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STRUCTURES

COOL ART WITH MATH & SCIENCE

C R E A T I V E A C T I V I T
C R E A T I V E
A C T I V I T I E S
T H A T
M A K E
M A T H
&
S C I E N C E
FUN
FOR
KIDS!
I T I E S T H A T M A K E M A T
I T I E S T H A T M A K E M A T
I T I E S T H A T M A K E M A T
I T I E S T H A T M A K E M A T

A NDER S

HAN S O N

AND

ELI S S A

MANN

COOL

ART

WITH

MATH

&

SCIENCE

STRUCTURES
STRUCTURES

CREATIVE ACTIVITIES THAT MAKE MATH & SCIENCE

& SCIENCE STRUCTURES CREATIVE ACTIVITIES THAT MAKE MATH & SCIENCE ANDERS HANSON FUN FOR KIDS! AND

ANDERS

HANSON

FUN

FOR

KIDS!

& SCIENCE STRUCTURES CREATIVE ACTIVITIES THAT MAKE MATH & SCIENCE ANDERS HANSON FUN FOR KIDS! AND

AND

ELISSA

MANN

& SCIENCE STRUCTURES CREATIVE ACTIVITIES THAT MAKE MATH & SCIENCE ANDERS HANSON FUN FOR KIDS! AND
& SCIENCE STRUCTURES CREATIVE ACTIVITIES THAT MAKE MATH & SCIENCE ANDERS HANSON FUN FOR KIDS! AND
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box
VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM
Published by ABDO Publishing Company, a division of ABDO, P.O. Box 398166, Minneapolis,
Minnesota 55439. Copyright © 2014 by Abdo Consulting Group, Inc. International copyrights
reserved in all countries. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written
permission from the publisher. Checkerboard Library™ is a trademark and logo of ABDO Publishing
Company.
Printed in the United States of America, North Mankato, Minnesota
062013
092013
Design and Production: Anders Hanson, Mighty Media, Inc.
Series Editor: Liz Salzmann
Photo Credits: Anders Hanson, Shutterstock
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA
Hanson, Anders, 1980-
Cool structures : creative activities that make math & science fun for kids! / Anders Hanson and Elissa
Mann.
pages cm. -- (Cool art with math & science)
Includes index.
ISBN 978-1-61783-825-5
1.
Building--Juvenile literature. 2. Architecture--Juvenile literature. 3. Geometry--Juvenile literature.
4.
Mathematical recreations--Juvenile literature. 5. Scientific recreations--Juvenile literature.
6.
Creative activities and seat work--Juvenile literature. I. Mann, Elissa, 1990- II. Title.
TH149.H36 2013
507.8--dc23
2013001900
activities and seat work--Juvenile literature. I. Mann, Elissa, 1990- II. Title. TH149.H36 2013 507.8--dc23 2013001900
activities and seat work--Juvenile literature. I. Mann, Elissa, 1990- II. Title. TH149.H36 2013 507.8--dc23 2013001900
activities and seat work--Juvenile literature. I. Mann, Elissa, 1990- II. Title. TH149.H36 2013 507.8--dc23 2013001900
activities and seat work--Juvenile literature. I. Mann, Elissa, 1990- II. Title. TH149.H36 2013 507.8--dc23 2013001900

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

4

6

8

12

14

18

CONTENTS 4 6 8 12 14 18 COOL STRUCTURES BITS AND PIECES PUT TOGETHER PYRAMIDS ANCIENT

COOL STRUCTURES

BITS AND PIECES PUT TOGETHER

PYRAMIDS

ANCIENT GEOMETRY

PROJECT 1

BUILD A PYRAMID

BRIDGES

GET OVER IT!

PROJECT 2

BUILD A BRIDGE

SLING IT

STRUCTURES IN ACTION!

20

24

26

30

31

31

32

PROJECT 3

BUILD A CATAPULT

TOWERS

BUILDING HIGH

PROJECT 4

SPAGHETTI TOWER CHALLENGE

MATH TERMS

GLOSSARY

WEB SITES

INDEX

PROJECT 3 BUILD A CATAPULT TOWERS BUILDING HIGH PROJECT 4 SPAGHETTI TOWER CHALLENGE MATH TERMS GLOSSARY
PROJECT 3 BUILD A CATAPULT TOWERS BUILDING HIGH PROJECT 4 SPAGHETTI TOWER CHALLENGE MATH TERMS GLOSSARY
STRUCTURES B I T S PUT A N D P I E C E S
STRUCTURES
B
I T S
PUT
A N D
P
I E C E
S
TOGETHER
S tructures are useful arrangements of materials. They have many different
parts and pieces. The pieces come together to give the structure form and
function. Structures provide shelter, transportation, and culture. Some of the
most popular destinations in the world are structures. The Statue of Liberty,
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few
examples of world famous structures.
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of

4

the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Egyptian pyramids are a few examples of
Skyscrapers tower over many cities. Burj Khalifa in Dubai is the tallest structure in the
Skyscrapers tower over many cities. Burj
Khalifa in Dubai is the tallest structure in
the world. It is 2,717 feet (828 m) tall!
Bridges help people cross gaps. The
Golden Gate Bridge is one of the most
famous bridges in the world!
(828 m) tall! Bridges help people cross gaps. The Golden Gate Bridge is one of the

5

PYRAMIDS ANCIENT GEOMETRY T housands of years ago, the Egyptians built pyramids out of stone.
PYRAMIDS ANCIENT GEOMETRY T housands of years ago, the Egyptians built pyramids out of stone.
PYRAMIDS ANCIENT GEOMETRY T housands of years ago, the Egyptians built pyramids out of stone.
PYRAMIDS ANCIENT GEOMETRY T housands of years ago, the Egyptians built pyramids out of stone.
PYRAMIDS ANCIENT GEOMETRY T housands of years ago, the Egyptians built pyramids out of stone.

PYRAMIDS

ANCIENT

GEOMETRY

PYRAMIDS ANCIENT GEOMETRY T housands of years ago, the Egyptians built pyramids out of stone. They

T housands of years ago, the Egyptians built pyramids out of stone. They were the first great structures. The largest Egyptian pyramid is the Great Pyramid of Giza. It is the

oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the only one still standing today. It was the tallest building in the world for more than 3,800 years!

World. It is the only one still standing today. It was the tallest building in the
World. It is the only one still standing today. It was the tallest building in the
World. It is the only one still standing today. It was the tallest building in the
World. It is the only one still standing today. It was the tallest building in the
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is
The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is

The Egyptian pyramids aren’t just amazing buildings. They are also geometric forms. A pyramid is a 3-D shape with triangular sides. The sides meet at a point called the apex. The base of a pyramid can be any type of polygon. The ancient pyramids in Egypt have square bases. They are called square pyramids.

TYPES

OF

PYRAMIDS

bases. They are called square pyramids. TYPES OF PYRAMIDS APEX BASE TETRAHEDRON SQUARE PYRAMID PENTAGONAL
bases. They are called square pyramids. TYPES OF PYRAMIDS APEX BASE TETRAHEDRON SQUARE PYRAMID PENTAGONAL

APEX

They are called square pyramids. TYPES OF PYRAMIDS APEX BASE TETRAHEDRON SQUARE PYRAMID PENTAGONAL PYRAMID

BASE

They are called square pyramids. TYPES OF PYRAMIDS APEX BASE TETRAHEDRON SQUARE PYRAMID PENTAGONAL PYRAMID

TETRAHEDRON

SQUARE PYRAMID

PENTAGONAL PYRAMID

(3-SIDED BASE)

(4-SIDED BASE)

(5-SIDED BASE)

APEX BASE TETRAHEDRON SQUARE PYRAMID PENTAGONAL PYRAMID (3-SIDED BASE) (4-SIDED BASE) (5-SIDED BASE) 7
APEX BASE TETRAHEDRON SQUARE PYRAMID PENTAGONAL PYRAMID (3-SIDED BASE) (4-SIDED BASE) (5-SIDED BASE) 7
A S T U F F YOU´L L NEED 30/60/90 TRIANGLE A LARGE PIECE OF
A
A
S T U F F YOU´L L NEED 30/60/90 TRIANGLE A LARGE PIECE OF CARDBOARD
S T U F F
YOU´L L
NEED
30/60/90
TRIANGLE
A LARGE PIECE
OF CARDBOARD
PENCIL
SCISSORS
DUCT TAPE
FOAM BRUSH
MOD PODGE
SAND
TERMS
ANGLE
DEGREE
PYRAMID
SQUARE
PENTAGONAL
TETRAHEDRON
TRIANGLE

PROJECT

1

B U I L D

PYRAMID

TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
TETRAHEDRON TRIANGLE PROJECT 1 B U I L D PYRAMID F ollow in the footsteps of
F ollow in the footsteps of the ancient Egyptians. Make your own square pyramid! But
F ollow in the footsteps of the ancient Egyptians.
Make your own square pyramid! But don’t stop
there. Make a tetrahedron too, using four triangles.
Or try a pentagonal pyramid using one more triangle.
Before you know it, you’ll have a city of pyramids!
Tip: A 30/60/90 triangle is a type of triangle template.
You can find them at most art supply stores.
9
1 2 3
1
2
3

HOW1 2 3 TO MAKE IT Use a 30/60/90 triangle to draw a 60- degree angle

TO

MAKE

IT

Use a 30/60/90 triangle to draw a 60- degree angle on the cardboard. Make the lines as long triangle to draw a 60-degree angle on the cardboard. Make the lines as long as you want. The longer the lines, the bigger your pyramid will be.

1

Flip the 30/60/90 triangle over. Line the bottom of the triangle up with the bottom line you just drew. Draw a line that connects the two lines you drew in step 1.The longer the lines, the bigger your pyramid will be. 1 2 Carefully cut out the

2

Carefully cut out the triangle. Trace around the triangle on the cardboard.of the triangle up with the bottom line you just drew. Draw a line that connects

3

10
10

Trace two more triangles on the cardboard. Cut out the triangles. triangles on the cardboard. Cut out the triangles.

4

Lay the four cardboard triangles next to each other with their sides lined up. Tape the triangles together. Put tape on the side of one of the end triangles.more triangles on the cardboard. Cut out the triangles. 4 5 Fold the taped triangles up

5

Fold the taped triangles up so the tape is on the inside. Line up the sides of the end triangles. Use the tape to hold them together. The triangles are the sides of your square pyramid . square pyramid.

6

7

Use a foam brush to spread Mod Podge on one of the sides. Sprinkle a lot of sand over the Mod Podge.

8

Repeat step seven for the other three sides. Let the Mod Podge dry completely.

11
11
4 5 6
4
5
6

BRIDGES

BRIDGES GET OVER IT! S ince the dawn of history people have built bridges. Bridges span
BRIDGES GET OVER IT! S ince the dawn of history people have built bridges. Bridges span
BRIDGES GET OVER IT! S ince the dawn of history people have built bridges. Bridges span
GET OVER IT!
GET
OVER
IT!

S ince the dawn of history people have built bridges. Bridges span obstacles. They help people cross from one place to another. The first

bridges were simple. They were made of rope, stone, or logs. Today’s bridges are more complex. They use many different materials and designs.

M I G H T Y

TRIANGLE

The triangle is the strongest polygon. It is very hard to bend or break. Because of their strength, triangles are often used in bridges.

T H E

polygon. It is very hard to bend or break. Because of their strength, triangles are often
polygon. It is very hard to bend or break. Because of their strength, triangles are often
polygon. It is very hard to bend or break. Because of their strength, triangles are often
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM BRIDGE A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It lies in a straight line,
BEAM
BRIDGE
A beam bridge is the simplest bridge. It
lies in a straight line, going from one side
to another.

ARCH

BRIDGE

An arch bridge rises in the middle. The arch is held up on each end by supports called abutments.

SUSPENSION

BRIDGE

Strong cables support suspension bridges. The cables are attached to big towers. The cables are held down at each end of the bridge by heavy blocks.

bridges. The cables are attached to big towers. The cables are held down at each end
bridges. The cables are attached to big towers. The cables are held down at each end
bridges. The cables are attached to big towers. The cables are held down at each end
bridges. The cables are attached to big towers. The cables are held down at each end
14
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PROJECT B U I L D BRIDGE A 2 A good bridge can support a
PROJECT
B U I L D
BRIDGE
A
2
A good bridge can support a lot of weight. Bridge
builders often use triangles to construct strong
bridges. Try building your own triangle bridge. Using a
lot of triangles will help make your bridge strong!
15

S T U F F YOU´L L NEED

QUICK GRIP GLUE OR ANOTHER ALL-PURPOSE

PERMANENT ADHESIVE

NEWSPAPER

43 ½-INCH-

WIDE WOODEN

CRAFT STICKS

BINDER CLIPS

TERMS

DIAGONALLY

TRIANGLE

PARALLEL

1 HOW TO MAKE IT 1 Glue four craft sticks together, end-to-end. Let the glue
1
HOW
TO
MAKE
IT
1
Glue four craft sticks together,
end-to-end. Let the glue dry.
Glue three craft sticks together,
end-to-end. Let the glue dry.
Use two craft sticks to connect
the rods you made in step 1. Glue
each end of a craft stick to one
end of each rod. Glue each end of
the second craft stick to the other
ends of the rods. Let the glue dry.
2
2
3
Arrange six craft sticks across the
frame you made in step 2. The
craft sticks should form equal-
sized triangles inside the frame.
Glue the six craft sticks to the frame.
Use binder clips to hold
the sticks in place.
4
4
16

Repeat steps 1 to 4 to make a second frame. Let the glue on both frames dry. Remove the binder clips from the frames.5 Have a friend hold the frames parallel to each other. The longer rods should

5

Have a friend hold the frames parallel to each other. The longer rods should be on the bottom. Glue craft sticks parallel to each other. The longer rods should be on the bottom. Glue craft sticks diagonally across the shorter rods. Glue some of them above and some below the top rods.

6

7

Turn the bridge over and glue craft sticks diagonally across the longer rods. Use the same process as step 6.

Turn the bridge back over. Glue more craft sticks across the bottom rods. Arrange them so they cover the space between the frames.across the longer rods. Use the same process as step 6. 8 9 Test the weight

8

9

Test the weight your bridge can hold! Balance the bridge between two chairs. Add weight to the middle of the bridge. See how much it will hold.

17

5 6 8
5
6
8
SLING IT! S T R U C T U R E S I N A
SLING IT! S T R U C T U R E S I N A
SLING IT! S T R U C T U R E S I N A
SLING IT! S T R U C T U R E S I N A
SLING IT! S T R U C T U R E S I N A

SLING IT!

S T R U C T U R E S

I N

A C T I O N !

SLING IT! S T R U C T U R E S I N A C

C atapults and slingshots are simple but effective machines. To build

one, you need something stretchy, such as a rubber band. You can stretch or twist a rubber band but it returns to its original shape when you let go.

POTENTIAL

it returns to its original shape when you let go. POTENTIAL ENERGY Some materials have potential

ENERGY

Some materials have potential energy. Potential energy is stored energy. It’s ready to spring into action at any time. Stretching a rubber band charges it with potential energy. When the rubber band is released, it moves! That’s called kinetic energy.

P O T E N T I A L ENERGY

Pulling on the bands stretches them. They become charged with potential energy.

energy. P O T E N T I A L ENERGY Pulling on the bands stretches
energy. P O T E N T I A L ENERGY Pulling on the bands stretches
energy. P O T E N T I A L ENERGY Pulling on the bands stretches
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy.
KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
KINETIC
ENERGY
CONSERVATION
OF
ENERGY

Kinetic energy is action! All moving objects have kinetic energy. It keeps objects in motion. Shooting

an object from a slingshot flings it through the air. The more kinetic energy it has, the farther it will go!

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be changed into a different type of energy. The potential energy in a stretched rubber band equals the kinetic energy of the object it shoots. In other words, the more you pull back, the farther it will fly!

K I N E T I C ENERGY

Releasing the bands turns the potential energy into kinetic energy. The bands snap forward and the ball goes flying!

Releasing the bands turns the potential energy into kinetic energy. The bands snap forward and the
Releasing the bands turns the potential energy into kinetic energy. The bands snap forward and the
Releasing the bands turns the potential energy into kinetic energy. The bands snap forward and the
S T U F F YOU´L L NEED 22 ½-INCH-WIDE WOODEN CRAFT STICKS 16 REGULAR
S T U F F YOU´L L NEED 22 ½-INCH-WIDE WOODEN CRAFT STICKS 16 REGULAR
S T U F F
YOU´L L
NEED
22 ½-INCH-WIDE
WOODEN CRAFT
STICKS
16 REGULAR
RUBBER BANDS
QUICK GRIP GLUE
OR ANOTHER
ALL-PURPOSE
PERMANENT
ADHESIVE
PLASTIC SPOON
A SMALL, SOFT
OBJECT
BINDER CLIPS
(OPTIONAL)
TERMS
PARALLEL
TRIANGLE
SQUARE
CLIPS (OPTIONAL) TERMS PARALLEL TRIANGLE SQUARE PROJECT B U I L D A 3 CATAPULT C

PROJECT

B U I L D A 3 CATAPULT C atapults are ancient structures used to
B U I L D
A
3
CATAPULT
C atapults are ancient structures used to launch
heavy objects. They were popular in the Middle
Ages. When the cannon was invented, the catapult
fell out of use. Make a catapult of your own with craft
sticks and rubber bands.
Tip: Use binder clips to hold the craft sticks together
while the glue is drying.
21
1 HOW TO MAKE IT 1 Lay six craft sticks on top of each other.
1
HOW
TO
MAKE
IT
1
Lay six craft sticks on top of
each other. Wind a rubber band
tightly around each end of the
stack. Make a second stack of six
craft sticks the same way. Lay the
stacks parallel to each other.
Glue a craft stick across the
stacks at each end to make a
square base. Let the glue dry.
2
2
3
Stack two craft sticks. Wind a
rubber band tightly around each
end. Make three more stacks of
two craft sticks the same way.
Hold two of the stacks upright.
Overlap the tops to form a triangular
shape. Glue the tops to each other.
Glue the bottoms to one side of the
base. Glue the other two stacks to the
other side of the base the same way.
4
4
22

Attach the handle of the spoon to the middle of a craft stick. Use a rubber band to tie them together tightly.5 Pull up a loop from one of the rubber bands on the base. Twist

5

Pull up a loop from one of the rubber bands on the base. Twist the loop. Put one end of the stick with the spoon through the loop. Repeat on the other side. You should be able to move the spoon up and down.stick. Use a rubber band to tie them together tightly. 5 6 Wrap a rubber band

6

Wrap a rubber band around the tops of the triangles . triangles.

7

8

Raise the spoon and put it inside the rubber band that goes across

the top of the catapult.

9

Pull the spoon down and load it with a small, soft object. Release the spoon and watch the object fly!

23
23
5 6 7
5
6
7
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky!

TOWERS

BUILDING

TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky! There
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky! There

HIGH

TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky! There
TOWERS BUILDING HIGH W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky! There

W ith the right materials and geometry, buildings can reach the sky! There are two

important rules for building tall towers. First, a tall, skinny building can fall over easily.

Adding a wide base makes it more stable. Second, towers can buckle under their own weight. Using strong, stiff shapes, such as triangles, keeps a tower from breaking.

B R A C E D RECTANGLE

A braced rectangle has two diagonal beams across it. They support the sides of the rectangle. This makes the rectangle much stronger.

Three braced rectangles can form a triangular prism.

Three braced rectangles can form a triangular prism . BRACED RECTANGLE TRIANGULAR PRISM BRACED RECTANGLES ON
Three braced rectangles can form a triangular prism . BRACED RECTANGLE TRIANGULAR PRISM BRACED RECTANGLES ON
BRACED RECTANGLE
BRACED RECTANGLE

TRIANGULAR PRISM

rectangles can form a triangular prism . BRACED RECTANGLE TRIANGULAR PRISM BRACED RECTANGLES ON THE EIFFEL

BRACED RECTANGLES ON THE EIFFEL TOWER

rectangles can form a triangular prism . BRACED RECTANGLE TRIANGULAR PRISM BRACED RECTANGLES ON THE EIFFEL
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of
Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of

Using the right geometry when designing and building tall buildings is important. Two types of geometry are often used. These are braced rectangles and trusses. Most tall buildings use one or both of these types of geometry.

TRUSS

Trusses are made of many equilateral triangles. The triangles help spread out the load.

Several trusses can be combined to create a space frame.

load. Several trusses can be combined to create a space frame. TRUSS SPACE FRAME TRUSSES ON
load. Several trusses can be combined to create a space frame. TRUSS SPACE FRAME TRUSSES ON

TRUSS

load. Several trusses can be combined to create a space frame. TRUSS SPACE FRAME TRUSSES ON

SPACE FRAME

load. Several trusses can be combined to create a space frame. TRUSS SPACE FRAME TRUSSES ON

TRUSSES ON AN ELECTRICAL TOWER

load. Several trusses can be combined to create a space frame. TRUSS SPACE FRAME TRUSSES ON
S T U F F YOU´L L NEED SPAGHETTI NOODLES MARSHMALLOWS TENNIS BALL RULER TERMS
S T U F F YOU´L L NEED SPAGHETTI NOODLES MARSHMALLOWS TENNIS BALL RULER TERMS
S T U F F
YOU´L L
NEED
SPAGHETTI
NOODLES
MARSHMALLOWS
TENNIS BALL
RULER
TERMS
HEIGHT
LENGTH
PYRAMID
FACE
TRIANGLE
PRISM
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T
TERMS HEIGHT LENGTH PYRAMID FACE TRIANGLE PRISM PROJECT S P A G H E T T

PROJECT

S P A G H E T T I 4 T O W E R
S P A G H E T T I
4
T O W E R
CHALLENGE
B uild a tower using only spaghetti and marshmallows!
How high can you make it? Can the top of the tower
support a tennis ball? Make sure the tower won’t fall
over when you add the tennis ball.
This project doesn’t include specific building
instructions. Instead, it shows how to make some useful
parts. It’s up to you to connect them. Think creatively
and try different models.
27
1 2 4
1
2
4
1 2 4 H O W T O M A K E A PYRAMID BASE Pyramids

H O W

T O

M A K E

1 2 4 H O W T O M A K E A PYRAMID BASE Pyramids

A PYRAMID BASE1 2 4 H O W T O M A K E Pyramids work well at

1 2 4 H O W T O M A K E A PYRAMID BASE Pyramids

Pyramids work well at the base of a tower. They spread out the weight of the tower.

Arrange three long sticks of spaghetti in a triangle . Slide a marshmallow to the middle of each one. Make three sticks half triangle. Slide a marshmallow to the middle of each one. Make three sticks half the length of the long sticks. Arrange the short sticks in a triangle inside the long sticks.

1

Connect the ends of the long sticks with marshmallows. Connect the short sticks to the middle marshmallows. This is the base of the pyramid.the short sticks in a triangle inside the long sticks. 1 2 3 Slide marshmallows halfway

2

3

Slide marshmallows halfway down three more long sticks. Put one end of each stick into the marshmallow at a point of the large triangle. Bring the other ends together. Insert them into a single marshmallow.

Make nine more half-size sticks. Use the short sticks to connect the middle marshmallows of the longtriangle. Bring the other ends together. Insert them into a single marshmallow. 4 sticks. Use three

4

sticks. Use three on each face . face.

28
28

H O W

A PRISM TOWER

Prisms work well at the top of a tower. They’re great for making tall structures. But they don’t offer as much support as pyramids.

T O

M A K E

Push two long sticks of spaghetti through the same marshmallow. Form an X with the sticks.don’t offer as much support as pyramids . T O M A K E 1 2

1

2

Make two sticks that are half the length of the first ones. Use marshmallows to attach the short sticks to the top and bottom of the X.

Measure the height of the X. Make two sticks to match the height. Push the ends into height of the X. Make two sticks to match the height. Push the ends into the corner marshmallows.

3

4

Repeat step 1 two times. Use marshmallows to attach the new Xs together at one end. Then attach the other end of each X to one end of the first X.

Make four more half-size sticks. Break another stick to match the height of the X. Use them to connect the points of the Xs.to attach the new Xs together at one end. Then attach the other end of each

5

29
29
1 3 5
1
3
5
MATH TERMS ANGLE – the shape formed when two lines meet at a common point.
MATH TERMS ANGLE – the shape formed when two lines meet at a common point.
MATH TERMS ANGLE – the shape formed when two lines meet at a common point.
MATH TERMS ANGLE – the shape formed when two lines meet at a common point.
MATH TERMS ANGLE – the shape formed when two lines meet at a common point.

MATH

TERMS

MATH TERMS ANGLE – the shape formed when two lines meet at a common point. DEGREE

ANGLE – the shape formed when two lines meet at a common point.

DEGREE – a unit

used to measure the size of an angle.

DIAGONAL – from one

corner of a square or rectangle to the opposite corner.

FACE – a polygon that forms one of the flat surfaces of a 3-D shape.

HEIGHT – how tall something is.

LENGTH – the distance from one end of an object to the other.

PARALLEL – lying or

moving in the same direction but always the same distance apart.

PENTAGONAL – having a

five-sided shape as a base.

PRISM – a 3-D shape with parallel polygons at opposite ends and faces that are each parallelograms.

PYRAMID – a 3-D shape with triangular sides that form a point at the top.

RECTANGLE – a 2-D

shape with four sides and four right angles.

SQUARE –a shape with four straight, equal sides and four equal angles.

TETRAHEDRON – a 3-D

shape that has four faces.

TRIANGLE – a shape with three straight sides.

four equal angles. TETRAHEDRON – a 3-D shape that has four faces. TRIANGLE – a shape
four equal angles. TETRAHEDRON – a 3-D shape that has four faces. TRIANGLE – a shape
GLOSSARY BUCKLE – to give way, bend, or collapse. DESTINATION – the place SKYSCRAPER –
GLOSSARY BUCKLE – to give way, bend, or collapse. DESTINATION – the place SKYSCRAPER –
GLOSSARY BUCKLE – to give way, bend, or collapse. DESTINATION – the place SKYSCRAPER –
GLOSSARY BUCKLE – to give way, bend, or collapse. DESTINATION – the place SKYSCRAPER –
GLOSSARY BUCKLE – to give way, bend, or collapse. DESTINATION – the place SKYSCRAPER –

GLOSSARY

BUCKLE – to give way, bend, or collapse. DESTINATION – the place SKYSCRAPER – a
BUCKLE – to give way,
bend, or collapse.
DESTINATION – the place
SKYSCRAPER – a
where you are going to.
very tall building.

CATAPULT – an ancient military device for throwing rocks or other objects.

COMPLEX – made

of many parts.

CULTURE – the

ideas, traditions, art, and behaviors of a group of people.

FLING – to throw something with force.

INSERT – to stick something into something else.

MIDDLE AGES – the period

of history in Europe from about AD 500 to about AD 1500.

OVERLAP – to lie partly on top of something.

SLINGSHOT – a Y-shaped

stick with an elastic band attached that is used to throw small rocks.

SPAN – to reach over or extend across something.

STACK – a pile of things placed one on top of the other.

TEMPLATE – a shape you draw or cut around to copy it onto something else.

WEB

SITES

To learn more about math and science, visit ABDO Publishing Company on the World Wide Web at www.abdopublishing.com. Web sites about creative ways for kids to experience math and science are featured on our Book Links page. These links are routinely monitored and updated to provide the most current information available.

Book Links page. These links are routinely monitored and updated to provide the most current information
Book Links page. These links are routinely monitored and updated to provide the most current information
INDEX B G S T Braced rectangles, 24, 25 Bridges project with, 15–17 qualities of,
INDEX B G S T Braced rectangles, 24, 25 Bridges project with, 15–17 qualities of,
INDEX B G S T Braced rectangles, 24, 25 Bridges project with, 15–17 qualities of,
INDEX B G S T Braced rectangles, 24, 25 Bridges project with, 15–17 qualities of,
INDEX B G S T Braced rectangles, 24, 25 Bridges project with, 15–17 qualities of,

INDEX

B G S T
B
G
S
T

Braced rectangles, 24, 25 Bridges project with, 15–17 qualities of, 12–13 types of, 13

C

Catapults as machines, 18 project with,

21–23

E

Egyptian pyramids, 6–7 Energy conservation of, 19 types of, 18–19

Geometry bridges and, 12 pyramids and, 7 towers and,

24–25

P

Prisms, at tops of towers, 29 Pyramids as bases of towers, 28 projects with,

9–11, 28 qualities of, 6–7 types of, 7

Slingshots, 18, 19 Structures definition of, 4 projects with, 9–11, 15–17, 21–23, 27–29 qualities of, 4 types of, 4–5, 6–7, 12–13, 18–19, 24–25

30/60/90

triangle, 9, 10 Towers project with,

27–29

qualities of, 24–25 Triangles strength of, 12, 15, 24, 25 template using, 9, 10 Trusses, 25

W

Web sites, about math and science, 31

Triangles strength of, 12, 15, 24, 25 template using, 9, 10 Trusses, 25 W Web sites,
Triangles strength of, 12, 15, 24, 25 template using, 9, 10 Trusses, 25 W Web sites,