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W. YATES, M. I).






RA /^' p

21 1956


1 n 6fo


The Hindustani or Urdu is peculiarly the language of the Muhammadan

population of Hindustan, and is hence the most widely diffused of all the

The Bengali, Hindui, and Marhatta, although each the Ver-

Indian dialects.

nacular idioms of many millious of men, are yet circumscribed within the

limits of particular provinces, beyond which they are hardly known.


the Musalmans have spread over the whole of India, from north to south,

and from east to west.

They form a considerable proportion of the popu-

lation of all the large towns, many of which indicate by their names a Mu-

hammadan origin, as Shdh-jahan-abad, (Delhi,) Haider-abad, Murshid-abad,

Ghazi-piir, &c.

The Urdu is, moreover, as the name implies, the camp lan-

guage of India ; a circumstance easily accounted for by the long supremacy

of the Musalmans over this country.

The origin and structure of this dialect may be briefly explained.

The lan-

guage spoken by the Hindu population of the North West Provinces at the

"time of the first Muhammadan invasion, was the Hindui or Hindi, a language

entirely distinct from the Urdu, although often confounded with it. That of

tlie conquerors was the Persian.

As the Musalmans settled in India, their

descendants adopted the grammatical forms of the Hindui, retaining, in great

measure, their own Persian and Arabic words. Hence the Urdu is often called

the Rekhta, or Mixed language. Let the reader examine any good Urdii work,

(as the Khirad Afroz for example,) and he will find that almost all the Nouns

and Adjectives are Arabic or Persian.

Auxiliary Verbs, as Kama, Ilona, &c., the Numerals, most of the Adverbs,

The Pronouns and Post-positions, the

many of the Prepositions, with a few nouns and adjectives, and a small number

of simple Verbs, are from the Hindui. From this statement it is obvious that the relation of the Urdu to the Persian is precisely the same as that of the

Persian to the Arabic.

We may further illustrate the matter by a reference

to the English. The language spoken in England at the time of the Norman

invasion was the Anglo-Saxon, that of the conquerors, the Norman- French.

From the mixture of these two the English language was formed, which iu




its grammatical forms is entirely Anglo-Saxon, but in the greater part of its

words, is of French and Latin origin. We have therefore, the following

parallel :









A few words are necessary to exj)lain the plan of the present work. It was

the object of the compiler to present the students of this language with a

work more suited to their wants than the ponderous and expensive quarto of

Mr. Shakespeare. To effect this he has been guided by the following rules :

1 All those words of Sanscrit or Hindui origin which are peculiar to Hin-

dui and are never used in good Urdu writing or com'ersation have been

excluded. Such words ought never to have been admitted into a Dictionary

of this language, and their insertion has been owing to its being confounded

•with the Ilindin.

2. The derivations of Sanscrit and Hiudiii words have been omitted. They

are of little use or interest except to the Sanscrit student, and may be found

generally in Sanscrit dictionaries.

The spelling of the words in Deb-niigari

has also been omitted, as occupying too much space and being quite unneces-

sary. The Urdii is seldom written in the Deb-nagari, that character being

peculiar to the Sanscrit and Hindui.

3. The derivations of the Arabic words have been given in an Appendix at

the end of the work. This arrangement offers some advantages. A com- plete list is thus given of all the Arabic Roots whose derivatives are used in

Urdii, together with the rules for the formation of those derivatives.


looking out a word in the Dictionary, one wishes to get at the meaning at once,

and not to be delayed by the derivation.

As the majority of the words in

Urdu are of Arabic origin, the utiUty of this Appendix is obvious, since

any one by mastering the list of roots and understanding the rules of deriva-

tion, may easily remember the meaning of every Arabic word in the lan-


In denoting the pronunciation of words by Roman letters, the system of

Sir W. Jones, as it has lately been improved and adopted in this country, has been followed. In this system the consonants have generally the same

sounds as in English, but the vowels are pronounced as in Italian.

Calcutta, January, 1847.


All words marked with an asterisk * have irregular Arabic plurals,

which are to be found in Appendix No. 1.

All words with^this mark t take the regular Arabic plurals, by-

adding' c»! dtf as (*>^-^ plural oUiji'-J.




I Alif is the firstletter of the Arabic

and Persian Alphabets. It has four distinct sounds. 1. a (unaccented), corresponding to the Debnagri akar.

it always has

this sound when superscribed by the

sign Madda. 3. i (short), ikar, when



(long), akar :


has Kasr

or Zer beneath.

4. u

(short), ukar, when it has Zamm or

Pesh above it. Also when followed

by ye, the two together are pronounc-

ed i, e, or ai, according to the vowel

understood : followed by wau, the two

are pronounced, in like manner, as o,

tj, or au. In Abjad (the representa- tion of numbers by letters) Alif stands

for one, and in Astronomy denotes

the sign Taurus.

In Arabic grammar Alif has many uses. 1. To form the comparative of Ad-

jectives, in which case it is prefixed,

as fazil, afzal : sometimes it is insert- ed after the second radical, to form the

superlative. 2.

ral of nouns.

sative of certain nouns used as ad-

verbs only in Hindustani, when it is

To form the Plu- 3. To form the Accu-

added at the end.

feminine of Adjectives as hamr (red),


4. To form the

In Persian words it may be the Alif-i-

be cut






liable to


oflF as Afsun


end of words it may be the Alif-

i-nida (sign of the vocative case), as

Shah-a, O king ! or as an interjec-


sign, as

Bad-a, How bad

Khush-a, how good ! or to form

abstract nouns from adjectives, as

Garma, Heat, from Garra, hot. Be-

tween two words it denotes continui-

ty, proximity, or conjunction, as Shab-

a-shab, Sar-a-pa, &c.

In Hindi

words, at the end, it may be

used to form the diminutives of nouns

or adjectives

from substantives, as Bhdkha, hung-

ry, from Bhukh.

as Dibiya from Dibi :

v' Ab, adv. s. Now, presently,

just now.

v' Ab, s.

m. A. A father (con-

tract, for Abu).

vt Ab, s. m. p. 1. Water. 2.

Splendour, lustre, elegance. 3. Dig-

4. Lustre

nity, honour, character.

or water in gems. 5. Temper of steel,

edge or sharpness of a sword.


Mode, manner. Vl Iba, 8. m, A. Denial, refusing,





Ut Xbi, s. plur. 0/ Abu, Fathers.

Jj^W Abdbil, 5. m. A. A swallow.

oa^lji Ibdhatj s.f. A. Giving liber-

ty, permission.

ibf A'bdd,

cr. p. 1. Cultivated,

inhabited, populous, 2.


prosperous, happy, good, well ; well

city, dwell-

ing-place, abode, as llyder-dbdd,

Hyder's-city. A'bdd kamd. To build, cultivate, render habitable or popu-


done !

In compos.


wliljf i^badan, a. p. see Abad.

i^Jloljf Abadani, s. f. p. A habita-

tion ; a cultivated, populous, pleasant

place; population, cultivation, pros-

perity, abundance.

t^tsljf Abadi, s.f. p. see Abadani.

Ij^lff Ubarna, v. a. a. To set free.

«ill^l Abak, a. s. Speechless.

LiJ'ljf Ubakna, v. a. a. To vomit.

liJOf Ubalna, v. a. s. To boil, to

make boil.

c»IjT Aban, s. p. The eighth Per-

sion month, when the sun enters Scor-


liljf Ubana, v. a. h. To sow, to


4^IjT Abd-i, a. a. Belonging to or

descending from one's ancestors


o})^.^"^ Ab-i-baran, s.

water J rain.

iSJ^"^ Ab-bazi, s. f. p.





sport in water ; swimming.

*i-«Jw>f Ab-i-basta, *. p. Glass.

4yil*jT Ab-pashi, s. f. p. Sprink-

ling water.

e,l^y^t Ab-paikaran, s. p. The


wlLt Ab-tab, s.f. P. Splendour.

ul Ab-tab, adv. s.


Abtab honi, To be on the point of death.



Ibtida, *. /.




*!«>>AJi Ibtida-an,


a. In the

beginning ; at first, firstly,

first place.



Jloiji Ibtizal, s. m. a. Vileness,

baseness, meanness; carelessness in

preserving any thing.

^1 Abtar, a. a. Ruined, spoil-

ed, worthless, without good qualities,

dissolute, wanton,

c^yjl Abtari, s. f. a. Worthless-


j»LJu|. Ibtisam, s. m. a. A smiling,

smile, gaiety, hilarity.

i£Ji;l Ab-tak,


JtUi.1 Ab-talak, l«^^- s- Till now,

*"^^^"°' >'^*-

ci-jyuf Ab-tori, J

^^iji Ibtihaj, 5. m. a. Gladness,

alacrity, cheerfulness.

liH^J^I Ab-tain, adv. s. Till now.

i:HH^I Ab-ten, arfw. s. From this

time, henceforth,

cs^^vt Ab-i-jari, s. p. Running

water; a stream, rivulet; tears flow- ing.

<^-\ Abjad, s. m. a. A particular

arrangement of the Arabic Alphabet

the alphabet; a mode of denoting

numbers by letters of the Alphabet.

Abjad-khwdn, s. m. p. One who is

learning the Alphabet.

j^ Ab-jo, *. /. P. A stream, a


(J>y^1 Ab-josh, s.




cs^t Ab-j6e, s. f. p. see Ab-jo.

A'b-i-jo'e, The water of a rivulet.

jv*a.u.T Ab-i-chashm, s. p. Water

of the eyes ; tears.

iJ^I Ab-chashi, s. f. p. The

giving drink to a child for the first

time (generally when about six months

do), preparatory to weaning.





j»l^of j^b-i-haram, s. p. Wine;

the tears of a person who weeps hy-

pocritically ; crocodile-tears.

o^a.ujf ^b-i-hasrat, s. p. Water

of desire ; wish, appetite, longing.

ci»Ujk.v_,T ^b-i-hayat, s. p. Water

of life ; the fountain of life.

J^i^.i Ibdal, s. m. a. Change, ex-

change, substitution.

JI«iol Abdal, s. m.plur. ofdj<^_, a.

A religious person, devotee, enthu-


*i|*\jf Ab-dana, s. m. v. Drink

and food.

w!>i^v1^ iV^b-i-haiwan, s. p. Water

of life; name of the fabulous foun-

tain of immortality.

«jli^f j^b-khatia, s. p. A repository

o.*i^f Ab-dast, s. m. p. Water

for washing the hands; the act of

washing the hands ; a guiltless faqir;

a masterly workman who imparts

of water.

lustre to his work.


X/sfc?l Abkhira^ s. plur. of Bukhar,

a. Having pure

A. Vapours, exhalations, perfumes.

cu-oE^T Ab-khust, s. P. Dry land

in the midst of waters, an island.

cls^l Abkhal, a. compar. o/.Bakhil,

A. More, most or very covetous.

j>^T Ab-khur, s. p. -\ Drinking

.>^>s:^f Ab-khurd, *. P.J

and eat-

ing ; victuals ; fortune, destiny.

«i^sr!T Ab-khura, s. v. A narrow-

mouthed vessel for drinking out of, a cup for drinking water.

>i!^T Ab-khez, s. p. 1. A soil in

which water rises up if dug into but

little. 2. A swell of water.

<^\ Abad, s. m. a. Eternity, with-

out end.

l«i>j| Abadan, adv.


a. Eternally,

jlt^t Ab-dar, s. m. p. The servant

who takes charge of the water for drinking ; any thing full of water or

splendour, as fruits, jewels, pearls,

swords, a. Polished, clear, of a good

water (as gems) ; well tempered,


A'b-ddr-khdna, s. Tlie place

where the A'bdar keeps the drinking


ii^(.>j^v1^ Ab-i-dandan, Sharpness

and polish of the teeth. A'b-danddn,

s. Watering of the mouth ; weakness,

trouble, crime or fault ; a kind of pea,

a kind of pomegranate, a kind of

sweetmeat, a. Bad, weak, subjected,

silly, base, in vain, useless.

(^^^"^ Ab-i-dahan, s. p. Water

of the mouth ; spittle.

C5«V' Abadi, a. a. Eternal, with-

out end.

jsaj^vT i^b-i-dida, *.

p. Tears.

A'b-dida, a. In tears, weeping.

^1 Abr, s. m. p. A cloud. Abr-i-

siydh, A black cloud.


A thick cloud.

1^1 Abra, s. m, p. The outer fold

of a double garment (distinguished

from Astar, the lining).

jLr^l Abrar, s. plur. a. Just, holy,

pious men ; dutiful (to parents).

^\yX Ibratn, *. m. a. Solicitation,

entreaty, urgency, distressing.

^^^yX Ibrahim, n. prop. a. Abra-


«i/j| Abrad, a. compar. of nji^ a.

Colder, very cold.

cfjl'^jf Ab-dari, s. f. p. Brilliancy

temper or polish ; sharpness.

^I<>ji Ibdaa, s. m. a. The produc-

tion of something new; invention.

B 2

ue.Hl Abras, a. a. Leprous, hav-

ing the leprosy.

{jj^\ Abraq,

iq, A. "^


^y} Abr

.^l^^g j*. m.Talc, mica.



jji\ Abni, *. /. p. The eye-brow.

4^f Kh-ru, s. f. p. Honour, cha-

racter, renown, elegance. Name of

a poet. A. utirni, v. a. To dishonour,

A. barbdd deni. To lose

to disgrace.


that of another. A. par gir'ih mdrni,

A. deni, v. a. To im-

V. a. To frown.

part honour or reputation to any one

own character or to destroy

or to lose one's own. To treat with respect.

A. karni, v. a.

A. leni, v. a.

To take away character or reputa-


e>!jt>vt Xb-i-rawan, *. p. Running

water, a fountain ; the sky ; a sort of

extremely fine muslin.

%y\ Abra, *. m. p. see \J^ .

isy} Abri, a. p. Clouded, varie-

gated. Abri-kaghaz, A kind of thick

and shining paper clouded, (from


^&i^^ Abresham or Abresham,

s. m. p. Silk, sewing silk, raw silk.

,j*^yj Abreshmi, a. p. Silken,

of silk.

(3irJi Ibriq, s. m. a. An ewer.

J5|;v1^ Ab-i-zulal, s. p. Pure, lim-

pid, wholesome water. JLjT Absal, s. m. p. A vineyard,

a garden.

<>^1 Abist or

Abistan, a.


Pregnant, with young.

*a«~jT Abista, a. p. Pregnant, with

young; newly-born (a child).

iJ^I Abistagi, s.f. p.") Preg-

yii-ot Abistaiii, 5./. pj

ir*"v1^ Ab-i-sard,







Ubasna, v. n. s. To rot, to




Far be it from us !




jLiot Ab-shar, s. /. p. A waterfall,

cascade, cataract.

^/•U-iot Ab-shinas, s. m. p. The


sailor who heaves the lead in sound-


jj^^l Ab-i-shor, s. p. Brackish

water, salt or sea water.

Sjyi>^'^ Ab-shora, s. p. Water

cooled with saltpetre.

)^\ Absar,

s. plur. of Basar, a.

Eyes, sights, understanding.

Jl^l Ibtal, *. m. A. Abolition, act

of destroying or annihilating.

cUwl Abtal, a. compar. of ^Mcb, a.

More or most vain or fruitless.


Abad, a. compar. of <>Jt*j^ a.

More distant.

^jL^U\ Ab-i-ashrat, s. p. Wine,

sherbet ; semen.

l«Jl Ibqa, s. m. a. Rendering per-

manent, confirmation, establishment, preservation.

^( Ab-ka, a. s. Of the present

time ; now.

j^l Ab-kar, s. m. p. A water-

carrier, a distiller, a wine-merchant

or spirit -retailer; a drinker of wine.

tfj'^T Ab-kari, *. /. p. The busi-

ness of an Abkar ; a duty or excise

levied on Distilleries.


Ubka-i, s. f s. The act of


{J^!i Ab-kash, s. m. p. A drawer

of water.

Lixjf Ubakna, v. n. s. To vomit.

yj^^l Ab-i-kausar, s. p.


water of the river Kausar fabled to flow in Paradise with milk or nectar.

t5^l Abke, adv. s. Now.

jlo^ ^t

Ab-guzar, *. m. p. A water-

passer, an expeditious messenger, a

courier ; a passage of a river, a ford.

(^v1^ Ab-i-garm, s.


p. Warm

'^i^jS^'^ Ab-i-gosht, *. p. Gravy,

broth, water in which meat has been

boiled down.



^j^t ^b-gir, s. p. A receptacle

of water, a lake.

*iA^f X.bgma,j s. m. p. Glass, a

mirror, a drinking glass ; wine ; a


iL>f Abila, s. m, p. see


p ^i Iblagh, s. m. A. Causing to

arrive, conveying, sending.

Ij^f Ublana, v. a. s. To cause to


^}U Ablaq, a. a. Piebald, white

and black, party-coloured.

UJjI Ablaqa, *. m. a. A bird of

the maind kind, a starling.

liljf Ubalna, v. n. s. To boil.

^jf i^bila,5. m.p.Ablister. A. pa,

a. Having blistered feet.

A. pat,

s.f. The condition of having blister-

ed feet. A.-i-farang, s. m. The French

pox, a bubo.

aIjI Ablah, a.

a. Foolish, silly,

ignorant, bashful.

4*t^l Ablahi, s. f. a. Folly, silli-


ijo^X Iblis, s. m, A. The devil.

{^\ Ibn,* s. m. A. A son.

Lijl Abna, *. jo^wr. 0/ Ibn, Sons.

A.-i-jins, s. plur. Of the same quality

or rank; comrades, companions,

equals. A.-i-dahr, and A.-i-rozgdr, s.

plur. Contemporaries.

ikj iiHl Ibn ziyad, n. prop. A go-

vernor of K(ifa and a great enemy of

the sect of Ali.

}i/>^^^ Ab-i-nuqra, 5. p. Quick-

silver; silver reduced by any men-

struum to a liquid state.

(j^f i^bnus, s. m. p. Ebony.

,^^t Abnusi, a. p. Made of


^t Ab-nai, s. p. The perpendi-

cular tube of the huqqd on which the chilam is placed.

^1 Abii,* s. tn. A. Father.


compos. Possessing, having.


(S^\y\ Abii-l-fazal, n. prop. a.

Name of the secretary of Akbar.

^JjjI Abii-bakr, n. prop, (father

of the virgin.) The father-in-law and

first successor to Muhammad.

vLH^I Abu-turab, n. prop. a. Ali,

the son-in-law of Muhammad.

<-^t^>?l Abii-jahl, n. prop, (father

of ignorance.) An uncle of Muham-


?/jykjj| Abu-huraira, n. prop, (fa-

ther of the cat or possessor of a cat.)

One of the companions of Muham- mad.

vLrJ' Abwab, s. plur. of Bab, a.

Doors ; chapters.

H^y.\ A-bujh, a. s. Stupid.

U^' A-bujha, a. s. Not under-

stood, incomprehensible. J^jI Abol, a. H. Silent.

isy,\ Abwi, a. a. Paternal.

I^Ajyf Ab-0-hawa, s. f. p. Water

and air; climate.

j^jf Ubhar,

s. m.

s. Swelling,

plumpness, tumefaction.

bjLjjf Ubharna, v. a. s. To plump

up, raise up, excite, persuade.

Ck^.l Ibham, s. a. The thumb;

suspicion, ambiguity, a. Covered,

concealed, unknown.

ci^l Abhrak, s. m. s. Talc (a


Ijj^l Ubharnd, v. n. s. To swell,

rise up, overflow ; to unload.

t^-8J| Abhi, adv. s. Just now, ex-

actly now, immediately.

^JS Kbi, a. p. Watery, of or be-

longing to the water, aquatick, moist.

c»Lwl Abyat, s. plur. of Bait,


Houses ; distichs or verses.

cfjljjf Ab-yari, s. f. p. Irrigation,


iJ^' ^1 Xb-i-yakhni, s. p. Water

" in which meat has been boiled ; gravy.



^JOi^\ Ahydz,a.compar.ofLf^i:i a.

Whiter, more or most splendid or


yf Kp, pron. s.

Self, selves

yourself; you Sir, (used instead of the 2nd personal pron. respectfully.)

jIjI Ipir, s. P. Thyme, wiU mar-


lijijf Uparna, v. a. h. To root up,

extirpate, eradicate.

^^ Upana, v. a. s. To adopt as

an expedient or remedy ; to contrive,


jljf Upao, ~\s. m. s. Expedient,


plan, contrivance,

redress, remedy.

IJjji Uparna, v. n. n. To be root-

ed up, pulled out, skinned.

^f Upaj, s.f. H. The burthen of

a song, the chorus.

VJts^jf Upjana, v. a. s. To produce,

to make to grow.

tis^f Upajna, v, n. s. To spring

up, to grow, to be produced. 5[/jf Uparla, a. s. Superficial ; the outside of a garment (opposed to the


U;jf Uparna, s. m. s. A scarf. Ljjf Uparna, v. n. s. To be rooted

or pulled out, to be skinned.

«j*jT Apas, pron. recip. s. Them- selves, one another ; hence, s.f. Kin-

dred, brotherhood, fellowship.

ij^l Upas, s. f. s. Stink, stale-

ness, putrefaction, rottenness.

U-jf Upasna, v. n. s. To become

musty, to rot.


Upla, or Upli, s. m. or /.

Cakes of dried cow-dung.

tjjt Apan, pron. recip. s. Self,

tijf Apna, apni, pron. poss. s. Of,

or belonging to self, own.

liliji Apna-na, v. a. s. To make a




thing one's own ; to convert to one's

own use.

ooUjI Apna-yat, s. f. s. Family,

relations, kindred.

tJJ^f Uphanna, v. n. s.Toboil over. ^Ti^phii,


f^t^^phim, r-f' « ^P^"°^-

e>T Xty or ^ta, s.m. s. Custard-

apple, (Annona squamosa, &c.)

^l Ita, a. m. e. This much, &c.

See Itna,

I3l Ata, s. m. t. Father.-

«-^IjI Ata-bag, s. m. t. A master,

teacher ; a title given to kings and wazirs.

jljf Utar, s. m. s. Descent. dend, v. a. To bring down;

grace, to dishonour.


to dis-

(;l3f Utara, s. m. s. A descent


clothes ; ransom, self-devotion ; an


degradation ;



IJjljf Utarna, v. a. s. To cause to

alight, to bring down ; to degrade ;

to take oflF; to tear, cut, or break oflf;


make a return or recompense.

Utdre hue, Engaged with a desperate resolution in any thing (like troopers

who dismount to fight on foot, resolv-

ing to conquer or die). (3^Gl Ataliq, s. m. r. A private





s. f.