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Chemistry holds the secrets to how life first formed, how cancer are

Unit 1
cured, how iPhones have bigger hard drives than 5 year old laptops,

Matter and energy

Chemistry is Everywhere Chemistry is Everywhere


Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
Chemistry is the science of how three tiny particles, the Proton, the Neutron and the
Electron came together in trillions of combinations to form….EVERYTHING

Chemistry is often called the central science, because a basic knowledge of chemistry
is essential for students of biology, physics, geology, ecology, and many other subjects.
Chemistry is Everywhere Gerd Binnig y Heinrich
Rohrer (IBM Zürich), Nobel
Prize in Physics in 1986.

Although chemistry is an ancient science, its modern foundation was laid in the
nineteenth century….
6

Chemistry is Everywhere

PIEZOELECTRICITY
MECHANIC ELECTRICAL
AL ENERGY ENERGY

2
Piezoelectric effect Piezoelectric effect
Sal de La Rochelle

DIRECT REVERSE
The compression (or expansion) The application of a voltage to a
of a material generates opposite piezoelectric material produces a
charges on the respective faces of deformation. (It serves as a
the sample. characterization method)

Cuarzo

Materiales Piezoeléctricos. (2010). Vigilancia Tecnológica. Recuperado de: https://icono.fecyt.es/sites/default/files/filepublicaciones/bvt_mat_n3.pdf


3 Uchino K., Eds. Advanced Piezoelectric Materials. Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, 2010. pp. 2 - 5. 5
TED-Ed. How to squeeze electricity out of crystals [Video].YouTube. Junio 20, 2017. (Revisado: 25 de mayo de 2018) TED-Ed. How to squeeze electricity out of crystals [Video].YouTube. Junio 20, 2017. (Revisado: 25 de mayo de 2018)

Piezoelectric effect
BaTiO3

PZT

Uchino K., Eds. Advanced Piezoelectric Materials. Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, 2010. pp. 5 – 9. 6
The purpose of this course is to make you think like
a chemist, to look at the macroscopic world —the
things we can see, touch, and measure directly—and
visualize the particles and events of the microscopic
world that we cannot experience without modern
technology and our imaginations.

Matter The Three States of Matter

All substances, at least in principle, can exist in three states: solid, liquid, and gas.

Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. includes things we can see and
touch (such as water, earth, and trees), as well as things we cannot (such as air).
The Three States of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

Substances are identified by their properties as well as by their composition.

A physical property can be measured and observed without changing the composition
or identity of a substance.

Color.
Density.
Melting point,.
Boiling point and hardness.

The three states of matter can be interconverted without changing the composition
of the substance. Upon heating, a solid (ice) will melt to form a liquid (water).

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter
We can measure the mp of ice by heating a block of ice and recording the temperature
at which the ice is converted to water.

Water differs from ice only in appearance, not in composition, so this is a physical
change.

We can freeze the water to recover the original ice. Therefore, the mp of a substance
is a physical property.

Every time an egg is cooked ?


Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter Properties of Matter
On the other hand, the statement “Hydrogen gas burns in oxygen gas to form
water” describes a chemical property of hydrogen, because to observe this
property we must carry out a chemical change, in this case burning. do not depend on the
depend on the
amount of sample Properties amount of sample
being examined

Extensive Intensive

Additive No additive

Properties of Matter Classifications of Matter: Pure Substances


Pure Substances
Type of Intensive Properties A pure substance (usually referred to simply as a substance) is matter that has distinct
properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample.

Type of Extensive Properties


Classifications of Matter: Pure Substances Classifications of Matter: Pure Substances

All substances are either elements or compounds.

1. Elements are substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler


substances. On the molecular level, each element is composed of only one
kind of atom.

2. Compounds are substances composed of two or more elements;


they contain two or more kinds of atoms. Water, for example, is a
compound composed of two elements: hydrogen and oxygen.

Classifications of Matter: Pure Substances Classifications of Matter: Elements

Currently, 118 elements are known, though they vary widely in abundance.
H constitutes about 74% of the mass in the Milky Way galaxy, and He constitutes 24%.

Elements

Compounds
Classifications of Matter: Elements Classifications of Matter: Compounds
Most elements can interact with other elements to form compounds.

H2(g) burns in O2 (g), the elements H2 and O2 combine to form the compound water.

Classifications of Matter: Compounds Classifications of Matter: Compounds


Conversely, water can be decomposed into its elements by passing an electrical
current through it Table 1

Decomposing pure H2O into its constituent elements shows that it contains 11% H and
89% O by mass, regardless of its source. This ratio is constant because every H2O
molecule has the same number of H and O atoms.
Classifications of Matter: Compounds Classifications of Matter: Compounds
The observation that the elemental composition of a compound is always the same
is known as the law of constant composition (or the law of definite proportions).
French chemist Joseph Louis Proust (1754–1826) first stated the law in about 1800.
Hydrogen, oxygen, and water are all composed of molecules. What is it about a
molecule of water that makes it a compound, whereas hydrogen and oxygen are
elements?

Classifications of Matter: Compounds Classifications of Matter: Compounds


A simplified molecular view of rust (Fe2O3) formation from iron (Fe) atoms and
oxygen molecules (O2).
Classifications of Matter: Mixtures Classifications of Matter: Mixtures
Most of the matter we encounter consists of mixtures of different substances. Each
substance in a mixture retains its chemical identity and properties.

In contrast to a pure substance, which by definition has a fixed composition, the


composition of a mixture can vary.

Some mixtures do not have the same composition, properties, and appearance
throughout. Rocks and wood, for example, vary in texture and appearance in any
typical sample. Such mixtures are heterogeneous.

Classifications of Matter: Mixtures Classifications of Matter


Sample Exercises Sample Exercises
“White gold” contains gold and a “white” metal, such as palladium. Two samples of
white gold differ in the relative amounts of gold and palladium they contain. Both Which of the following is the correct description of the inside of a grapefruit?
samples are uniform in composition throughout. to classify white gold.
(a) It is a pure compound.
(b) It consists of a homogeneous mixture of compounds.
(c) It consists of a heterogeneous mixture of compounds.
(d) It consists of a heterogeneous mixture of elements and compounds.
(e) It consists of a single compound in different states.

Sample Exercises The Nature of Energy


Aspirin is composed of 60.0% carbon, 4.5% hydrogen, and 35.5% oxygen by mass,
regardless of its source. classify aspirin.

All objects in the universe are made of matter, but matter alone is not enough to
describe the behavior of the world around us.
The Nature of Energy The Nature of Energy
Unlike matter, E does not have mass and cannot be held in our hands, but its effects
The cold water and boiling water are both made from the same substance, but your can be observed and measured.
body will experience a very different sensation if you put your hand in each.

The difference between the two is their energy content (E); boiling water has more
energy than chilled water.

but ... what is energy?

The Nature of Energy Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy


Unlike matter, E does not have mass and cannot be held in our hands, but its effects
can be observed and measured. Objects, can possess kinetic energy, Ek, the energy of motion.

The magnitude of, Ek, of an object depends on its mass, m, and velocity, v:

E is defined as the capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Work is the energy transferred when a force exerted on an object causes a Which change will lead to a larger change in the kinetic energy of an object,
displacement of that object. doubling its mass or doubling its speed?
Heat is the energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. Although these particles are too small to be An object has potential energy by virtue of its position relative to other objects.
seen, they have mass and are in motion, and therefore, possess kinetic energy.

Sample Exercises Sample Exercises


Which of the following diagrams represent elements and which represent
compounds? An ice cube is placed in a closed container. On heating, the ice cube first melts and
the water then boils to form steam. Which of the following statements is true?

(a) The physical appearance of the water is different at every stage of change.
(b) The mass of water is greatest for the ice cube and least for the steam.

Each color sphere (or truncated sphere) represents an atom. Different colored atoms
indicate different elements.
Sample Exercises Sample Exercises

Do the following statements describe chemical or physical properties?


The diagram in (a) shows a compound made up of atoms of two elements
(represented by the green and red spheres) in the liquid state.

(a)Oxygen gas supports combustion.


Which of the diagrams in (b)–(d) represents a physical change and which diagrams (b)Fertilizers help to increase agricultural production.
represent a chemical change? (c)Water boils below 100ºC on top of a mountain.
(d)Lead is denser than aluminum.
(e) Uranium is a radioactive element.

Sample Exercises

Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, a homogeneous mixture,


or a heterogeneous mixture:

(a)water from a well,


(b)argon gas,
(c) sucrose,
(d) a bottle of red wine,
(e) chicken noodle soup,
(f ) blood flowing in a capillary,
(g) ozone.