (4, ∞)

1
Ex. 2. Solve the inequality 4  – 
p + 7 ≥ 57 over R (set of real numbers).
2 

1 
Sol. 4  − p + 7 ≥ 57 ⇒ 2 − 4 p + 7 ≥ 57
2
⇒ – 4p > 57 – 9  ⇒ – 4p > 48  ⇒ 4p < – 48  ⇒ p < – 12
∴ p∈ (– ∞, –12]
The solution set can be shown on the graph as:

–24
–18 –12 –6 0 6 12 18

2x – 3 4x
Ex. 3. Solve the following inequation: +8≥ 2+ ; x ∈ R.
4 3

2x − 3 4x  2 x − 3 4x
Sol. +8≥ 2+ ⇒ 12   + 12 × 8 ≥ 12 × 2 + × 12 (Multiplying each term by LCM = 12)
4 3  4 3
⇒ 3(2x – 3) + 96 > 24 + 16x ⇒ 6x – 9 + 96 > 24 + 16x
⇒ 6x + 87 > 24 + 16x  ⇒ 87 – 24 > 16x – 6x  ⇒ 63 > 10x
⇒ 10x < 63  ⇒ x < 6.3
∴ x∈ (– ∞, 6.3]
Ex. 4. Find the solution set of –3 < x – 2 < 9 – 2x ; x ∈ Z (set of integers).
Sol. – 3 < x – 2 < 9 – 2x
⇒ – 3 < x – 2 and x – 2 < 9 – 2x  ⇒  – 3 + 2 < x and x + 2x < 9 + 2
11 11
⇒ – 1 < x and 3x < 11 or x <   ⇒  −1 < x ≤
3 3
Since x ∈ Z, so the solution set = {0, 1, 2, 3}.
Ch 4-6 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

–1 3 x 2
Ex. 5. Find the range of values of x, which satisfy the inequality: ≤ +1 < : x ∈R
5 10 5
1 3x 2
Sol. − ≤ +1<
5 10 5
 1  3x  2
⇒ 10 ×  −  ≤ 10 ×  + 1 < 10 × ⇒  –2 < 3x + 10 < 4
 5  10  5
⇒ – 2 < 3x + 10 and 3x + 10 < 4  ⇒  – 12 < 3x and 3x < – 6
⇒ – 4 < x and x < –2  ⇒  – 4 < x < – 2, i.e., x ∈ [– 4, – 2)
This solution set can be shown on a graph as:

–5 – 4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2

Ex. 6. Solve the following pairs of inequations and also graph the solution set
(i) 2x – 9 < 7 and 3x + 9 < 25, x∈R (ii) 3x – 2 > 19 or 3 – 2x > – 7, x∈R
Sol. (i) Let A = {x : 2x – 9 < 7, x∈R}
∴ 2x – 9 < 7 ⇒ 2x < 16 ⇒x<8
⇒ A = {x : x < 8, x∈R}
Let B = {x : 3x + 9 < 25, x∈R}
16
∴ 3x + 9 < 25 ⇒ 3x < 16 ⇒x<
3
16
⇒ B = {x : x < , x∈R}
3
∴ Required solution set = A  B

{
= { x : x < 8, x ∈ R}  x : x ≤
16
3
, x ∈R }
{16
= x : x ≤
3

} 16 
, x ∈ R = x ∈ −∞,  .
 3
This solution set can be shown on a graph as:
16 1
=5
3 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
(ii) Let A = {x : 3x – 2 > 19, x∈R}
Then, 3x – 2 > 19 ⇒ 3x > 21 ⇒ x > 7  ⇒  A = {x : x > 7, x∈R}
Let B = {x : 3 – 2x > – 7, x∈R}
Then, 3 – 2x > – 7  ⇒ 10 > 2x  ⇒ 2x < 10  ⇒  x < 5  ⇒  B = {x : x < 5, x∈R}
Required solution set = A or B = A  B
= {x : x > 7, x∈R}  {x : x < 5, x∈R}
= x > 7 or x < 5 = x ∈ (7, ∞) or x∈ (–∞, 5]
This can be shown on a graph as:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-7

Ex. 7. Solve the following inequations, x∈R.


1 x +1
(i) < 0 (ii) >1
x−3 x+2
1
Sol. (i) < 0   ⇒ (x – 3) < 0 [ a/b < 0 and a > 0 ⇒ b < 0]
x−3
⇒ x < 3  ⇒ x∈ (– ∞, 3)
x +1 x +1 x +1− x − 2
(ii) > 1 ⇒  − 1 > 0   ⇒  >0
x+2 x+2 x+2
−1
⇒  > 0 ⇒  x + 2 < 0  ( a/b > 0, a < 0 ⇒ b < 0)
x+2
⇒ x < –2   ∴  x∈ (– ∞, –2)
Ex. 8. Solve the following linear equations, x∈R
x−6 x−3 x −1 5x − 6
(i) > 0 (ii) > 2 (iii) ≥ 2 (iv) ≤1
x − 11 x+5 x+3 x+6
x −6
Sol. (i) >0
x − 11
Equating (x – 6) and (x – 11) to zero, we obtain x = 6, 11 as the critical points.
+ – +
Now we plot these points on the real number line as shown: ⊕ ⊕
– ∞ 6 11 ∞
x−6
The real number line is divided into three regions. Now check the sign of the expression in all the three
x − 11
regions.
x−6
When x < 6, both numerator and denominator are negative, so is +ve.
x − 11
x−6
When x > 11, both numerator and denominator are positive, so is +ve.
x − 11
x−6
When 6 < x < 11, the expression becomes –ve and hence < 0.
x − 11
So, the solution set of the given inequations is the union of regions containing positive signs.
x−6
∴ > 0 ⇒ x ∈ (– ∞, 6)  (11, ∞).
x − 11
x−3 x−3
(ii) > 2    ⇒ −2>0
x+5 x+5
x − 3 − 2 x − 10 − x − 13
⇒ > 0  ⇒ >0
x+5 x+5
x + 13
⇒ < 0 (Multiplying by – 1 to make co-efficient of x positive in the expression in the numerator)
x+5
Now, putting, (x + 13) and (x + 5) equal to zero, we get the critical points as x = –13, –5. Now plot these points
on the real number line as shown and divide the line into three parts.
x + 13
When x lies between – ∞ and –13, the expression becomes + ve.
x+5
+ – +
– ∞ – 13 – 5 ∞

Similarly, when x lies between –5 and ∞, the expression becomes +ve.


Ch 4-8 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

The expression is negative or (<0) when x lies between –13 and –5.
x + 13
Hence < 0 ⇒ x ∈(–13, – 5)
x+5
x –1 x −1
(iii) ≥2 ⇒ −2≥0
x+3 x+3
x − 1 − 2x − 6 −x − 7 x+7
⇒ > 0  ⇒  ≥ 0   ⇒  ≤0
x+3 x+3 x+3
The critical points are –7 and –3, (on equating x + 7 = 0 and x + 3 = 0)
x+7
When x < –7, becomes +ve
x+3
+ve –ve +ve
x+7
When x > –3, becomes + ve    – ∞ –7 –3 ∞
x+3
x+7
The expression < 0 when x lies between –7 and –3
x+3
x+7
Also < 0 when –7 is also included.
x+3
x+7 ⊕
∴ < 0 x∈ [–7, –3) –∞ –7 –3 +∞
x+3
5x − 6 5x − 6
(iv) ≤ 1   ⇒  −1≤ 0
x+6 x+6
5x − 6 − x − 6 4 x − 12 4( x − 3) x−3
⇒ ≤ 0   ⇒  ≤ 0  ⇒ ≤0 ⇒ ≤0
x+6 x+6 x+6 x+6
The critical points are x = 3, – 6. On the real number line they can be shown as:
+ve –ve +ve
– ∞ –6 3 + 

x−3
When x < – 6 or x > 3, then the expresion becomes positive.
x+6
x−3
When x lies between – 6 and 3 (included), i.e., – 6 < x < 3, ≤0.
x+6
x−3 ⊕
⇒ ≤ 0   ⇒  x∈ (– 6, 3].
x+6 –∞ –6 3 +∞
Ex. 9. Solve :
1
(i) 2 x − 3 ≤ (ii) |x – 4| > 7 (iii) 1 < | x – 3 | < 5
4
Sol. (i) We know that |x – a| < r ⇒ (a – r) < x < (a + r)
1  1  1 11 13
∴ |2x – 3| < ⇒  3 −  ≤ 2 x ≤  3 +    ⇒  ≤ 2x ≤
4 4 4 4 4
11 13  11 13 
⇒ ≤ x ≤   ⇒  x ∈  ,  .
8 8 8 8
(ii) Since |x – a| > r ⇒ x < a – r or x > a + r
|x – 4| > 7 ⇒ x < 4 – 7 or x > 4 + 7  ⇒  x < –3 or x > 11
⇒ x∈ (– ∞, –3] or x∈ [11, ∞)  ⇒  x∈ (– ∞, –3]  [11, ∞).
(iii) Since a < |x – c| < b  ⇒  x∈ [–b + c, –a + c]  [a + c, b + c]
∴ 1 < | x – 3 | < 5  ⇒  x∈ [–5 + 3, –1 + 3]  [1 + 3, 5 + 3]  ⇒  x ∈ [–2, 2]  [4, 8].
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-9

| x | −1
Ex. 10. Solve ≥ 0, x ∈ R, x ≠ ± 2.
| x | −2
Sol. Let |x| = y. Then
| x | −1 y −1
≥ 0 ⇒ ≥0
| x | −2 y−2
On equating (y – 1) and (y – 2) equal to zero, we have the critical points as y = 1, 2. Now using the real number
y −1
line, we see that the expression is greater than equal to zero (positive) only when, y < 1 or y > 2.
y−2

– ∞ 1 2 ∞

⇒  |x| < 1 or |x| > 2
⇒  –1 < x < 1 or (x < –2 or x > 2)  | x | ≤ a ⇒ − a ≤ x ≤ a 
 | x | > a ⇒ x < − a or x > a 
⇒  x∈ [–1, 1]  (–∞, –2)  (2, ∞)  

2
Ex. 11. Solve the inequation > 1, x ≠ 4.
x−4

2
Sol. > 1, x ≠ 4
x−4
2
⇒ > 1 ⇒ 2 > | x − 4 |   ⇒ | x – 4 | < 2
x−4
⇒ 4 – 2 < x < 4 + 2  ⇒  2 < x < 6 [|x – a| < r  ⇒ a – r < x < a + r]
But x ≠ 4
∴ x∈ (2, 4)  (4, 6)
Quadratic Inequalities
Ex. 12. Solve x2 – 5x + 4 > 0.
Sol. x2 – 5x + 4 > 0 ⇒ (x – 1) (x – 4) > 0
Now equating (x – 1) and (x – 4) to zero, we get the critical points as 1 and 4. Plot the points 1 and 4 on the
real number line and then examine the sign of the expression in the three portions of the line divided by these
points.
– ∞ 1 4 +∞
When x < 1, i.e., x ∈ (– ∞, 1), both the terms of the given expression are negative, hence (x – 1) (x – 4) > 0.
Similarly when x > 4, i.e., x∈ (4, ∞), (x – 1) (x – 4) > 0.
When x∈ (1, 4), one term being +ve and other –ve, the expression (x – 1) (x – 4) < 0.
∴ For (x – 1) (x – 4) > 0, the required solution set is
x∈ (– ∞, 1)  (4, ∞).

x2 + x + 1 1
Ex. 13. Find the range of values of x for which < , x being real.
x2 + 2 3

x2 + x + 1 1
Sol. − <0
x2 + 2 3
3x 2 + 3x + 3 − x 2 − 2 2 x 2 + 3x + 1

⇒ < 0   ⇒   <0
3( x 2 + 2) 3( x 2 + 2)
Ch 4-10 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Now we have to find the range of values in which 2x2 + 3x + 1 < 0 as 3(x2 + 2) is +ve for all real values of x.
Now 2x2 + 3x + 1 < 0   ⇒ 2x2 + 2x + x + 1 < 0
 1
⇒ (2x + 1) (x + 1) < 0   ⇒   x +  (x + 1) < 0.
2
1
Critical points are –1 and − . Plotting the critical points on the real number line and observing the sign of
2
 1
the expression (2x + 1) (x + 1) in the intervals formed, we see that the expression  x +  ( x + 1) is negative
2
 1 1
or less than zero in the interval  −1, −  , i.e., –1 < x < − . + ve – ve + ve
2 2
 1
x ∈  –1, –  – ∞ –1 –1/2 ∞
 2
Ex. 14. Find the range of values of x which satisfy x2 + 6x – 27 > 0, –x2 + 3x + 4 > 0 simultaneously.

Sol. x2 + 6x – 27 > 0   ⇒ (x + 9) (x – 3) > 0   ⇒  x = –9, 3 +ve –ve +ve


By the method of intervals we see that (x + 9) (x – 3) is positive when x < – 9 –∞ –9 3 ∞
and x > 3
x2 + 6x – 27 > 0  ⇒  x∈ (–∞, –9)  (3, ∞) …(i)
+ve –ve +ve
Now –x2 + 3x + 4 > 0 ⇒  x2 – 3x – 4 < 0 ⇒ (x – 4) (x + 1) < 0
∴ (x – 4) (x + 1) = 0  ⇒  x = – 1, 4
–∞ –1 4 ∞

∴ The expression (x – 4) (x + 1) is negative when x lies between –1 and 4.

∴ x∈ (–1, 4) …(ii)

∴ (i) and (ii)  ⇒  x∈ (3, 4).

Ex. 15. Prove that :


1 1 1
(i) x + ≥ 2 , if x > 0 (ii) x + ≤ −2 , if x < 0 (iii) x + ≥ 2 , if x ≠ 0.
x x x
2
 1 
Sol. (i) We have  x −  ≥ 0 (Being a perfect square)
 x
1 1 1 1
⇒ x + − 2 x. ≥ 0   ⇒  x + − 2 ≥ 0 ⇒ x + ≥ 2
x x x x
(ii) Since x < 0, we cannot take x and proceed
Let x = – a, since x is negative and ‘a’ must be positive.
2
 1  1 1
∴  a−  ≥ 0    ⇒  a + − 2 ≥ 0 ⇒ a + ≥ 2
 a a a
1 1
Now replace a by – x, so − x − ≥ 2 ⇒ x + ≤ 2
x x
2
1  1
(iii) To prove x + ≥ 2 , we can prove  x +  ≥ 4
x  x
2
 1 2 1 2 1
We have  x −  ≥ 0   ⇒  x + 2 − 2 ≥ 0   ⇒  x + 2 ≥ 2
 x  x x
2
2 1  1
⇒ x + 2 + 2 ≥ 4   ⇒   x +  ≥ 4 .
x  x
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-11

Ex. 16. Prove that for any three positive reals numbers a, b, c, a2 + b2 + c2 > ab + bc + ca.

Sol. a2 + b2 + c2 > ab + bc + ca
To prove a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca > 0
Let S = a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca
1
Then S = (2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 – 2ab – 2bc – 2ca)
2
1 2 1
(a + b 2 − 2ab + b 2 + c 2 − 2bc + c 2 + a 2 − 2ca ) = [(a − b) 2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a )2 ] ≥ 0
=
2 2
As the RHS is the sum of squares which are positive ⇒ S > 0. Also the equality, i.e. = 0 holds when a = b = c.

 1 1 1
Ex. 17. If x, y, z are all positive real numbers. Prove that ( x + y + z )  + +  ≥ 9        (IIT 1984)
 x y z

Sol. We apply the AM, GM inequality here


x+ y+z
AM of x, y, z = , GM of x, y,z = 3 xyz
3
1 1 1
+ +
1 1 1 x y z 1 1 1 1
AM of , , = , GM of , , =3
x y z 3 x y z xyz
x+ y+ z

∴ > 3 xyz (Applying A.M. > G.M.) …(i)
3
1 1 1
+ +
x y z 1
and > 3 …(ii)
3 xyz
Multiplying (i) and (ii), we get
 1 1 1
( x + y + z)  + + 
 x y z 1  1 1 1
> 3 xyz.   ⇒  ( x + y + z )  + +  ≥ 9
9 xyz  x y z

 1  1
Ex. 18. If x, y are positive real numbers such that x + y = 1, prove that  1 +   1 + y  ≥ 9 .
 x
Sol. For positive real numbers, x, y applying AM > GM, we have
x+ y
> xy
2
1
⇒  > xy ( x + y = 1)
2
⇒  1 ≥ 2 xy   ⇒ 1 > 4xy  ⇒ 2 > 8xy  ⇒  1 + 1 > 8xy
⇒  1 + x + y > 8xy  ⇒  1 + x + y + xy > 9xy  ⇒  (1 + x) (1 + y) > 9xy
(1 + x) (1 + y )  x + 1  y + 1  1 1
⇒  ≥ 9   ⇒      ≥ 9   ⇒   1 +   1 +  ≥ 9 .
xy  x  y   x y
Ch 4-12 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Ex. 19. If a, b, c, x, y, z are all positive, then prove that (ab + xy) . (ax + by) > 4abxy.

Sol. Applying AM - GM inequality, we have


ab + xy
≥ ab.xy ⇒ (ab + xy ) ≥ 2 ab.xy …(i)
2
(ax + by )
and ≥ ax.by ⇒ (ax + by ) ≥ 2 ab ⋅ xy …(ii)
2
Multiplying (i) and (ii), we get
(ab + xy) (ax + by) > 4 abxy abxy  
⇒  (ab + xy) (ax + by) > 4 abxy.

Ex. 20. If a, b, c are all positive, a + b + c = 1 and (1 – a) (1 – b) (1 – c) > K(abc), then find the value of K.

Sol. Given,  a + b + c = 1, so that a + b = 1 – c, b + c = 1 – a, c + a = 1 – b


Now,  AM > GM  ⇒ (a + b) > 2 ab ⇒ (1 – c) > 2 ab …(i)
Similarly, (b + c) > 2 bc ⇒ (1 − a ) ≥ 2 bc …(ii)
  (c + a) > 2 ca ⇒ (1 − b) ≥ 2 ca …(iii)
Multiplying (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
⇒ (1 – a) (1 – b) (1 – c) > 8 ab bc ca

⇒ (1 – a) (1 – b) (1 – c) > 8 abc  ⇒  K = 8.

Ex. 21. Prove that 2.4.6 ........... (2n) < (n + 1)n.

Sol. Applying AM - GM, inequality, we have


2 + 4 + 6 + .... + 2n
> (2.4.6.....2n)1/n
n
1
1 n   n 

⇒   (2 + 2n)  > (2.4.6......2n) n    Sum of an AP = [First term + Last term]
n 2   2 
1

⇒ (n + 1) > (2.4.6......2n)1/n 
⇒  (2.4.6.....2n) n < (n + 1)  ⇒  (2.4.6......2n) < (n + 1)n.
Ex. 22. For positive real numbers x, y, z, prove that
        2 (x3 + y3 + z3) > xy (x + y) + yz (y + z) + zx (z + x)
Sol. For positive real numbers x, y, z, we have AM > GM
x2 + y 2
⇒  > (x2 . y2)1/2  ⇒  x2 + y2 > 2xy
2
⇒  x2 + y2 – xy > xy [ x > y ⇒ x + a > y + a ∀ a ∈ R]
2 2
⇒ (x + y) (x + y – xy) > xy (x + y) [ x > y ⇒ ax > ay ∀ a > 0]
⇒ (x3 + y3) > xy (x + y) …(i)
Similarly, we can show that,
   y3 + z3 > yz (y + z) …(ii)
and z3 + x3 > zx (z + x) …(iii)
Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we have
⇒  x3 + y3 + y3 + z3 + z3 + x3 > xy (x + y) + yz (y + z) + zx (z + x)
⇒  2 (x3 + y3 + z3) > xy (x + y) + yz (y + z) + zx (z + x)
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-13

Ex. 23. Find the minimum value of lognm + logmn, where m > 1 and n > 1.

Sol. When m > 1 and n > 1, then, we have


  lognm > 0 and logmn > 0
Now, AM > GM for positive real numbers
1/2
1 1  log e m log e n 

∴  (log n m + log m n) > (lognm.logmn)1/2  ⇒  (log n m + log m n) ≥  . 
2 2  log e n log e m 
⇒ (lognm + logmn) > 2 × 1 = 2

∴  Minimum value of lognm + logmn is 2.

Ex. 24. If a, b, c are positive real numbers, then show that (a + 1)7 (b + 1)7 (c + 1)7 > 77 a4b4c4.      (IIT 2004)
Sol. LHS = (a + 1)7 (b + 1)7 (c + 1)7
= [(a + 1) (b + 1) (c + 1)]7
= [1 + a + b + c + ab + bc + ca + abc]7 > (a + b + c + ab + bc + ca + abc)7 …(i)
Now using the AM, GM inequality, i.e., AM > GM, we have
a + b + c + ab + bc + ca + abc
≥ (a.b.c.ab.bc.ca.abc)1/7
7
1
⇒  7
(a + b + c + ab + bc + ca + abc)7 ≥ (a 4b 4 c 4 ) [Raising both sides to power 7]
7
⇒ (a + b + c + ab + bc + ca + abc)7 > 77 (a4 b4 c4) …(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
(a + 1)7 (b + 1)7 (c + 1)7 > 77 a4b4c4.

1 ab + bc + ca
Ex. 25. If a, b, c are the sides of a D ABC, then show that < ≤ 1.
2 a 2 + b2 + c 2
Sol. We have a > 0, b > 0, c > 0, so
(a – b)2 + (b – c)2 + (c – a)2 > 0
⇒  a2 + b2 – 2ab + b2 + c2 – 2bc + c2 + a2 – 2ca > 0
⇒  2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 > 2ab + 2bc + 2ca  ⇒  a2 + b2 + c2 > ab + bc + ca
ab + bc + ca ab + bc + ca
⇒  1 ≥ 2 2 2
⇒ 2 ≤ 1 …(i)
a +b +c a + b2 + c2
Now for the other part let us using the triangle inequality,
i.e., the sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side, we have
∴  a + b > c, b + c > a, c + a > b.   Also, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0
⇒  a + b – c > 0,  b + c – a > 0,  c + a – b > 0
⇒  a (b + c – a) + b (c + a – b) + c (a + b – c) > 0
⇒  ab + ac – a2 + bc + ba – b2 + ca + cb – c2 > 0
ab + bc + ac 1
⇒  2 (ab + bc + ac) > a2 + b2 + c2  ⇒  ≥ …(ii)
a 2 + b2 + c2 2
∴  From (i) and (ii)
1 ab + bc + ac
    < ≤ 1.
2 a 2 + b2 + c 2

Ex. 26. If A, B, C are the angles of an acute angled triangle, then show that tan A . tan B . tan C > 3 3 .

Sol. A, B, C being the angles of an acute angled triangle, tan A > 0, tan B > 0, tan C > 0.
Also, A + B + C = p
Ch 4-14 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX


⇒ A + B = p – C  ⇒  tan (A + B) = tan (p – C)
tan A + tan B

⇒ = – tan C  ⇒  tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A . tan B . tan C …(i)
1 − tan A tan B
Now applying AM > GM, we have
tan A + tan B + tan C
> (tan A . tan B . tan C)1/3
3
⇒  (tan A + tan B + tan C)3 >  27 (tan A . tan B . tan C)
⇒ (tan A . tan B . tan C)3 > 27 (tan A . tan B . tan C) (From (i))
⇒ (tan A . tan B . tan C) > 27  ⇒  tan A . tan B . tan C > 3 3 .
2

Ex. 27. Show that If m > 1, then the sum of the mth powers of n even numbers is greater than n (n + 1)m.

Sol. Since m > 1, using the property:


AM of mth power of n quantities > mth power of the AM of n quantities, we have
m
2m + 4m + 6m + .... + (2n) m  2 + 4 + 6 + .... + 2n 

>  
n  n
2m + 4m + 6m + .... + (2n) m 1 m m

⇒ > m .2 (1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n)
n n
m
1 m n  1 m  nm m
= m 2 .  (1 + n) = m 2  m (n + 1)  = (n + 1)m
n 2 n 2 
m m m m
⇒  2 + 4 + 6 + .... (2n) > n (n + 1) . m

PRACTICE SHEET
1. The solution set for the inequality 2x – 10 < 3x – 15 over 2x − 3
the set of real numbers is 6. If > 0 over a set of real numbers (R), then the solution
3x − 7
(a) (0, 5) (b) (5 , ∞) (c) (– ∞, 5) (d) (– 5, 0) set of x is
2. The range of values of x which satisfy the inequality  3 7  −3 7 
2 1 1 (a)  ,  (b)  , 
−2 ≤ x + < 3 : x ∈ R is 2 3 2 3
3 3 3  3  3  7 
(a) – 3 < x < 3 (b) – 3 < x < 3 (c)  −∞,  (d)  −∞,    , ∞
2 2 3
(c) – ∞ < x < 3 (d) 3 < x < ∞
x 1
3. A = {x :11x − 5 > 7 x + 3, x ∈ R} and 7. The solution set of the system of inequations ≥
2x + 1 4
B = {x : 18x – 9 > 15 + 12x, x∈R}. 6x 1
and < is
The range of the set A ∩ B is 4x − 1 2
(a) [– ∞, 4) (b) (0, 4) (c) [4, ∞] (d) (– 4, 4)  1 1  −1 1 
(a)  − ,  (b)  , 
6x − 5 2 8 8 4
4. If the inequality < 0 exists over a set R of real  1   1 
4x + 1 (c)  −∞,    , ∞ (d) Null set
numbers, then x∈ 2 2
 1 5  1  5  8. If r is real number such that |r| < 1 and if a = 5 (1 – r), then
(a)  ,  (b)  −∞,    , ∞
4 6 4 6 (a) –5 < a < 5 (b) 0 < a < 10
 1 5 5  (c) 0 < a < 5 (d) –10 < a < 10
(c)  − ,  (d)  , ∞ | x − 1|
4 6 6 9. For < 1 , x lies in the interval
x+3 x+2
5. The solution set of ≤ 2 is  1 
x−2 (a) (– ∞, – 4) (b) (– ∞, – 2)   − , ∞
2
(a) (– ∞, 2)  (7, ∞) (b) (– ∞, 2]  (7, ∞)  1 
(c) (– ∞, 2)  [7, ∞) (d) (– ∞, 2]  [7, ∞) (c)  − ,1 (d) (– ∞, 1)  [2, 3]
 2 
(Kerala PET 2011) (AMU 2009)
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-15
10. If |x – 4| < 9, then 22. If loge (x2 – 16) < loge (4x – 11), then
(a) |x| < 13 (b) |x – 13| < 0 (a) – 1 < x < 5 (b) x < – 1 or x > 5
(c) – 5 < x < 13 (d) – 13 < x < 13 (c) 4 < x < 5 (d) x < – 4 or x > 4
11. If |x + 3| > 7, then x∈ (WBJEE 2012)
(a) (– 10, 4) (b) (– ∞, – 10] ∪ [4, ∞) 23. If x, y, z are positive real numbers, then (x2 + y2 + z2) >
(c) [– 10, 4] (d) [– 10, ∞] (a) xyz (b) x3 + y3 + z3
(c) xy + yz + zx (d) x + y + z
−1
12. If > 1, where x ∈ R, x ≠ + 2 then the solution set
| x | −2 24. If a1, a2, .... an are positive numbers such that a1.a2.a3 .... an
of x is = 1, then their sum is
(a) (– ∞, 2)  (1, ∞) (b) (– 2, – 1] (a) a positive integer (b) divisible by n
(c) [1, ∞) (d) (–2, –1]  [1, 2) (c) never less than n (d) none of these (IIT 1991)
13. The set of values for which x3 + 1 > x2 + x is 25. If a2 + b2 + c2 = 1, x2 + y2 + z2 = 1, where a, b, c, x, y, z are
(a) x > 0 (b) x < 0 (c) x > – 1 (d) – 1 < x < 1 positive reals then ax + by + cz is
14. Solve (|x – 1| – 3) (|x + 2| – 5) < 0. Then (a) > 1 (b) > 2
(c) < 1 (d) None of these
(a) –7 < x < – 2 (b) 3 < x < 4
26. If x, y, z are three positive numbers, then the minimum value
(c) x < – 7 and x > 4 (d) Both (a) and (b)
y+ z z+ x x+ y
15. If – x2 + 3x + 4 > 0, then which of the following is correct? of + + is
x y z
(a) x∈ (– 1, 4) (b) x∈ [– 1, 4]
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 6
(c) x∈ (– ∞, – 1)  (4, ∞) (d) x∈ (– ∞, 1]  [4, ∞)
(AMU 2010)
(NDA/NA 2003) 27. If an > 1 for all n∈N (n > 3), then the minimum value of
16. Which of the following values of x do not satisfy the log a2 a1 + log a3 a2 + log a4 a3 + ..... + log a1 an is
inequality x2 – 3x + 2 > 0 at all.
(a) 0 (b) 1
(a) 1 < x < 2 (b) – 1 > x > – 2
(c) 2 (d) None of these
(c) 0 < x < 2 (d) 0 > x > – 2 (CAT)
2/3 1/3
28. If a, b, c, x, y, z are all positve real numbers, then
17. What values of x satisfy x + x – 2 < 0?
 x y z  a b c
(a) – 8 < x < 8 (b) – 8 < x < 1  + +   + +  ≥
a b c  x y z
(c) – 1 < x < 8 (d) 1 < x < 8 (CAT 2006)
(a) 8 (b) 64 abc (c) xyz (d) 9
18. Find the complete set of values that satisfy the inequalities
29. For positive real numbers a, b, c, the least value of
| |x| – 3 | < 2 and | |x| – 2| < 3.
(a) (– 5, 5) (b) (– 5, – 1)  (1, 5) alogb – logc + blogc – loga + cloga – logb is

(c) (1, 5) (d) (– 1, 1) (CAT 2012) (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 3 (d) 6
x −1 x−3 30. If a, b, c, d are four distinct positive real numbers and if
19. Find the range of real values of x for which < . 3s = a + b + c + d, then
4x + 5 4x − 3
 −5   3   −3 5  (a) abcd > 81 (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) (s – d)
(a)  −∞,    , ∞ (b)  ,  (b) abcd < 9 (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) (s – d)
4 4 4 4
 −5   3   −5 3  (c) abcd < 18 (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) (s – d)
(c)  −∞,    , ∞ (d)  , 
 4  4  4 4 (d) abcd < 27 (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) (s – d)
n n
20. If x is real and x2 + 3x + 2 > 0, x2 – 3x – 4 < 0, then which  n + 1  2n + 1 k
31. If     > (n !) , then k =
of the following is correct? 2   3 
(a) – 1 < x < 4 (b) 2 < x < 4 (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 4
(c) – 1 < x < 1 (d) – 1 < x < 1 or 2 < x < 4 32. If a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle and
(NDA/NA 2008) (a + b + c)3 > k (a + b – c) (b + c – a) (c + a – b), then k equals
21. The set of all real numbers x, for which x2 – |x + 2| + x > 0, is (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 8 (d) 27
(a) (– ∞, – 2)  (2, ∞) (b) ( 2, ∞) 33. Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a right angled
triangle, the hypotenuse having the length c, then a + b is
(c) (– ∞, – 1)  (1, ∞) (d) ( −∞, − 2)  ( 2, ∞)
(a) > 2c (b) < 2c (c) > 2c (d) < 2c
(IIT 2002)
Ch 4-16 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

34. If a, b, c are the sides of a triangle, then 2


sin x 2
42. The minimum value of 3 + 3cos x , x ∈ R is
a b c
  + + is 1
b+c−a c+a −b a+b−c (a) (b) 3 (c) 6 (d) 2 3
2
(a) < 3 (b) ≥ 2 (c) ≥ 3 (d) < 2 43. When a and b are positive reals, prove that
35. For three distinct positive real numbers a, b, c
(a4 + b4) (a5 + b5) is
(1 + a3) (1 + b3) (1 + c3) is greater than (a) > 2 (a9 + b9) (b) < 2 (a9 + b9)
(a) abc (b) (1 + abc) (c) (1 + abc)3 (d) (1 + abc)2 (c) = 2 (a9 + b9) (d) None of these
36. If a, b, c, d are positive reals such that a + b + c + d = 2, 44. The minimum value of the sum of real numbers a–5, a–4,
then M = (a + b) (c + d) satisfies the relation 3a–3, 1, a8 and a10 with a > 0 is
(a) 0 < M < 1 (b) 1 < M < 2 1 10
(c) 2 < M < 3 (d) 3 < M < 4 (IIT 2000) (a) (b) 6 (c) 8 (d)
2 3
37. If a1, a2, a3 ....... an are positive real numbers whose product (IIT 2011)
is a fixed number ‘c’, then the minimum value of a1 + a2 ..... 45. If a, b, c are the sides of a non-equilateral triangle, then the
+ an–1 + 2an is expression (b + c – a) (c + a – b) (a + b – c) – abc is
(a) n (2c)1/n (b) (n + 1)c1/n (c) 2nc1/n (d) (n + 1) (2c)1/n (a) negative (b) non-negative
(IIT 2002) (c) positive (d) non-positive (IIT 1986)
38. If a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of a non-equilateral 46. If a, b, c are distinct positive integers, then axb–c + bxc–a
1 1 1 + cxa–b is
triangle, then 2 + 2 + 2 is 1
a b c (a) > 3 (b) >
s 2s a+b+c
(a) > (b) > (c) < 0 (d) > a + b + c
a+b+c abc
47. If a, b, c are positive real numbers such that a + b + c = p,
2s 1 1 1
(c) < then + + is greater than
abc a b c
a+b+c 9 16
(d) None of these, where s = . (a) 16 (b) 9p (c) (d)
2 p p
39. Let a, b, c be positive numbers, then 48. If a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of a non-equilateral
a b c 1 1 1
+ + is triangle, then, + + is
b+c c+a a+b a+b−c b+c−a c+a −b
3 9 1 1 1
(a) ≥ (b) > 4 (a) > (b) + +
2 a+b+c a b c
3 (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these
(c) ≤ (d) None of these
2 49. If a1, a2, ....., an are distinct positive real numbers such that
40. Let a, b, c be positive numbers lying in the interval (0, 1], 1 1 1
a1 + a2 + ..... + an = 1, then + + .... + is
a b c a1 a2 an
then + + is
1 + b + ca 1 + c + ab 1 + a + bc (a) > n (b) > n2
(a) < 0 (b) > 0 (c) < 1 (d) < – 1 1
(c) > (d) > n3
3 3 2 2
41. If log10 (x + y ) – log10 (x + y – xy) < 2, then the maximum n
value of xy for all x > 0, y > 0 is 50. If A, B, C are the angles of an acute angled triangle, then
(a) 1200 (b) 2500 (c) 3000 (d) 3500 cot A/2 . cot B/2 . cot C/2 >
(DCE 2009) (a) 4 3 (b) 8 (c) 3 3 (d) 3

ANSWERS
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (b)
9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (b) 12. (d) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (a) 16. (a)
17. (b) 18. (b) 19. (d) 20. (d) 21. (d) 22. (a) 23. (c) 24. (c)
25. (c) 26. (d) 27. (d) 28. (d) 29. (c) 30. (a) 31. (c) 32. (d)
33. (b) 34. (c) 35. (c) 36. (a) 37. (a) 38. (b) 39. (a) 40. (c)
41. (b) 42. (d) 43. (b) 44. (c) 45. (a) 46. (d) 47. (c) 48. (c)
49. (a) 50. (c)
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-17

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. 2x – 10 < 3x – 15  ⇒  – 10 + 15 < 3x – 2x x−7
⇒  5 < x ⇒ x > 5 ⇒ x∈ (5, ∞). When x < 2, the expression >0.
x−2
2 1 1 −8 1 10 x−7
2. −2 ≤ x + < 3   ⇒  ≤ x+ < When x lies between 2 and 7, the expression <0.
3 3 3 3 3 3 x−2
−8 1 10 1 x−7
⇒  − ≤x< − When x > 7, the expression ≥0.
3 3 3 3 x−2
−9 9 x+3
⇒  ≤ x < ⇒ – 3 ≤ x < 3.
∴  The inequality ≤ 2 holds when x < 2 or x > 7,
3 3 x−2
i.e., x∈ (– ∞, 2)  [7, ∞).
3. A = {x : 11x – 5 > 7x + 3, x ∈ R}
⇒ 11x – 5 > 7x + 3  ⇒ 4x > 8 ⇒ x > 2 6. Similar to Q. 5. Also see Solved Example 8 (ii).
⇒  A = {x : x > 2, x ∈ R} x 1 6x 1
7. ≥ and <
B = {x : 18x – 9 > 15 + 12x, x ∈ R} 2x + 1 4 4x − 1 2
⇒  18x – 9 > 15 + 12x  ⇒ 6x > 24 ⇒ x > 4 x 1 6x 1
⇒  − ≥ 0 and − <0
⇒  B = {x : x > 4, x ∈ R} 2x + 1 4 4x − 1 2
4x − 2x − 1 12 x − 4 x + 1
∴  A ∩ B = {x : x > 2, x ∈ R} ∩ {x : x > 4, x ∈ R} ⇒  ≥ 0 and <0
4(2 x + 1) 2(4 x − 1)
⇒  x > 4 ⇒ x∈ [4, ∞).
6x − 5 2x − 1 8x + 1
4. < 0 on putting (6x – 5) and (4x + 1) equal to zero, ⇒  ≥ 0 and <0
4x + 1 2x + 1 4x − 1
5 1 2x − 1 1
we get the critical points as x = and x = − . On the real Now for ≥ 0, x ≠
6 4 2x + 1 2
number line they can be shown as: −1 1
The critical points are and which are plotted on the
+ve –ve +ve 2 2
real number line as shown below:
–∞ ∞
−1 5 +ve –ve +ve

4 6
– ∞ ∞
−1 1
1
• When x < − , both numerator and denominator of the 2 2
4
Examining the expression for the three parts of the number
6x − 5
expression are negative making the expression 1 −1 1 1
4x + 1 line, i.e., x < − , < x ≤ , x ≥ , we see that
positive. 2 2 2 2
1 5 6x − 5 2x − 1 1 1
• When x lies between − and , the expression ≥ 0 when x < − or x ≥
4 6 4x + 1 2x + 1 2 2
becomes negative, hence less than zero.  1 1 
5 ∴  x ∈  −∞, −    , ∞ …(i)
• When x > , both (6x – 5) and (4x + 1) are positive, making 2 2 
6 8x + 1 1
6x − 5 Now for < 0, x ≠
the expression positive and hence greater than zero. 4x − 1 4
4x + 1
1 1
6x − 5  1 5 The critical points are − , which are plotted on the real
∴  For < 0, x ∈  − ,  . 8 4
4x + 1  4 6
number line as shown below:
x+3 x+3 x + 3 − 2x + 4 +ve –ve +ve
5. ≤2 ⇒ −2≤ 0 ⇒ ≤0
x−2 x−2 x−2 –∞ ∞
−1 1
7−x x−7
8 4
⇒ ≤0 ⇒ ≥ 0 Here x ≠ 2
x−2 x−2 8x + 1  −1 1 
The critical points on putting (x – 7) and (x – 2) are obtained The expression < 0, when x ∈  ,     …(ii)
4x − 1 8 4
as equal to zero are 7 and 2.

∴  It is clear from (i) and (ii) that the intersection of the
The real number line is divided into 3 parts as shown below solution sets given by (i) and (ii), i.e.,
by these two critical points.
+ve –ve +ve  1 1    1 1
   −∞, −    , ∞  ∩  − ,  = φ .
–∞ 2 7 ∞  2 2  8 4
Ch 4-18 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

8. | r | < 1 −1 −1
12. ≥1⇒ −1 ≥ 0
⇒  – 1 < r < 1
| x | −2 | x | −2
⇒  1 > – r > – 1 ⇒ – 1 < – r < 1
−1 − (| x | − 2) 1− | x |

⇒  ≥ 0   ⇒  ≥0
( a > b ⇒ ax < bx, where x < 0) | x | −2 | x | −2
⇒  0 < 1 – r < 2
| x| −1 y −1
⇒  ≤0 ⇒ ≤ 0 , where y = |x|
(Adding 1, c < a < b ⇒ c + x < a + x < b + x ∀ x∈R) |x|− 2 y−2
⇒  0 × 5 < 5 (1 – r) < 5 × 2
y −1
Examining on the real number line shown below:
(c < a < b ⇒ cx < ax < bx ∀ x∈R, x > 0) y−2
⇒  0 < 5 (1 – r) < 10

– ∞ 2 1 ∞
⇒  0 < a < 10.

y −1
9. Case I: When x – 1 < 0, i.e., x < 1, then | x – 1 | = – (x – 1) = 1 – x We see that ≤ 0 when 1 < y < 2
1− x y−2
∴  Given expression = <1 ⇒ 1 < |x| < 2  ⇒ |x| > 1 and |x| < 2
x+2
⇒  x < –1 or x > 1 and – 2 < x < 2
1− x 1− x − x − 2
⇒  −1 < 0 ⇒ <0 ⇒  x∈ (– 2, – 1]  [1, 2).
x+2 x+2
13. x3 + 1 > x2 + x  ⇒  x3 + 1 – x2 – x > 0
−2 x − 1 2x + 1
⇒  <0⇒ >0 ⇒  x3 – x2 + 1 – x > 0  ⇒  x2 (x – 1) – (x – 1) > 0
x+2 x+2
1 ⇒ (x2 – 1) (x – 1) > 0  ⇒ (x + 1) (x – 1)2 > 0
Now critical points are x = – 2, − . As (x – 1)2 is +ve so the given expression is > 0, when
2
+ve –ve +ve x + 1 > 0 ⇒ x > – 1.
– ∞ –2 –1/2 ∞ 14. (|x – 1| – 3) (|x + 2| – 5) < 0
2x + 1 The product of the two factors is < 0, i.e., negative when

Examining the expression in the intervals marked one of the factors is positive and one negative.
x+2
by the critical points on the number line, we see that Case I : (|x – 1| – 3) > 0 and (|x + 2| – 5) < 0
2x + 1 ⇒  |x – 1| > 3 and |x + 2| < 5
> 0,
x+2 ⇒  – (x – 1) > 3, (x – 1) > 3 and –(x + 2) < 5, x + 2 < 5
 1  ⇒  – x > 2, x > 4  and  – x < 7, x < 3
when x∈ (– ∞, – 2) or x ∈  − , ∞ . Here x < 1, therefore
2 ⇒  x < – 2, x > 4  and  x > –7, x < 3
 1  Combining we get – 7 < x < – 2
the solution set is x∈ (– ∞, – 2)   − ,1 …(i)
2
Case II : (|x – 1| – 3) < 0 and (|x + 2| – 5) > 0
Case II : When x – 1 > 0, i.e., when x > 1
⇒  |x – 1| < 3  and  |x + 2| > 5
|x – 1| = (x – 1) ⇒  – (x – 1) < 3, (x – 1) < 3 and (x + 2) > 5, – (x + 2) > 5
x −1

∴  Given expression = <1 ⇒  – x < 2, x < 4 and x > 3, – x > 7
x+2
⇒  x > – 2, x < 4 and x > 3, x < – 7
x −1 x −1− x − 2 −3
⇒  −1 < 0 ⇒ <0 ⇒ <0 ⇒  3 < x < 4
x+2 x+2 x+2
∴  –7 < x < – 2 and 3 < x < 4 is the solution.
This is possible only when x + 2 > 0 ⇒ x > – 2
15. – x2 + 3x + 4 > 0
Here x > 1  ∴  x∈ [1, ∞)           …(ii)
 1  ⇒  x2 – 3x – 4 < 0  ⇒  (x – 4) (x + 1) < 0
∴  From (i) and (ii) x∈ (– ∞, – 2)   − , 1  [1, ∞) ⇒  (x – 4) < 0, (x + 1) > 0 or (x – 4) > 0, (x + 1) < 0
2
 1  ⇒  x < 4, x > – 1 or x > 4, x < – 1
⇒  x ∈ (−∞, −2) U  − , ∞ 
 2  ⇒  – 1 < x < 4.
10. |x – 4| < 9  ⇒  – 9 < x – 4 < 9 16. x2 – 3x + 2 > 0  ⇒  (x – 2) (x – 1) > 0
⇒  – 9 + 4 < x < 9 + 4  ⇒  –5 < x < 13. ⇒  (x – 2) > 0, (x – 1) < 0 or (x – 2) < 0, (x – 1) > 0
11. |x + 3| > 7 ⇒  x > 2, x < 1 or x < 2, x > 1  ⇒  x < 1 or x > 2
⇒  x + 3 < – 7 or x + 3 > 7
∴ No value of x which lies between these extremes, i.e.,
⇒  x < – 10 or x > 4 ⇒ x∈ (– ∞, – 10] or x∈ [4, ∞) 1 and 2 satisfies the inequality, i.e., 1 < x < 2 is the solution
⇒  x∈ (– ∞, –10]  [4, ∞). set not satisfying the inequality x2 – 3x + 2 > 0 at all.
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-19
17. x2/3 + x1/3 – 2 < 0   and x2 – 3x – 4 < 0 ⇒ (x – 4) (x + 1) < 0
⇒  y2 + y – 2 < 0, where y = x1/3 +ve –ve +ve

⇒  (y – 1) (y + 2) < 0 –∞ –1 4 ∞

⇒  (y – 1) < 0, (y + 2) > 0 or (y – 1) > 0, (y + 2) < 0 ⇒  – 1 < x < 4


…(ii)
⇒  y < 1, y > – 2 or y > 1, y < – 2
∴ Combining the solution sets in (i) and (ii), we have
⇒  – 2 < y < 1  ⇒  – 2 < x1/3 < 1 – 1 < x < 1 or 2 < x < 4
⇒  – 8 < x < 1. 21. Case I: When x + 2 > 0, then x > – 2
18. Let |x| = p, where p > 0 …(i) ⇒ |x + 2| = x + 2

So |p – 3| < 2 and |p – 2| < 3 …(ii) ∴ x2 – |x + 2| + x > 0 = x2 – (x + 2) + x > 0

⇒  1 < p < 5 and – 1 < p < 5
…(iii) ⇒  x2 – 2 > 0  ⇒  x2 > 2

(∴ |x – a| < r ⇒ a – r < x < a + r) ⇒ x < − 2 or x > 2

Therefore, the conditions (i), (ii) and (iii) are satisfied by ⇒ x∈ (– 2, − 2 )  ( 2 , ∞)     [ x ≥ −2] …(i)

1 < p < 5, i.e. 1 < | x | < 5, i.e., | x | > 1 and | x | < 5
Case II: When x + 2 < 0, then x < – 2
i.e., x < – 1 or x > 1 and – 5 < x < 5
⇒ |x + 2| = – (x + 2)
⇒  x∈ (– 5, – 1)  (1, 5).
∴ x2 – |x + 2| + x > 0  ⇒  x2 + (x + 2) + x > 0
x −1 x−3 x −1 x−3 ⇒ x2 + 2x + 2 > 0  ⇒ (x2 + 2x + 1) + 1 > 0
19. < or − <0
4x + 5 4x − 3 4x + 5 4x − 3 ⇒ (x + 1)2 + 1 > 0, which is true for all value of x.
(4 x − 3) ( x − 1) − ( x − 3) (4 x + 5) ∴ x < – 2  ⇒  x∈ (– ∞, – 2) …(ii)

⇒  <0
(4 x + 5) (4 x − 3) From (i) and (ii)

(4 x 2 − 3 x − 4 x + 3) − (4 x 2 − 12 x + 5 x − 15) x∈ (– 2, − 2 )  ( 2, ∞ )  (– ∞, – 2)

⇒  <0
(4 x + 5) (4 x − 3)
⇒ x∈ ( −∞, − 2) U ( 2, ∞)
2 2
4 x − 7 x + 3 − 4 x + 7 x + 15 22. loge (x2 – 16) < loge (4x – 11)

⇒  <0
(4 x + 5) (4 x − 3) (x2 – 16) < 4x – 11
18 ( a > 1, loga f (x) > loga(gx) ⇒ f (x) > g(x) > 0)

⇒  <0
(4 x + 5) (4 x − 3)
⇒ x2 – 4x – 5 < 0  ⇒ (x – 5) (x + 1) < 0

⇒  (4x + 5) (4x – 3) < 0 as 18 > 0 ⇒ – 1 < x < 5

 5  3
⇒  16  x +   x −  < 0
( If a < b, then (x – a) (x – b) < 0 ⇒ a < x < b)
4 4
23. Since x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, therefore
Putting each factor equal to zero, the critical points are
(x – y)2 > 0, (y – z)2 > 0, (z – x)2 > 0
5 3
− , . Plotting on the real number line, we have the ⇒ x2 + y2 – 2xy > 0

4 4
following figure: y2 + z2 – 2yz > 0
+ve –ve +ve z2 + x2 – 2zx > 0
– ∞
−5 3
∞ ⇒ x2 + y2 > 2xy, y2 + z2 > 2yz, z2 + x2 > 2zx


4 4 ⇒ x2 + y2 + y2 + z2 + z2 + x2 > 2xy + 2yz + 2zx

5  3 ⇒ 2 (x2 + y2 + z2) > 2 (xy + yz + zx)


Thus the expression 16  x +   x −  is positive when ⇒ x2 + y2 + z2 > xy + yz + zx.

4 4
5 3 24. For positive numbers we know that AM > GM
x < − or x >
4 4 1
 a + a + a3 + ... + an 
 5 3 ∴  1 2
 ≥ (a1.a2 .a3 ...an ) n
∴  The required range =  − ,  . n
4 4 1
2
20. x – 3x + 2 > 0  a + a + a3 + ... + an 
⇒  1 2
 ≥ 1n
n

⇒  (x – 1) (x – 2) > 0
+ve –ve +ve  a + a + a3 + ... + an 
⇒  1 2
 ≥ 1
–∞ 1 2 ∞ n
⇒  x∈ (– ∞, 1)  (2, ∞)
…(i) ⇒ a1 + a2 + a3 + .... + an > n.

Ch 4-20 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

25. Applying AM > GM, we have 1 1

a+ x 1  x y z  x y z 3 1 a b c  a b c 3
+ + ≥  . .  and  + +  ≥  . . 
≥ ax ⇒ a + x ≥ 2 ax
2 3  a b c   a b c  3  x y z  x y z
⇒ (a + x)2 > 4ax  ⇒  a2 + x2 + 2ax > 4ax 1 1  x y z a b c
∴ × + + + +
3 3  a b c   x y z 
⇒ a2 + x2 > 2ax
1 1
Similarly, b2 + y2 > 2by  x y z 3  a b c 3
>  . .   . . 
a b c  x y z
c2 + z2 > 2cz 1

∴ a2 + x2 + b2 + y2 + c2 + z2 > 2ax + 2by + 2cz


 x y z a b c  x y z a b c 3
⇒  + +   + +  > 9  . . . . . 

a b c  x y z  a b c x y z
⇒ (a2 + b2 + c2) + (x2 + y2 + z2) > 2 (ax + by + cz)

1
⇒ 2 > 2 (ax + by + cz)  ⇒ 1 > ax + by + cz
> 9.13
⇒ ax + by + cz < 1.
 x y z a b c
⇒  + +   + +  ≥ 9 .
a b c  x y z
26. x > 0, y > 0, z > 0
x y y z x z 29. a > 0, b > 0, c > 0  ⇒ loga, logb, logc are all defined.
⇒ , , , , , are all positive numbers.
y x z y z x Also alogb – logc, blogc – loga, cloga – logb are all positive quantities.
∴ Applying AM – GM inequality, we have
∴  Applying AM > GM, we have
1
1 x y  x y 2 x y 1 log b − log c

⇒ + ≥  .    ⇒  + ≥ 2 [ a + blog c − log a + c log a − log b ]
2  y 
x  y x y x 3
1
y z x z log b − log c
Similarly, + ≥ 2, + ≥ 2 >  a . blog c − log a . c log a − log b  3 ...(i)
z y z x
Let x = alog b – log c. blog c – log a. clog a – log b
x y y z x z

∴ + + + + + ≥ 2+2+2 = 6 ⇒ log x = (log b – log c) log a + (log c – log a) log b
y x z y z x
+ (log a – log b) log c
y z x z x y Now, log e x = 0  ⇒  x = e0 = 1.
⇒ + + + + + ≥6
x x y y z z 1 log b − log c
y+ z x+ z x+ y \ (i) ⇒  [a + blog c − log a + c log a − log b ] ≥ 1
⇒ + + ≥6 3
x y z
⇒ alog b – log c + blog c – log a + clog a – log b > 3

y+ z x+ z x+ y
∴ The minimum value of + + is 6 . ⇒ The least value of alog b – log c + blog c – log a + clog a – log b
x y z is 3.
27. As an > 1 ∀ n ∈N, therefore
log a2 a1 ≥ 0, log a3 a2 ≥ 0,......., log a1 an ≥ 0 30. 3s = a + b + c + d  ⇒ 3s – b – c – d = a

⇒ a = (s – b) + (s – c) + (s – d)
For positive numbers, AM > GM
1 For distinct positive real numbers AM > GM
⇒ [log a2 a1 + log a3 a2 + ....... + log a1 an ]
n 1 1
1
⇒ [( s − b) + (s − c) + (s − d )] > {(s − b)(s − c)(s − d )}3
> (log a2 a1.log a3 a2 .....log an an −1 log a1 an )n 3
1
1 ⇒ ( s − b) + ( s − c) + ( s − d ) > 3 {( s − b) ( s − c) ( s − d )}3


⇒ [log a2 a1 + log a3 a2 + ......log a1 an ]
n 1
1
1 ⇒  a > 3{( s − b) ( s − c) ( s − d )}3 …(i)

 log a log a log e an −1 log e an  n
>  e 1 . e 2 ....... = 1n =1 1
 log e a2 log e a3 log e an log e a1 
Similarly,  b > 3{( s − a) ( s − c) ( s − d )}3 …(ii)
1
∴ [log a2 a1 + log a3 a2 + ......log a1 an ] ≥ n

  c > 3{( s − a ) ( s − b) ( s − d )}3 …(iii)
The minimum value of the given sum is n, but as n > 3, n 1
cannot take up the values 0, 1 or 2.     d > 3{( s − a ) ( s − b) ( s − c)}3 …(iv)
28. a, b, c, x, y, z being all positive real numbers ∴ (i) × (ii) × (iii) × (iv)
1
x y z a b c 3 3 3 3
⇒ , , , , , are all positive real numbers. ⇒ abcd > 81{( s − a ) ( s − b) ( s − c) ( s − d ) }3

a b c x y z
Now applying the AM – GM inequality, we have ⇒ abcd > 81(s – a) (s – b) (s – c) (s – d).

INEQUALITIES Ch 4-21

1 35. (1 + a3) (1 + b3) (1 + c3) = 1 + a3 + b3 + c3 + a3b3 + b3c3 +


12 + 22 + 32 + ....n 2
31. ≥ (12.22.32....n 2 ) n c3a3 + a3b3c3 …(i)
n
2 Now for distinct positive reals, a, b, c, AM > GM
n (n + 1) (2n + 1)

⇒ ≥ (1.2.3.....n) n
6n a 3 + b3 + c 3
> (a 3b3c3 )1/3
 n + 1  2n + 1 ( )2/ n 3

⇒    ≥ n! ⇒ a3 + b3 + c3 > 3abc …(ii)

2  3 
n n ( a, b, c > 0 ⇒ a3, b3, c3 > 0)
 n + 1  2n + 1 2
    ≥ ( n !) a 3b 3 + b 3 c 3 + c 3 a 3
2 3 > (a 3b3 .b3c3 .c3 a 3 )1/3
Also
⇒ K = 2. 3
32. By triangle inequality, we have sum of lengths of two sides 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
⇒ a b + b c + c a > 3a b c …(iii)

of a D > length of third side
∴ Putting the values from (ii) and (iii) on the RHS of (i),
⇒ a + b > c,  b + c > a,  c + a > b
we have
⇒ a + b – c > 0,  b + c – a > 0, c + a – b > 0
(1 + a3) (1 + b3) (1 + c3) > 1 + 3abc + 3a2b2c2 + a3b3c3
All being positive quantities, we apply AM > GM
= (1 + abc)3
(a + b − c) + (b + c − a ) + (c + a − b)
⇒ ∴ (1 + a3) (1 + b3) (1 + c3) > (1 + abc)3.
3
1 36. Let x = a + b, y = c + d. Then, x + y = 1 and M = xy.
> [ (a + b − c) (b + c − a ) (c + a − b) ] 3 If the sum of two quantities is a constant, then their product
3 is maximum when both the quantities are equal, i.e., x = y
 a + b + c

⇒   ≥ [(a + b − c) (b + c − a ) (c + a − b)] ⇒ x = 1, y = 1 ⇒ xy = 1.
3 
(a + b + c)3 > 27 (a + b – c) (b + c – a) (c + a – b) ∴ Maximum value of M is 1

⇒ K = 27. Also, a, b, c, d being positive real numbers
33. Since a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of a right triangle (a + b) (c + d) > 0
having hypotenuse of length c, therefore a2 + b2 = c2 ∴ 0 < M < 1
(Pythagoras, Theoram) Alternatively: For positive quantities, AM > GM
Now,  a > 0, b > 0 ⇒ (a – b)2 > 0 1
{(a + b) + (c + d )} ≥ {(a + b) (c + d )}1/2
⇒ a2 + b2 > 2ab 2
1 1
⇒ 2(a2 + b2) > a2 + b2 + 2ab 1
⇒ M ≤ × 2 ⇒ M 2 ≤ 1 ⇒ M ≤ 1
2
⇒ 2 (a2 + b2) > (a + b)2 2
⇒ 2c2 > (a + b)2 ⇒ (a + b)2 < 2c2 Also,  M = (a + b) (c + d) > 0
⇒ (a + b) < 2c . ∴ 0 < M < 1.
34. Since a, b, c are the sides of a triangle, 37. For positive real numbers, AM > GM
1
a + b – c > 0, b + c – a > 0, c + a – b > 0 (a1 + a2 + a3 + ...... + 2an )

⇒ > (a1.a2 .a3 ......2an ) n
Let x = b + c – a, y = c + a – b, z = a + b – c n
1 1
Then x + y = 2c, y + z = 2a, z + x = 2b. ⇒ (a1 + a2 + a3 + ...... + 2an) >
n(c.2) n = n(2c) n
a b c
∴ + + 1
b+c−a c+a −b a+b−c Hence the least value is n(2c) n .
y+ z z+ x x+ y 1  y z z x x y
= + + =  + + + + +  38. a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 ⇒ ab > 0, bc > 0, ca > 0
2x 2y 2z 2x x y y z z
1
(ab) 2 + (bc) 2
≥ ( (ab) 2 (bc) 2 ) 2
1  y x y z x z
  =  + + + + + 

2  x y z y z x 2
⇒ a2b2 + b2c2 > 2 (a2b4c2)1/2

 y x   y z   x y  
 +   +   +   ≥ 6 ⇒ a2b2 + b2c2 > 2 (abc).b …(i)

 x y   z y  z z 
Similarly, b2c2 + c2a2 > 2 (abc).c …(ii)
 1 
 V a > 0, a + a ≥ 2      c2a2 + a2b2 > 2(abc)a …(iii)
(i) + (ii) + (iii)
a b c 6

∴ + + ≥ ≥ 3. ⇒ 2(a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2) > 2 abc (a + b + c)

b+c−a c+ a −b a +b−c 2
⇒ a2b2 + b2c2 + c2a2 > abc (a + b + c)

Ch 4-22 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Dividing both sides by a2b2c2, we have 100 x + y



⇒ ≥ ≥ xy
1 1 1 a+b+c 2 2
⇒ 2
+ 2+ 2 ≥
c a b abc

⇒ xy ≤ 50 ⇒ xy ≤ 2500.
1 1 1 2s
⇒ + + ≥ Maximum value of xy = 2500
a 2 b 2 c 2 abc
2 2
2s 1 1 1 42. For all x∈R, 3
sin x
> 0, 3cos x
>0
⇒ ≤ + + .
abc a 2 b 2 c 2

∴ AM > GM
1 1 1 1 1
39. We know that a + ≥ 2 ∴ a + + b + + c + ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 ≥ 6 1  sin 2 x
+ 3cos x  ≥ (3sin x ⋅ 3cos x ) 2
2 2 2
a a b c
⇒ 3
x y y z x z 2
∴ + + + + + ≥6 1
y x z y z x
⇒ 3 + 3cos x  ≥ 2(3sin x + cos x ) 2
sin 2 x 2 2 2

a+b b+c b+c c+a a+b c+a 2 2

∴ + + + + + ≥6 ⇒ 3

sin x
+ 3cos x
≥ 2 3 (∴ sin2x + cos2x = 1)
b+c a+b c+a b+c c+a a+b
43. Given, x > 0, y > 0 and x ≠ y
b + c + 2a a + b + 2c c + a + 2b
⇒ + + ≥6 ⇒ x4 > 0, y4 > 0, x5 > 0, y5 > 0, x9 > 0, y9 > 0.

b+c a+b c+a
2a 2c 2b For distinct positive reals, we know that
⇒ 1 + +1+ +1+ ≥6
b+c a+b c+a AM > GM
2a 2c 2b 1
⇒ + + ≥3 1 4
b+c a+b c+a
∴ ( x + y 4 ) > ( x4 .y 4 ) 2
2
a b c 3
⇒ + + ≥ ⇒ (x4 + y4) > 2 (x2 y2) …(i)

b+c c+a a+b 2
1
Equality holds for a = b = c. 1 5 5 5 5
Also ( x + y ) > ( x y ) 2
40. (1 + ab) = (1 – a) (1 – b) + a + b 2
⇒ 1 + c + ab = (1 – a) (1 – b) + a + b + c > a + b + c ⇒ (x5 + y5) > 2 (x5/2 y5/2) …(ii)
∴ 1 + a + bc = (1 – b) (1 – c) + a + b + c > a + b + c Now multiplying (i) and (ii), we have
1 + b + ac = (1 – a) (1 – c) + a + b + c > a + b + c
(x4 + y4) (x5 + y5) > 4 (x2 y2) (x5/2 y5/2)
a b c
∴ + + ⇒ (x4 + y4) (x5 + y5) > 4x9/2 y9/2 …(iii)

1 + b + ca 1 + c + ab 1 + a + bc
1
a b c 1 9
< + + Also, ( x + y 9 ) > ( x9 . y 9 ) 2
a+b+c a+b+c a+b+c 2
 1 1 ⇒ (x9 + y9) > 2x9/2 y9/2

 a ≥ b ⇒ ≤ 
 a b
⇒ 2(x9 + y9) > 4x9/2 y9/2 …(iv)

a b c a+b+c
⇒ + + ≤ =1
∴ From (iii) and (iv), we have
1 + b + ca 1 + c + ab 1 + a + bc a + b + c
a b c (x4 + y4) (x5 + y5) < 2 (x9 + y9).
⇒ + + ≤ 1.
1 + b + ca 1 + c + ab 1 + a + bc 44. These real numbers can be taken as 8 quantities,
41. log10 (x3 + y3) – log10 (x2 + y2 – xy) < 2 a–5, a–4, a–3, a–3, a–3, 1, a8, a10.
( x3 + y 3 ) All are positive as a > 0
⇒ log10
≤2 ∴ AM > GM (as all quantities are not distinct)
( x 2 + y 2 − xy )
1 −5
 ( x + y ) ( x 2 + y 2 − xy ) 
∴ [a + a −4 + a −3 + a −3 + a −3 + 1 + a8 + a10 ]
⇒ log10 
≤2 8
 ( x 2 + y 2 − xy ) 
⇒ log10 (x + y) < 2
> (a–5 . a–4 . a–3 . a–3 . a–3 . 1. a8 . a10)1/8
⇒ (x + y) < 102 ⇒ x + y < 100 1 –5

⇒ [a + a–4 + a–3 + a–3 + a–3 + 1 + a8 + a10] > 11/8
Now x > 0, y > 0 ⇒ AM > GM 8
x+ y −5 −4 −3 −3 −3 8 10
∴ ≥ xy ⇒ (a + a + a + a + a + 1 + a + a ) ≥ 8

2
∴ Minimum value of the sum is 8.

INEQUALITIES Ch 4-23

{ }
45. Let x = b + c – a, y = c + a – b, z = a + b – c −1
(a + b − c) + (b + c − a ) + (c + a − b)
Since a, b, c are the sides of a non-equilateral triangle, by >
3
the triangle inequality a + b > c, b + c > a, c + a > b
[ AM of the mth powers of n positive quantities is greater
⇒ a + b – c > 0, b + c – a > 0, c + a – b > 0
than the mth power of their AM if m < 0 or m > 1]
⇒ z > 0, x > 0, y > 0
−1
Also, x, y, z are distinct. 1 1 1 a + b + c

∴ + + > 3×  
∴ AM > GM a+b−c b+c−a c+a −b  3
x+ y 1 1 1 3
c= > xy ⇒ + + > 3×
2 a+b−c b+c−a c+a −b a+b+c
x+ z 1 1 1 9
b= > xz ⇒ + + >
2 a+b−c b+c−a c+a −b a+b+c
y+z
a= > yz 1 1 b+c−a+a+b−c
2 Also, + =
a + b − c b + c − a {b + (a − c)}{b − (a − c)}
∴ abc > xy . xz . yz
2b 2b 2
⇒ abc > xyz ⇒ abc > (b + c – a) (c + a – b) (a + b – c) = 2 2
> 2
=
b − (a − c) b b
⇒ (b + c – a) (c + a – b) (a + b – c)
– abc < 0, i.e., negative. 1 1
 b2 – (a – c)2 < b2 ⇒
>
46. Using weighted AM – GM inequality, i.e., b 2 − (a − c) 2 b2
1
m a + m2 a2 + ..... + mn an 1 1 2
1 1
m m m m + m +....+ mn
> (a1 1 .a2 2 ....an n ) 1 2 ,
∴ + > …(i)
m1 + m2 + ..... + mn a+b−c b+c−a b
we have 1 1 2
Similarly, + > …(ii)
axb − c + bx c − a + cx a − b
1 b+c−a c+a−b c
⇒ > ( ( xb −c ) a .( x c − a )b .( x a −b )c ) a + b + c 1 1 2
a+b+c    + > …(iii)
1 a+b−c c+a −b a
axb − c + bx c − a + cx a − b

⇒ > {( x ab − ac .x cb − ab .x ac − bc )}a + b + c Adding (i), (ii) and (iii)
a+b+c
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
axb − c + bx c − a + cx a − b
⇒ + + > + +

⇒ > ( x ab − ac + cb − ab + ac − bc ) a + b + c a+b−c b+c−a c+a −b a b c
a+b+c
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0
⇒ + + > + +
         = ( x ) a + b + c = x = 1 a+b−c b+c−a c+a −b a b c
b −c c −a a −b Hence (a) and (b) are both correct option.
∴  ax + bx + cx > a + b + c.
47. The AM of mth powers of n positive numbers is greater 49. AM of mth powers > mth of AM, when m < 0 or m > 1
than the mth power of their AM if m < 0 or m > 1. So for (a1 ) −1 + (a2 ) −1 + (a3 ) −1 + ..... + (an ) −1
m = – 1,

n
−1
a −1 + b −1 + c −1  a + b + c  −1
>   a + a + a3 + .... + an 
3  3  >  1 2 
n
−1
1  1 1 1  p 

⇒  + +  >  (Given: a + b + c ≡ p) 1 1 1 1 n
3  a b c  3 
⇒  + + .... +  >
n  a1 a2 an  a1 + a2 + .... + an
 1 1 1 9
⇒  + +  > .
1 1 1 n2
a b c p ⇒  + + .... +  >

48. Since a, b, c are the sides of a non-equilateral triangle,  a1 a2 an  a1 + a2 + .... + an
a > 0, b > 0, c > 0. Also by triangle inequality. 1 1 1

⇒ + + .... + > n 2 [ a1 + a2 + .... + an = 1] .
a+b>c⇒a+b–c>0 a1 a2 an
b+c>a⇒b+c–a>0
50. A, B, C being the angles of an acute angled triangle,
c+a>b⇒c+a–b>0
A+B+C=p
(a + b − c) −1 + (b + c − a ) −1 + (c + a − b) −1  A, B, C are acute angles, tan A > 0, tan B > 0, tan C > 0


3 A B C π
Also,  A + B + C = p  ⇒  + + =
2 2 2 2
Ch 4-24 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

 A B  π C C A B C 1
∴ cot  +  = cot  −  = tan cot + cot + cot
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  A B C 3
≥  cot .cot .cot 
A B 3  2 2 2
cot cot − 1
2 2 1  A B C
3
 A B C
⇒ = ⇒  cot + cot + cot  > 27
 cot .cot .cot 
A B C 2 2 2 2 2 2
cot + cot cot
2 2 2 3
 A B C  A B C
A B C A B C ⇒  cot .cot .cot  > 27  cot cot cot 

⇒ cot cot cot = cot + cot + cot …(i) 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
 cot A cot B − 1 (From (i))
  cot ( A + B) =  A B C
2
 cot A + cot B  ⇒  cot .cot .cot  ≥ 27

2 2 2
A B C
Also as cot > 0 , cot > 0, cot > 0 A B C
2 2 2 ⇒ cot
.cot .cot ≥ 3 3.
Applying AM – GM inequality, we have 2 2 2

SELF ASSESSMENT SHEET


1. The number of positive integral values of m satisfying the (b) All real numbers
inequalities 8m + 35 > 75 and 5m + 18 < 53 is (c) (– ∞, + ∞)
(a) 4 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 2 (d) None of these
2. Given a > 0, b > 0, a > b and c ≠ 0, the inequality which is 7. The set of values of x for which the inequalities x2 – 3x – 10
< 0, 10x – x2 – 16 > 0 hold simultaneously is
not always correct is
(a) (–2, 5) (b) (2, 8) (c) (–2, 8) (d) (2, 5)
a b
(a) a – c > b – c (b) 2 > 2 (EAMCET 2007)
c c 8. For three distinct positive numbers p, q and r, if p + q + r
(c) a + c > b + c (d) ac > bc = a, then
3. If x is an integer that satisfies 9 < 4x – 1 < 19, then x is an 1 1 1 18 1 1 1 9
element of which of the following sets? (a) + + > (b) + + >
p q r a p q r a
(a) {3, 4} (b) {2, 3, 4} (c) {3, 4, 5} (d) {2, 3, 4, 5} 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 6
(c) + + < (d) + + <
(NDA/NA 2008) p q r a p q r a
4x − 1 9. 1.3.5.....(2n – 1) is
4. The set of all x satisfying the inequality ≥ 1 is
3x + 1 (a) < n (b) < nn (c) > n
 1 (d) None of these
(a) [2, ∞) (b)  −∞, −   [ 2, ∞ ) 10. Let a1, a2, ..... an be positive real numbers such that a1a2a3
3
...... an = 1. Then (1 + a1) (1 + a2) ..... (1 + an) is
 −2   2
(c)  −∞,  (d)  −∞, −   [ 4, ∞ ) (a) > 2 (b) > 2n–1 (c) > 2n (d) < 2n–1
 3  3 11. If three positive real numbers, a, b, c are such that a + b
(Kerala PET 2006) (1 − a ) (1 − b) (1 − c)
+ c = 1, then the minimum value of is
5− x abc
5. Find the set of values of x satisfying <2
3 (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 9 (d) 8
(a) 1 < x < 11 (b) – 1 < x < 11 12. The minimum value of the expression
(c) x < 11 (d) None of these  3b + 4c   4c + a   a + 3b 
  +  +  (a, b, c are +ve) is
2
6. The solution of 4x + 4x + 1 > 0 is a   3b   4c 
1 (a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8
(a) All real numbers except −
2 (AMU 2005)

ANSWERS
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (b)
9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (c)
INEQUALITIES Ch 4-25

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. 8m + 35 > 75 and 5m + 18 < 53 7. x2 – 3x – 10 < 0

⇒ 8m > 40 ⇒ 5m < 35
⇒ (x + 2) (x – 5) < 0 ⇒ (x – (–2)) (x – 5) < 0
⇒ m > 5
⇒m<7 ⇒ x∈ (–2, 5)

∴ There is only one integral value of m, i.e., m = 6 satisfying
(If a < b, then (x – a) (x – b) < 0 ⇒ a < x < b)
the given inequalities. 10 x – x2 – 16 > 0 ⇒ x2 – 10x + 16 < 0 ⇒ (x – 2) (x – 8) < 0
2. a > b  ⇒  ac > bc when c > 0, but ⇒ x∈ (2, 8)
a > b  ⇒  ac < bc when c < 0.
(If a < 0, then (x – a) (x – b) < 0 ⇒ a < x < b)
∴ ac > bc is not always correct.
∴ x∈ (–2, 5) ∩ (2, 8)
3. Given, 9 < 4x – 1 < 19 ⇒ x∈ (2, 5).


⇒ 9 < 4x – 1 and 4x – 1 < 19 1 1 1
8. p > 0 ⇒ > 0; q > 0 ⇒ > 0; r > 0 ⇒ > 0
⇒ 9 + 1 < 4x and 4x < 19 + 1 p q r
5 For distinct positive numbers, AM > GM
⇒ x > and x < 5
2 p+q+r
1 1

5
∴ > ( pqr ) 3 ⇒ ( p + q + r ) > 3( pqr ) 3 …(i)
∴ < x≤5 3 1
2 1  1 1 1  1 1 1 3
 x ∈ Z ∴ x = {3, 4, 5}. Also,  + +  >  . . 
3 p q r  p q r
4x − 1 4x − 1
4. ≥1 ⇒ −1 ≥ 0 1
3x + 1 3x + 1  1 1 1  1 1 1 3
4 x − 1 − 3x − 1 x−2 1 ⇒  + +  > 3  . .  …(ii)

⇒ ≥0 ⇒ ≥0 ⇒ x≠−  p q r  p q r
3x + 1 3x + 1 3
From (i) × (ii) 1
1 1
Critical points are x = − , 2 . Place the points on the number  1 1 1  1 3
⇒ (p + q + r)  + +  > 9( pqr ) 3 × 

3  p q r  pqr 
line.
1
+ve –ve +ve  1 1 1  1 1 1 9
–∞ ∞ ⇒ a  + +  > 9(1) 3 ⇒   + +  > .

1 2  p q r  p q r a

3
9. Here AM > GM, as all are distinct positive numbers.
1 x−2 1
• When x < − ,
>0
3 3x + 1  1 + 3 + 5 + .... + (2n − 1) n

 > (1.3.5......(2n − 1)
n 
x−2
• When x > 2, 
≥0
3x + 1 n
[1 + 2n − 1] 1
1 x−2
⇒ 2 > (1.3.5....(2 n − 1)) n
• When − < x ≤ 2, is –ve. n
3 3x + 1
1


 1
∴ x∈  −∞, −  U [ 2, ∞ ) . ⇒ (1.3.5....(2n − 1) n < n

 3
⇒ 1.3.5....(2n – 1) < nn.

5− x
5. < 2 ⇒ |5 – x| < 6  1 + a1 
3 10.   ≥ a1 ⇒ (1 + a1 ) ≥ 2 a1
2 
⇒ – 6 < 5 – x < 6 ⇒ –11 < – x < 1 ⇒ 11 > x > – 11

 1 + a2 
( a < b < c ⇒ ma > mb > mc, when m is –ve. Here m = –1)
  ≥ a2 ⇒ (1 + a2 ) ≥ 2 a2
2 
⇒ –1 < x < 11.

6. 4x2 + 4x + 1 > 0 ⇒ (2x + 1)2 > 0  1 + an 

  ≥ an ⇒ (1 + an ) ≥ 2 an
⇒ (2x + 1) < 0 or (2x + 1) > 0 2 
1 1 ∴ (1 + a1) (1 + a2) ...... (1 + an)

⇒ x > − or x < −
2 2 ≥ 2 a1 × 2 a2 × ..... × 2 an
1 n
∴ The inequality holds for all real numbers except x = – .
⇒ (1 + a1) (1 + a2) .... (1 + an) > 2 (a1.a2 ....an )

2
n n
  = 2 . 1=2 .
Ch 4-26 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

11. a + b + c = 1 ⇒ b + c = 1 – a 3b + 4c 4c + a a + 3b
a+c=1–b 12. + +
a 3b 4c
a+b=1–c
3b 4c 4c a a 3b
Now, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 ⇒ AM > GM = + + + + +
a a 3b 3b 4c 4c
b+c

⇒ ≥ bc ⇒ (1 − a ) ≥ 2 bc  3b a   4c a   4c 3b 
2 =  +  +  +  +  + 
a 3b a 4c 3b 4c
a+c
≥ ac ⇒ (1 − b) ≥ 2 ac  a > 0, b > 0, c > 0

2
a+b a 3b 4c a 4c 3b
≥ ab ⇒ (1 − c) ≥ 2 ab
∴ , , , , , are all greater than zero.
3b a a 4c 3b 4c
2
 1
∴ (1 – a) (1 – b) (1 – c) > 8 bc . ac . ab
Now ∀ a > 0,  a +  ≥ 2
a
⇒ (1 – a) (1 – b) (1 – c) > 8 abc

 3b a   4c a   4c 3b 
(1 − a ) (1 − b) (1 − c) ∴  +  +  +  +  +  ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 = 6


⇒ ≥8 a 3b a 4c 3b 4c
abc ∴ Minimum value of the expression is 6.

∴ Minimum value is 8.

RELATIONS Ch 5-1

5 Relations

KEY FACTS
1. Cartesian product: Let A and B be two non-empty sets. Then the set of all possible ordered pairs (x, y) such
that the first component x of the ordered pairs is an element of set A, and the second component y is an element
of set B, is called the cartesian product of the sets A and B. It is denoted by A × B read as “A cross B”.
A × B = {(a, b), a ∈ A and b ∈ B}
Also, n(A × B) = n(A) × n(B) = pq if set A has p elements and set B has q elements.
Notes: 1. The cartesian product A × B is not the same as B × A.
In A × B, the set A is named first so its elements will appear as the first components of the ordered pairs.
In B × A, the set B is named first, so its elements will appear as the first components of the ordered pairs.
2. If either A or B is a null set, then we define A × B to be a null set.
If A = {a, b} and B = φ then A × B = φ
3. If either A or B is an infinite set and the other is a non-empty set, then A × B is also an infinite set.
4. If A and B are two non-empty sets having n-elements in common, then A × B and B × A have n2 elements
in common.
5. If A = B, then A × B = A × A and is denoted by A2.
Examples:
Ex. 1. If A = {a, b} and B = {1, 2, 3}, then
A × B = {(a, 1), (b, 1), (a, 2), (b, 2), (a, 3), (b, 3)}
B × A = {(1, a), (2, a), (3, a), (1, b), (2, b), (3, b)}.
Ex. 2. If A = {2, 4, 6}, then
A × A = {(2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (4, 2), (4, 4), (4, 6), (6, 2), (6, 4), (6, 6)}.
2. Relation:
If A and B are any two non-empty sets, then any subset of A × B is defined as a relation from A to B.
For example,
Suppose A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4}. Then {(2, 3), (2, 4), (1, 3)} is a relation in A × B. Many more relations
(subsets) can be selected at random from our product set A × B.
3. Domain, codomain and range of a relation:
Let R be a relation from set A to set B. Then, the set of first element of the ordered pairs in R is called the domain
and the set of second elements of the ordered pairs in R is called the range. The second set B is called the codomain
of R.
Thus for a relation R = {(a, b); a, b ∈ R },
Domain = {a : (a, b) ∈ R} and Range = {b : (a, b) ∈ R}
For example,
If A = {16, 25, 36, 49} and B = {1, 4, 5, 6} and R be the relation “is square of ” from A to B, then
Ch 5-1
Ch 5-2 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

R = {(a, b) : a = b2,
a ∈ A, b ∈ B}
∴ R = {(16, 4), (25, 5), (36, 6)}. Then,
Domain of R = {16, 25, 36}, Range of R = {4, 5, 6} and Codomain of R = {1, 4, 5, 6}.
4. Number of relations that are possible from a set A of m elements to another set B of n
elements. Remember
Number of elements in set A = m If n (A) = m
Number of elements in set B = n n (B) = n
∴ Number of elements in set (A × B) = mn Then, n (A × B) = mn
∴ Number of subsets of (A × B) = 2mn Number of relations possible
Since every subset of A × B is a relation from A to B, therefore, from A to B = 2mn
Number of relations possible from A to B = 2mn
Note: 1. If R1 and R2 are two relations from A to B, then R1 ∪ R2, R1 ∩ R2 and R1 – R2 are also relations from A to B.
2. Since φ ≤ A, i.e., null set is a subset of every set, φ is a relation from A to B. Also domain (φ) = φ and Range (φ) = φ
5. Inverse of a relation:
For any binary relation R, a second relation can be constructed by merely interchanging first and second components
in every ordered pair.
The relation thus obtained is called the inverse of the first one and designated as R–1. Thus,
R–1 = {(y, x) : (x, y) ∈ R}
For example,
1. Then inverse of the husband-wife relation is wife-husband relation.
2. Let R = {(2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 3), (4, 5)}. Then,
R–1 {(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (5, 4)}.
So (R–1)–1 = R.
6. Types of relations:
Let A be a non-empty set. Then, a relation R on A is said to be
• Reflexive if (a, a) ∈ R for each a ∈ A, i.e., if a R a for each a ∈ A.
For example, the relation “is as strong as” is reflexive since every member of a particular set will be as strong as
himself, but the relation “is the mother of ” is not reflexive as a person cannot be his/her own mother.
• Symmetric if (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R for all a, b ∈ A, i.e., if a R b ⇒ b R a for all a, b ∈ A.
For example, the relation “weighs the same as” is symmetric as if x weighs same as y. Then y weighs same as x,
but the relation “is less than” is not symmetric as: if x is less than y, then y is not less than x.
• Transitive if (a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R for all a, b, c ∈ A, i.e., if a R b and b R c then a R c.
For example, the relation "equals to" is a transitive relation for if x = y and y = z, then x = z, but the relation
“is perpendicular to” on a set of coplanar lines is not transitive for if line a is perpendicular to line b and line b
is perpendicular to line c, then line a is not perpendicular to line c.

• Equivalence: A relation R on a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if it is reflexive, symmetric and
transitive.
Reflexive (aRa for each a ∈ A)
Equivalence Relation Symmetric (aRb ⇒ bRa for all a, b ∈ A)
Transitive (aRb, bRc ⇒ aRc for all a, b, c ∈ A)
For example,
(i) “Equality” is an equivalence relation because
•  x = x •  x = y ⇒ y = x •  x = y, y = z ⇒ x = z.
RELATIONS Ch 5-3
(ii) “Is parallel to” on a set A of coplanar lines is an equivalence relation since: for all the lines a, b, c ∈ A.
•  a || a •  a || b ⇒ b || a •  a || b, b || c ⇒ a || c.

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex. 1. Let R be a relation from A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} to B = {1, 3, 5} which is defined as “x is less than y”. Write
R as a set of ordered pairs. Also state the domain, range and codomain of R.
Sol. R = {a, b : a < b, a ∈ A, b ∈ B}, where A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and B = {1, 3, 5}.
∴ R = {(1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5)}
Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}
Range of R = {3, 5}
Codomain of R = {1, 3, 5}.
Ex. 2. Let A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {x, y, z}. Which of the following are relations from A to B ?
(i) {(a, y), (a, z), (c, x), (d, y)} (ii) {(a, x), (b, y), (c, x), (a, d)}
(iii) {(a, x), (y, d), (x, c)} (iv) {(y, a), (z, a), (z, c), (y, d)}
(v) {(a, x), (x, a), (b, y), (y, b)} (vi) {(a, x), (b, y), (c, z), z}
(vii) {a, b, x, y, z}
Sol. (i) Yes.
(ii) No, because in the ordered pair (a, d), a ∈ A and d ∉ B.
(iii) No, because in (y, d), y ∈ B.
(iv) No. because here the first entries in all the ordered pairs are in the set B.
(v) No.
(vi) No, because the element z is not an ordered pair.
(vii) No, because the elements of the set are not ordered pairs.
Ex. 3. Determine the domain and range of the following relations:
(i) {(–3, 1), (–1, 1), (1, 0), (3, 0)}
(ii) {(x, y): x is a multiple of 3 and y is a multiple of 5}
(iii) {(x, x2): x is a prime number less than 15}
Sol. (i) Domain = {–3, –1, 1, 3}, Range = {0, 1}
(ii) Domain = {x : x is a multiple of 3} = {3n : n ∈ Z}
Range  = {y : y is a multiple of 5} = {5n : n ∈ Z}
(iii) Relation = {(x, x2) : x is a prime number less than 15}
= {(2, 4), (3, 9), (5, 25), (7, 49), (11, 121), (13, 169)}
Domain = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13}, Range = {4, 9, 25, 49, 121, 169}
Ex. 4. Let N be the set of natural numbers. Describe the following relation in words giving its domain and the
range.    {(1, 1), (16, 2), (81, 3), (216, 4)}
Sol. The given relation stated in words is
R = {(x, y) : x is the fourth power of y; x ∈ N, y ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4}}.

Ex. 5. I is the set of integers. Describe the following relations in words, giving its domain and range.
      {(0, 0), (1, –1), (2, – 2), (3, –3)...}
Sol. R = {(0, 0), (1, – 1), (2, – 2), (3, – 3) ...} = {(x, y) : y = – x, x ∈ W}

Domain = {0, 1, 2, 3, ....} = W, Range = {...,– 3, – 2, – 1, 0}
Ch 5-4 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

Ex. 6. Choose the correct option.


The relation R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3)} on a set A = {1, 2, 3} is
(a) reflexive, transitive but not symmetric
(b) reflexive, symmetric but not transitive
(c) symmetric, transitive but not reflexive
(d) reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive. (NDA/NA 2010)
Sol. R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3)} on set A = {1, 2, 3}.
(i) Since (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3) ∈ R ⇒ R is reflexive.
(ii) (1, 2) ∈ R but (2, 1) ∉ R ⇒ R is not symmetric.
(iii) (1, 2) ∈ R, (2, 3) ∈ R and (1, 3) ∈R ⇒ R is transitive.

∴ Option (a) is the right answer.
Ex. 7. Let X be the set of all graduates in India. Elements x and y in X are said to be related, if they are graduates
of the same university. Is this given relation an equivalence relation? (NDA/NA 2010)
Sol. R = {(x, y)}: x and y are graduates of same university, x, y ∈ {All graduates of India}.
R is reflexive as (x, x) ∈ R, since x and x are graduates from the same university.
R is symmetric as (x, y) ∈ R ⇒ x and y are graduates from the same university.
⇒ y and x are graduates from the same university
⇒ (y, x) ∈ R.
R is transitive as (x, y) ∈ R and (y, z) ∈ R
⇒ x and y are graduates from the same university and y and z are graduates from the same university
⇒ x and z are graduates from the same university
⇒ (x, z) ∈ R.
R being reflexive, symmetric and transitive is an equivalence relation.

Ex. 8. Show that the relation R in the set A of all the books in a library of a school given by R = {(x, y): x and y
have the same number of pages} is an equivalence relation.
Sol. Given: A = {All books in a library of a school}
R = {(x, y): x and y have the same number of pages}
Reflexivity: (x, x) ∈ R ⇒ R is reflexive on A
Symmetric: Since books x and y have the same number of pages, so (x, y) ∈ R.
Since books y and x have the same number of pages, so (y, x) ∈ R.
⇒ R is symmetric on A.
Transitivity: Books x, y, z have the same number of pages ⇒ (x, y) ∈ R and (y, z) ∈ R
⇒ (x, z) ∈ R ⇒ R is transitive on A.
Hence, R is an equivalence relation.
Ex. 9. Show that the relation ‘≅’ congruence on the set of all triangles in Euclidean plane geometry is an
equivalence relation.
Sol. Reflexive : A ≅ A True
Symmetric : if A ≅ B then B ≅ A True
Transitive : if A ≅ B and B ≅ C,
then A ≅ C True
Therefore, the relation ‘≅’ is an equivalence relation.
RELATIONS Ch 5-5

Ex. 10. Show that the relation ‘⊂’ with respect to sets is not an equivalence relation.
Sol. Reflexive: If A is a set, then A ⊂ A. False
Symmetric: If A and B are sets and A ⊂ B, then B ⊂ A.
False
Transitive: If A, B and C are sets and if A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C then A ⊂ C True
Hence ‘⊂’ is not an equivalence relation since it possesses only the transitive property.
Ex. 11. Show that the relation “≥” on the set of real numbers is not an equivalence relation.
Sol. Reflexive : a ≥ a True since a = a
Symmetric : If a ≥ b, then b ≥ a. This statement is true for the case a = b, but false in the other instances.
Transitive : If a ≥ b, and b ≥ c, then a ≥ c. True
The relation “≥” is not an equivalence relation since it lacks the property of symmetry.
Ex. 12. Write ‘yes’ if each of the following relations is an equivalence relation. If it is not, then write whether it
is reflexive or symmetric or transitive.
(i) is parallel to (ii) is perp. to (iii) is greater than
(iv) is a factor of (v) is a multiple of
Sol. (i) ‘is parallel to’ is reflexive, because any line is parallel to itself.
Symmetric, because if line l is parallel to line m, then line m is parallel to line l.
Transitive, because if l || m and m || n then l || n.
Therefore,’is parallel to’ is an equivalence relation.
(ii) No, because this relation is only symmetric.
(iii) No, because this relation is only transitive. It is neither reflexive nor symmetric.
(iv) No, because this relation is only reflexive and transitive. It is not symmetric. If x is a factor of y, and x ≠ y,
y cannot be a factor of x.
(v) No, because the relation is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
Ex. 13. If R is a relation in N × N defined by (a, b) R (c, d) if and only if ad = bc, show that R is an equivalence
relation.
Sol. (i) R is reflexive. For all (a, b) ∈ N × N we have (a, b) R (a, b) because
ab = ba
⇒ R is reflexive.
(ii) R is symmetric. Suppose (a, b) R (c, d)
Commutivity of
Then (a, b) R (c, d) ⇒ ad = bc ⇒ cb = da multiplication in N
⇒ (c, d) R (a, b) ⇒ R is symmetric.
(iii) R is transitive. Suppose (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f). Then
ad = bc and cf = de
⇒ (ad) (cf) = (bc) (de)
⇒ af = be ⇒ (a, b) R (e, f) ⇒ R is transitive.
Since R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive, therefore, R is an equivalence relation on N × N.
Ex. 14. Let A = {real numbers}
Let R = {(a, b) : a, b ∈A and a – b < 5}
Is R an equivalence relation? Justify your answer.
Sol. (i) Reflexive: For all a ∈ A, a – a = 0 < 5 ⇒ aRa.
∴ R is reflexive.
Ch 5-6 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

(ii) Symmetric: For example let a = 2, b = 8, then a – b = 2 – 8 = – 6 < 5 ⇒ a = aRb


But, 6 – a = 8 – 2 = 6 < / 5 ⇒ b R a.
Hence R is not symmetric.
(iii) Transitive: If a = 4, b = 0, c = –4, then a – b = 4 – 0 = 4 < 5 ⇒ aRb
and b – c = 0 – (–4) = 4 < 5 ⇒ bRc
But a – c = 4 – (–4) = 8 < 5 ⇒ a R c.
∴ R is not transitive.

⇒ R is not an equivalence relation.

Ex. 15. If R = {a, b : a – b is even and a, b ∈ Z}, then R is an equivalence relation.
Sol. Reflexive: For all a ∈ Z, a – a = 0, an even integer ⇒ aRa ⇒ R is reflexive
Symmetric. For all a, b ∈ Z, if a – b is an even integer, then b – a = –(a – b) is an even integer.
i.e., aRb ⇒ bRa ⇒ R is symmetric.
Transitive. If a – b is an even integer and b – c is an even integer,

then (a – b) + (b – c) is an even integer ⇒ a – c is an even integer.
i.e., aRb and bRc ⇒ aRc.
Hence R is transitive.
⇒ R is an equivalence relation.

Ex. 16. Let Z be the set of all integers and R be the relation on Z defined as R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ Z) and (a – b) is
divisible by 5.
Prove that R is an equivalence relation.
Sol. Reflexive: Since 5 divides a – a for all a ∈ Z, therefore, R is reflexive.
Symmetric: (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ 5 divides a – b
⇒ 5 divides b – a ⇒ b – a ∈ R
∴ R is symmetric.
Transitive: (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R
⇒ a – b and b – c are both divisible by 5
⇒ a – b + b – c is divisible by 5
⇒ (a – c) is divisible by 5
⇒ (a, c) ∈ R
∴ R is transitive.
Since R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive, therefore, R is an equivalence relation.
Ex. 17. Show that the relation S in the set R of real numbers, defined as S = {(a, b) : a, b ∈ R and a ≤ b3} is neither
reflexive, nor symmetric, nor transitive.
Sol. (i) Since a ≤ a3 is not true for all a ∈ R
1
For example, if a = , then a < a3, i.e., a ≤ a3 is not true.
4
So, R is not reflexive.
(ii) (a, b) ∈ R need not imply that (b, a) ∈ R
For example, (1, 2) ∈R but (2, 1) ∈ R because 1 ≤ 23 but 2 ≤ 13.
∴ R is not symmetric.

RELATIONS Ch 5-7
(iii) (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R need not imply that (a, c) ∈ R.
For example, (80, 5) ∈ R and (5, 2) ∈ R but (80, 2) ∈ R
Since, 80 < 53, 5 < 23 but 80 <
/ 23.
∴ R is not transitive.
Ex. 18. Show that the relation S in the set A = {x ∈ z : 0 ≤ x ≤ 12} given by S = {(a, b) : a, b ∈ z, |a – b| is divisible
by 4} is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all elements related to 1.
Sol. Reflexive: For all a ∈ A, |a – b| = 0 is divisible by 4 ⇒ (a, a) ∈ S.

∴ S is reflexive.
Symmetric: Let a, b ∈ A. Then (a, b) ∈ S ⇒ |a – b| is divisible by 4
⇒ |b – a| is divisible by 4 ⇒ (b, a) ∈ S
∴ S is symmetric.
Transitive: Let a, b, c ∈ A, (a, b) ∈ S and (b, c) ∈ S
⇒ |a – b| is divisible by 4 and |b – c| is divisible by 4.
⇒ (a – b) and (b – c) are divisible by 4.
⇒ (a – b) + (b – c) = (a – c) is divisible by 4.
⇒ |a – c| is divisible by 4 ⇒ (a, c) ∈ S.
∴ S is transitive.
Since S is reflexive, symmetric and transitive, therefore, S is an equivalence relation.
Ex. 19. Check whether the relation R defined in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as R = {(a, b): b = a + 1} is reflexive,
symmetric or transitive.
Sol. Reflexive:
R = {(a, b) : b = a +1}
= {(a, a + l) : a, a + 1∈{l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}}
= {(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6)}
⇒ R is not reflexive since (a, a) ∉R for all a.
Symmetric: R is not symmetric as (a, b) ∈ R but (b, a)∉ R

Transitive: R is not transitive as (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R but (a, c) ∉ R
e.g., (1, 2) ∈ R (2, 3) ∈ R but (1, 3) ∉R

PRACTICE SHEET
1. Let A = {2, 3, 4, 6} and let R be a relation on A defined 3. Given A = {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2}, which of the following relations
as R = {(a, b) ; a ∈ A, b ∈ A, a divides B} Then which of on A have both domain and range equal to A?
following is not R? (i) R : “is equal to”
(a) R = {(2, 2)}, (2, 4), (3, 6), (3, 6) (ii) R : “is the multiplicative inverse of ”
(b) R = {(2, 2), (3, 3), (2, 4), (4, 6)} (iii) R : “is the additive inverse of ”
(c) R = {(2, 4), (3, 3), (3, 6), (4, 4)} (iv) R : “is less than”
(d) R = {(2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (2, 4), (2, 6), (3, 6), (6, 6)} (a) Only (i) (b) Only (iv)
2. Which of the following are relations from B to A where (c) All of the above (d) (i) and (iii)
A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {x, y, z}? 4. The relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 2),
(i) {(z, b), (y, c), (x, a)} (ii) {(x, b), (y, a)} (2, 1)} is:
(iii) {(b, y), (z, a), (x, c)} (iv) {(x, a), (x, b), (y, c), (z, d)} (a) Reflexive only
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) Only (iv) (b) Reflexive and symmetric only
(c) (i), (ii) and (iv) (d) All of the above (c) Symmetric only
(d) Transitive only
Ch 5-8 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

5. If n(A) = 5 and n(B) = 7, then the number of relations on (b) Reflexive and Transitive only
A × B is (c) Symmetric and Transitive only
(a) 225 (b) 235 (c) 212 (d) 35 (d) An equivalence relation
(Kerala PET 2012) 15. Which of the following relations is only symmetric?
6. Let R = {(3, 3), (6, 6), (9, 9), (12, 12), (6, 12), (3, 12), (a) “less than equal to” on a set of Real numbers
(3, 6)} be a relation on set A = {3, 6, 9, 12}. The relation is (b) “is a multiple of ” on the set of positive integers
(a) Reflexive only (c) “is perpendicular to” on a set of a coplanar lines
(b) Reflexive and symmetric only (d) “is the father of ” on a set of family members.
(c) Reflexive and transitive only 16. If R is a relation defined on the set of natural numbers N
(d) An equivalence relation. (AIEEE 2005) such that (a, b) R (c, d) if and only if a + d = b + c, then R
7. Which of the following is an equivalence relation defined is
on set A = {1, 2, 3} (a) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive
(a) {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3)} (b) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric
(b) {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2)} (c) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive
(c) {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 1), (1, 3), (3, 3)} (d) An equivalence relation
(d) {(1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 3), (3, 1)} 17. Let I be the set of integers and R be a relation on I defined
8. Given the relation R = {(1, 2), (2, 3)} on the set by R = {(x, y) : (x – y) is divisible by 11, x, y ∈ I}. Then R
A = {1, 2, 3}, the minimum number of ordered pairs which is
can be added to R to make it an equivalence relation is (a) An equivalence relation (b) Symmetric only
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 7 (c) Reflexive only (d) Transitive only
(AMU 2008) 18. Let W denote the words in the English dictionary. Let the
relation R be defined by R = {(x, y) ∈ W × W : the words
9. Let Z be the set of integers. Then the relation R = {(a, b) :
x and y have at least one letter in common}. Then R is
a, b ∈ Z and (a + b) is even} defined on Z is
(a) Reflexive and transitive, not symmetric
(a) Only symmetric
(b) Reflexive and symmetric and not transitive
(b) Symmetric and transitive only
(c) Symmetric and transitive, not reflexive
(c) An equivalence relation
(d) Reflexive, symmetric and transitive (AIEEE 2006)
(d) None of the above
19. On a set N of all natural numbers is defined the relation R
10. If R be a relation defined as a R b ⇔ | a | < b, then R is by a R b iff the GCD of a and b is 2, then R is
(a) Reflexive only (a) Reflexive and Transitive
(b) Symmetric only (b) Symmetric and Transitive
(c) Transitive only (c) Symmetric only
(d) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric (d) Not reflexive, not symmetric, not transitive
(Odisha JEE 2012) (Kerala PET 2007)
11. Let the relation R defined on the set of natural numbers N 20. Let N be the set of integers. A relation R on N is defined as
be : R = {(a, b) : b is divisible by V a, b ∈ N}. Then R is R = {(x, y) : xy > 0, x, y ∈ N}. Then, which of the following
(a) Reflexive and symmetric only is correct ?
(b) Symmetric and transitive only (a) R is symmetric but not reflexive
(c) Reflexive and transitive only (b) R is reflexive but not symmetric
(c) R is symmetric and reflexive but not transitive
(d) An equivalence relation
(d) R is an equivalence relation (NDA/NA 2007)
12. Let R be a relation defined on the set A of all triangles such
21. Let R be a relation on the set of integers given by a = 2k.b
that R = {(T1, T2) : T1 is similar to T2}. Then R is
for some integer k. Then R is
(a) Reflexive only (b) Transitive only
(a) reflexive but not symmetric
(c) Symmetric only (d) An equivalence relation.
(b) reflexive and transitive but not symmetric
13. Let R be a relation defined as a Rb if | a – b | > 0, then the (c) equivalence relation
relation is (d) symmetric and transitive but not reflexive
(a) Reflexive only (b) Symmetric only (Kerala CEE 2006)
(c) Transitive only (d) Symmetric and transitive 22. Consider the following relations R = {(x, y) | x, y are real
(VITEEE 2008) numbers and x = wy for some rational number w};
14. On the set R of all real numbers, a relation R is defined by  m p 
S =  ,  m, n, p and q are integers such that n, q ≠ 0
R = {(a, b) : 1 + ab > 0}. Then R is  n q 
(a) Reflexive and symmetric only
and qm = pn}. Then,
RELATIONS Ch 5-9
(a) R is an equivalence relation but S is not an equivalence 24. If A and B are two equivalence relations defined on a set C,
relation then
(b) Neither R nor S is an equivalence relation (a) A ∩ B is an equivalence relation
(c) S is an equivalence relation but R is not an equivalence (b) A ∩ B is not an equivalence relation
relation (c) A ∪ B is an equivalence relation
(d) R and S are both equivalence relations (d) A ∪ B is not an equivalence relation (UPSEE 2011)
(AIEEE 2010) 25. For any two real number a and b, we defined aRb if and
23. Let R be a relation on the set N, defined by {(x, y) : 2x – y only if sin2a + cos2b = 1. The relation R is
= 10} then R is
(a) reflexive but not symmetric
(a) Reflexive (b) Symmetric
(b) symmetric but not transitive
(c) Transitive (d) None of the above
(c) transitive but not reflexive
(AMU 2012)
(d) an equivalence relation
ANSWERS
1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (c)
11.
(c) 12.
(d) 13.
(d) 14.
(a) 15.
(c) 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (b) 19. (c) 20. (d)
21. (c) 22. (c) 23. (a) 24. (a) 25. (d)

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. The relation = {(2, 2), (3, 3), (2, 4), (4, 6)} is not R as the 5. n(A) = 5 and n(B) = 7
one of the ordered pairs (4, 6) does not satisfy the condition ∴ n(A × B) = 5 × 7 = 35
“a divides b” as 4 does not divide 6. Total number of relations from A to B = Total number of
2. The set of ordered pairs {(b, y), (z, a), (x, c)} does not state subsets of (A × B) = 235.
a relation from B to A as the ordered pair (b, y) has the first 6. Here A = {3, 6, 9, 12} and
element ‘b’ from set A, whereas it should be from set B. R = {(3, 3), (6, 6), (9, 9), (12, 12), (6, 12), (3, 12), (3, 6)}
3. Let us examine the domain and range of the each relation •  (3, 3), (6, 6), (9, 9), (12, 12) all belong to R
individually:
⇒ {(a, a): ∈R V a ∈A}
(i) R : “is equal to” means R = {(a, b) : a = b, a ∈ A, b ∈A}
⇒ R is reflexive
∴ R = {(–2, –2), (–1, –1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2)}
• (3, 6) ∈ R but (6, 3) ∉R. Also (6, 12) ∈ R but (12, 6) ∉R.
∴ Domain of R = {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2} and Range of So (a, b) ∈R ⇒ (b, a) ∈R
R = {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2} Hence R is not symmetric
Hence both are equal and equal to A. Now (3, 6) ∈ R, (6, 12) ∈ R and (3,12) ∈ R ⇒ (3, 12) ∈ R
(ii) R : “is the multiplicative inverse of ” means (x, y) ∈ R, (y, z) ∈ R ⇒ (x, z) ∈ R
R = {(a, b): ab = 1, a ∈ A, b ∈ A} Hence R is transitive.
∴ R = {(–1, –1), (1, 1)} 7. Option (c) satisfies all the conditions of an equivalence
Here domain = {–1, –1}, range = {–1, 1}. relation.
(iii) R : “is the additive inverse of ”means • (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3) ∈ R
R = {(a, b) : a = –b, a ∈ A, b ∈ A} ⇒ (a, a) ∈ R V a ∈ A ⇒ R is reflexive
∴ R = {(–2, 2), (–1, 1), (0, 0), (1, –1), (2, –2)} • (3, 1) ∈ R and (1, 3) ∈ R
Hence domain = {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2} and ⇒ (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R V a, b ∈ A ⇒ symmetric
range = {2, 1, 0, –1, –2} • (1, 3) ∈ R, (3, 1) ∈ R and (1, 1) ∈ R ⇒ (a, b) ∈ R, (b, c)
Both are equal and equal to A. ∈ R ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R V a, b, c ∈ A ⇒ R is transitive.
(iv) R : “is less than ” means R = {(a, b) : a < b, a ∈ A, b ∈ A} 8. A = {1, 2, 3}.
∴ R = {(–2, –1), (–2, 0), (–2, 1), (–2, 2), (–1, 0), (–1, 1), R = {(1, 2), (2, 3)}
(–1, 2), (0, 1), (0, 2), (1, 2)} To make R an equivalence relation, it should be:
Here domain = {–2, –1, 0, 1} and range = {–1, 0, 1, 2}. (i) Reflexive: So three more ordered pairs (1, 1), (2, 2),
∴ Relations given in (i) and (iii) satisfy the given condition. (3, 3) should be added to R to make it reflexive.
4. As (1, 1), (2, 2) ∉ R so R is not reflexive. A relation a R b (ii) Symmetric : As R contains (1, 2) and (2, 3) so two more
is said to symmetric if (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R. ordered pairs (2, 1) and (3, 2) should be added to make it
Here (1, 2) ∈ R and (2, 1) ∈ R so it is symmetric. symmetric.
Also, as (1, 2) ∈ R, but (2, 3), (1, 3) ∉ R, so R is not transitive. (iii) Transitive: (1, 2) ∈ R, (2, 3) ∈ R. So to make R
Ch 5-10 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

transitive (1, 3) should be added to R. Also to maintain the V real numbers a, b, c.


symmetric property (3, 1) should then be added to R. ∴ | a – b | > 0 and | b – c | > 0 ⇒ | a – c | > 0
So, R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3), (2, 1), (3, 2), ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R ⇒ R is transitive.
(1, 3), (3, 1)} is an equivalence relation. So minimum
14. (a, a) ∈ R ⇒ 1 + a . a = 1 + a2 > 0 V real numbers a
7 ordered pairs are to be added.
⇒ R is reflexive
9. R is reflexive as (a, a) ∈ R. a + a = 2a is even.
(a, b) ∈ R ⇒ 1 + ab > 0 ⇒ 1 + ba > 0 ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R
R is symmetric as (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R as a + b = b + a
= even (Commutative law) ⇒ R is symmetric
R is transitive as (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R  1 1 
We observe that 1,  ∈ R and  , − 1 ∈ R
⇒ (a + b) is even and (b + c) is even 2 2
but (1, – 1) ∉ R as 1 + 1 × (–1) = 0 >/ 0
⇒ (a + b) + (b + c) is even
⇒ R is not transitive.
⇒ (a + 2b + c) is even ⇒ (a + c) is even as (2b is even)
15. (a) Let a, b, c ∈ A where A is a set of real numbers.
⇒ (a, c) ∈ R
Then R = {(a, b) : a ≤ b, a, b ∈ A} is :
∴ R is an equivalence relation on the set of integers.
Reflexive: a ≤ a ⇒ (a, a) ∈ R (Yes)
10. • There exists a real number –2, such that | –2 | is not less
Symmetric: a ≤ b ⇒ (a, b) ∈ R, but
than –2 as 2 ≤/ − 2.
Thus for all negative, real numbers x, | x | ≤/ x. a ≤ b ⇒ a < b or a = b
Hence (x, x) ∉ R V real numbers. ⇒ b = a but b </ a so (b, a) ∉ R (No)
Hence R is not reflexive.
• R is not symmetric since there exist real numbers –2 and 3
( a, b) ∈ R ⇒ a ≤ b
}
Transitive: (b, c) ∈ R ⇒ b ≤ c ⇒ a ≤ c ⇒ (a, c) R (Yes)

such that | –2 | ≤ 3 but | 3 | ≤/ − 2, (b) Let A = set of positive integers. Then,
i.e., (–2, 3) ∈ R ⇒ (3, –2) ∈ R. R = {(a, b) : a is a multiple of b, a, b ∈ R}
• R is transitive since V real numbers a, b, c
Reflexive: Every positive integer is a multiple itself, so,
(a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R ⇒ | a | ≤ b and | b | ≤ c
⇒ | a | ≤ b ≤ | b | ≤ c ( For all x, | x | ≤ x) (a, a) ∈ R (Yes)
⇒ | a | ≤ c Symmetric: (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ a is a multiple of b ⇒ b is a
⇒ (a, c) ∈ R multiple of a ⇒ (b, a) ∉ R (No)
11. R is reflexive as every natural number is divisible by itself. Transitive : (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ a is a multiple of b
So (a, a) ∈ R. ⇒ a = mb V m ∈ N.
R is not symmetric as (a, b) ∈ R does not imply (b, a) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R ⇒b is a multiple of c ⇒ b = nc V n ∈ N
i.e., if b is divisible by a, then a is not divisible by b. ∴ a = m × nc ⇒ a = mnc V m, n ∈ N
For example (4, 8) ∈ R as 8 is divisible by 4, but (8, 4) ∉ R ⇒ a is a multiple of c ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R.
as 4 is not divisible by 8. (c) • This relation is not reflexive as a line cannot be
R is transitive as (a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R perpendicular to itself.
(a, b) ∈ R ⇒ b is divisible by a ⇒ b = ma where m ∈ N • If l1 ⊥ l2 then l2 ⊥ l1, therefore given relation is
(b, c) ∈ R ⇒ c is divisible by b ⇒ c = nb  n ∈ N symmetric
c = n × ma ⇒ c = nma • l1 ⊥ l2 and l2 ⊥ l3 ⇒ l1 ⊥ l3, so given relation is not
c is divisible by a ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R. transitive.
12. Every triangle is similar to itself, so (T1, T1) ∈ R ⇒ R is (d) • A person cannot be his own father, so relation is not
reflexive. reflexive.
(T1, T2) ∈ R ⇒ T1 ~ T2 ⇒T2 ~ T1, ⇒ (T2, T1) ∈ R ⇒ R is • If a is father of b, then b cannot be father of a, so
symmetric relation is not symmetric.
(T , T ) ∈ R ⇒ T1 ~ T2  • If a is father of b, b is father of c, then a cannot be
1 2 ⇒ T1 ~ T3 ⇒ (T1, T3) ∈ R ⇒ R is
(T2 , T3 ) ∈ R ⇒ T2 ~ T3  father of c, so relation is not transitive.
∴ From the given options (c) is only symmetric.
transitive.
∴ R is an equivalence relation. 16. We can check the given properties as follows:
13. | a – a | = | 0 | = 0 so (a, a) ∉R ⇒ R is not reflexive Reflexive: Let (a, b)∈N × N. Then (a, b) ∈N
⇒ a + b = b + a (Communtative law of Addition)
(a, b) ∈ R ⇒ | a – b | > 0 ⇒ | b – a | > 0 ⇒ (b, a) ∈R
⇒ (a, b) R (b, a)
(| a – b | = | b – a |)
⇒ (a, b) R (a, b)
⇒ R is symmetric
⇒ R is reflexive.
(a, b) ∈ R ⇒ | a – b | > 0 and (b, c) ∈ R ⇒ | b – c | > 0
Symmetric: Let (a, b), (c, d) ∈ N × N such that
RELATIONS Ch 5-11
(a, b) R (c, d). Then 19. • Let a ∈N. Then
(a, b) R (c, d) ⇒ a + d = b + c ⇒ b + c = a + d (a, a) ∉R as the GCD of ‘a’ and ‘a’ is ‘a’ not 2.
⇒ c + b = a + d (By commutativity of addition on N) R is not reflexive
⇒ (c, d) R (a, b) • Let a, b ∈N. Then,
∴ R is symmetric. (a, b) ∉R ⇒ GCD of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is 2
Transitive : Let (a, b), (c, d), (e, f) ∈ N × N such that ⇒ GCD of ‘b’ and ‘a’ is 2
(a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f). Then, ⇒ (b, a) ∈R
}
( a , b ) R (c, d ) ⇒ a + d = b + c
(c, d ) R (e, f ) ⇒ c + f = d + e
∴ R is symmetric
• Let a, b, c ∈N. Then,
⇒ (a + d ) + (c + f ) = (b + c) + (d + e) (a, b) ∈R and (b, c) ∈ R

⇒ a + c = b + e ⇒ (a, b) R (e, f )
⇒ GCD of a and b is 2 and GCD of b and c is 2
∴ (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f) ⇒ (a, b) R (e, f) on ⇒
/ GCD of a and c is 2
N × N so R is transitive.
R is not transitive
Hence R is an equivalence relation on N × N.
For example, let a = 4, b = 10, c = 12
17. • For all a ∈I, a – a = 0, which is divisible by 11.
Thus, (a, a) ∈R for all a ∈N ⇒ R is reflexive GCD of (4, 10) = 2
• Let (a, b) ∈R (a – b) is divisible by 11 GCD of (10, 12) = 2
⇒ – (a – b) is divisible by 11 But GCD of (4, 12) = 4.
⇒ (b – a) is divisible by 11 20. R = {(x, y) : xy > 0 x, y ∈N}
⇒ (b, a) ∈R • x, x ∈N ⇒ x2 > 0 ⇒ R is reflexive
⇒ R is symmetric. • x, y ∈N and (x, y) ∈R ⇒ xy > 0
• Let (x, y) ∈R and (y, z) ∈R ⇒ yx > 0 (y, x) ∈R
⇒ (x – y) is divisible by 11 and (y – z) is divisible by 11 ⇒ R is symmetric
⇒ (x – y) + (y – z) is divisible by 11 • x, y, z ∈N and (x, y) ∈R, (y, z) ∈R
⇒ (x – z) is divisible by 11 ⇒ xy > 0 and yz > 0
⇒ (x, z) ∈R ⇒ xz > 0 ⇒ (x, z) ∈R
⇒ R is transitive ⇒ R is transitive.
∴ R is an equivalence relation. ∴ R is an equivalence relation.
18. • Let x ∈W. 21. Given, a R b = a = 2k.b for some integer.
(x, x) ∈R, since the words ‘x’ and ‘x’ have all letters in Reflexive: a R a ⇒ a = 20.a for k = 0 (an integer). True
common
Symmetric: a R b ⇒ a = 2k b ⇒ b = 2–k . a
⇒ ‘x’ and ‘x’ have at least one letter in common
⇒ b R a as k, –k are both integers. True
⇒ R is reflexive.
Transitive: a R b ⇒ a = 2k1 b
• Let x, y, z ∈W.
b R c ⇒ b = 2k2 c
Then (x, y) ∈R  ⇒ ‘x’ and ‘y’ have at least one letter in
\ a = 2k1 . 2k2c = 2k1 + k2 c, k1 + k2 is an integer.
common
\ a R b, b R c ⇒ a R c True
⇒ ‘y’ and ‘x’ have at least one letters common
\ R is an equivalence relation.
⇒ (y, x) ∈R
22. R = {(x, y) | x, y ∈ R, x = wy, w is a rational number}
⇒ R is symmetric.
Reflexive: x R x ⇒ x = wx ⇒ w = 1, (a rational number)
• Let x, y, z ∈W
Hence R is reflexive.
Then (x, y) ∈ R and (y, z) ∈R
Symmetric: x R y ⇒ | y R x as
⇒ ‘x’ and ‘y‘ have at least one letter common and
0 R 1 ⇒ 0 = (0) . 1 where 0 is a rational number but
‘y‘ and ‘z’ have at least one letter common
1 R 0 ⇒ 1 = (w) 0 which is not true for any rational
which does not necessarily mean that ‘x’ and ‘z’ have at
lest one letter common. number.
∴ R is not transitive \ R is not an equivalence relation.
For example, let x = ‘AND’, y = ‘NOT’, z = ‘PET’  m p  
S =  ,  m, n, p, q ∈ I , n, q ≠ 0 and qm = pn  .
x and y have ‘N’ common  n q  
y and z have ‘T’ common m m
but x and z have no common letter. Reflexive S ⇒ mn = nm (True)
n n
Ch 5-12 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

m p p m 25. Given, a R b ⇒ sin2a + cos2b = 1


Symmetric S ⇒ mq = pn ⇒ pn = mq ⇒ S Reflexive: a R a ⇒ sin2 a + cos2 a = 1 ∀ a ∈ R (True)
n q q n
(True) Symmetric: a R b ⇒ sin2 a + cos2 b = 1
m p p r ⇒ 1 – cos2 a + 1 – sin2 b = 1
Transitive S and S
n q q s ⇒ sin2 b + cos2 a = 1
⇒ mq = pn and ps = qr ⇒ b R a ∀ a, b ∈ R (True)
⇒ mq.ps = pn.qr ⇒ ms = nr Transitive: a R a and b R c
m r m r ⇒ sin2 a + cos2 b = 1 and sin2 b + cos2 c = 1
⇒ = ⇒ S (True)
n s n s \ Adding these two equations we get
\ S is an equivalence relation. sin2 a + cos2 b + sin2 b + cos2 c = 2
23. Given, {(x, y) : 2x – y = 10} ⇒ sin2 a + cos2 c = 1 ⇒ a R c (True)
Reflexive, x R x = 2x – x = 10 ⇒ x = 10 ⇒ y = 10 \ R is an equivalence relation.
\ Point (10, 10) ∈ N ⇒ R is reflexive.
SELF ASSESSMENT SHEET
1. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {5, 6, 7, 8}. Then R = {(1, 5), (b) R = {(2, 2), (3, 3), (5, 5), (6, 6), (2, 3), (3, 5), (2, 6)}.
(1, 7), (2, 6)} is a relation from set A to B defined as : (c) R = {(2, 6), (6, 2)}
(a) R = {(a, b) : a, b are odd} (d) R = {(2, 3), (3, 5), (2, 5)}.
(b) R = {(a, b) : a, b are even} 6. Let A = {(2, 5, 11)}, B = {3, 6, 10} and R be a relation from
(c) R = {(a, b) : a, b are primes} A to B defined by R = {(a, b) : a and b are co-prime}. Then
(d) R = {(a, b) : b/a is odd} R is
2. The range of the relation R defined by R = {(x + 1, x + 5) (a) {(2, 3), (2, 6), (5, 10), (5, 6)}
: x ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}} is (b) {(2, 6), (2, 10), (5, 10)}
(a) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} (b) {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} (c) {(2, 3), (5, 3), (5, 6), (11, 3), (11, 6), (11, 10)}
(c) {6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} (d) {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} (d) {(2, 10), (5, 3), (5, 6), (11, 10)}.
3. The relation “is parallel to” on a set S of all straight lines 7. If R is a relation on a finite set A having n elements, then
in a plane is : the number of relations on A is
2
(a) Symmetric only (a) n2 (b) 2n (c) nn (d) 2n
(AMU 2006)
(b) Reflexive and Transitive only
8. The relation ‘is less than’ on a set of natural numbers is
(c) Transitive only
(a) Only reflexive (b) Only symmetric
(d) An equivalence relation
(c) Only transitive (d) An equivalence relation.
4. Let R be the relation in the set {1, 2, 3, 4} given by
9. Let R be a relation on the set of all real numbers R
R = {(1, 2), (2, 2), (1, 1), (4, 4), (1, 3), (3, 3), (3, 2)}. Then
R is R = {(a, b) ∈R × R : a2 + b2 = 1}, then R is
(a) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive (a) Equivalence (b) Only transitive
(b) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric (c) Only symmetric (d) None of these
(c) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive 10. Let A = {1, 2, 3} and R = {(1, 2), (1, 1), (2, 3)} be a relation
(d) An equivalence relations on A.
5. Let A = {2, 3, 5, 6}. Then, which of the following relations What minimum number of ordered pairs must be added with
is transitive only? the elements of R so that it may become transitive?
(a) R = {(2, 3), (6, 6)} (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) 3

ANSWERS
1.
(d) 2.
(b) 3.
(d) 4.
(b) 5.
(d) 6. (c) 7. (d) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (a)

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. • Since (2, 6) ∈R, the relation “a and b are odd” does not • 5/1 = 5, 7/1 = 7, 6/2 = 3, quotients being all odd numbers,
exist. the relation b/a is odd exists.
• Since (1, 5) and (1, 7) ∈R, the relation “a and b are even” 2. The range of the given relation is defined by the second
does not exist. element, i.e., (x + 5) in the ordered pair (x + 1, x + 5) defining
• None of the ordered pairs in R are prime numbers. the relation.
RELATIONS Ch 5-13
 x ∈{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, therefore Range = {0 + 5, 1 + 5, A natural number is not less than itself
2 + 5, 3 + 5, 4 + 5, 5 + 5} = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. ⇒ (a, a)∉R where a ∈N
3. Let R = {(x, y) : line x is parallel to line y, x y ∈ set of ⇒ R is not reflexive
coplanar straight lines}. • V a, b ∈N, (a, b) ∈R ⇒ a < b ⇒ / b < a ⇒ (b, a) ∉R
• Every line is parallel to itself. So, if x ∈S, then (x, x) ∈R ⇒ R is not symmetric.
⇒ R is reflexive • V a, b, c ∈N, (a, b) ∈R and (b, c) ∈R
• If (x, y) ∈R ⇒ x | | y ⇒ y | | x ⇒ (y, x) ∈R ⇒ a < b and b < c
⇒ R is symmetric ⇒ a < c (a, c) ∈R
• (x, y) ∈R and (y, z) ∈R ⇒ R is transitive.
⇒ x | | y and y | | z 9. • V a ∈ R, a2 + a2 ≠ 1 ⇒ (a, a) ∉R ⇒ R is not reflexive.
2 2
⇒ x | | z ⇒ (x, z) ∈R  1  1 1
For example, 02 + 02 = 0, 12 + 12 = 1,   +   =
⇒ R is transitive 2 2 2
and so on.
∴ R being reflexive, symmetric and transitive, it is an • V a, b ∈R, (a, b) ∈R ⇒ a2 + b2 = 1 ⇒ b2 + a2 = 1
equivalence relation.
⇒ (b, a) ∈R
4. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}
⇒ R is symmetric
•  (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3) and (4, 4) ∈R ⇒ R is reflexive • V a, b, c ∈R, (a, b) ∈R and (b, c) ∈R
•  (1, 2) ∈R but (2, 1) ∉R ; (1, 3) ∈R and (3, 1) ∉R ; ⇒ a2 + b2 = 1 and b2 + c2 = 1 which does not necessarily
(3, 2) ∈R and (2, 3) ∉R ⇒ R is not symmetric mean
• (1, 3) ∈R and (3, 2) ∈R and (1, 2) ∈R a2 + c2 = 1 ⇒ (a, c) ∉R
⇒ R is transitive. For example, let a = 0, b = 1, c = 0
7. Set A has n elements ⇒ n(A) = n 02 + 12 = 1 and 12 + 02 = 1
⇒ A × A has n × n = n2 elements But 02 + 02 ≠ 1.
∴ Number of relations on A = Number of subsets of 10. For the relation R to become transitive:
2
  A × A = 2n (1, 2) ∈R and (2, 3) ∈R should imply (1, 3) ∈R
8. Let N be the set of natural numbers. Then ∴ Minimum one ordered pair (1, 3) should be added to R.
R = {(a, b) : a < b, a, b ∈N}
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-1

6 Plane Geometry
–Triangles
KEY FACTS
P
I. Definitions
A triangle is a three sided closed figure formed by three non-collinear points.
The three points P, Q and R in the given figure are called the vertices, line segments joining
the three vertices, i.e., PQ, QR and PR are called the sides and ∠P, ∠Q and ∠R are the Q R
interior angles of the triangle. A B

If the sides of a triangle are produced as shown in the given diagram, then the angles P
∠PRC, ∠QRD, ∠PFQ, ∠RQE, ∠QPA and ∠RPB are the exterior angles of DABC.

F C
Q R
II. Types of Triangles: E D
a. By sides:
Scalene Triangle Isosceles Triangle Equilateral Triangle
A A A

c b
c b c b
B a C
a≠b≠c
B a C
(All the sides are unequal) B a C
(At least two sides are equal. Here, AB = AC) a=b=c
Angles opposite equal sides are also equal, i.e., (All sides are equal)
∠C = ∠B. All angles are equal to 60º
b. By angles:
Acute Angled Triangle Right Angled Triangle Obtuse Angled Triangle
A A A

a ∠B > 90°
∠B = 90°

b c
90°
B C
B C
B C One of the angles is an obtuse
All angles are acute, i.e.,
One of the angles is a right angle. The other angle.
∠A < ∠90º, ∠B < 90º,
two are complementary to each other
∠C < 90º
Ch 6-1
Ch 6-2 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

III. Some Important Properties of Triangles: A

a.  The sum of the three interior angles of a triangle is always


180º, i.e., ∠BAC + ∠ABC + ∠BCA = 180º.

b. (i) If the sides of a triangle are produced in order then,


the sum of the three (ordered) exterior angles of a B C

triangle is 360º, i.e., in both the figures, ∠1 + ∠2 +


∠3 = 360° 1 1
(ii) The measure of an exterior angle is equal to the sum of the 4
measures of the interior opposite angles, i.e., in figure
(ii) ∠3 = ∠4 + ∠5.
(iii) The measure of an exterior angle is greater than the 3 5 3
measure of each of the interior opposite angles, i.e., 2 2
in figure (ii) ∠3 > ∠4 and ∠3 > ∠5.
(i) (ii)
(iv) The sum of the measure of exterior angle at a vertex and its adjacent interior angle is 180º.
IV. Triangle Inequalities:
(i) Sum of any two sides of a triangle is always greater than the third side.
(ii) The difference of any two sides is always less than the third side.
(iii) If two sides of a triangle are not equal, then the angle opposite to the greater side is greater and vice
versa. B
(iv) Let a, b, c be the three sides of a triangle DABC where AB = c is the longest a c
side (say). Then,
• if c2 < a2 + b2, then the triangle is acute angled.
C b A
• if c2 = a2 + b2, then the triangle is right angled.
A
• if c2 > a2 + b2, then the triangle is obtuse angled.
V. Sine Rule: In a DABC, if a, b, c be the three sides opposite to the angles A, B and C
respectively, then c b
a b c
= =
sin A sin B sin C
B a C
VI. Cosine Rule: In a DABC, if a, b, c be the sides opposite to the angles A, B and C respectively, then
b2 + c 2 − a 2 c 2 + a 2 − b2 a 2 + b2 − c 2
cos A = , cos B = ,cos C =
2bc 2ca 2ab
VII. Some Important Definitions:
(i) Altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular drawn from a vertex to the opposite side (produced if necessary).
Every triangle has three altitudes.
A A
A
F E orthocentre
O

B D C  B C D C
B D
AD is the altitude on side BC.
Orthocentre is the point of intersection of the three altitudes of a triangle. Hence, O is the orthocentre of
DABC, where ∠BOC = 180º – ∠A, ∠AOB = 180º – ∠C, ∠COA = 180º – ∠B.
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-3
(ii) Median is the straight line segment joining the mid-point of any side to the opposite A
vertex. Every triangle has three medians and a median bisects the area of a D.
VIII. Important Theorems on Triangles
B D C
1. Basic Proportionality Theorem (BPT): Any line parallel to one side of a triangles P
divides the other two sides proportionally.
Thus, if ST is drawn parallel to side QR of ∆PQR, then S > T
PS PT PS PT
= or =
SQ TR PQ PR >
Q R
2. Mid-point Theorem: The line segment joining the mid-points of two sides of a triangle A
is parallel to the third side and equal to one-half of it.
Thus, if D and E are the midpoints of sides AB and AC respectively of DABC, then D E
1
DE || BC and DE = BC .
2
B C
Converse of Mid-point Theorem: The straight line drawn through the mid-point A

of one side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects the third side.
Thus, a line drawn through D, the mid-point of side AB of DABC, parallel to BC D E
bisects AC, i.e., E is the mid-points of AC, i.e., AE = EC.

B C
3. Apollonius Theorem: In a triangle, the sum of the squares of any two sides of A
Median
a triangle is equal to twice the sum of the square of the median to the third side
and square of half the third side,
 2
2  BC  2 2 2 2
i.e., AB2 + AC2 = 2  AD +    = 2( AD + BD ) = 2( AD + CD ) .
  2   B
D C

A
4. Interior Angle Bisector Theorem: In a triangle, the angle bisector of an
angle divides the opposite side to the angle in the ratio of the remaining
two sides.
BD AB
Thus, if AD is the internal bisector of ∠A of DABC, then = and
CD AC
B D C
BD × AC = DC × AB = AD2
5. External Angle Bisector Theorem: In a triangle, the angle bisector of any E
exterior angle of a triangle divides the side opposite to the external angle
in the ratio of the remaining two sides, i.e., If CE is the bisector of external
A
BE BC
angle ACD, then = .
AE AC
B C D
1
∴  Area (DABD) = Area (DACD) = Area (DABC).
2
Centroid is point of intersection or point of concurrence of the three medians of A
a triangle. Also it divides each median in the ratio 2:1 (vertex : base)
G is the centroid of DABC, i.e., the point of concurrence of medians AD, BE and CF. F E
G
Also,
AG BG CG 2
= = = B D C
GD GE GF 1
Ch 6-4 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

6. Angle Bisector: A line segment from a vertex of triangle which bisects the angle P
at the vertex is called the angle bisector. PD, QE and RF are angle bisectors of
F
∠P, ∠Q and ∠R respectively of DPQR such that ∠QPD = ∠RPD, ∠PQE = ∠RQE E
I
and ∠PRF = ∠QRF. Incentre
Incentre is the point of intersection of the angle bisectors of a triangle and it is
equidistant from all the three sides of the triangle, i.e., perpendicular distance Q D R

between the side and incentre is equal for all the three sides.
A
7. Perpendicular Bisector: A line segment bisecting a side of a triangle at right angles is
called a perpendicular bisector. The point of concurrence of the perpendicular bisectors R Q
is called the circumcentre. Here O is the circumcentre of DABC. The circumcentre is O

equidistant from the vertices of a triangle, i.e., OA = OB = OC.


B P C
Note: The orthocentre, centroid, incentre and circumcentre coincide in case of an
equilateral triangle. A

8. Pythagoras’ Theorem: The square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is


equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
Here DABC is right angled at C. So AC is the hypotenuse. Hence, according to Pythagoras,
Theorem AC2 = AB2 + BC2.
B C
Converse of Pythagoreas’ Theorem: If the square on one side of a triangle is equal
to the sum of the squares on the other two sides, the triangle is right angled.
If a, b, c, be the sides opposite to ∠A, ∠B and ∠C respectively of a DABC and c2 = a2 + b2, then DABC is right
angled at C.
Such numbers or triplets a, b, c which satisfy the condition a2 + b2 = c2 are called Pythagorean triplets. Some
examples of Pythagorean triplets are: (3, 4, 5) ; (5, 12, 13), (7, 24, 25), etc. A


9. 45º – 45º – 90º triangle: If the angles of a triangle are 45º, 45º and 90º, then the hypotenuse 45°

(the longest side) is 2 times any smaller side, i.e.,


In DABC, ∠B = 90º, ∠A = ∠C = 45º, then 45°

2 AB or 2 BC . B C
AB = BC and AC =
The converse of the above theorem: If the ratio of the sides of a triangle is 1 : 1 : 2 , then it is a 45º – 45º
– 90º triangle.
10. 30º – 60º – 90º triangle: If the angles of a triangle are 30º, 60º and 90º, then the side opposite to the 30º
3
angle is half of the hypotenuse and side opposite to 60º is times the hypotenuse, i.e., in DABC,
2 A
where ∠B = 90º and ∠C = 30º, ∠A = 60º, then 60°

1 3
AB = AC and BC = AC, then
2 2
i.e., the ratio of the sides is 1: 3 : 2. The converse of the above also holds true.
30°
B C
IX. Congruency of Triangles: Two triangles are congruent to each other
(i) if each of the three sides and three angles of one triangle are equal to the respective sides and angles of the
other.
A P     DABC ≅ DPQR if
AB = PQ    ∠A = ∠P
AC = PR  and ∠B = ∠Q
BC = QR   ∠C = ∠R

B C  Q R
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-5
Tests of Congruency: AB = PQ
(i) SAS Axiom (Side-angle-side): If the two sides and the included angle AC = PR
of one triangle are respectively equal to the two sides and the included BC = QR
angle of the other, the triangles are congruent.
Note: The two equal sides must be opposite to angles which are known to be equal.
(ii) ASA or AAS Axiom (Two angles, corresponding side): If two angles and one side of a triangle are
respectively equal to two angles and the corresponding side of the other triangles, the triangles are congruent.
The side may be in included side.
A P ∠B = ∠Q X D
∠C = ∠R
BC = QR
DABC ≅ DPQR (ASA)

B C  Q R Y Z  E F
∠X = ∠D
∠Z = ∠E  ∴ DXYZ ≅ DDEF (AAS)
XY = DF
(iii) SSS Axiom (Three sides): If three sides of one triangle are respectively equal to the corresponding three
sides of the other triangle, the triangles are congruent :
A P

AB = PQ 

AC = PR   ⇒  DABC ≅ DPQR (SSS)
BC = QR 
B C  Q R
A P
(iv) RHS Axiom (Right angle-Hypotenuse-side): If the hypotenuse and one
side of a right angled triangle are respectively equal to the hypotenuse and
corresponding side of the other right angled triangle, the two triangles
are congruent.
\  AC = PR, BC = QR and ∠B = ∠Q = 90º ⇒ DABC ≅ PQR (RHS)
B C Q R
X. Similarity of Triangles: A1 A2
Two triangles are said to be similar, if their corresponding angles are
equal, and their corresponding sides are proportional.
Thus, DA1B1C1 is similar to DA2B2C2 or DA1B1C1 ∼ DA2B2C2 if c1 b1 c2 b2

(i) ∠A1 = ∠A2 ; ∠B1 = ∠B2 ; ∠C1 = ∠C2


a b c
(ii) 1 = 1 = 1 = k B1 a1 C1 B2 a2 C2
a2 b2 c2 A D

Tests for Similarity:


(i) A-A axiom of similarily: If two angles of one triangle are equal to
the corresponding two angles of the other triangle, then the triangles
are said to be similar.
Note : If two pairs of corresponding angles in two triangles are B C E F
A D
equal, then the third pair will obviously be equal.
∠ABC = ∠DEF, ∠ACB = ∠DFE ⇒ DABC ~ DDEF. (AA similarity)
(ii) S-A-S axiom of similarity: If two triangles have a pair of corresponding
angles equal and the sides including them proportional, then the
triangles are similar.
B C E F
Ch 6-6 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

AB AC
In Ds ABC and DEF, ∠A = ∠D, = = k , then DABC ~ DDEF.
DE DF A D

(iii) S-S-S axiom of similarity: If two triangles have their pairs of


corresponding sides proportional, then the triangles are similar.
BC AB AC
If = = , then, DABC ~ DDEF
EF DE DF
XI. Properties of Similar Triangles: B C E F

For a pair of similar triangles,


1. Ratio of sides = Ratio of Altitudes A D

= Ratio of Medians
= Ratio of angle bisectors
= Ratio of in-radii
= Ratio of circums-radii.
2. Ratio of areas = Ratio of squares of corresponding sides. B C E F

Area ( ∆ABC ) AB 2 AC 2 BC 2 B
= = =
Area ( ∆DEF ) DE 2 DF 2 EF 2
D
3. In a right angled triangle, the triangles on each side of the altitude drawn from the vertex
to the right angle to the hypotenuse are similar to the original triangle and to each other
too.
C A
i.e., DBCA ~ DBDC ~ DCDA.
A

XII. Some Useful Results for a Triangle:


1 O
1. In a DABC, if the bisectors of ∠ABC and ∠ACB meet at O, then ∠BOC = 90º +
∠A.
2 90°+ 1 A
2
B A C

2. In a DABC, if the sides AB and AC are produced to D and E respectively and the

B C
∠A
bisectors of ∠DBC and ∠ECB intersect at O, then ∠BOC = 90º − . 90° – A
2 2

D O E
A

3. In a DABC, if AD is the angle bisector of ∠BAC and AE ^ BC, then ∠DAE



1
= ∠ABC − ∠ACB .
2
B E D C
A
4. In an acute angled triangle, ABC, AD is the perpendicular dropped on BC,

then AC2 = AB2 + BC2 – 2BD.DC.
B D C
5. In an obtuse angled triangle, if AD is the perpendicular dropped on BC produced, then A
AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 2BD.DC.
6. In a right angled D, the median to the hypotenuse is half
the hypotenuse.
BN is the median from B on AC such that AN = NC.
1 B C D
Then, BN = AC = AN = NC .
2
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-7
7. If in a right angled DPQR, ∠Q = 90º, PR is the hypotenuse, and a perpendicular QS is P
dropped on the hypotenuse from the right angle vertex Q, then
PQ × QR 1 1 1
(i) QS =   (ii) 2
= 2
+ S
PR QS PQ QR 2
XIII. Area Formulae for a Triangle:
1 Q R
1. General Formula: Area of a triangle = × base × height
2

2. • Area of a scalene triangle =


s( s − a ) ( s − b ) ( s − c ) , where a, b, c are the sides of the triangle and s is the
a+b+c
semi-perimeter of the triangle, i.e., s = .
2
abc
• Also, Area of a D = r × s = , where r → in radius, R → circumradius.
4R
1
3. Area of a right angled triangle = × base × height.
2
For a right angled triangle,
AB + BC − AC
(i) Inradius = , where DABC is rt ∠d at ∠B
2
Area
(ii) Inradius =
Semi-perimeter
Hypotenuse
(iii) Circum radius =
2
b
4. Area of an isosceles triangle =
4a 2 − b 2 , where a is the length of one of the equal sides, b is the length
4
of third side.
5. For an equilateral triangle,

3 Side Side
Area = (side)2, Inradius = ,   Circumradius =
4 2 3 3
\ Circumradius = 2 × Inradius.
Note : (i) For the given perimeter of a triangle, the area of an equilateral triangle is maximum.
   (ii) For the given area of a triangle, the perimeter of an equilateral triangle is minimum.
6. Two triangles on equal (or same bases and lying between same parallel lines have equal area.)

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex. 1. Let O be any point inside a triangle ABC. Let L, M and N be the points on AB, BC and CA respectively,
where perpendicular from O meet these lines. Show that :
    AL2 + BM2 + CN2 = AN2 + CM2 + BL2
Sol. Join O to A, B and C
A
In right Ds OAL, OBM and OCN.
OL2 + AL2 = OA2    …(i)  L N
OM2 + BM2 = OB2    …(ii)   Pythagoras' O

  Theoram 
ON2 + CN2 = OC2    …(iii) 
B M C

∴  Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
Ch 6-8 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

OL2 + AL2 + OM 2 + BM 2 + ON 2 + CN 2 = OA 2 + OB 2 + OC 2
AL2 + BM 2 + CN 2 = (OA2 + OB 2 + OC 2 ) – (OL2 + OM 2 + ON 2 ) …(1)
Similarly in right Ds OAN, OBL and OMC,
ON 2 + AN 2 = OA2 …(iv)
OL2 + BL2 = OB 2 …(v)
OM 2 + CM 2 = OC 2 …(vi)
∴  Adding (iv), (v) and (vi)
ON 2 + AN 2 + OL2 + BL2 + OM 2 + CM 2 = OA2 + OB 2 + OC 2
⇒  AN 2 + BL2 + CM 2 = (OA2 + OB2 + OC 2 ) – (ON 2 + OL2 + OM 2 ) …(2)
From (1) and (2)
AL2 + BM 2 + CN 2 = AN 2 + BL2 + CM 2

Ex. 2. A point is selected at random inside an equilateral triangle. From this point a perpendicular is dropped
to each side. Prove that the sum of these perpendiculars is independent of the location of the given point.
Sol. Let P be any point in the equilateral DABC with each side = S units.
A
Let PE, PF and PG be the lengths of the perpendiculars from P on AB, AC and BC
respectively. Then. E F

Area of DABC = Area (DPAB) + Area (DPBC) + Area (DPAC)


1 1 1
= × AB × PE + × AC × PF + × BC × PG B G C
2 2 2
1
= × S × ( PE + PF + PG )
2
where AB = BC = CA = S
Also, let h be the height be DABC, then
1
Area of DABC = × S × h
2
1 1
∴ × S × h = × S × ( PE + PF + PG )
2 2
⇒ h = (PE + PF + PG)
⇒  Sum of the perpendiculars = height of equilateral D = a constant
⇒  Sum of perpendiculars is independent of location of P.
Ex. 3. In a DABC, the lengths of sides BC, CA and AB are a, b and c respectively. Median AD drawn from A is
perpendicular to BC. Express b in terms of a and c.
Sol. By Appolonius theorem, in DABC,
AB2 + AC2 = 2 (AD2 + BD2)
a2 a2 A
c2 + b2 = 2 (c2 – + ) ( In rt. DABD, AD = AB 2 − BD 2 )
4 4 c b
⇒ b2 + c2 = a2 – 2c2
⇒ b2 = a2 – 3c2
B C
D
⇒ b =
a 2 − 3c 2 a/2 a a/2

Ex. 4. If the medians AD, BE and CF of DABC meet at G, prove that G is the centroid of DDEF also.
Sol. Since D and E are the mid-points of sides BC and AC of DABC, therefore, A
1
DE || BA and DE = BA (By mid-point theorem)
2 F P E
1 G
⇒ DE || FA and DE = FA ( FA = BA)
2
1 Q R
Also, DF || AC and DF = AC (By mid-point theorem) B D C
2
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-9
⇒ DF || AE and DF = AE.
∴  DEAF is a parallelogram, whose diagonals AD and FE intersect at P.
Since the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, therefore, AP = PD and FP = PE
⇒ P is the mid-point of FE
⇒ DP is the median of DDEF.
Similarly it can be shown that, FDEC is a parallelogram and hence R is the mid-point of ED and hence FR is
the median of DDEF.
∴  Medians DP and FR intersect at point G, where G is the centroid of DDEF.
Ex. 5. ABC is an acute angled triangle. CD is the altitude through C. If AB = 8 units, CD = 6 units, find the
distance between the mid-points of AD and BC.
Sol. Let E be the mid-point of AD and F the mid-point of BC.
Draw FR ^ AB.
  CD ^ AB ⇒ FR || CD. C

Also, F being the mid-point of BC and FR || CD ⇒ R is the mid-point of BD


F
(By converse of mid-point theorem). 6
1
Now by basic proportionality theorem, FR = CD = FR = 3 units.
2 A E D R B
1 1 8
Also, ER = ED + DR = ( AD + DB ) = × AB = 4 units.
2 2
∴  In DFER, EF =
FR 2 + ER 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5 units.
Ex. 6. In the given figure, ∠MON = ∠MPO = ∠NQO = 90º and OQ is the bisector of ∠MON and QN = 10,
OR = 40/7. Find OP. (CDS 2012)
Sol. In DOMP, ∠MOP = 45º (OQ bisects ∠MON)
∴  ∠OMP = 45º.
⇒  OP = PM = x (say) (sides opp. equal ∠s are equal) M
Also in OQN, ∠QON = 45º (OQ bisects ∠MON)
⇒  ∠QNO = 45º ⇒ OQ = ON = 10 (sides opp. equal ∠s are equal)
R
40 30 O Q
∴  QR = OQ – OR = 10 − = . P
7 7
DPMR ~ DQNS, since ∠MPR = ∠NQR = 90º and ∠MRP = ∠QRP (vert. opp. ∠s) 10
PM QN x 10 7
⇒ = ⇒ = =
PR QR 40 30 3
−x N
7 7
7x 7
⇒ = ⇒ 21x = 280 – 49x ⇒ x = 4.
40 − 7 x 3
Ex. 7. In the figure CD, AE and BF are one-third of their respective sides. It is given that AN2 : N2N1 : N1D
1
= 3 : 3 : 1 and similarly for the lines BE and CF. Show that the area of DN1 N2 N3 is Area (DABC).
7
Sol. Ar (DN1 N2 N3) = Area (DABC) – [(Area (DCBF) + Area (DABE) + Area (DADC)]
A
+ (Area (DN1CD) + Area (N2AE) + Area (DN3FB))
1 E
 AE =
AC and height of DABE and DABC is same, keeping AC as the base, N2
3
1 1
Area of DABE = Area (DABC) (Area = × b × h ) F
3 2 N3 N1

B D C
Ch 6-10 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

1
Similarly, Area (DCBF) = Area (DADC) = Area (DABC)
3
1
In DCBF, FN3 : N3N1 : N1C = 3 : 3 : 1 ⇒ Area of DN1CD = Area (DBFC)
7
1 1 1
⇒  Area (DN1CD) =
× Area (DABC) = Area (DABC)
7 3 21
1
Similarly, Area (DN2AE) = Area (DN3 FB) = Area (DABC)
21
1 1 1
∴  Area (DN1N2N3) = Area (DABC) – 3. Area (DABC) + 3. Area (DABC) = Area (DABC)
3 21 7
Ex. 8. In the diagram AB and AC are the equal sides of an isosceles triangle ABC, in which is inscribed equilateral
b+c
triangle DEF. Designate angle BFD by a, angle ADE by b and angle FEC by c. Then show that a = .
2
Sol. For DBDF, ext ∠ADF = ∠B + a …(i) A

⇒  b + 60º = ∠B + a …(ii)

Similarly a + 60º = c + ∠C
b
∴  Eq (i) – Eq (ii) ⇒ b – a = a – c + ∠B – ∠C
D E
c
  AB = AC ⇒ ∠B = ∠C (Isosceles D property)

b+ c
∴  b – a = a – c ⇒ b + c = 2a ⇒ a =
. a
2 B F C

Ex. 9. In the given figure, line DE is parallel to line AB. CD = 3 while DA = 6. Which of the following must be
true?
2
Area of ∆CDE  CD 
I. DCDE ~ DCAB II. =  III. If AB = 4, then DE = 2
Area of ∆CAB  CA 

Sol. I. Since DE || AB, ∠CDE = ∠CAB 


 C
∠CED = ∠CBA  Corresponding angles

∴  DCDE ~ DCAB (AA similarly)  D E
II. Since ratio of the areas of similar triangles is the square of the ratio of

the corresponding sides.
2
Area ( ∆CDE )  CD 

∴  = 
Area ( ∆CAB )  CA  A B

III. CA = CD + DA = 3 + 6 = 9.

CD DE

∴  DCDE ~ DCAB ⇒ =
CA AB
3 DE 12 4

⇒ = ⇒ DE = =
9 4 9 3
4
∴  If AB = 4, then DE =

3

∴  I and II are true and III is false.
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-11

Ex. 10. If the angles of a triangle are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, then find the ratio of the corresponding opposite sides.
Sol. If the angles are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, then the angles of the triangle are 30º, 60º, 90º. A

Therefore, the triangle is a right angled triangle. 30°

The side ratios opposite to the angles 30º, 60º and 90º is BC : AB : AC,
i.e., AC sin 30º; AC sin 60º : AC,
1 3
i.e., − × AC :
× AC : AC , i.e., 1 : 3 : 2.
2 2 90° 60°
B C
Ex. 11. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio 8 : 3 : 1. What is the ratio of the longest side of the triangle to the
next longest side?
8 3 1
× 180º , × 180º , × 180º i.e., 120º, 45º and 15º.
Sol. The angles are
12 12 12
Also we know that the longest side is opposite the greatest angle and so on.
∴  Let the longest side opposite the greatest angle 120º be x and let the next longest side opposite angle 45º
be y. Then, by the sine rule
sin120º sin 45º
=
x y
3 3
x sin120º 2 2 6
⇒ = = = = .
y sin 45º 1 1 2
2 2

Ex. 12. In DABC, a = 2x, b = 3x + 2, c = 12 and ∠c = 60º. Find x.


Sol. Here we use the law of cosines. So c2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab cos C C

⇒  12 = (2x)2 + (3x + 2)2
– 2 (2x) (3x + 2) cos 60º a 60° c
1
⇒  12 = 4x2 + 9x2 + 12x + 4 – (12x2 + 8x) ×

2 60°
⇒  7x2 + 8x – 8 = 0
B b A

−8 ± 64 + 224 −8 ± 288  −b ± b 2 − 4ac 


x= =  Recall that roots of a quadratic eq. ax 2 + bx + c are x = .
14 14  2a 
 
Since the side of a triangle must be positive, therefore,
−8 + 288
x =  0.64.
14
Ex. 13. The bisectors of the angles of a triangle ABC meet BC, CA and AB at X, Y and Z respectively.
BX CY AZ
Prove that . . = 1.
XC YA ZB
Sol. We make use of the bisector theorem here, i.e., the bisector (internal or external)
A
of an angle of triangle divides the opposite side in the ratio of the sides containing
the angle.
BX AB
AX bisects ∠A ⇒ = …(i)
XC AC Z Y
CY BC
BY bisects ∠B ⇒ = …(ii)
YA BA
AZ CA
CZ bisects ∠C ⇒ =    …(iii) B X C
ZB CB
Ch 6-12 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

∴  Multiplying (i), (ii) and (iii), we get


BX CY AZ AB BC CA
. . = . . = 1.
XC YA ZB AC BA CB
Ex. 14. As given in the diagram alongside, P is any point on AB, PS ^ BD and PR ^ AC. AF^ BD and PQ ^ AF.
Then show that PR + PS is equal to AF.
Sol. DPTR ~ DATQ (AA similarity) A P B

( ∠ATQ = ∠PTR (vert. opp. ∠s) and ∠PRT = ∠AQT = 90º)


S
PR PT T
∴ = …(i)
AQ AT
E
∴ AF ^ BD and PQ ^ AF ⇒ PQ || BD ⇒ ∠TPA = ∠PBS
…(ii) Q R

Also, diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other F


⇒ EA = EB ⇒ ∠EAB = ∠EBA ⇒ ∠TAP = ∠PBS …(iii)
D C

∴ From (i) and (ii), ∠TPA = ∠TAP ⇒ PT = AT (Isosceles triangle property)



⇒ PR = AQ

Also, PQ || BD and PS ^ BD and QF ^ BD ⇒ PS = QF
∴ PR + PS = AQ + QF = AF.

PRACTICE SHEET
1. In the given figure, what is the sum A
5. In an equilateral triangle if a, b and c denote the lengths
of the angles formed around A, B, of the perpendicular from A, B and C respectively on the
C except at angles of DABC. opposite sides, then
(a) 360º (b) 720º (a) a > b > c (b) a > b < c
B C
(c) 900º (d) 1000º (c) a < b < c (d) a = b = c
(CDS 2010) 6. In the given figure, LM Q
2. In the given figure, ∠B = ∠C = 55º and ∠D = 25º. Then, is parallel to QR. If LM
(a) BC < CA < CD
A divides the DPQR such
that the area of trapezium L
(b) BC > CA > CD
LMRQ is two times the
(c) BC < CA, CA > CD area of DPLM, then what is
(d) BC > CA, CA < CD PL
B C D equal to? R M P
3. In-centre of a triangle lies in the interior of: LQ
(a) An isosceles triangle only 1 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(b) Any triangle 2 3 2 3
(CDS 2011)
(c) An equilateral triangle only
7. If the medians of two equilateral triangles are in the ratio
(d) A right triangle only 3 : 2, then what is the ratio of their sides?
4. G is the centroid of DABC with height h units. If a line DE (a) 1 : 1 (b) 2 : 3 (c) 3 : 2 (d) 3: 2
parallel to BC cuts DABC at
A (CDS 2009)
a height h/4 from BC, find
8. If A is the area of the right angled triangle and b is one of
the distance GG' in terms of
the sides containing the right angle, then what is the length
AG if G' is the centroid of
of the altitude on the hypotenuse?
DADE. G
2 Ab 2 A2 b
1 3 G (a) (b)
(a) AG (b) AG D E b 4 + 4 A2 b 4 + 4 A2
2 4 h/4
1 2 B C 2 Ab 2 2A2 b 2
(c) AG (d) AG F (c) (d) (CDS 2008)
4 3 b 4 + 4 A2 b 4 + A2
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-13
9. In the given figure, ABC is an equilateral A 18. In the DABC, AB = 2 cm, BC = 3 cm and AC = 4 cm. D is
triangle of side length 30 cm. XY is the middle-point of AC. If a square is constructed on the
parallel to BC, XP is parallel to AC and side BD, what is the area of the square?
YQ is parallel to AB. If (XY + XP + YQ) (a) 4.5 cm2 (b) 2.5 cm2 (c) 6.35 cm2 (d) None of these
is 40 cm, then what is PQ equal to? X Y (CDS 2009)
(a) 5 cm (b) 12 cm B P Q C 19. In the given figure, (not drawn to scale), P is a point on
AB such that AP : PB = 4 : 3. PQ is parallel to AC and QD
(c) 15 cm (d) None of these (CDS 2010)
is parallel to CP. In DARC, ∠ARC = 90º and in DPQS,
10. If AD is the median of DABC, then ∠PSQ = 90º. The length of QS = 6 cm. What is the ratio of
(a) AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 + 2BD2 AP : PD?
(b) AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 + BD2 (a) 10 : 3 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 7 : 3 (d) 8 : 3
(c) AB2 + AC2 = AD2 + BD2 (CAT 2003)
(d) AB2 + AC2 = AD2 + 2BD2 20. In DLMN, LO is the median. Also LO is the bisector of
∠MLN. If LO = 3 cm, and LM = 5 cm, then find the area of
11. Let ABC be a triangle of area 16 cm2. XY is drawn parallel DLMN.
to BC dividing AB in the ratio 3 : 5. If BY is joined, then the (a) 12 cm2 (b) 10 cm2 (c) 4 cm2 (d) 6 cm2
area of triangle BXY is (CAT 2009)
(a) 3.5 cm2 (b) 3.7 cm2 (c) 3.75 cm2 (d) 4.0 cm2 21. A point within an equilateral triangle whose perimeter is 30
12. From a point O in the interior of a DABC if perpendiculars m is 2 m from one side and 3 m from another side. Find its
OD, OE and OF are drawn to the sides BC, CA and AB distance from third side.
respectively, then which of the following statements is true? (a) 5 − 3 (b) 5 3 − 5 (c) 5 5 − 3 (d) 5 3 − 3
(a) AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = AE2 + CD2 + BF2 22. A city has a park shaped as a right angled triangle. The length
(b) AB2 + BC2 = AC2 of the longest side of this park is 80 m. The Mayor of the
city wants to construct three paths from the corner point
(c) AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = OA2 + OB2 + OC2 opposite to the longest side such that these paths divide the
(d) AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = OD2 + OE2 + OF2 longest side into four equal segments. Determine the sum
13. In an equilateral triangle ABC, the side BC is trisected at D. of the squares of the lengths of the three paths.
Then AD2 is equal to A (a) 4000 m (b) 4800 m (c) 5600 m (d) 6400 m
9 7 (XAT 2012)
2 2
(a) AB (b) AB 23. In a triangle ABC, AD is the angle bisector of ∠BAC and
7 9
∠BAD = 60º. What is the length of AD?
3 2 4 2 A
(c) AB (d) AB b+c bc
4 5 (a) (b) 60°
B D E C
bc b+c c b
14. In a DABC, AB = 10 cm, BC = 12 cm and AC = 14 cm. Find
2
the length of median AD. If G is the centroid, find the length (b + c)
(c) b 2 + c 2 (d)
of GA. bc B D
a
C

5 5 24. In a DABC, the internal bisector of angle A meets BC at D.


(a) 7, 7 (b) 5 7, 4 7
3 9 If AB = 4, AC = 3 and ∠A = 60º, then the length of AD is
10 8 8 12 3 15 3 6 3
(c) , 7 (d) 4 7, 7 (a) 2 3 (b) (c) (d)
3 3 3 7 8 7
15. If a, b, c are the sides of a triangle and a2 + b2 + c2 = bc (CAT 2002)
+ ca + ab, then the triangle is: 25. Suppose the medians PP′ and QQ′ of DPQR intersect at
(a) equilateral (b) isosceles right angles. If QR = 3 and PR = 4, then the length of side
(c) right-angled (d) obtuse angled PQ is
(CAT 2000)
(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 5 (d) 6
16. H is the orthocentre of DABC whose altitudes are AD, BE
26. In the given triangle ABC, the length of sides AB and AC is
and CF. Then the orthocentre of DHBC is
same (i.e., b = c) and 60º < A < 90º. Then
(a) F (b) E (c) A (d) D
A
17. In the given figure, ∠BCA = 120º and AB = c, BC = a, (a) b < a < b 3
AC = b. Then B (b) c < a < c 2
(a) c2 = a2 + b2 + ba c b
(c) b < a < 2b
(b) c2 = a2 + b2 – ba a
c
c (d) < a < 3c
(c) c2 = a2 + b2 – 2ba 120º 3 B a C
(d) c2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab C b A
Ch 6-14 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

27. In the given figure, P and Q are the C 34. In a DABC, AD, BE and CF are the medians drawn from the
mid-points of AC and AB. Also, PG vertices A, B and C respectively. Then study the following
= GR and HQ = HR. What is the G R statements and choose the correct option.
P
ratio of the Area of DPQR : Area I. 3 (AB + BC + AC) > 2 (AD + BE + CF)
of DABC H
II. 3 (AB + BC + AC) < 2 (AD + BE + CF)
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 3
A Q B
(c) 3 : 4 (d) 3 : 5 III. 3 (AB + BC + AC) < 4 (AD + BE + CF)
28. The lengths of the sides a, b, c of a DABC are connected IV. 3 (AB + BC + AC) > 4 (AD + BE + CF)
by the relation a2 + b2 = 5c2. The angle between medians (a) I and IV are true (b) I and III are true
drawn to the sides 'a' and 'b' is
(c) II and IV are true (d) II and III are true
(a) 60º (b) 45º (c) 90º (d) None of these
35. In a DABC, AB = AC. P and Q are points on AC and AB
29. ABC is a triangle with ∠BAC = 60º. A point P lies on one-
respectively such that CB = BP = PQ = QA. Then ∠AQP =
third of the way from B to C and AP bisects ∠BAC. ∠APC
equals 2π 5π 4π
(a) (b) 3p (c) (d)
(a) 90º (b) 45º (c) 60º (d) 120º 7 7 7
(XAT 2007) (RMO)
A
30. A rectangle inscribed in a triangle has its base coinciding 36. In a triangle, the ratio of the
with the base b of the triangle. If the altitude of the triangle distance between a vertex and G
is h, and the altitude x of the rectangle is half the base of the orthocentre and the distance
the rectangle, then of the circumcentre from the side O E
opposite the vertex is
1 bh H
(a) x = h (b) x = (a) 3 : 1 (b) 4 : 1
2 h+b
B C
bh hb (c) 2 : 1 (d) 2 :1 DF
(c) x = (d) x = (FMS 2011)
2h + b 2 37. In a DABC, angle A is twice angle B. Then,
31. In the given figure AB = BC E (a) a2 = b (a + c)
2
(b) a = bc
= CD = DE = EF = FG C 2α
= GA. Then ∠DAE is α

α (c) a2 = b (b + c) (d) a2 = b + c
G
approximately: 2α P
α 38. Let ABC be a triangle. Let D, E, F be points respectively
α

(a) 15º (b) 20º 2α α 2α on segments BC, CA, AB such that AD, BE and CF concur
A B F D
(c) 30º (d) 25º at point K. Suppose BD/DC = BF/FA and ∠ADB = ∠AFC,
then
(CAT 2000)
(a) ∠ABE = ∠CAD (b) ∠ABE = ∠AFC
32. If ABC is a triangle in which ∠B = 2 ∠C. D is a point on
side BC such that AD bisects ∠BAC and AD = CD, then (c) ∠ABE = ∠FKB (d) ∠ABE = ∠BCF
∠BAC = (RMO 2011)
(a) 62º (b) 72º (c) 76º (d) 84º 39. Let ABC be a triangle in which AB = AC and let I be its
33. In the figure shown here, QS = SR, QU = SU, PW = WS and in-centre. Suppose BC = AB + AI. ∠BAC equals.
ST || RV. What is the value of P
(a) 45º (b) 90º (c) 60º (d) 75º
Area of ∆PSX (RMO 2009)
? V
Area of ∆PQR Y W 40. In a DABC, let D be the mid-point of BC. If ∠ADB = 45º
1 1 T and ∠ACD = 30º. then ∠BAD equals.
(a) (b)
5 3 X (a) 45º (b) 60º (c) 30º (d) 15º
1 1 (RMO 2005)
(c) (d) Q U S R
6 7
ANSWERS
1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (a)
11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (d) 15. (a) 16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (b) 19. (c) 20. (a)
21. (b) 22. (c) 23. (b) 24. (b) 25. (c) 26. (b) 27. (a) 28. (c) 29. (d) 30. (c)
31. (d) 32. (b) 33. (a) 34. (b) 35. (c) 36. (c) 37. (c) 38. (a) 39. (b) 40. (c)
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-15

HINTS AND SOLUTIONS


1. ∠A = 360º – Ext. ∠A A
Area of ∆PLM PL2
∠B = 360º – Ext. ∠B =
3 × Area of ∆PLM PQ 2
∠C = 360º – Ext. ∠C
We know, PL2 1 PL 1

⇒ = ⇒ = .
∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 180º PQ 2 3 PQ 3
⇒ 360º – Ext. ∠A + 360º –
B C 3
7. Median of an equilateral triangle = × side
Ext. ∠B + 360º – Ext. ∠C = 180º 2
⇒ Ext. ∠A + Ext. ∠B + Ext. ∠C = 1080º – 180º = 900º. Let the sides of the two equilateral triangles be a1 and a2
respected. Then,
2. ∠B = ∠C = 55º ⇒ AC = AB
3

⇒ ∠BAC = 180º – (∠B + ∠C) = 180º – 110º = 70º a1
3 a 3
Now in DACD, ∠ACD = 180º – 55º = 125º 2 = ⇒ 1 = .
3 2 a2 2

∴ ∠CAD = 180º – (125º + 25º) = 30º a2
2
⇒ ∠CAD > ∠CDA ⇒ CD > AC
8. Let ABC be the given right angled triangle, right angled at
( In a given triangle, the greater angle has greater side B. Let BC = b.
opposite to it) 1 A
Then, Area of DABC = × BC × AB
Also ∠BAC > ∠ABC ⇒ BC > AC 2
∴ BC > CA and CA < CD. 1 2A D
⇒ A = × b × AB ⇒ AB =
4. AF is the median to BC from A in DABC. G is the centroid 2 b
of DABC A In DABC, AC2 = AB2 + BC2
2 3 4A2 B b C
⇒ AG = AF ⇒ AF = AG. AC2 = + b2
3 2 3h/4
b 2
G
Now AH is the median to DE from G
A in DADE. G′ is the centroid of D E 4A2
H h/4 ⇒ AC =
2
+ b2
DADE b
2 B F C
⇒ AG′ = AH Again in DABC,
3
3 1
Since DE || BC, AH = AF A = × AC × BD
4 2
(By basic proportionality theorem)
1 4 A2 + b 4
⇒ A =
× × BD
2 3 1 1 3 3 2 b2
∴ AG′ =
× AF = AF = × AG = AG
3 4 2 2 2 4 2 Ab
3 1 ⇒ BD =
.
∴ GG′ = AG – AG′ = AG – AG = AG. 4 A2 + b 4
4 4
9. AB || YQ ⇒ ∠XBP = ∠YQC
6.  LM || QR
(corresponding angles) and A
PLM = PQR Corresponding s XP || AC ⇒ ∠XPB = ∠YCQ
PML
= PRQ
DABC being an equilateral triangle,

⇒ DPQR ~ DPLM ∠B = ∠C = 60º
X Y
Area of ∆PLM PL2 ⇒ ∠XPB = ∠YQC = 60°

∴ = …(i) B P Q C
Area of ∆PQR PQ 2 ⇒ ∠XPB = ∠QYC = 60º
⇒ DXBP and DYQC are equilateral triangles.
Area of DPQR = Area Q
of DPLM + Area of trap. AX XY
Now, XY || BC ⇒ = ⇒ AX = XY ( AB = BC)
LMRQ AB BC
L
Also, XY + XP + YQ = 40 ⇒ AX + XB + YQ = 40
Given, Area of trapezium
LMRQ = 2 Area of DPLM ( AX = XY, XP = XB)
∴ Area of DPQR = Area of ⇒ AB + YQ = 40 ⇒ YQ = 40 – AB = 40 – 30 = 10
DPLM + 2 Area of DPLM R M P ∴ XP = YQ = 10 cm.
= 3 Area of DPLM ⇒ BP = QC = 10 cm (DXBP and DYQC are equilateral)
∴ From (i), we have ⇒ PQ = BC – (BP + QC) = 30 – 10 – 10 = 10 cm.
Ch 6-16 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

10. Let AD be the median of DABC Let AF be drawn perpendicular to A

∴ BD = DC
A BC ⇒ BF = FC.
Let AE be the perpen- Also E is given as the other point
dicular from A on BC. of trisection, so BD = DE = EC
Then, Also, BD = 2DF    …(ii)
In rt. DABE, Now AB2 = BF2 + AF2 and
AB2 = BE2 + AE2 B E D C AD2 = DF2 + AF2
B D F E C
= (BD – ED)2 + AE2 Now AB2 = BF2 + AF2
= BD2 + ED2 + AE2 – 2BD.ED 1 
2
2
⇒ AB2
=  BC  + AF
= BD2 + AD2 – 2BD.ED …(i) 2
In rt. DACE,
AC2 = AE2 + EC2 1
⇒ AB2 =
BC 2 + AF 2 ( BC = AB )
= AE2 + (ED + DC)2 4
= AE2 + ED2 + DC2 + 2ED.DC 1 3
⇒ AB2 =
AB 2 + AF 2 ⇒ AF2 = AB 2 …(iii)
=AD2 +DC2 + 2ED.DC 4 4
= AD2 + BD2 + 2ED.BD ( BD = DC) …(ii) Also, AD2 = DF2 + AF2

Adding (i) and (ii), we get 2
1 1  2
AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 + 2BD2. =  × BC  + AF (From (i) and (ii))
2 3
11. Let the areas of DAXY and DBXY be A1 and A2 respectively. 2
The heights of the DAXY and DBXY are equal, so 1  2
=  BC  + AF
1 6
A1 × AX × height A
1
= 2 = BC 2 + AF 2
A2 1 36
× BX × height
2 X Y 1 3
A AX 3 = AB 2 + AB 2
⇒ 1 = = …(i) 36 4
A2 BX 5 ( BC = AB and putting the value from (iii))
Also, DAXY ~ DABC B C 28 7
2 = AB 2 ⇒ AD 2 = AB 2 .
Area of ∆AXY  AX  36 9 A

⇒ =  
Area of ∆ABC AB  14. Applying the Apollosnius
A
2
A1 9 theorem, 14 cm
 3x  10 cm
⇒ 1 =   ⇒ = AB2 + AC2 = 2(BD2 + AD2) G
16  3x + 5 x  16 64
9 9 ⇒ 100 + 196 = 2 (36 + AD2) B C
⇒ A1 = × 16 = …(ii)
⇒ 2AD2 = 296 – 72 = 224
6 cm D
64 4 12 cm
5 5 9 15 ⇒ AD2 = 112 ⇒ AD = 4 7
∴ From (i) and (ii) A2 = × A1 = × = = 3.75 cm 2 .
3 3 4 4 AG 2
As G is the centroid, so =
12. Join OA, OB and OC. A GD 1
By Pythagoras, theorem, 2 2 8
⇒ AG = AD = × 4 7 = 7.
In DAOF, AF2 = AO2 – OF2  …(i) F E 3 3 3
2 2
In DBOD, BD = BO – OD …(ii) 2 O
15. a2 + b2 + c2 = ab + bc + ca
In DCOE, CE2 = CO2 – OE2 …(iii) ⇒ a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca = 0

Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we get B D C
⇒ 2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 – 2ab – 2bc – 2ca = 0

AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = AO2 – OF2 + BO2 – OD2 + CO2 – OE2
⇒ (a – b)2 + (b – c)2 + (c – a)2 = 0

AO2 – OE2 BO2 – OF2 CO2 – OD2
= + + Sum of perfect squares = 0 ⇒ Each term of the sum is zero
= AE2 + BF2 + CD2.
⇒ (a – b) = 0 = (b – c) = (c – a)

13. ABC being an equilateral triangle, AB = BC = AC.
Also BC being trisected at D ⇒a=b=c

1
⇒ The triangle is equilateral.
⇒  BD = BC …(i) 16. H is the orthocentre of DABC
3
⇒ AD ^ BC, BE ^ CA, CF ^ AB
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-17
In DBHC, A
LM MO L
AD ^ BC ⇒ HD ^ BC = =1
F E LN ON
CF ^ AB ⇒ BF ^ HC (Produced) H
(By bisector theorem)

3 cm
m
⇒ The altitudes HD and BF of ⇒ LM = LN

5c
DHBC intersect in A. ⇒ DLMN is isosceles triangle.
B D C
⇒ A is the orthocentre of DHBC. Now DLOM ≅ DLON (By SSS)
17. By the cosine rule, we have, ⇒ ∠LOM = ∠LON = 90º (cpct) M O N
a 2 + b2 − c2
cos C = ∴ In DLOM, MO =
LM 2 − LO 2
2ab
a 2 + b2 − c2 = 25 − 9 = 16 = 4 cm .

⇒ cos 120º =
2ab 1
Area of DLMN = × MN × LO
1 a +b −c 2 2 2 2
⇒ −
= 1
2 2ab
2
= × 8 × 3 cm = 12 cm2.
2
⇒ c2
= + a2 b2 + ab.
21. Given, ABC is an equilateral triangle A
18. In DABC,
A (b) such that AB = BC = CA = 10 m
b2 + c2 − a 2 2 cm 4 cm If O is any point in the DABC, R Q
cos A =
2bc D then O
2 cm
AC 2 + AB 2 − BC 2 Area of DABC
= (c)
2 × AC × AB = Area (DOAB) + Area (DOAC) B Q C
B 3 cm C
2 2 2 + Area (DOBC)
4 +2 −3 (a)
=
2×4×2 1 1 1
16 + 4 − 9 11 =× AB × OR + × AC × OP + × AC × OQ
= = 2 2 2
16 16 1
= × AB × (OR + OP + OQ) ( AB = BC = CA)
In DBAD, 2
AD 2 + AB 2 − BD 2 1
cos A = = × 10 × (2 + 3 + OQ)
2 × AD × AB 2
3
11 4 + 4 − BD 2 8 − BD 2  Area of an equilateral D = (side) 2

⇒ = = 4
16 2×2×2 8 3 1
∴ × (10) 2 = × 10 × (5 + OQ)
⇒ 11 = 16 – 2BD2 ⇒ 2BD2 = 5 ⇒ BD2 = 2.5 4 2
∴ Area of square on BD = (BD)2 = 2.5 cm2. ⇒ 5 3 = 5 + OQ ⇒ OQ = 5 3 – 5.
19. PQ || AC C
22. CE, CD and CF are the required paths such that the longest
CQ AP 4
⇒ = =  …(i) side of the park AB is divided into four A
QB PB 3 equal segments. E
Q
Also, QD || CP R
m AE = ED = DF = FB = 20 m. D
6c
PD CQ 4 S Let AC = b, BC = a
⇒ = = F
DB QB 3 A P D B Then, by Apollonius theorem in DACD
        (From (i)) AC2 + CD2 = 2 (CE2 + 202) C B

PD 4 PD PD 4 4 1
= ⇒ = = = …(ii) ⇒ (b2 + CD2) = CE2 + 202 …(i)
DB 3 PB PD + DB 4 + 3 7 2
∴ From (i) and (ii) Similarly in DCDB, (CB2 + CD2) = 2 (CF2 + 202)
AP 4 PB 7 1 2 2
= and = ⇒ CF2 + 202 = (a + CD ) …(ii)
PB 3 PD 4 2
AP PB 4 7 AP 7 Adding (i) and (ii),
∴ × = × ⇒ = ⇒ AP : PD = 7 : 3. 1 2 2 2
PB PD 3 4 PD 3 CE2 + CF2 + 2 × 202 = (a + b + 2 × CD )
2
1 2 2 2
20. LO being the median on MN, ⇒ CE2 + CF2 = (80 + 2 × 40 ) − 2 × 20
2
MO = ON
( AC2 + CB2 = AB2 ⇒ a2 + b2 = 802)
Also, LO being the internal bisector of ∠MLN,
Ch 6-18 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

( CD = 40,  line joining the vertex at the right ∠ to the 7 x2 7 × 13 13 49 − 13 36


mid-point of the hypotenuse is half the hypotenuse) 3 y = 7− = 7− = 7− = =
49 49 7 7 7
1
⇒ CE2 + CF2 = (6400 + 3200) − 800 36 12 3
2 ⇒y=
= .
7× 3 7
= 4000.
Now CE2 + CF2 + CD2 = 4000 + 402 = 5600. 25. Join P′Q′.
23. Let AD = p P′, Q′ being the mid-points of QR and PR respectively, we
1 1 1
Area of DABC = bc sin ∠BAC = bc sin 120º have P′Q′ || PQ and P′Q′ = PQ
2 2 2
1 3 3 (By the mid-point theoram)
= bc × = bc
2 2 4 A Let OP′ = a, OQ′ = b, OP = c, OQ = d and PQ = x
1 60° 60° 1
Area of DBAD = cp sin 60º b Then, P′Q′ = x . Q
2
c
p 2
3 ∴ In rt. D OP′Q′, 3/2
= cp B C d
D x2
3 x
4 a
a2
+ = b2 …(i)
P′ a

1 3 4 3/2 O
c
Area of DCAD = bp sin 60º = bp In rt. D OP′Q,
2 4 b

Now Area (DABC) = Area (DBAD) + Area (DCAD) 9 R 2 Q′ 2 P


a2 + d 2 = …(ii)
4 4
3 3 3 bc

⇒ bc = cp + bp ⇒ bc = p (b + c) ⇒ p = . In rt. DOQP,
4 4 4 b+ c
c2 + d 2 = x2 …(iii)
24. Let BC = x and AD = y, then as per bisector theorem, In rt. D OQ′P,
A
BD AB 4 b2 + c2 = 4 …(iv)
= =
DC AC 3 ∴ Eq (i) – Eq (ii) + Eq (iii) – Eq (iv)
30°
4x 3x 4
30°
x2 9
∴ BD = and DC = 3
− + x2 − 4
7 7 y ⇒ a2 + b2 – (a2 + d2) + (c2 + d2) – (b2 + c2) =

4 4
Now in DABD using cosine rule,
5 x 2 25 5 x 2 25
AB 2 + AD 2 − BD 2
⇒ 0 = − ⇒ = ⇒ x 2 = 5 ⇒ x = 5.
cos 30º = B D C 4 4 4 4
2 × AB × AD x 26. When ∠A = 60º and b = c, then DABC A
16 x 2 16 x 2 is equilateral
16 + y 2 − 16 + y 2 −
49 ⇒ 3 = 49
= ⇒ a = b = c
2×4× y 2 2×4× y c b
when A = 90º, then DABC is an
2 16 x 2 isosceles right angled triangle and
⇒ 4 3y = 16 + y −
…(i)
49 B a C
a= 2b or a = 2c .
In DACD using the cosine rule,
∴ 60º < A < 90º = c < a <
2c .
AC 2 + AD 2 − CD 2
cos 30º = 27. P and Q being the mid-points of
C
2 × AC × AD
AC and AB respectively, PQ || BC
9 x2
9 + y2 − 1 G R
3 49 and PQ = BC P J

⇒ = 2 F
2 2×3× y I H
2
Let AF ^ BC be drawn such that
2 9x it intersects PQ and BC in E and E
⇒ 3 3y = 9 + y −
…(ii)
49 F respectively. A Q B
AB 2 + AC 2 − BC 2 AE AP
Also in DABC, cos 60º = PQ || BC ⇒ = = 1 ⇒ AE = EF
2 × AB × AC EF PC
1 16 + 9 − BC 2 Also let RI ^ PQ be drawn such that it intersect BC and PQ
⇒ = ⇒ 12 = 25 − BC 2
2 2× 4×3 in J and I respectively. G and H being the mid-points of
⇒ BC2 = 13 ⇒ x2 = 13 1
∴ Subtracting eqn (ii) from (i), we get sides PR and RQ of DPQR, GH || PQ and GH = PQ
2
(By midpoint Theorem)
PLANE GEOMETRY–TRIANGLES Ch 6-19

RJ RG 30. Let AD be the height of the A


Also, GH || PQ ⇒ = = 1 ⇒ RJ = JI given triangle ABC, where
JI GP
(By Basic Proportionality Theorem) AD = h and BC = b Also 2x
let height HG of rectangle H E h
But EF = JI
EFGH equal x so that
∴ AE = EF = RJ = JI x
HE = GF = 2x
∴ AF = AE + EF = RJ + JI = RI = h (say)
Now DBGH ~ DBDA B G D F C
1
× PQ × h BG HG b
Area ( ∆PQR) 2 PQ 1 ⇒ =
Then, = = = . BD AD
Area ( ∆ABC ) 1 BC 2
× BC × h BG x x
2 ⇒ = ⇒ BG = BD …(i)
28. AD being the median to BC, BD h h
AB2 + AC2 = 2 (BD2 + AD2) (Apollonius Th.) Also, DCFE ~ DCDA
CF EF x
 a2 2
A ⇒ = =
⇒ c2 + b2 = 2  + AD 
CD AD h
4 cF Eb x
 a2 ⇒ CF = CD …(ii)
2
G
⇒ 2c2 + 2b2 = 4  + AD 
h
4 BG + CF = BC – GF = b – 2x …(iii)
⇒ 4AD2 = 2c2 + 2b2 – a2
B D C ∴ From (i), (ii) and (iii)
a
1 x x x
⇒ AD =
2c 2 + 2b 2 − a 2 b – 2x = ( BD + CD)   ⇒  b − 2 x = BC = b
2 h h h
2 ⇒ bh – 2xh = xb ⇒ bh = xb + 2xh = x(b + 2h)
Now G divides AD in ratio 2 : 1 ∴ AG = AD
3 bh
4 2 4 1 2 2 2 ⇒ x = .
⇒ AG = AD = × (2c + 2b − a )
2
b + 2h
9 9 4
31. Let ∠EAD = a. Then,
1 2 2 2 In DABC, AB = BC ⇒ ∠BCA = a sides opp. equal
= (2c + 2b − a )
9 In DAGF, AG = GF ⇒ ∠AFG = a angles are equal

1 2 2 2 ∴ For DABC, ext CBD = 2a
Similarly, GB2 = (2c + 2a − b )
9 E
1 C
AG2 + GB2 = [2c2 + 2b2 – a2 + 2c2 + 2a2 – b2] 2α
9 3α
α
α
1 G
= [a2 + b2 + 4c2] 2α P
9
α
1 2 2 9c 2
= [5c + 4c ] = = c 2 = BC 2

α 2α α 2α
9 9 A B F D
⇒ AG ^ GB ⇒ Angle between the medians drawn to sides
a and b is 90º. In DCBD, CB = CD ⇒ ∠CDB = 2a

29. Let BP = x. Then PC = 2x
A
For DAFG, ext ∠FGC = 2a
 AP bisects ∠BAC, °
 In DGFE, GF = EF ⇒ ∠FEG = ∠FGE = 2a

30° 30
By the angle bisector theorem, For DEAF, ext. ∠EFD = 3a
AB BP 1  EF = ED \ ∠EDF = ∠EFD = 3a ⇒ ∠EDP = a

= =
AC PC 2 B x P 2x C For DCAD, ext. ∠DCE = 3a
AC BA In DECD, DC = ED ⇒ ∠DEC = ∠DCE = 3a
Using the sine formula, =
sin B sin C
⇒ ∠FED = ∠DEC – ∠FEC = 3a – 2a = a.
sin C BA 1 \ In DEFD, a + 3a + 3a = 180º
⇒ = =
sin B AC 2 180º
1 ⇒ 7a = 180º ⇒ a = = 26º or approximately 25º.
7
sin C 2 1
⇒ = ⇒ sin C = and sin B = 1 32. In DABC, let BP bisect ∠ABC
sin B 1 2
Let ∠C = x ⇒ ∠B = 2x
⇒ ∠C = 30° and ∠B = 90°
∴ ∠PBC = ∠ABP = x
∴ In DAPC, APC = 180º – (30º + 30º) = 120º.
Ch 6-20 IIT FOUNDATION MATHEMATICS CLASS – IX

In DPBC, A 34. G being the centroid of DABC, A


∠PBC = ∠PCB = x y y AG BG CG 2
P = = =
⇒ PC = PB (sides opposite GD GE GF 1 F E
equal angles are equal) In DABD,
G

Now in DAPB and DBPC x AB + BD > AD


x 2y x
AB = CD (Given) BC B D C
B D C ⇒ AB + > AD …(i)
PB = PC (Proved above) 2
∠ABP = ∠DCP = x In DBEC,
∴ DAPB ≅ DDPC AC
BC + CE > BE ⇒ BC + > BE …(ii)
⇒ ∠BAP = ∠PDC = 2y and AP = DP 2
∴ In DAPD, AP = DP ⇒ ∠PDA = ∠PAD = y In DAFC,
∴ ∠DPA = 180º – 2y …(i) AB
AC + AF > CF ⇒ AC + > CF …(iii)
Also from DDPC, ∠DPC = 180º – (x + 2y) …(ii) 2
∴ From (i) and (ii), ∠DPA + ∠DPC = 180º Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
⇒ 180º – 2y + 180º – (x + 2y) = 180º BC AC AB
AB + BC + AC + + + > AD + BE + CF
⇒ x + 4y = 180º …(1) 2 2 2
Also in DABC, ∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 180º 2 AB + 2 BC + 2 AC + BC + AC + AB
⇒ > AD + BE + CF
2y + 2x + x = 180º 2
⇒ 3(AB + BC + AC) > 2 (AD + BE + CF) ⇒ I is true
3x + 2y = 180º …(2)
Also, in D BGC,
∴ (2) – 3 × (1) ⇒ 3x + 2y – (3x + 12y) = 180º – 3 × 180º
BG + GC > BC
⇒ –10y = –360º ⇒ y = 36º
∴ ∠BAC = 2y = 2 × 36º = 72º.  BG 2 CG 2 2 2 
 = and = ⇒ BG = BE and CG = CF 
GE 1 GF 1 3 3 
33. Area (DPSX) = Area (PUS) – Area (SUX)
2 2
In DPXS, WY || SX P

⇒ BE + CF > BC ⇒ 2 BE + 2CF > 3BC …(iv)
3 3
PY PW
⇒ = =1 Similarly in DBGA,
YX WS V
BG + GA > AB
(Given, PW = WS) Y W 2 2
⇒ PY = YX ⇒ BE + AD > AB ⇒ 2BE + 2AD > 3AB …(v)
T 3 3
In DRUY, X
In DCGA,
UX US 1 CG + GA > AC
SX || RY = = =
XY SR 2 Q U S R 2 2
( QS = SR and QV = US) ⇒ CF + AD > AC
3 3
1
= UX = ( XY ) ⇒ 2CF + 2AD > 3AC …(vi)
2
Adding (iii), (iv) and (v), we get
1 1 1  1
∴ In DPUS, UX = XY = 