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Potato Starch as Biodegradable Plastic

Alinsunurin, Aleister

Castillo, Ayee M.

Pedernal, Aubrey Grace

Research

Mr. Osmerando P. Alcantara Jr.

January 30, 2018

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CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION AND ITS BACKGROUND

There are many beautiful and amazing gifts nature provides us. Most of them are very
useful in every living organisms on Earth. Anywhere we turn our heads to, we could see a gift of
nature and in everything that we use it came from the nature or the nature provide it to us. And as
beneficiaries we should consider in preserving them also for the next generation. So, we must do
what we can to help mother earth to heal.

Many people aren’t disciplined when it comes to throwing their wastes, especially
throwing those non-biodegradable wastes like plastics.
About 4% of the world’s total petroleum reserves are used for plastic preparation, which are
getting exhausted precipitously. This causes one of the major problems that we are facing during
calamities, which occurs more frequently in the places where there’s so many waste materials.
This major problem had become a part of our daily life to the extent that we became immune with
the garbage in our surroundings.

Environmental aspect of plastics manufacture is greenhouse gas generation. The


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) trajectory to 2050 for stabilization of
atmospheric GHG concentrations at 450 ppm CO2 requires emissions reduction of 80%
compared to the 1990 level. This will be perhaps the biggest human challenge of the next
generation. Several countries have adopted targets for such deep reductions in GHG emissions
and part of the strategy for many is the development of a bio-based economy. The bio-based
economy first emerged as a policy concept within the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD) at the start of this century linking renewable biological resources and
bioprocesses through industrial scale biotechnologies to produce sustainable products, jobs and
income.

As oil runs out, and the use of fossil fuels becomes increasingly expensive, the need for
replacement sources of raw material for the manufacture of vital plastics becomes increasingly
urgent. In addition, the use of carbon-based sources of energy for use in plastics manufacturing
adds greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, impeding the world’s attempts to cut CO2 emissions.

The researchers assessed the situation and this made them come up with the idea of
having potato starch as a new variable in making “bio-plastics”. They are derived
from biological resources like starch from cor, tapioca, cassava, wheat, rice, etc. which are easily

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available in bulk quantities. The reason for this is because potatoes has natural component which
is the starch, which allows it to form into plastic.

The starch granules consist of amylose and branching points of amylopectin molecules.
Amylose constitutes linear chains of the starch, with glucose residues linked by α-D-(1-
4) bonds. Depending on the species, it constitutes 20- 30% ofstarch. Amylopectin has a branched
structure and is composed of 300-6000 D-glucose units which are joined by α glycosidic link ages
between C-1of one D-glucose unit toC-6 of other D-glucose unit. The amylopectin content in
starch is about 70% by weight that varies on the source. (Mali S, Grossmann MVE; Effects of
yam starch films on storability and quality of fresh strawberries, Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry 2003: 7005 – 701)

A semi-crystalline granule of starch in potatoes are converted into a homogeneous


material with hydrogen bond broken between the starch molecules. This process is
called gelatinization and it leads to loss of both crystallinity and double helices. Starch
interactions are replaced by starch plasticizer interactions. This plasticized
moldable thermoplastic material called TPS which is similar to the other synthetic thermoplastic.

Since plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-


synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects, this
made potato starch suitable for creating Bio-Plastics.

As oil supply tightens , the advantages of Bio-Plastics will grow. Their carbon footprint
can be much lower than oil-based equivalents. Bioplastics can provide excellent biodegradability,
helping the world deal with the increasing problems of litter, particularly in the world’s rivers
and seas. Durable plant-based bioplastics can also be recycled as well as their conventional
equivalents, assisting the growth of a more sustainable world economy. This is the reasons why
the researchers came up with the idea of having potato starch as an alternative component in
making Bio-Plastics.

1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Nowadays, people are suffering from extreme weather casualties especially here in the
Philippines like floods and overflowing canals because of the wastes blocking the way of the
water causing it to overflow. Our environment is being polluted mainly because of wastes caused
by different individuals around the world that is attributed to plastics. Because plastics are being
widely used in the entire world, in different ways some are used in packaging, some are for

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furniture and many other stuff. But peoples are being careless, ignoring all the wastes that
surrounds them and not caring about where they threw their wastes and unfortunately many
people throw their wastes in an improper places.

That’s why this study aims to minimize the wastes that are being produced every year
because of the problems that we are facing involving plastics and other waste materials. The
beneficiaries of this study are those people who live near dumpsites especially those in flashflood
prone areas. Because of too much wastes that we are producing every single day, it’s harder to
recycle things which results to unsanitary surroundings. Making bio-plastics from potato starch
does not require high quality potatoes because even the lowest quality of potato can be used as a
source of starch, which makes this study highly significant.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The following questions seek out the feasibility of potato starch as biodegradable plastics.

i. Can potato starch meet the required qualities of a standard plastic? In terms of;
a) Life-span/ Shelf-life
b) Quality
c) Durability
ii. Will potato starch be helpful in our environment? In terms of being;
a) Eco-friendly
b) Cost efficiency
iii. Will Potato starch as biodegradable plastic have significant difference between
experimentally produced Biodegradable plastics and commercially produced plastics? In
terms of;
a) Appearance
b) Life-span
c) Cost efficiency

1.3 Hypothesis

This study aims to hypothesize the following questions in null form:

i. Potato starch alongside with other main ingredients could not create biodegradable
plastic.
ii. Potato starch bio-plastic will not be helpful or useful in our environment

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iii. There will be no significant difference between experimentally produced Bioplastics and
commercially produced plastics

1.4 Scope and Delimitation

The study will only deal with the benefits of making biodegradable plastics made of
potato starch and its effectiveness in terms of durability and usability. It would be limited to the
contents of our investigatory project which are potato starch, glycerol, water and food color
which will be measured in milliliters (mL), the advantages and disadvantages of the product, and
its similarities and differences with other plastics. The study should only last 20-30 minutes in the
making and will be conducted at Tanauan City National High School in school year 2017-2018.

In our study we will use ‘Post-Test-Only-Design’, because in our study we will first
present our product to the respondents and then we’ll give them a posttest about what they think
of our product or study we will use questions to test whether if our study is effective and
approved by the people or the respondents that we use. We will also use statistical method or
treatment in our study to help us test whether our study committed the standard that we are setting
in our study and to also see whether our study is effective. We will use mean and standard
deviation`

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Chapter II

2.0 Review of Related Literature

This chapter is a compilation of different literature lifted in journals, theses and


dissertation that supports the study. It is followed by synthesis, conceptual framework, hypothesis
and definition of terms.

2.1 Related Literature

The negative effects on the environment of the intensive use of synthetic, oil-derived
plastics to make products have given renewed impetus to the search for biopolymers derived from
vegetable, animal or microbial matter that could prove to be a sound alternative in a number of
applications. (Cecilia Cecchini, 2017)

In recent years, several typologies of bio-plastics were introduced and the most important
are those based on cellulosic esters, starch derivatives, poly-hydroxyl-butyrate, poly-lactic acid,
and polycaprolactone. Nowadays, the most important tool to evaluate the environmental impact
of a (bio) plastic is the life cycle assessment that determines the overall impact of a plastic on the
environment by defining and analyzing several impact categories index like the global warming;
the human toxicity; the abiotic depletion; the eutrophication; the acidification; and many others
directly related to the production, utilization, and disposal of the considered plastics. (Davis, G.
2003)

One was labeled as 100% degradable within various periods of time, from three months
up to three years, and four were certified as compostable. The test was carried out in a controlled
composting environment. The bio-disintegration degree of the obtained pieces was evaluated
following a modified version of ČSN EN 14806 Norm "Packaging - Preliminary evaluation of the
disintegration of the packaging materials under simulated composting conditions in a laboratory
scale test" and a modified version of ČSN EN ISO 20200 "Plastics - Determination of the degree
of disintegration of plastic materials under simulated composting conditions in laboratory-scale
test".

Starch isolated from Irish and sweet potatoes grown in Nigeria were characterized. The
starch granules of Irish potato were larger (13.39–47.00 µm) and showed a wider range of size
distribution than sweet potato (2.00–25.86 µm). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the

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moisture, nitrogen, fat, phosphorus, and amylose contents of the starches. Irish potato starch had a
lower gelatinization peak temperature (64.2°C) than sweet potato starch (74.9°C) and exhibited
higher swelling power and amylose leaching, lower pasting temperature, higher peak and lower
setback viscosities.( Louis, 2014)

Potato starch with anomalous stable (constant with time) paste viscosity has been
proposed as a natural replacement for cross-linked starch, but its behavior and the influencing
factors are not well understood. Starch from 44 samples of potato tubers representing 34
genotypes was analyzed for phosphorus, mean granule diameter, amylose, calcium, magnesium,
sodium, and potassium. Except for granule diameter, sodium, and potassium, each of those
properties correlated significantly with one or more of five paste characteristics determined using
the Brabender Visco amylograph.

Some bio-based plastics are preferable from a health and safety perspective, and others are
preferable from an environmental perspective. (Yang Y, 2017)

Widespread environmental awareness towards achieving product sustainability has


spurred great efforts in using more environmental-friendly materials in product design. Among
the most promising solutions to address the needs is by using natural fibers to reduce the
dependence on synthetic fibers as reinforcement and filler materials for polymer composites’
construction. Many efforts have been made to fully quantify the advantages of natural fiber
composites (NFC) for diverse applications such as automotive, building materials, and
household appliances. (Patel, M. 2002)

Starch is a natural polymer which possesses many unique properties and some
shortcoming simultaneously. Some synthetic polymers are biodegradable and can be tailor-made
easily. Therefore, by combining the individual advantages of starch and synthetic polymers,
starch-based completely biodegradable polymers (SCBP) are potential for applications in
biomedical and environmental fields. (D. R. Lu, 2009)

Degradable polymeric biomaterials are preferred candidates for developing therapeutic


devices such as temporary prostheses, three-dimensional porous structures as scaffolds for tissue
engineering and as controlled/sustained release drug delivery vehicles. Each of these applications
demands materials with specific physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation
properties to provide efficient therapy. (Nair L. S., 2007)

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Bibliography

1. Bio-plastics made from upcycled food waste. Prospects for their use in the field of
design, The Design Journal, 20:sup1, S1596-S1610, DOI:
10.1080/14606925.2017.1352684
2. Davis, G. 2003. Characterization and characteristics of degradable polymer sacks.
Mater. Character. 51:147–157.
3. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, ISSN (Print) 1898-
6196, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10216-011-0025-8.

4. Louis M. Nwokocha, Ndubisi A. Aviara, Chandra Senan, Peter A. Williams, A


comparative study of properties of starches from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and
sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) grown in Nigeria. Louis, 2014, 66, 7-8, 714
5. V.M. Moo-Huchin, M.J. Cabrera-Sierra, R.J. Estrada-León, C.R. Ríos-Soberanis, D.
Betancur-Ancona, L. Chel-Guerrero,A. Ortiz-Fernández, I.A. Estrada-Mota, E. Pérez-
Pacheco, Determination of some physicochemical and rheological characteristics of
starch obtained from Brosimum alicastrum swartz seeds, Food
Hydrocolloids, 1994, 45, 48
6. Yang Y., He L., Xiang Z., Zhou Y., Lin Q,
Effect of Sodium Alginate and Calcium Ions on the Gelatinization of Rice Starch
Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association, Volume 32, Yang Y, 2017
7. Patel, M. 2002. Life cycle assessment of synthetic and biological polyesters.
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Polyesters, Munster,
Germany, September 22–26.
8. Express Polymer Letters Vol.3, No.6 (D. R. Lu,2009) 366–375 Available online at
www.expresspolymlett.com DOI: 10.3144/exp,resspolymlett.2009.46
9. Nair L. S., Laurencin C. T.: Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials. Progress in
Polymer Science, 32, 762–798 (Nair L. S.,
2007).DOI:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.05.017

2.2 Review of Related Studies

This chapter is a compilation of different studies lifted in theses and dissertation


that supports the study. It is followed by synthesis, conceptual framework, hypothesis and
definition of terms.

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2.3 Related Studies

The study aims to produce biodegradable plastic using cassava starch as its main
component. Cassava starch was mixed with water, epoxy-dized soya bean oil (ESBO), glycerol,
and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Plastics can be as hard as metal or as soft as silk. They can take
any shape in almost any form due to the versatility of the carbon, the most common backbone of
polymer chains. Plastics can be conveniently divided into two categories: semi-synthetic, in
which the basic chain structure is derived from a natural product, such as cellulose; and
synthetic, which is built up chemically from small units or monomers.

Starch-based polymers are a promising alternative to the current petroleum-based, non-


biodegradable plastics. Over the past fifty years, a lot of research has been generated to find a
suitable alternative to oil-based plastics but much is still unknown. Issues such as the byproducts
of the biodegradation process and their exact chemical composition have yet to be formally
studied.

The use of biodegradable plastics has already started in the United States. Some plastics
use cornstarch as an additive. This additive helps in the natural decomposition of the plastic
materials. The word plastic came from the Greek word “plastikos”, which means “capable of
being molded.”

Research on starch-based biodegradable plastics began in the 1970's and continues today
at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) in Peoria, IL. Technology
has been developed for producing extrusion blown films and injection molded articles containing
50% and more of starch. Extrusion processing of compositions containing starch and other natural
polymers to provide totally biodegradable plastics is being investigated. Starch grafted with
thermoplastic side chains is under commercial development to provide injection molded items
with a broad range of compositions and properties. The mechanism of biological degradation and
the rate and extent of biodegradation of starch containing plastics in various environments is
studied to enhance development and acceptance of biodegradable plastics.

Unlike synthetic polymers these biopolymers are biodegradable moieties and hence they
can be decomposed by fungal or bacterial activity into natural metabolites. These biodegradable
plastics have a vast application as carriage, packaging material. Most commercially available
biodegradable plastic packaging materials are based on natural materials e.g. polysaccharides

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(cellulose, starch). This is because starch is a renewable, abundant and inexpensive resource.
When used alone in packaging applications, starch exhibits a poor performance because of its
brittleness and hydrophilic nature. To overcome such problems, starch is often modified
mechanically, physically or chemically by combining with a plasticizer or polymeric additives.

This bio-plastic is the first truly viable substitute for PET, as it matches the important
thermal properties of this commercially dominant polymer. Available bio-plastics, such as those
made from corn, usually rely on costly fermentation processes and have sub-standard thermal
properties, both major obstacles to their widespread success. This bio-plastic is the first truly
viable substitute for PET, as it matches the important thermal properties of this commercially
dominant polymer. Available bio-plastics, such as those made from corn, usually rely on costly
fermentation processes and have sub-standard thermal properties, both major obstacles to their
widespread success.

A team of Egyptian researchers say they have made a breakthrough in the development of
a biodegradable alternative to plastic, which has become an ubiquitous part of everyday life for
most of mankind researchers at Egypt’s Nile University are developing a way to turn dried
shrimp shells into thin films of biodegradable plastic for eco-friendly grocery bags and
packaging, according to Reuters. To produce the biodegradable plastic, researchers collect or
buy unwanted shrimp shells from restaurants, supermarkets, and local fishermen at cheap prices.
The shells are then cleaned, chemically treated, ground, and dissolved into a solution that dries
into thin films of plastic, a technique the team says has the potential for large-scale industrial
production.

Some biodegradable plastics that have been commercialized are starch based plastics,
bacteria-based plastics, soy-based plastics, cellulose-based plastics, lignin-based plastics and
natural fiber reinforced plastics. Production of this kind of material and its introduction to the
market is important for the natural environmental.

MIT chemists have determined the structure of a bacterial enzyme that can produce
biodegradable plastics, an advance that could help chemical engineers tweak the enzyme to
make it even more industrially useful. The enzyme generates long polymer chains that can form
either hard or soft plastics, depending on the starting materials that go into them. Learning more
about the enzyme’s structure could help engineers control the polymers’ composition and size, a
possible step toward commercial production of these plastics, which, unlike conventional plastic
formed from petroleum products, should be biodegradable.

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Biodegradable plastics with functionalities and process abilities comparable to traditional
petrochemical-based plastic have been developed for packaging applications. Typically, these
are made from renewable raw materials such as starch or cellulose. Interest in biodegradable
plastic packaging arises primarily from their use of renewable raw materials (crops instead of
crude oil) and end-of-life waste management by composting or anaerobic digestion to reduce
landfilling.

The use of plastic mulch in agriculture has increased dramatically in the last 10 years
throughout the world. This increase is due to benefits such as increase in soil temperature,
reduced weed pressure, moisture conservation, reduction of certain insect pests, higher crop
yields, and more efficient use of soil nutrients. However, disposing of used plastic films, which
cause pollution, has led to development of photodegradable and biodegradable mulches. Here we
review the use of plastic mulches in agriculture, with special reference to biodegradable mulches.

Plastic consumption and waste are two of the major concerns in the modern world.
Polyethylene for example is currently the leading plastic material, with a global consumption of
about 83 million metric tons in 2010, mostly for use in plastic bag production. Plastics normally
biodegrade very slowly, with full degradation occurring after 500 or 1000 years. Plastic
electronics on the other hand represent an emerging field of science and technology that began in
the realm of academic curiosity thirty years ago, but which has now made some amazing
advancements.

There are four major options for disposal of plastics: landfilling, incineration, recycling,
and biodegradation. All plastics can be disposed of in landfills or incinerated. But, landfills
require space and the chemical constituents and energy contained in plastic articles typically is
lost in this disposal route. The second option, incineration, returns some of the energy from
plastic production but is known to produce negative environmental and health effect. Many
plastics can be recycled, and some of the materials used to make plastics can be recovered.
However, this method is not fully utilized, due to difficulties with the collection and sorting of
plastic waste. Finally, certain polymers are designed to biodegrade, thereby preventing long-
term environmental damage from pollution. However, many biodegradable plastics may not
biodegrade rapidly enough under ambient environmental conditions to avoid accumulation from
continuous inputs; and biodegradable plastics also can contaminate and disrupt the current
recycling stream, due to their similar appearance, yet distinct makeup.

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Using vegetable waste to produce bio-plastics can provide sustainable alternatives to non-
biodegradable plastic, new research has found. The biodegradable plastic developed for this
study, produced using parsley and spinach stems, cocoa pod husks and rice hulls, have a range of
mechanical properties comparable to conventional plastics which are used for products from
carrier bags to kitchenware and computer components. The researchers examined how well these
bio-plastics would degrade in the environment. They showed that when soaked in water for a
week all types of bio-plastic swell and begin to fragment. After a month they had disintegrated
completely. They conclude that these materials could play an important role in replacing
conventional plastics and reducing harmful non-biodegradable waste from polluting ecosystems.

A raw material extracted from several vegetable sources, with many chemical and
physical modification possibilities, starch is a polysaccharide that can be transformed into a
promising biopolymer for the development of biodegradable packaging, plastic films and other
products for agricultural use. At the Federal University of São Carlos (UFS Car), in inner-state
São Paulo, a new material for making pots for seedlings and other applications was developed
from a biodegradable plastic made of cornstarch and vegetable waste such as coconut fiber,
wood shavings and cassava skin. The result is a stiff plastic that, once buried in soil, degrades in
six months.

Footnote:

 https://www.scribd.com/doc/125449131/Investigatory-Project-Biodegradable-Plastic-
From-Cassava
 http://www.markedbyteachers.com/university-degree/biological-sciences/literature-
review-a-the-biodegradability-of-starch-based-plastics.html
 http://scinet.dost.gov.ph
 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/star.19920440805/abstract
 https://www.omicsonline.org
 http://technologylicensing.research.ufl.edu
 https://face2faceafrica.com/article/shrimp-shells
 https://www.scientific.net/AMM.679.273
 http://news.mit.edu/2016/step-toward-biodegradable-plastics-1111
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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 https://link.springer.com
 https://www.sciencedirect.com
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
 https://ec.europa.eu
 http://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br

2.4 CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

 Ecologically
improved / better
 Mean environment
Deviation  Efficient bio-
composting
Potato starch  Standard technology
Deviation  Improved soil
health and
productivity

Figure 1.

2.5 Conceptual Framework

The researchers used the Input-Process-Output in their framework. The first box serves as
the input of the study, or the researchers will be needed create the product hence it is the focus of
the study. In the next one, the process, it will signify the statistical treatment between the input
and the output. The process contains the data gathering procedure of the study. And lastly, the

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output contains the product or the result of the study. It is the product of the first and the second
box of the I.P.O. (Input-Output-Process).

In the first box, input, we put Potato Starch because it is the main component that we’re
going to use in our study, hence, it is the main focus of our study. Next one in the second box, the
process, we put mean deviation and the standard deviation because it is the statistical method that
we will in our study to gather all the data that we will be needing in our study. And lastly, in the
last box or result, we put “Ecologically improved/ better environment, efficient bio-composting
technology and improved soil health and productivity, we put all those because we intend to
achieve all those, our study aims for that achievement, hence, that is our goal.

2.6 Definition of terms

 Potato - The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade
Solanumtuberosum. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible
tuber.
 Starch or amylum- a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number
of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most
green plants as energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is
contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice,
and cassava.

 Biodegradable- is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological


means. The term is often used in relation to: biomedicine, waste management, ecology,
and the bioremediation of the natural environment. It is now commonly associated with
environmentally-friendly products, capable of decomposing back into natural elements.

 Plastics - is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-


synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without
breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their
actual name derives from this ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of
high molecular mass and often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most
commonly derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from
renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters.

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 Hydrochloric acid - is a corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. A
colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water, when it reacts
with an organic base it forms a hydrochloride salt. Hydrochloric acid was historically
called acidumsalis, muriatic acid, and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock
salt and "green vitriol" (Iron (II) sulfate) (by BasiliusValentinus in the 15th century) and
later from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid (by Johann Rudolph
Glauber in the 17th century).
 Glycerine acetate - is a mixture of esters produced from the esterification of glycerol (1)
with acetic acid. Multiple products can be produced from this reaction; these include the
monoacetylglycerols (MAG, 2 and 3), diacetylglycerols (DAG, 4 and 5), and
triacetalglycerol (TAG, triacetin, 6).

FOOTNOTE

-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato
-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch
-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable
-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic
-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrochloric_acid
-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycerine_acetate

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CHAPTER III

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The main goal of performing this study was to determine if there will be a statistically
significant difference in potato starch as Biodegradable Plastic. In this chapter, methodology is
described including how the study will be carried out, an overview of the study, a description of
the participants of the study, the data collection process, data analysis procedures and statistical
treatment that we need in the study.

Research Design
A large proportion of all scientific research studies employed experimental research
design which will also be applied in this study. It gave a clear statement of what will be the
relationship of two variables. The experimental method of research is defined by Good as a
method or procedure involving the control or manipulation of conditions for the purpose of
studying the relative effect of various treatments applied to members of a sample, or the same
treatment applied to members of different samples.
Manuel and Mendel explain the experimental method of research in the following way.
The basic purpose of experimental research is to discover the influence of one or more factors
upon a condition, group, or situation, purpose of which is to discover the influence of which is to
discover “what will be”. It describes and analyzes variables in carefully controlled conditions as
a basis of inferring or concluding. An experimental research therefore consists of manipulating an
experimental variable under highly controlled conditions to determine how and why a particular
event occurs. (Manuel and Mendel p. 37)
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design may use as many groups to know the Cons and Pros of the
Experiment, plus a control group to serve as a comparison group. The subjects are measured
before and after undergoing the experiment.

3.1 Data Gathering Instrument


For the purposes of this research, in depth interviews were used. In depth interviews are
personal and unstructured interviews, whose aim is to identify participant’s emotions, feelings,
and opinions regarding a particular research subject.

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The main advantage of personal interviews is that they involve personal and direct
contact between interviewers and interviewees, as well as eliminate non-response rates, but
interviewers need to have developed the necessary skills to successfully carry an interview.

What is more, unstructured interviews offer flexibility in terms of the flow of the
interview, thereby leaving room for the generation of conclusions that were not initially meant to
be derived regarding a research subject. However, there is the risk that the interview may deviate
from the pre-specified research aims and objectives.

As far as data collection tools were concerned, the conduction of the research involved
the use of semi-structured questionnaire, which was used as an interview guide for the researcher.
Some certain questions were prepared, so as for the researcher to guide the interview towards the
satisfaction of research objectives, but additional questions were made encountered during the
interviews.

The researchers will also use the second questionnaire to identify who is a naturalist and
who is not, the naturalist will be the controlled, and unlikely to even care about the health of the
nature. Then we will prepare a little talk with the controlled group, for them to know all about the
product, while or the experimental will only know about the product physical appearance and
they will not know about our complete title until the researchers will them about it, with the use
of the preparation video the researchers made for the data gathering.

3.2 Data Gathering Procedure


 4 tablespoons of cold water
 1 tablespoon of potato starch
 1 teaspoon of acid (vinegar)
 1 teaspoon of glycerin
 5 drops of food coloring
 A wooden spatula
 Non-stick pan stove top or hot plate
 A tray or a sheet of aluminum foil
 Hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol/dm3(Minimal hazard)
 Sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol/dm3(Irritant)

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For the procedure, two potatoes were washed, peeled and cut into cubes and then
blended with water. after, the mixture is strained using a coffee filter, and then we waited
for the strained water to settle and let the potato starch settle at the bottom of the
container, and then we decanted the liquid, living us with the potato starch. Then, we
measured out 4 tablespoons of cold water, 1 tablespoon of potato starch, 1 teaspoon of
acetic acid (vinegar), 1 teaspoon of glycerin and 5 drops of food coloring (orange) and
mixed all of them in the non-stick pan. We then turned the burner on low and constantly
stirred the mixture. When it started to thicken up we raised the heat up to medium and
stirred even more. When it too started to boil, we kept boiling it for 5 minutes, until it
became clear and gooey.

The researchers will make another set of biodegradable plastic that is made of
corn, to identify which is more intimidating for the eyes of the user. The researchers will
also meet some Environment specialist for them to know how to measure the
biodegradability of the two sets of biodegradable plastic.
For the gathering of data we will use 3 appendices, 10 respondents, and a
prototype product. The respondents are picked by using the stratified sampling technique,
we classified who understands and wants to protect the nature, researchers will use
questionnaires to identify them from 3 sections of the STEM students in Tanauan City
National High School. The 3 appendices contain a questionnaire, the complete list of
materials and a research instrument. Using the equation of Mean we will evaluate the
respondent’s point of view about our study and the commercial plastic, using the standard
deviation for the researchers to know if the study is approved by the respondents or it
could have caught their attention, it will help the researchers if they use a graph for such
reasons. The respondents will be divided into 2 groups the controlled and the
experimental, the controlled have a better understanding about our study because a little
lecture about it and for the experimental, they will only know about the researcher
product but doesn’t know much about it. This will test if the product is trustworthy by
just knowing what it is called and appearance.

3.3 Statistical Treatment

The following statistical measures were used to determine the effects of Using Biodegradable
Plastics than Plastics on an Environment.

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Mean. This was used to assess the average performance of the control and experimental groups
on the pretest and posttest give.

Standard Deviation. This was utilized to determine the average distance or dispersion of the test
scores from the mean.

T-test of Independent Means. This was applied to know the significant difference in the pretest
and posttest results of the control and experimental group.

Appendix A

Questionnaire for Potato Starch as Biodegradable Plastic

Strongly Disagree Strongly Not applicable


disagree agree
1. The product is
safer than the
normal ones.
2. Copy of Overall
I think the product
was a good
purchase.
3. The product

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does what it
claims.
4. The product is
trustworthy.
5. The product is
easy to use.
6. The product is
better than other
similar products.
7. I am likely to
recommend the
product to others.
8. Are there any
improvements that
you feel we could
make to the
product?

Appendix B

The Gathering of Materials

Ingredients How Much It will


Cost
Glycerin

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Hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol/dm
3

(
Minimal hazard
)

Sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol/dm3


(
Irritant
)

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