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Type of Digital Images

Computer Graphics come in


• two main types:
Vector based – geometric
• Raster (also known as bit-mapped) – Photo-Realistic
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Vector based / geometric images


Vector based images are commonly used in
Computer Aided Design (CAD) and drawing
software.
The advantages of these formats are that:
• objects remain independently editable
• file size is relatively small
• images can be sealed or resize without
loss of resolution
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Raster (also known as bit-mapped) – Photo-Realistic

Raster/Bit-mapped images are made up of a


mosaic of picture elements, called Pixels.
Raster image file size tend to be large.

Example
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The main advantages of raster formats are

• high degree of photo realism obtainable.

• high degree of manipulation possible,


as each pixel can be edited on an individual basis
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Third class of digital image file, known as metafiles

Metafiles

contain both vector and bit-mapped information.

An example would be an architectural CAD package

that allows photo-realistic image for realism

to computer models.
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are five main defining elements t


/Bitmapped images
ze – Usually are in Kilobytes or Megabyte
mat – how the image is structured
tion – number of pixels or pixels per unit
pth – amount of information in each pixel
paces – color the image is in e.g. RGB, C
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The file size is important as it affects


• Quality of image (sharpness)

• Storage requirement (hard disk space)

• Network delivery speed (file transportation)

In general the, the larger the file size the higher


the quality of the image, the greater the storage requirements
and slower the network delivery speed possible.
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File formats relate to the type of computer coding


that is used to structure a digital image.

Resolution is the number of pixels in a digital image.


It is expressed as
‘ppi‘ (pixel per inch) or ‘dpi’ (dots per inch).

The higher the resolution the higher the quality


of image and possible output size.
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This is the amount of color information per pixel


in an image.

It is measured in factor of 8 i.e. 8bit, 16bit, 24bit etc.

The color space a digital image is in relates to its


achievable color output. There are two prominent types:
• RGB (Additive color process, using Red, Green & Blue)
• CMYK (This is the color space used for print industry)
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Compression is one way of reducing file size.

There are two types of compression:

• Lossless
compression ratio are not very high, typically
reducing file size by a half
• lossy
These techniques are capable of much higher
compression ratios, sometimes in excess of 100:1
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A typical Screen of
Adobe PhotoShop 6 Image Window
Title Bar
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Option Menu bar


Bar

Tool
Palette Palette
(Navigation)

Palette
(Color)

Status Palette
Bar (Layer)
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Back to Typical Photoshop Screen

At the top of each application window you will find ‘Title Bar’ as
shown below.

Application minimize button


Window Control
Menu
Windows Application name
In this case ‘Photoshop’

Application window resize button

Application Close button


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Apply Filters to your


image, etc.. Close
Select, Inverse, Different View Options, etc..
Color Range ,
Transform, etc.. Adjust palette Windows, Show or
Hide Palettes, Snap, Grid, etc..

Provides Help for using Photoshop


& Export Transparent Image, etc..
Add Layer, Layer Effects, Arranging, Grouping, etc..

Mode, Adjust, Duplicate, Transform, etc..

Undo, Cut, copy, fill, etc..

File Open, close, save, Import, Automate, Print, etc.


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File Name Display Size Current Layer Close


File Format Color Mode

Ruler Canvas

Image
Title Bar of Tool Palette Training Links (Pvt.) Ltd.
(You can move tool palette by dragging it)

Hyperlink for Connecting to Adobe online

Group of tools for Close


Move, Select, cut, crop, etc..

More Options Beneath the Tool

Group of tools for


Paint, Color fill, Stamp/Colon, Erase, etc..

Group of Vector based tools for


Text, Draw, Path, etc..

Group of tools for


Desire Zooming, Comments, color picker, etc..

Switch Colors
Foreground Colors
Background Colors
Default Colors
Quick Mask Mode
Standard mode

Display Options
Jump to image Ready
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Other Palettes

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With each tool of a ‘tool Palette’ some
options are available in Option Bar e.g..
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Option Bar of ZOOM TOOL

Zoom Tool
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Tool Currently Selected Tool Action Tip

Zoom Click to set Status Bar for


Factor desire information (File
Size, Control, Tool Selected,
etc..)