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Jul 25, 2019

Unit 4

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Unit 4

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Subject Name : Dynamics of Machines

Regulation : 2017

Year/Sem : III / V

Faculty In charge : Mr.M.P.Prabakaran, AP/ Mech

UNIT 4 FORCED VIBRATION

PART A

2015))

The term vibration isolation refers to the prevention or minimization of vibrations and their

transmission due to unbalanced machines

2. What do you meant by transmissibility (Nov/Dec 2014) (April/May-2018)

Transmissibility is defined as the ratio of the force transmitted (FT) to the force applied (FO) on

the system.

3. List the types of external excitations (Nov/Dec 2017)

The periodic excitations can be due to balanced forces, non-uniform torques etc. Vibrations

because of impulsive forces are called transient. Earthquake and acoustic excitations are typical

examples of random forces.

4. What are the instruments used for measurement of vibration levels in a body?

(Nov/Dec 2017)

Vibrometer (also known as low frequency transducer) is used to measure the high frequency ω

of a vibrating body. An accelerometer is used to measure the acceleration of a vibrating body.

5. Quote two examples of forced vibration. (April/May-2017)

Vibration in machine tools

Electric bells

Vibratory conveyors…etc

6. Write the equation of motion for the forced vibration (Nov/Dec 2016& 2015)

£A=Xmax/Y

=√1+ (2 ζ r) 2/√ (1-r2)2+ (2 ζ r) 2

7. Define magnification factor (May/June

2016)

The ratio of the maximum displacement(X max) to the static deflection under static force F0

(x0) is known as magnification factor.

X max = M.F × X0

8. What are the effect of inertia on the shaft in longitudinal and transverse vibration?

(May/June 2016)

The shaft is elongated and shortened alternately and thus the tensile and compressive

Stresses are induced alternately in the shaft.

The shaft is straight and bent alternately and bending stresses are induced in the shaft.

9. What is the phase difference between transmitted force and the disturbing force system if

w/wn>1

(Nov/Dec 2015)

Φ-α =tan-1 (2 ζ r/1-r2) - tan-1 (2 ζ r)

QUESTION BANK

The lowest frequency which is produced by the oscillation of the whole of an object, as distinct

from the harmonics of higher frequency.

11. Define the term of “logarithmic decrement” as applied to damped vibration (Nov/Dec2014)

Logarithmic Decrement is the decrement is the natural logarithm of the amplitude reduction

factor.

The amplitude reduction factor is the ratio of any two successive amplitudes on the same side

of the mean position.

12. Define step input and harmonic forcing function (Nov/Dec 2013)

The term harmonic forcing refers to a spring – mass system with viscous damping, excited by a

sinusoidal harmonic force.

F=F0 sin w t

13. Define transmissibility. (Nov/ Dec 2013)

Transmissibility is defined as the ratio of the force transmitted (FT) to the force applied (FO) on

the system.

14. A vibrating spring having a mass of 1 kg is suspended by a spring of stiffness 1000 N/m and

its put to harmonic excitation of 10 N. Determine the resonant frequency and the amplitude

of vibration at resonance. (May/June 2012)

Resonant frequency = ɷ = (s/m) ½ = (1000/1) ½ = 31.62 rad/sec

Amplitude of vibration at resonance, χmax = (Fo / 2. ζ. s)

There is damping, ζ = 0. χmax = (10 / (2×0×1000)) = (10/0) = ∞

15. List out the materials used for vibration isolation. Also which material is most suitable for

compressive loads? (May/June 2012)

The materials used for vibration isolation are rubber, felt, cork and metallic springs

The metallic springs is most suitable for compressive loads.

16. What is meant by forced vibration? Give some examples. (Nov/ Dec 2011)

When the body vibrates under the influence of external force, then the body is said to be under

forced vibrations.

The vibrations of air compressors, internal combustion engines, machine tools and various

other machinery.

17. List out the sources of excitation in forced vibration. (Nov/ Dec 2011)

The periodic excitations can be due to balanced forces, non-uniform torques etc.

Vibrations because of impulsive forces are called transient. Earthquake and acoustic excitations are

typical examples of random forces.

18. When does resonance take place in a system? (Nov/ Dec 2010)

When the frequency of external force is equal to the natural frequency of a vibrating body, the

resonance occurs. At the resonance, the amplitude of vibration becomes excessively large.

19. Explain briefly the terms (a) dynamic magnifier and (b) transmissibility of vibrating

systems. (Apr/May 2010)

Dynamic magnifier is the ratio of the maximum deflection of the forced vibration to the static

deflection due to static force.

Transmissibility is a measure of the effectiveness of the vibration of isolating material.

20. Define torsionally equivalent shaft. (Apr/May 2010)

A torsionally equivalent shaft is one which has the same torsional stiffness as that of the

stepped shaft so that it twists to the same extent under a given torque as that of the stepped shaft.

The term harmoninc forcing refers to a spring mass system with viscous damoing, excited by a

sinusoidal harmonic force. F = Fo Sin ɷ t

NPR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, NATHAM

QUESTION BANK

22. Explain the terms: Vibration Isolation and Transmissibility. (May/June 2009)

The term vibration isolation refers to the prevention or minimisation of vibrations and their

transmission due to unbalanced machines.

The ratio of force transmitted (Ft) to the applied force (F) is known as transmissibility.

23. What are the different types of vibratory motions? (May/June 2009)

a) Longitudinal vibration b) Transverse vibration c) Torsional vibration

24. What is the difference between 'viscous damping' and 'coulomb damping'?

(May/June 2009)

Viscous damping is the damping provided by fluid resistance.

Coulomb damping is the damping results from two dry or unlubricated surfaces rubbing together.

PART B

1. A machine part of mass 2 kg vibrates in a viscous medium. Determine the damping coefficient

when a harmonic exciting force of 25 N results in resonant amplitude of 12.5 mm with a period of

0.2 second. If the system is excited by a harmonic force of frequency 4 Hz, what will be the

percentage increase in amplitude of vibration when damper is removed as compared with that with

damping? (April/May-2018)

2. A single-cylinder engine of total mass 200 kg is to be mounted on an elastic support which permits

vibratory movement in vertical direction only. The mass of the piston is 3.5 kg and has a vertical

reciprocating motion which may be assumed simple harmonic with a stroke of 150 mm. It is

desired that the maximum vibratory force transmitted through the elastic support to the foundation

shall be 600 N when the engine speed is 800 r.p.m. and less than this at all higher speeds 1) Find

the necessary stiffness of the elastic support and the amplitude of vibration at 800 r.p.m., and 2) If

the engine speed is reduced below 800 r.p.m. at what speed will the transmitted force again

becomes 600 N? (April/May-2018)

3. A single-cylinder vertical petrol engine of total mass of 200 kg is mounted upon a steel chassis

frame. The vertical static deflection of the frame is 2.4 mm due to the weight of the engine. The

mass of the reciprocating parts is 18 kg and the stroke of the piston is 160 mm with SHM. If

dashpot of damping coefficient of 1 N/mm/s is used to dampen the vibrations, calculate at steady

state, the amplitude of forced vibrations at 500 rpm engine speed and the speed of driving shaft at

which resonance will occur. (Nov/Dec

2017)

4. A compressor supported symmetrically on four springs has a mass of 100 kg. The mass of the

reciprocating parts is 2 kg which move through a vertical stroke of 80 mm with SHM. Neglecting

damping, determine the combined stiffness of the springs so that the force transmitted to the

foundation is 1/25th of the impressed force. The machine crankshaft rotates at 1000 rpm. When the

compressor is actually supported on springs, it is found that the damping reduces the amplitude of

successive free vibrations by 25%. Find the force transmitted to the foundations at 1000 rpm, the

force transmitted to the foundation at resonance and the amplitude of the vibrations at resonance

(Nov/Dec

2017)

5. A vehicle of mass 1200 kg is travelling on a road, the surface of which various. Sinusoidally with

on amplitude of 0.05 m and wave length of 6m.the suspension system has a spring constant of 400

KN/m and a damping factor of 0.5. if the vehicle speed is 100km/hr. , determine the displacement

amplitude of the vehicle (April/May-2017)

QUESTION BANK

6. A centrifugal fan of mass 5 kg has a rotating unbalance of 0.25 kg m. when dampers having

damping factor of 0.2 are used , specify the springs for mounting such that only 10% of the

unbalance force is transmitted to the floor . The fan is running at a constant speed of 1000 rpm.

(April/May-2017)

7. A single cylinder vertical diesel engine has a mass of 400 kg and is mounted on a steel chasis

frame. The static deflection owing to the weights of the chasis is 2.4mm. The reciprocating mass of

the engine amounts to 18kg and the stroke of the engine is 160mm. A dashpot with a damping

coefficient of 2 Ns/mm is also used to dampen the vibrations. In the steady-state of the vibrations,

determine:

(i) The amplitude of the vibrations if the driving shaft rotates at 500rpm.

(ii) The speed of the driving shaft when the resonance occurs. (Nov/Dec 2016)

8. The mass of an electric motor is 120kg and it runs at 1500 rpm. The armature mass is 35kg and its

C.G lies 0.5 mm from the axis of rotation. The motor is mounted on five springs of negligible

damping so that the force transmitted is one-eleventh of the impressed force. Assume that the mass

of the motor is equilly distributed among the five springs.Determine:(i)stiffness of each spring;

(ii) dynamic force transmitted to the base at the operating speed; and(iii)natural frequency of the

system. ( Nov/Dec

2016)

9. A single cylinder vertical petrol engine of total mass of 200 kg is mounted upon a steel chassis

frame. The vertical static deflection of the frame is 2.4 mm due to the weight of the engine. the

mass of the reciprocating parts is 9 kg and the stroke of the piston is 160mm with S.H.M. if

dashpot of damping coefficient of 1 N/mm2 is used to dampen the vibrations , calculate at steady

state;

(i) The amplitude of forced vibrations at 500 rpm engine speed and

(ii) The speed of the driving shaft at which resonance will occur (May/June 2016)

10. (i) Derive the equation of vibration isolation factor or transmissibility ratio

(ii)Write short notes on (1) frequency response curve and (2) phase frequency response curve

(May/June 2016)

11. A single cylinder vertical petrol engine has a mass of 200 kg and is mounded upon a steel chassis

frame. The vertical static deflection of the frame is 2.4 mm due to the weight of the engine. The

reciprocating parts of the engine have a mass of 9 kg and move through a vertical stroke of 160mm

with SHM. A dashpot with a damping co-efficient of 1 N/mm/s is also used to dampen the

vibration , considering that the steady state of vibration is reached , determine (i) amplitude of the

forced vibration if the driving shaft rotates 500 rpm and (ii) the speed of the driving shaft at which

resonance will occur . (Nov/Dec 2015)

12. A machine has a total mass of 90 kg and unbalanced reciprocating parts of mass 2 kg which

moves through a vertical stroke of 100 mm with SHM, the machine is mounted on four springs.

The machine is having only one degree of freedom and can undergo vertical displacement only.

(Nov/Dec 2015)

13. The diagram shows a mass spring dashpot system. The support is moved with a motion of y=6sin

(40 t)mm. determine the amplitude of the mass and the phase angle (April/May-2015)

14. The time of free vibration a mass hung from the end of a helical spring is 0.8 s. when the mass is

stationary , the upper end is made to move upwards with displacement y mm given Y=18 sin2πt ,

where t is time in sec measured from the beginning of the motion . Neglecting the mass of spring

and damping effect, determine the vertical distance through which the mass is moved in the first

0.3 second. (April/May-2015)

NPR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, NATHAM

QUESTION BANK

15. A mass of 10 kg is suspended from one end of a helical spring the other end being fixed, the

Fitness of a spring is 10N/MM, the viscous damping causes the amplitude to decrease to one- Tenth

of the initial value in four complete oscillation if a periodic force of a 150 cos 50 t N is Applied at

the mass in the vertical direction, find the amplitude of the forced vibration, what is Its value of

resonance? (Nov/Dec 2014)

16. A machine part of mass 2 kg vibrates in a viscous medium , determine the damping co-efficient

when a harmonic exciting force of 35 N results in resonant amplitude of 12.5 mm with a period of

0.2 sec. if the system is excited by a harmonic force of frequency 4 HZ, what will be the %

increases in the amplitude of vibration when damper is removed as compared with that with

damping, (Nov/Dec 2014)

17. Derive the relation for the displacement of mass from the equilibrium position of a damped

vibration system with harmonic forcing.

(ii) Define the term vibration isolation (Nov/Dec 2013)

18. (i) discuss the forcing due to support motion

(ii) What is meant by magnification factor in case of forced vibrations? (Nov/Dec 2013)

19. A body having a mass of 15 kg is suspended from a spring which deflects 12 mm under weight of

the mass. Determine the frequency of the free vibrations. What is the viscous damping force

needed to make the motion a periodic at a speed of 1 mm/s? If, when damped to this extent,

disturbing force having a maximum value of 100 N and vibrating at 6 Hz is made to act on the

body, determine the amplitude of the ultimate motion. (Nov/Dec 2010)

20. A machine supported symmetrically on four springs has a mass of 80 kg. The mass of the

reciprocating parts is 2.2 kg which move through a vertical stroke of 100 mm with simple

harmonic motion. Neglecting damping, determine the combined stiffness of the springs so that the

force transmitted to the foundation is 1/20th of the impressed force. The machine crankshaft

rotates at 800 rpm. If, under actual working conditions, the damping reduces the amplitudes of

successive vibrations by 30%, find: (i) the force transmitted to the foundation at 800 rpm, and (ii)

the force transmitted to the foundation at resonance. (Nov/Dec 2010)

21. An electric motor is supported on a spring and a dashpot. The spring has a stiffness of 6400 N/m

and the dashpot offers resistance of 500 N at 4 m/s. The unbalanced mass 0.5 kg rotates at 5 cm

radius and the total mass of vibratory system is 20 kg. The motor runs at 400 rpm. Determine

damping factor, amplitude of vibration and phase angle, resonant speed and resonant amplitude

and force exerted by the spring and dashpot on the motor. (May/June 2012)

22. A vibrating body is supported by six isolators each having stiffness of 32000 N/m and six dashpots

having damping factor as 400 N-sec/m. The vibrating body is to be isolated by a rotating device

having amplitude of 0.06 mm at 600 rpm. Take m = 30 kg. Determine the amplitude of vibration of

the body and dynamic load on each isolator due to vibration. (May/June 2012)

23. A machine of 100 kg mass is supported on a spring of stiffness 700 kN/m and has an unbalanced

rotating element, which results in a disturbing force of 350 N at a speed of 3000 rpm. Assuming a

damping factor of 0.20, determine its amplitude of motion due to unbalance, the transmissibility,

and the transmitted force. (Nov/Dec 2011)

24. A machine of mass 1000 kg is acted upon by an external force of 2450 N at a frequency of 1500

rpm. To reduce the effects of vibration, isolator of rubber having static deflection of 2 mm under

the machine load and an estimated damping of 0.2 are used. Determine the force transmitted to the

foundation, the amplitude of vibration and the phase lag. (Nov/Dec 2011)

25. A vehicle weighs 490 kg and total spring constant of its suspension system is 300 N/cm. The rofile

of the road is approximated as SHM of amplitude 4 cm and wavelength of 4m. Determine the

critical speed of the vehicle, the amplitude of the steady state motion of the mass when the vehicle

is driven at critical speed when the damping factor is 0.5 and amplitude of the steady state motion

when the vehicle is driven at 57 km/hr with same damping factor. (Apr/May 2011)

NPR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, NATHAM

QUESTION BANK

26. A body having a mass of 15 kg is suspended from a spring which deflects12 mm under weight of

the mass. Determine the frequency of the free vibrations. What is the viscous damping force

needed to make the motion a periodic at a speed of 1 mm/s? If, when damped to this extent,

disturbing force having a maximum value of 100 N and vibrating at 6 Hz is made to act on the

body, determine the amplitude of the ultimate motion. (Nov/DEC 2010)

27. A machine of mass 75 kg is mounted on springs of stiffness 1200 kN/m and with an assumed

damping factor of 0.2. A piston within the machine of mass 2 kg has a reciprocating motion with a

stroke of 80 mm and a speed of 3000 cycles/min. Assuming the motion to be simple harmonic,

find: (i) the amplitude the motion of the machine (ii) its phase angle with respect to the exciting

force (iii) the force transmitted to the foundation and (iv) the phase angle of transmitted force with

respect to the exciting force. (Apr/May 2010)

28. A harmonic exciting force of 25N is acting on a machine part, which is having mass of 2 kg and is

vibrating in a viscous medium. The exciting force causes resonant amplitude of 12.5mm with a

period of 0.20 seconds. Determine the damping coefficient. If the system is excited by a harmonic

force of frequency 4Hz, find the increase in amplitude of forced vibration when damper is

removed. (Nov/Dec 2009)

29. A machine has a mass of 100 kg and unbalanced reciprocating parts of mass 2 kg which move

through a vertical stroke of 80 mm with simple harmonic motion. The machine is mounted on four

springs, symmetrically arranged with respect to center of mass, in such a way that the machine has

one degree of freedom and can undergo vertical displacements only. Neglecting damping, calculate

the combined stiffness of the spring in order that the force transmitted to the foundation is 1/25 th

of the applied force, when the speed of rotation of machine crank shaft is 1000 r.p.m. When the

machine is actually supported on the springs, it is found that the damping reduces the amplitude of

successive free vibrations by 25%. Find 1.the force transmitted to foundation at 1000 r.p.m, 2.the

force transmitted to the foundation at resonance, and 3. The amplitude of the forced vibration of

the machine at resonance. (Nov/Dec 2008)

30. A mass of 10kg is suspended from one end of a helical spring, the other end being fixed. The

stiffness of the spring is 10 N/mm. the viscous damping causes the amplitude to decrease to one-

tenth of the initial value in four complete oscillations. If a periodic force of 150 cos 50t N is

applied at the mass in the vertical direction, find the amplitude of forced vibrations. What is its

value of resonance? (Nov/Dec 2008)

31. A machine part of mass 2 kg vibrates in a viscous medium. Determine the damping coefficient

when a harmonic exciting force of 25 N results in resonant amplitude of 12.5 mm with a periodic

of 0.2 second. If the system is excited by a harmonic force of frequency 4 Hz what will be the

percentage increase in the amplitude of vibration when damper is removed as compared with that

with damping. (Apr/May 2008)

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