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582 Chapter 22

P22.22

P22.23

(

(

COP

COP

)

)

Q

c + W

T

h

295

25

. 013 8

=

=

heat pump

Carnot refrig

= ==

W T

T

c

==

T

4 . 00

289

=

0

11 . 8

Q

W

c

W = 72 . 2 J

per 1 J energy removed by heat.

P22.24 COP = 0 . 100

COP Carnot cycle

or

Q

W

h

= 0 100

.

Q

W

h

Carnot cycle

= 0 100

.

Carnot efficiency

1

Q

W

h

= 0 100

.

T

h

T

h

T

c

=

0 100

.

293 K 293 K 268 KK

= 1 . 17 FIG. P22.24

Thus,

1 . 17 joules of energy enter the room by heatt for each joule of work done.

*P22.25

P22.26

Q

W

c

(

= COP refrigerator

C

)

=

T

h

T

c

T

c

=

Q

W

c

 0 . 150 W 260 K = W ∆ t 40.0 K P = . W = 0 150 W

t

40.0 K 2 660 K

= 23 . 1 mW

e =

Q

h

W

Q

h

= 0 . 350

=

WQ

+

c

W = 0 . 350

Q

c

= 0 . 650

Q

h

Q

h

Q

COP ( refrigerator ) ==

c

W

0

0

. 650 Q

. 350 Q

h

h

=

1

. 86

t

t

Section 22.5

P22.27

(a)

(b)

Gasoline and Diesel Engines

PV

ii

γ

= P V

V i V

f

γ

f

V

i

P

f

=

P

P

i

= P

i

V

f

i

V

W

=

PdV

V

i

γ

= (

γ

3

 Integrating, ⎛ W = ⎜ ⎝ = ( =

γ 1

1

i

i

PV 1

2 . 5 00 3 00 10

.

)(

×

6

192 J

6

. 00 10 Pa

×

)

50 . 0 cm

300 c mm ⎠ ⎟

3

3

1

. 40

=

244 kPa

V

i

V

f

γ

1

Pa

)(

5 00 10

.

×

5

m

3 )

1 − ⎢ ⎣

50 . 0 cm

30 00 cm

3

3

0 . 400

Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

P22.28 (a), (b) The quantity of gas is

Pa

n

=

P V

A

A

RT

A

E int, A

=

5

2

= (

nRT

A

100 10

×

3

)(

500 10

×

6

m

3

)

(

.

=

P

A

.

8 314 J m

5

2

ool K

(

)(

293

K

3

)

5

2

V

V

P V

AA

A

×

A

B

γ

6

=

= (

Pa

100 10

×

Pa

500 10

×

100

×

10

3

Pa

)(

500 10

×

6

)(

8 00

.

)

1

. 40

m 3

8 00

.

)

=

=

)(

6

.

= 0 020 5 mol

.

m

3

)=

1 8 ×

44

10

673 K

K

)

=

125

6 Pa

1 84 10

In process AB , P

B

=

so

P V

T

B

=

E

int, B

E

B

B

nR

5

=

2

=

int, AB

= (

nRT

BB

287

(

0

=

. 0 220 5

5

2

mol

(

0 020 5

.

)(

8 314

.

J mol K

)

mol

)(

8 314

.

J mol K

125

JJ

=

162

J

=

QW

out

=−

0

)(

673

W

out

287

W AB =

J

JJ

162 J

Process BC takes us to:

P

C

=

nRT

V

C

C

=

( 0 . 020 5 mol )(8. 314 J mol K )(1 023 K ))

62 5 10

.

×

6

m

3

=

5

2

5

2

287

E

int, C

=

E i nnt, BC

=

nRT C

436

=

(

00 020 5

.

mol

JJ

=

149 J

)(

8 314

.

J mol K

)(

QW

=−

out

=− 0

Q

1 023

Q

BC

=

149 J

6

2 . 79 10 Pa

×

K

)=

436

J

In process CD :

P

D

= P

C

V

V

C

D

γ

= (

2

6

. 79 10 Pa

×

)

1

8 . 00

1 . 40

==

1

5

. 52 10 Pa

×

V

= = (

P

D

D

nR

5

=

2

=

1

D

. 52 10

×

JJ

5 Pa

) (

500 10

×

66

m

3 )

) =

T

D

E

(

0 .

020 5

=

5

2

(

0

436

mol

)(

. 020 5

8 . 314

mol

)(

=− 246 J

J mol K

8 . 314

=

=

445 K

)

(

nRT

190

J mol K

oout

445 K

int ,, D

E

int, CD

QW

0 W

out

) =

W CD

= 246 J

190

J

and

E

int, DA

Q DA =

=

EE

int, A

int, D

65 . 0 J

= 125 J 190 J =−65 . 0 J

=−QW

out

=−Q

0

For the entire cycle, E int, net = 162 J +−−149 246 65 0 =

.

W

eng

Q

net

=−

162

0 246

JJ

+

+

0 149

=+

J

+− 0 665 0

.

+

J

0

=

=

84 . 3

84 3

.

J

J

0

. The net work is

583

continued on next page

584 Chapter 22

The tables look like:

 State T (K) P (kPa) V (cm 3 ) E int (J) A 293 100 500 125 B 673 1 840 62.5 287 C 1 023 2 790 62.5 436 D 445 152 500 190 A 293 100 500 125 Process Q (J) output W (J) ∆E int (J) AB 0 − 162 162 BC 149 0 149 CD 0 246 − 246 DA − 65.0 0 − 65.0 ABCDA 84.3 84.3 0 (c) The input energy is Q h = 149 J , the waste is Q = 65 . 0 J 84 W 84 . 3 J c , and W eng = (d) eng The efﬁciency is: e == Q h = 149 J 0 . 565 (e)

2

.

3 J

.

Let f represent the angular speed of the crankshaft. Then f is the frequency at which we

obtain work in the amount of 84.3 J cycle:

1 000 J s

=

f

2

⎞ ⎠ (

f =

2 000 J s

84 . 3 J c yycle

84 . 3

J cycle

= 23 7

.

rev s

)

.

10 3 rev min

1 42

P22.29 Compression ratio = 6.00, γ = 1.40

(a)

γ 1

Efﬁciency of an Otto-engine e = −

e =

1

1

V

V

2

1

6

1

. 00

0

. 400

= 51 . 2 %

(b)

If actual efﬁciency e′ = 15 . 0 % losses in system are e e′ = 36 . 2 %

Section 22.6

Entropy

P22.30 For a freezing process,

S =

Q

= −( 0 500

.

kg

)(

3 33 10

.

×

5

J kg

) =

T 273 K

610 JJ K

*P22.31

The process of raising the temperature of the sample in this way is reversible, because an inﬁni- tesimal change would make δ negative, and energy would ﬂow out instead of in. Then we may

ﬁ nd the entropy change of the sample as

S

∫∫ T

f

T

f

==

T

i

T

i

dS

dQ

T

=

T

T

i

f

mcdT

T

=

mc

ln

T

T

f

T

i

=

mc

lln T

f

ln T

i

=

mc ln(T T )

fi

*P22.32

Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

585

(a) The process is isobaric because it takes place under constant atmospheric pressure. As described by Newton’s third law, the stewing syrup must exert the same force on the air as the air exerts on it. The heating process is not adiabatic (because energy goes in by heat), isothermal (T goes up), isovolumetric (it likely expands a bit), cyclic (it is differ- ent at the end), or isentropic (entropy increases). It could be made as nearly reversible as you wish, by not using a kitchen stove but a heater kept always just incrementally higher in temperature than the syrup. The process would then also be eternal, and impractical for food production.

(b) The ﬁnal temperature is

220

°

F

=

212

°°

8

FF

+=

100

CF

°°

+

8

100

212

0 °

32 °

C

F

= 104°C

For the mixture,

Q = mc

11

T + mc

2 2

T

(

900

=

g 1 cal g ⋅+ ° C

4

cal

=

930

g 0.299 cal g ° C

9 59 10

.

4 . 02 ×× 10 5 J

)(

104 4 °°23 C

.

C

)

(c) Consider the reversible heating process described in part (a):

P22.33

S =

=

f

i

[

dQ

T

f

i

=

)+

(

900 1

(

m c

11

+

m c

T

2

2

)

(

930 0 299

.

)](

dT

= (

cal ° C

mc

11

)

⎝⎝

4

)

T

ln TT i

1

1 K

°C

f

+

mc

2

2

⎠ ⎝ ⎛

. 186 J 1 cal

= 4 930 J K 00.243 =

(

)

1 . 20 × 10 3 J K

f

S == dQ

i

T

T

f

T

i

mcdT

T

= mc ln

T

T

f

i

S = 250

g 1.00 cal g ° C ln

(

)

353

293

=

46 .6 cal KK

= 195

JK

ln

273 104

+

273 23

+

Section 22.7

Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes

P22.34

P22.35

Q

2

Q

1

S =−=

T

2

T

1

1 000

290

1

5

000

700

JK

=

3 27

.

J K

The car ends up in the same thermodynamic state as it started, so it undergoes zero changes in entropy. The original kinetic energy of the car is transferred by heat to the surrounding air, adding to the internal energy of the air. Its change in entropy is

S =

1

2

m v

2

=

(

750 20 0

.

)

2

J K

=

T 293

1

. 02

kJ K

586 Chapter 22

*P22.36

P22.37

Deﬁ ne T 1 = Temp Cream ==5 .00 ° C

278 K . Deﬁne T 2 = Temp Coffee ==60 . 0 ° C

333 K

The ﬁ nal temperature of the mixture is:

T

f =

20 0

(.

g

)

T

1

+

(

200

g

)

T

2

220 g

=

55 0

. ° C

=

328

The entropy change due to this mixing is S

S

= (

84 0

. JK ln

)

T

T

f

1

+(

840

)

JK ln

T

T

f

2

= (

⎟ ⎠⎠ = (

)

T

T

1

f

c dT

V

T

20 0

.g

+(

328

278

)

84 . 0 KJ ln

200

+(

g

)

T

f

T

2

c dT

V

T

840

JK

) ln ⎝⎝

K

328

333

S

=

+

1 . 18 JK

Sitting here writing, I convert chemical energy, in ordered molecules in food, into internal energy that leaves my body by heat into the room-temperature surroundings. My rate of energy output is equal to my metabolic rate,

2 500 kcal d =

2 500 10

×

3

cal

86 400 s

⎝⎝

4 186 J 1 cal

.

= 120 W

My body is in steady state, changing little in entropy, as the environment increases in entropy at the rate

S

t

== Q T t

Q

T

t

=

120

293

W

K

= 04

.

WK

~

1

WK

When using powerful appliances or an automobile, my personal contribution to entropy produc- tion is much greater than the above estimate, based only on metabolism.

P22.38

P22.39

c iron = 448

Q

cold

= −

Q

J kg ° C ;

c water = 4 186

J kg ° C

hot

:

4 . 00 kg ( 4 186 J kg ° C

)

(

T

f

10 0 C

°

)

= −(

)

1 00 kg ( 4448 J kg ° C

)

(

T

f

900 C

°

which yields

T f = 33 . 2 °C = 306 . 2 K

S =

306.2 K

283 K

c

m

water water

T

dT

306.2 K

+

1173 K

cmd TT

iron

iron

T

Sc

=

m

water water

ln

S =

=

S

( 4 186

718

J kg

J K

⎝⎝

⋅⋅ K )( 4 00 kg )( 0 078 8 )+ ( 448 J kg K )(1 . 00 kg )( 1 34

306

. 2

283

+

1173

306 . 2

c

iron

m

iron

ln

.

)

)

S

=

nR ln

V

V

f

i

=

R

ln =

2

5 76 J K

.

There is

no change in temperature

for an ideal gas. FIG. P22.39

P22.40

Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

587

S

=

nR ln

V

V

f

i

= ( 0 . 044 0 )( 2 ) R ln 2

S = 0 088 0

.

(8

.

314

)

ln

2 = 0 507

.

J K FIG. P22.40

Section 22.8

 P22.41 (a) (b) P22.42 (a) (b) (c) P22.43 (a) (b)

Entropy on a Microscopic Scale

A 12 can only be obtained

A 7 can be obtained six

one way, as 6 + 6

ways: 6 + 1, 5 + 2, 4 + 3, 3 + 4, 2 + 5, 1 + 6

The table is shown below. On the basis of the table, the most probable recorded result of a

toss is

.

The most ordered state is the least likely macrostate. Thus, on the basis of the table this is

either all heads or all tails

.

The most disordered is the most likely macrostate. Thus, this is

.

 Result Possible Combinations Total All heads HHHH THHH, HTHH, HHTH, HHHT TTHH, THTH, THHT, HTTH, HTHT, HHTT HTTT, THTT, TTHT, TTTH TTTT 1 3H, 1T 4 2H, 2T 6 1H, 3T 4 All tails 1 Result Possible Combinations Total All red RRR RRG, RGR, GRR RGG, GRG, GGR GGG 1 2R, 1G 3 1R, 2G 3 All green 1
 Result Possible Combinations Total All red RRRRR RRRRG, RRRGR, RRGRR, RGRRR, GRRRR RRRGG, RRGRG, RGRRG, GRRRG, RRGGR, RGRGR, GRRGR, RGGRR, GRGRR, GGRRR GGGRR, GGRGR, GRGGR, RGGGR, GGRRG, GRGRG, RGGRG, GRRGG, RGRGG, RRGGG RGGGG, GRGGG, GGRGG, GGGRG, GGGGR GGGGG 1 4R, 1G 5 3R, 2G 10 2R, 3G 10 1R, 4G 5 All green 1

588 Chapter 22

P22.44 The conversion of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy as the water falls is revers- ible. But the subsequent conversion into internal energy is not. We imagine arriving at the same

ﬁ nal state by adding energy by heat, in amount mgy , to the water from a stove at a temperature inﬁ nitesimally above 20.0°C. Then,

S =

dQ

T

Q

==

T

*P22.45 For the Carnot engine,

Also,

so

and

mgy

T

=

3

(

5 000 m 1 000 kg m

)(

32

9 80 m s

.

))(

50 0 m

.

) =

293

K

8 . 36 10 6 J K

×

e

e

c

c

Q

T c

T h

W eng

=−1

=

Q

h

300 K

750

=−1

= 0 600

.

K

= 250 J

h

W eng

==

150 J

e

c

0

. 600

Q

c

QW

=−

h

eng

=

250 JJ150

=

100 J (a)

W eng

Q ==

h

e

S

150 J

0.700

=

214 J

FIG. P22.45

(b)

(c)

(d)

Q

c

QW

=−

h

eng

=

214 150

JJ

=

64 . 3

J

Q h ,

net

Q c , net

=

=

214 250

JJ

64 3 100

.

JJ

=−35 . 7

=−35 7

.

J

J

The net ﬂow of energy by heat from the cold to the hot reservoir without work input, is impossible.

For engine S :

so

and

Q

c

W

eng

Q

h

W eng

QW

=−

h

eng

=

Q

c

=

1

e S

=

1

QW

1

0

. 700

=

eng

=+

c

S

W

eng

=

233

J

1

233

100

JJ

+

e

100 J

= 333

J

FIG. P22.45(b)

Q h ,

net

250

=−=333

JJ

83 . 3

W

net

=−=233 150

JJ

83 . 3

J

Q c ,net

= 0

J

The output of 83.3 J of energy from the heat engine by work in a cyclic process without any exhaust by heat is impossible. FIG. P22.45(d)

continued on next page

 (e) *P22.46 (a) (b) (c)

113794_22_ch22_p571-600.indd3 7 9 4 _ 2 2 _ c h 2 2 _ p 5 7 1 - 6 0 0 . i n d d 55898 9

Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

589

Both engines operate in cycles, so

For the reservoirs,

S

S

S

h

=∆S

Carnot

= 0

=− Q

T

h

h

and S =+ Q

T

c

c

c

Thus,

S

total

=∆SS+∆

S

Carnot

+∆SS+∆

hc

=

0

+

0

83

750 KK

. 3 J

+

0

300

=− 0 . 111 J K

K

A decrease in total entropy is impossible.

Let state i represent the gas before its compression and state f afterwards, V

f

V

i

= 8

diatomic ideal gas,

C

v = 5

2

PV

ii

γ

=

p = 7

2

γ

R , C

P V

f

f

R ,

and

γ =

C

C

p

V

= 1 . 40. Next,

so

T

f

= 2 . 30

T

i

E

int

P

f

P V

iii

P V

f

f

=

P

i

V

i

V

f

γ

=

P

i

8

1.40

= 18 . 4

P

i

=

nRT

i

18 4 PV

.

i

i

===

2 30

PV

8 ii

.

2 30

.

nRT

i

=

n

RRT f

==

nC T

V

n

5

2

R

(

T

T

fi

) =

5

= 2 1 30 1 013 10

×

(

5

Nm

2

)

5

2

0 12 10

5

nR

.

1 30

.

×

T

i

= 2 1 30 VV i

.

P

i

33

m

=

39 4 JJ

.

. For a

Q = 0

and

E int = Q + W gives W = 39 . 4 J

The moment of inertia of the wheel is I = MR = 1 2 5 1

1

2

2

(

kg 0 085

m

)

2

=

0 018 4

.

kg m 2

We want the ﬂywheel to do work 39.4 J, so the work on the ﬂywheel should be 39.4 J:

Now we want W

= 0 . 05

K

K

1

2

rot

i

+

I

2

i

ω

WK

=

rot

f

39 4

.

J

=

0

ω

i

=

0 018 4

2 39 . 4 J

(

kg m ⎠ ⎟

)

2

1

2

=

65

rot i

39 4

. J =

ω

=

1

0 05 0 018 4 kg m

2

0 018 4 kg m

.

(

2 789 J

)

2

1 2

2

2

i

ω

=