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1.

What is the non-continuous noise of irregular pulses or spikes of duration


with high amplitudes?

 A. Wander
 B. Jitter
 C. Hits
 D. Singing
2. What theorem sets a limit on the maximum capacity of a channel with a
given noise level?

 A. Nyquist theorem
 B. Hartley law
 C. Shannon-Hartley theorem
 D. Shannon theorem
3. Quantizing noise occurs in

 A. PCM
 B. PLM
 C. PDM
 D. PAM
4. Noise always affects the signal in a communications systems at the
________.

 A. transmitter
 B. channel
 C. information source
 D. destination
5. _________ is the random and unpredictable electric signals from natural
causes, both internal and external to the system.

 A. Interference
 B. Attenuation
 C. Distortion
 D. Noise
6. Noise from random acoustic or electric noise that has equal energy per
cycle over a specified total frequency band.

 A. Gaussian noise
 B. Whiter noise
 C. Thermal noise
 D. All of the above
7. Which causes a quantization noise in PCM system?

 A. Serial transmission errors


 B. The approximation of the quantized signal
 C. The synchronization between encoder and decoder
 D. Binary coding techniques
8. A particular circuit that rids FM of noise

 A. Detector
 B. Discriminator
 C. Phase Shifter
 D. Limiter
9. What is the reference noise temperature in degrees Celsius?

 A. 17
 B. 273
 C. 25
 D. 30
10. Unwanted radio signal on assigned frequency.

 A. Splatter
 B. RFI
 C. Noise
 D. EMI
11. What is the reliable measurement for comparing amplifier noise
characteristics?

 A. Thermal agitation noise


 B. Noise factor
 C. Noise margin
 D. Signal-to-noise
12. _________ is measured on a circuit when it is correctly terminated but
does not have any traffic.

 A. White noise
 B. Galactic noise
 C. Impulse noise
 D. Atmospheric noise
13. Which standard recommends crosstalk limits?

 A. CCIT G.152
 B. CCIT G.150
 C. CCIT G.151
 D. CCIT G.161
14. Which standard is utilized in intermodulation noise rates on PCM audio
channels?
 A. CCIT Rec. G.151
 B. CCIT Rec. G.172
 C. CCIT Rec. G.190
 D. CCIT Rec. G.190
15. What is the reference frequency of CCIT phosphomeric noise
measurement?

 A. 800 Hz
 B. 1000 Hz
 C. 1500 Hz
 D. 3400 Hz
16. Reference temperature use in noise analysis

 A. 75 K
 B. 250 K
 C. 290 K
 D. 300 K
17. Which noise is produced by lighting discharges in thunderstorms?

 A. White noise
 B. Extraterrestrial noise
 C. Industrial noise
 D. Atmospheric noise
18. Man-made noise is usually from _______.

 A. transmission over power lines and by ground wave


 B. sky-wave
 C. space-wave
 D. troposphere
19. nif stands for

 A. Non-intrinsic figure
 B. Noise improvement factor
 C. Narrow intermediate frequency
 D. Noise interference figure
20. Industrial noise frequency is between _____.

 A. 0 to 10 KHz
 B. 160 MHz to 200 MHz
 C. 15 to 160 MHz
 D. 200 to 3000 MHz
21. External noise fields are measured in terms of _______.

 A. rms values
 B. dc values
 C. average values
 D. peak values
22. Form of interference caused by rain or dust storms.

 A. Precipitation static
 B. Shot-noise
 C. Galactic noise
 D. Impulse noise
23. At 17˚ C, the noise voltage generated by 5kΩ resistor, operating over a
bandwidth of 20KHz is

 A. 1.3 nV
 B. 1.3 µV
 C. 1.3 pV
 D. 1.3 mV
24. ________ is an electric noise produced by thermal agitation of electrons
in conductor and semiconductor.

 A. External noise
 B. Internal noise
 C. Thermal noise
 D. Flicker
25. Three identical circuits having 10 dB signal noise-to-noise ratio each are
connected in tandem with each other, what is the overall S/N?

 A. 5.23 dB
 B. 14.77dB
 C. 30 dB
 D. 40 dB
26. The noise figure of the first circuit in tandem connection is 10.5 dB while
its power gain is 15, what is the over all noise figure if the second circuit has
a noise figure of 11 dB?

 A. 11.59 dB
 B. 11.23 dB
 C. 10.79 dB
 D. 10.5 dB
27. Is the interference coming from other communications channels?

 A. Jitter
 B. Crosstalk
 C. RFI
 D. EMI
28. What is the reference noise level?

 A. 10 pW
 B. 0 dBm
 C. 1mW
 D. -90 dBm
29. What is the unit of noise power of psophometer?

 A. pWp
 B. dBa
 C. dBm
 D. dBrn
30. A large emission of hydrogen from the sun that affects communications.

 A. Solar flare
 B. Cosmic disturbance
 C. Ballistic disturbance
 D. Solar noise
31. Atmospheric noise is known as _______noise.

 A. static
 B. cosmic
 C. solar
 D. lunar
32. Standard design reference for environmental noise temperature.

 A. 300 K
 B. 290 K
 C. 32 ˚F
 D. 212˚F
33. Absolute temperature in Kelvin.

 A. ˚C + 273
 B. ˚C + 75
 C. ˚C + 19
 D. ˚C + 290
34. If bandwidth is doubled, the signal power is _________.

 A. not changed
 B. quadrupled
 C. tripled
 D. doubled
35. Name one or more sources of noise bearing on electronic
communications.
 A. Steam boiler
 B. Galaxies
 C. Internal combustion engine
 D. Both B and C
36. The transmitter technique adopted to reduce the noise effect of the
preceding question is called

 A. noise masking
 B. anitnoise
 C. noise killing
 D. preemphasis
37. Deemphasis in the receiver in effect attenuates modulating signal
components and noise in what frequency range?

 A. dc
 B. low
 C. intermediate
 D. high
38. Atmospheric noise or static is not a great problem

 A. at frequencies below 20 MHz


 B. at frequencies below 5 MHz
 C. at frequencies above 30 MHz
 D. at frequencies above 1 MHz
39. What is the proper procedure for suppressing electrical noise in a mobile
station?

 A. Apply shielding and filtering where necessary


 B. Insulate a all plain sheet metal surfaces from each other
 C. Apply anti-static spray liberally to all nonmetallic
 D. Install filter capacitors in series with all dc wiring
40. Where is the noise generated that primarily determines the signal-to-
noise ratio in a VHF (150MHz) marine-band receiver?

 A. Man-made noise
 B. In the atmosphere
 C. In the receiver front end
 D. In the ionosphere
41. The difference between signal strength at a given point and a reference
level is________.

 A. power
 B. dBm
 C. level
 D. ratio
42. Interfering effect of noise, C message weighted, is _________.

 A. dBa
 B. dBm
 C. dBmc
 D. dB
43. F1A weighting refers to ___________.

 A. -90 dBm
 B. dBrnc0
 C. dBrnc
 D. F1A handset
44. Reading a 58 dBrnC on your Western Electric 3A test set at a +7 test
point is equal to ______ dBrnc0.

 A. 58
 B. 51
 C. 65
 D. 27
45. Reading a 58 dBrn, at a +7 test point is equal to ________ dBa0.

 A. 26
 B. 65
 C. 51
 D. 46
46. A reading of -50 dBm on the disturbing pair, and -80 on the disturbed
pair equals _____ dB of crosstalk coupling.

 A. 20
 B. 30
 C. 60
 D. 25
47. Power is __________.

 A. actual amount of power reference to 1mW


 B. logarithmic ratio of two powers
 C. definite amount of energy per time period
 D. current flow per time period
48. 15 dBa F1A weighted, equals ___________.

 A. -90 dBm
 B. -82 dBm
 C. -85 dBm
 D. -70 dBm
49. You are measuring noise in a voice channel with a Lenkurt 601A, F1A
weighting network and a flat meter. Your meter reads -47dBm. What is this
reading in dBa?

 A. 77 dBa
 B. 35 dBa
 C. 38 dBa
 D. 32 dBa
50. You are measuring noise at a +3 dB level point, using the Lenkurt 601A,
F1A weighting network, and a flat meter. The meter reading is -57dBm. This
is ________dBa0.

 A. 20
 B. 15
 C. 25
 D. 17
1. Jitter

2. Shannon-Hartley theorem

3. PCM

4. channel

5. Noise

6. All of the above

7. The approximation of the quantized signal

8. Limiter

9. 17

10. Noise

11. Noise factor

12. White noise

13. CCIT G.151

14. CCIT Rec. G.172


15. 800 Hz

16. 290 K

17. Atmospheric noise

18. transmission over power lines and by ground wave

19. Noise improvement factor

20. 15 to 160 MHz

21. peak values

22. Precipitation static

23. 1.3 µV

24. Thermal noise

25. 5.23 dB

26. 10.79 dB

27. Crosstalk

28. -90 dBm

29. pWp

30. Solar flare

31. static

32. 290 K

33. ˚C + 273

34. not changed

35. Both B and C

36. preemphasis
37. high

38. at frequencies above 30 MHz

39. Apply shielding and filtering where necessary

40. In the receiver front end

41. level

42. dBmc

43. dBrnc

44. 51

45. 46

46. 30

47. definite amount of energy per time period

48. -70 dBm

49. 38 dBa

50. 25

51. You are measuring noise at a -6 dB level point, using the Lenkurt 601A,
F1A weighting network, and a flat meter. The meter reading is -59 dBm.
This is _________ dBa0.

 A. 24
 B. 12
 C. 23
 D. 32
52. A measurement of -75 dBm, C-message weighted, would be _________
dBrnc.

 A. 8
 B. 7
 C. 9
 D. 15
53. Your Western Electric 3A test set meter reading is -23 dBm at at test
point level of -8 dB. This is ______ dBrnc0.

 A. 75
 B. 29
 C. 30
 D. 31
54. At what power level does a 1 KHz tone cause zero interference (144
weighted)?

 A. 90 dB
 B. 90 dBm
 C. -90 dBm
 D. -90 dBm
55. Reference noise is ___________.

 A. a 1000 Hz, -90 dBm tone


 B. a noise that creates the same interfering effect as a 1000Hz, -90dBm
tone
 C. a noise that creates zero dBrn in a voice channel
 D. B and C above
56. A practical dBrn measurement will almost always in a _______ number.

 A. positive
 B. negative
 C. imaginary
 D. fractional
57. What is the reference level for noise measurement, F1A weighted?

 A. -90 dBm
 B. -82 dBm
 C. -67 dBm
 D. -85 dBm
58. What is the reference tone level for dBrn?

 A. -90 dBm
 B. -82 dBm
 C. -67 dBm
 D. -85 dBm
59. What is the reference tone level for dBa?

 A. -90 dBm
 B. -82 dBm
 C. -67 dBm
 D. -85 dBm
60. Atmospheric noise becomes less severe at frequencies

 A. above 30 MHz
 B. below 30 MHz
 C. above 3000 kHz
 D. below 3000kHz
61. Indicate the noise whose sources are in category different from that of
the other three?

 A. Solar noise
 B. Cosmic noise
 C. Atmospheric noise
 D. Galactic noise
62. Indicate the false statement.

 A. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type


 B. Static is caused by lightning discharges in thunderstorms and other
natural electric disturbances occurring in the atmosphere
 C. Distant stars are another source of man-made noise
 D. Flourescent lights are another source of man-made noise
63. Which of the following is not a source of industrial noise?

 A. Automobile ignition
 B. Sun
 C. Electric Motors
 D. Leakage from high voltage line
64. Indicate the false statement

 A. The noise generated in a resistance or the resistive component of any


impedance is random.
 B. Random noise power is proportional to the bandwidth over which is
measured
 C. A random voltage across the resistor does not exist
 D. All formula referring to random noise are applicable only to the value
of such noise.
65. The value of the resistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The noise
power generated is therefore.

 A. halved
 B. quadrupled
 C. doubled
 D. unchanged
66. Indicate the false statement.

 A. HF mixer are generally noisier than HF amplifiers.


 B. Impulse noise voltage is dependent on bandwidth
 C. Thermal noise is independent of the frequency at which is measured.
 D. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type.
67. An amplifier operating over the frequency range of 455 to 460 kHz has a
200 kΩ input resistor. What is the RMS noise voltage at the input to this
amplifier if the ambient temperature is 17˚C ?

 A. 40 µV
 B. 4.0 µV
 C. 400 µV
 D. 4.0 mV
68. The first stage of a two-stage amplifier has a voltage gain of 10, a 600 Ω
input resistor, a 1600Ω equivalent noise resistance and 27kΩ output
resistor. For the second stage, these values are 25, 81kΩ, 19kΩ, and 1MΩ,
respectively. Calculate the equivalent input-noise resistance of this two
stage amplifier.

 A. 2,518 kΩ
 B. 2,518 Ω
 C. 251.8 Ω
 D. 12,518 Ω
69. The noise output of a resistor is amplified by a noiseless amplifier having
a gain of 60 and a bandwidth of 20 kHz. A meter connected at the output of
the amplifier reads 1mV RMS. If the bandwidth of the amplifier is reduced to
5kHz, its gain remaining constant, what does the meter read now?

 A. 0.5 mV
 B. 0.5 µV
 C. 5.0 mV
 D. 5.0 µV
70. The front-end of a television receiver, having a bandwidth of 7Mhz, and
operating at a temperature of 27˚C , consists of an amplifier having a gain
of 15 followed by a mixer whose gain is 20. The amplifier has a 300 Ω input
resistor and a shot noise equivalent resistance of 500Ω; for the mixer, these
values are 2.2kΩ and 13.5kΩ respectively, and the load resistance of the
mixer is 470 kΩ. Calculate the equivalent noise resistance for this television
receiver.

 A. 8760 Ω
 B. 875 Ω
 C. 8.76 Ω
 D. 0.876 Ω
71. One of the following is not a useful quantity for comparing the noise
performance receivers.

 A. Input noise voltage


 B. Equivalent noise resistance
 C. Noise temperature
 D. Noise figure.
72. Indicate the false statement. Noise figure is defined as

 A. the ratio of the S/N power supplied at the input terminal of a receiver
or amplifier to the S/N power supplied to the output or load resistor
 B. noise factor expressed in decibels
 C. an unwanted form of energy tending to interfere with the proper and
easy reception and reproduction of wanted signals
 D. S/N of an ideal system divided by S/N at the output of the receiver or
amplifier under test, both working at the same temperature over the
same bandwidth and fed from the same source
73. Calculated the noise figure of the amplifier whose Req equals 2518Ω
(RT=600Ω) if its driven by a generator whose output impedance is 50Ω.

 A. 39.4
 B. 3.94
 C. 394
 D. 0.394
74. Calculate the noise figure of the receiver whose RF amplifier has an input
resistance of 1000Ω and an equivalent shot-noise resistance of 2000Ω, a
gain of 25 and load resistance of 125 kΩ. Given that the bandwidth is
1.0MHz and the temperature is 20˚C, and that the receiver is connected to
an antenna with an impedance of 75Ω.

 A. 30.3
 B. 3.03
 C. 303
 D. .303
75. A receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 50 Ω has an
equivalent noise resistance of 30Ω. Calculate its equivalent noise
temperature if the noise figure is equal to 1.6.

 A. 17.4 K
 B. 174 K
 C. 1.74 K
 D. 17 K
76. Most internal noise comes from
 A. Shot noise
 B. Transit-time noise
 C. Thermal agitation
 D. Skin effect
77. Which of the following is not a source of external noise?

 A. Thermal agitation
 B. Auto ignition
 C. The sun
 D. Fluorescent lights
78. Noise can be reduced by

 A. widening the bandwidth


 B. narrowing the bandwidth
 C. increasing temperature
 D. increasing transistor current levels
79. Noise at the input to the receiver can be as high as several

 A. microvolts
 B. milivolts
 C. volts
 D. kilo volts
80. Which circuit contributes most of the noise in a receiver?

 A. IF amplifier
 B. Demodulator
 C. AF amplifier
 D. Mixer
81. Which noise figure represents the lowest noise in receiver?

 A. 1.6 dB
 B. 2.1 dB
 C. 2.7 dB
 D. 3.4 dB
82. The transistor with the lowest noise figure in the microwave region is a

 A. MOSFET
 B. Dual-gate MOSFET
 C. JFET
 D. MESFET
83. What is the noise voltage across a 300Ω input resistance to a TV set with
a 6MHz bandwidth and temperature of 30˚C?

 A. 2.3 µV
 B. 3.8 µV
 C. 5.5 µV
 D. 5.4 µV
84. Which of the following types of noise becomes of great importance at
frequencies?

 A. Shot noise
 B. Random noise
 C. Impulse noise
 D. Transit-time noise
85. The solar cycle repeats the period of great electrical disturbance
approximately every

 A. 11 years
 B. 10 years
 C. 9 years
 D. 8 years
86. The square of the thermal noise voltage generated by a resistor is
proportional to

 A. its resistance
 B. its temperature
 C. the bandwidth over which it is measured
 D. All of the above
87. Noise occurring in the presence of signal resulting from a mismatch
between the exact value of an analog signal and the closet available
quantizing step in a digital coder.

 A. Quantizing noise
 B. Thermal noise
 C. Impulse noise
 D. Crosstalk
88. Noise consisting of irregular pulses of short duration and relatively high
amplitude,

 A. Quantizing noise
 B. Tone interference
 C. Impulse noise
 D. Cross talk
89. Noise that occurs via capacitive or inductive coupling in a cable.

 A. Crosstalk
 B. Quantizing noise
 C. Reference noise
 D. Tone interference
90. Sources of impulse noise induced in communication channels.

 A. Erroneous digital coding bit caused by an error on a transmission


facility
 B. Transients due to relay operation
 C. Crosstalk from dc signaling systems
 D. All of these
91. Crosstalk due to incomplete suppression of sidebands or to
intermodulation of two or more frequency-multiplexed channels which is
unintelligible is classified as

 A. Impulse noise
 B. Thermal noise
 C. Quantizing noise
 D. Miscellaneous noise
92. ___________ is device that measures the internal open circuit voltage of
an equivalent noise generator having an impedance of 600Ω and delivering
noise power to a 600 Ω load.

 A. Psophometer
 B. Barometer
 C. Reflectometer
 D. Voltmeter
93. External noise originating outside the solar system

 A. Cosmic noise
 B. Solar noise
 C. Thermal noise
 D. Lunar noise
94. A noise whose source is within the solar system.

 A. Solar noise
 B. Thermal noise
 C. Cosmic noise
 D. Johnson Noise
95. The total noise power present in a 1-Hz bandwidth .

 A. Noise density
 B. Noise figure
 C. Noise limit
 D. Noise intensity
96. Which of the following is not a way of minimizing if not eliminating
noise?
 A. Use redundancy
 B. Increase transmitted power
 C. Reduce signaling rate
 D. Increase channel bandwidth
97. What is the primary cause of atmospheric noise?

 A. Thunderstorm
 B. Lightning
 C. Thunderstorm and lightning
 D. Weather condition
98. What do you call the noise coming from the sun and stars?

 A. Black-body noise
 B. Space noise
 C. Galactic noise
 D. All of these
99. The major cause of atmospheric or static noise are

 A. Thunderstorms
 B. Airplanes
 C. Meteor showers
 D. All of these
100. Which of the following low noise transistors is commonly used at
microwave frequencies?

 A. MOSFET
 B. GASFET
 C. MESFET
 D. JFET
 52. 15

 53. 75

 54. -90 dBm

 55. B and C above

 56. positive

 57. -85 dBm

 58. -90 dBm

 59. -85 dBm


 60. above 30 MHz

 61. Atmospheric noise

 62. Distant stars are another source of man-made noise

 63. Sun

 64. A random voltage across the resistor does not exist

 65. unchanged

 66. Impulse noise voltage is dependent on bandwidth

 67. 4.0 µV

 68. 2,518 Ω

 69. 0.5 mV

 70. 875 Ω

 71. Input noise voltage

 72. an unwanted form of energy tending to interfere with the proper


and easy reception and reproduction of wanted signals

 73. 39.4

 74. 30.3

 75. 174 K

 76. Thermal agitation

 77. Thermal agitation

 78. narrowing the bandwidth

 79. microvolts

 80. Mixer

 81. 1.6 dB
 82. MESFET

 83. 5.5 µV

 84. Transit-time noise

 85. 11 years

 86. All of the above

 87. Quantizing noise

 88. Impulse noise

 89. Crosstalk

 90. All of these

 91. Miscellaneous noise

 92. Psophometer

 93. Cosmic noise

 94. Solar noise

 95. Noise density

 96. Increase channel bandwidth

 97. Lightning

 98. Space noise

 99. Thunderstorms

 100. MESFET

101. An amplifier operating over a 2 MHz bandwidth has a 80 ohms input


resistance. It is operating at 27 degree Celsius, has a voltage gain of 200
and input signal of 6 microvolts rms. Calculate the output rms noise.
 a. 325.6 millivolts
 b. 0.326 millivolts
 c. 32.55 microvolts
 d. d. 0.3255 microvolts
102. Man-made noise is caused by

 a. Lightning discharge
 b. Solar eruptions
 c. Distant stars
 d. Arc discharges in electrical machines
103. Cosmic noise is produced by

 a. Lightning discharge
 b. Solar eruption
 c. Distant stars
 d. Industrial electrical discharges
104. One of the following type of noise becomes of great importance in high
frequencies. It is the

 a. Shot noise
 b. Random noise
 c. Impulse noise
 d. Transit-time noise
105. Indicate the false statement

 a. HF mixers are generally noisier than HF amplifiers


 b. Impulse noise voltage is independent of bandwidth
 c. Thermal noise is independent of the frequency at which it is measured
 d. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type
106. The value of a resistor creating noise is doubled. The noise power
generated is therefore

 a. Halved
 b. Quadrupled
 c. Doubled
 d. Unchanged
107. One of the following is not useful for comparing the noise performance
of receivers

 a. Input noise voltage


 b. Equivalent noise resistance
 c. Noise temperature
 d. Noise figure
108. Indicate the noise whose source is in a category different from that
 a. Solar noise
 b. Cosmic noise
 c. Atmospheric noise
 d. Galactic noise
109. Considered as the main source of an internal noise

 a. Flicker
 b. Thermal agitation
 c. Device imperfection
 d. Temperature change
110. Convert noise factor of 4.02 to equivalent noise temperature. Use 300
K for environmental temperature

 a. 876 K
 b. 900 K
 c. 906 K
 d. 875 K
111. Atmospheric noise is less severe at frequencies above

 a. 10 GHz
 b. 30 MHz
 c. 1 GHz
 d. Audio level
112. The most common unit of noise measurement in white noise voltage
testing

 a. NPR
 b. dBrn
 c. dBW
 d. dBm
113. What is the major cause of atmospheric or static noise?

 a. Meteor showers
 b. Sunspots
 c. Airplanes
 d. Thunderstorms
114. Background noise is the same as the following EXCEPT

 a. Impulse noise
 b. Thermal noise
 c. White noise
 d. Gaussian noise
115. Noise is caused by the thermal agitation of electrons in resistance
 a. White noise
 b. Thermal noise
 c. Johnson’s noise
 d. All of these
116. The unit of noise power of psophometer

 a. dBa
 b. pWp
 c. dBm
 d. dBm0
117. Extra-terrestrial noise is observable at frequencies from

 a. 0 to 20 KHz
 b. Above 2 GHz
 c. 8 MHz to 1.43 GHz
 d. 5 to 8 GHz
118. What signal-to-noise ratio is required for satisfactory telephone
services?

 a. 50 dB
 b. 30 dB
 c. 40 dB
 d. 20 dB
119. A diode generator is required to produce 12 micro V of noise in a
receiver with an input impedance of 75 ohms and a noise power bandwidth
of 200 KHz. Determine the current through the diode in milliamperes.

 a. 0.4 A
 b. 298 mA
 c. 0.35 A
 d. 300 mA
120. The equivalent noise temperature of the amplifier is 25 K. What is the
noise figure?

 a. 0.4 A
 b. 298 mA
 c. 0.35 A
 d. 300 mA
121. The resistor R1 and R2 are connected in series at 300 K and 400 K
temperature respectively. If R1 is 200 ohms and R2 is 300 ohms, find the
power produced at the load (RL = 500 ohms) over a bandwidth of 100 KHz.

 a. 0.05 nanowatts
 b. 0.2 nanowatts
 c. 0.5 femtowatts
 d. 2.0 femtowatts
122. The random unpredictable electric signals from natural causes, both
internal and external to the system is known as

 a. Distortion
 b. Noise
 c. Distortion
 d. Interference
123. Given a factor of 10, what is the noise figure in dB?

 a. 20 dB
 b. 10 dB
 c. 50 dB
 d. 40 dB
124. The signal in a channel is measured to be 23 dBm while noise in the
same channel is measured to be 23 dBm while noise in the same channel is
measured to be 9 dBm. The signal to noise ratio therefore is

 a. 32 dB
 b. 5 dB
 c. -14 dB
 d. 14 dB
125. If voltage is equal to twice its original value, what is its corresponding
change in dB?

 a. 3 dB
 b. 6 dB
 c. 9 dB
 d. 12 dB
126. NIF stand for

 a. Non-intrinsic noise figure


 b. Narrow interference figure
 c. Noise improvement factor
 d. Noise interference figure
127. Two resistors rated 5 ohms and 10 ohms are connected in series and
are at 27 degrees Celsius. Calculate their combined thermal noise voltage for
a 10 KHz bandwidth.

 a. 0.05 millivolts
 b. 0.5 millivolts
 c. 0.05 microvolts
 d. 0.005 microvolts
128. What is the reference frequency of CCITT psophometric noise
measurement?

 a. 800 Hz
 b. 1500 Hz
 c. 3400 Hz
 d. 1000 Hz
129. A three-stage amplifier is to have an overall noise temperature no
greater than 70 K. The overall gain of the amplifier is to be at least 45 dB.
The amplifier is to be built by adding a low-noise first stage with existing
characteristics as follows: stage 2 has 20 dB power gain and 3 dB noise
figure. Stage 3 has 15 dB power gain and 6 dB noise figure. Calculate the
maximum noise figure (in dB) that the first stage can have.

 a. 0.267 dB
 b. 0.56 dB
 c. 1.235 dB
 d. 0.985 dB
130. A transistor has measured S/N power of 60 at its input and 19 at its
output. Determine the noise figure of the transistor.

 a. 5 dB
 b. 10 dB
 c. 2.5 dB
 d. 7.5 dB
131. Which does not affect noise in a channel?

 a. None of these
 b. Bandwidth
 c. Temperature
 d. Quantizing level
132. Reference noise temperature

 a. 70 deg F
 b. 30 deg C
 c. 290 Kelvin
 d. 25 deg C
133. Industrial noise frequency is between

 a. 200 to 3000 MHz


 b. 15 to 160 MHz
 c. 0 to 10 kHz
 d. 20 GHz
134. Noise from random acoustic or electric noise that has equal per cycle
over a specified total frequency band

 a. Thermal noise
 b. White noise
 c. Gaussian noise
 d. All of these
135. A transistor amplifier has a measured S/N power of 100 at its input and
20 at its output. Determine the noise figure of the transistor.

 a. 14 dB
 b. 7 dB
 c. -6 dB
 d. -3 dB
136. What does the noise weighing curve show?

 a. Noise signals measured with a 144 handsets


 b. Power levels of noise found in carrier systems
 c. The interfering effect of other frequencies in a voice channel compared
with a reference frequency of one kilohertz
 d. Interfering effects of signals compared with a 3-KHz tone
137. The signal power of the input to an amplifier 100 microW and the noise
power is 1 microW. At the output, the signal power is 1 W and the noise
power is 40 mW. What is the amplifier noise figure?

 a. -6 dB
 b. 9 dB
 c. 6 dB
 d. -3 dB
138. In measuring noise in a voice channel at a -4 dB test point level, the
meter reads -70 dBm (F1A weighted), convert the reading into pWp.

 a. 53
 b. 93
 c. 63
 d. 83
139. An amplifier with 20 dB gain is connected to another with 10 dB gain by
means of a transmission line with a loss of 4 dB. If a signal with a power
level of -14 dBm were applied to the system, calculate the power output.

 a. 14 dBm
 b. -12 dB
 c. -20 dB
 d. 12 dBm
140. Two resistors, R1 and R2 have temperatures of 300 K and 400 K,
respectively. What is the noise power if the two resistors are connected in
series at 10 MHz bandwidth?

 a. 96.6 fW
 b. 55.2 fW
 c. 41.4 fW
 d. 88.36 fW
141. Determine the shot noise for a diode with a forward bias of 1.40 mA
over an 80 kHz bandwidht. (q = 1.6×10 raised to minus 9 C)

 a. 6 nA
 b. 3 mA
 c. 12 nA
 d. 15 nA
142. The total noise power present in a 1 – Hz bandwidth

 a. Noise density
 b. Noise figure
 c. Noise limit
 d. Noise intensity
143. An amplifier with an overall gain of 20 dB is impressed with a signal
whose power level is 1 watt. Calculate the output power in dBm.

 a. 50 dBm
 b. 150 dB
 c. 80 dBm
 d. 100 dBm
144. What is the effect on the signal to noise ratio of a system (in dB) if the
bandwidth is doubled considering all other parameters to remain unchanged
except the normal thermal noise only. The S/N will be

 a. Increased by a factor of 2
 b. Decreased by ½ its value
 c. Increased by a factor of 4
 d. Decreased to ¼ its value
145. Express the ratio in decibels of noise power ratio 50 is to 10 watts.

 a. 7 dB
 b. 21 dB
 c. 14 dB
 d. 3.5 dB
146. What do you call the noise coming from the sun and stars?
 a. Black-body noise
 b. Space noise
 c. Galactic noise
 d. All of these
147. A satellite has a noise figure of 1.6 dB. Find its equivalent noise
temperature.

 a. 139 K
 b. 192 K
 c. 291 K
 d. 129 K
148. What is the primary cause of atmospheric noise?

 a. Thunderstorm
 b. Lightning
 c. Thunderstorm and lightning
 d. Weather condition
149. In a microwave communications system, determine the noise power in
dBm for an equivalent noise bandwidth of 10 MHz.

 a. -104 dBm
 b. -114 dBm
 c. -94 dBm
 d. -174 dBm
150. The solar cycle repeats the period if great electrical disturbance
approximately every

 a. 11 years
 b. 10 years
 c. 9 years
 d. 8 years
 101. 0.326 millivolts

 102. Arc discharges in electrical machines

 103. Distant stars

 104. Transit-time noise

 105. Impulse noise voltage is independent of bandwidth

 106. Unchanged

 107. Input noise voltage


 108. Atmospheric noise

 109. Thermal agitation

 110. 906 K

 111. 30 MHz

 112. NPR

 113. Thunderstorms

 114. Impulse noise

 115. All of these

 116. pWp

 117. 8 MHz to 1.43 GHz

 118. 50 dB

 119. 0.4 A

 120. 0.4 A

 121. 0.5 femtowatts

 122. Noise

 123. 10 dB

 124. 14 dB

 125. 6 dB

 126. Noise improvement factor

 127. 0.05 microvolts

 128. 800 Hz

 129. 0.56 dB
 130. 5 dB

 131. Quantizing level

 132. 290 Kelvin

 133. 15 to 160 MHz

 134. All of these

 135. 7 dB

 136. The interfering effect of other frequencies in a voice channel


compared with a reference frequency of one kilohertz

 137. 6 dB

 138. 63

 139. 12 dBm

 140. 96.6 fW

 141. 6 nA

 142. Noise density

 143. 50 dBm

 144. Decreased by ½ its value

 145. 7 dB

 146. Space noise

 147. 129 K

 148. Lightning

 149. -104 dBm

 150. 11 years
151. A current change that is equal to twice its original value will correspond
to a change of

 a. 3 dB
 b. 9 dB
 c. 10 dB
 d. 6 dB
152. What does a power difference of –3 dB mean?

 a. A loss of one third of the power


 b. A loss of one-half of the power
 c. A loss of 3 watts of power
 d. No significant change
153. A gain of 60 dB is the same as a gain of

 a. 10 volts/volt
 b. 100 volts/volt
 c. 1000 volts/volt
 d. 10,000 volts/volt
154. ______ is mathematically equal to the logarithm to the base ten of the
power ratio P1 over P2.

 a. bel
 b. dB
 c. bel/10
 d. dB/2
155. Noise that is produced by the active components within the receiver.

 a. Thermal
 b. External
 c. Internal
 d. White
156. Noise due to random variation in the arrival of charge carriers at the
output electrode of an active device

 a. Shot
 b. Impulse
 c. Thermal
 d. Dynamic
157. A network has a loss of 20 dB. What power ratio corresponds to this
loss

 a. 0.01
 b. 0.1
 c. 10
 d. 100
158. A receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 60 ohms has
an equivalent noise resistance of 40 ohms. Calculate the receiver’s noise
figure in decibels and its equivalent noise temperature.

 a. 1.67 & 194°K


 b. 2.23 & 194°K
 c. 1.67 & 174°K
 d. 2.23 & 194°K
159. _____ Noise is the most prevalent noise found in urban areas and is
normally caused by the arc discharge from automobile or aircraft ignition
systems, induction motors, switching gears, high voltage lines and the like.

 a. Industrial
 b. Johnson
 c. Flicker
 d. Mixer
160. The noise figure of a totally noiseless device is

 a. Unity
 b. Infinity
 c. Zero
 d. 100
161. Indicate the noise whose source is in a category different from that of
the other three.

 a. Solar
 b. Cosmic
 c. Atmospheric
 d. Galactic
162. The ratio(in dB) of the power of a signal at point to the power of the
same signal at the reference point.

 a. Transmission Level Point


 b. Noise Figure
 c. S/N Ratio
 d. Neper
163. A network has a power gain of –3 dB. If the input power is 100 watts,
the output power is

 a. 50 watts
 b. 55 watts
 c. 60 watts
 d. 62 watts
164. Which of the following types of noise becomes of great importance at
high frequencies?

 a. Shot
 b. Random
 c. Impulse
 d. Transmit time
165. The input current of a network is 190 µA and the output is 1.3 µA. The
loss in decibels is

 a. 20.2
 b. 21.6
 c. 28.6
 d. 43.3
166. If a network connected in series have a gain of -0.5 dB, -0.3dB, -2dB
and 6.8dB, the overall gain is

 a. 2 dB
 b. –2 dB
 c. 4 dB
 d. –4 dB
167. What is the gain, in dB, if the output to input ratio is 1000.

 a. 20
 b. 30
 c. 40
 d. 10
168. The following characteristics of noise except

 a. Unwanted energy
 b. Predictable in character
 c. Present in the channel
 d. Due to any cause
169. The equivalent noise temperature of the amplifier is 25 °K what is the
noise figure?

 a. 10.86
 b. 1.086
 c. 0.1086
 d. 1.86
170. A receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 50 ohms has
an equivalent noise resistance of 30 ohms. What is the receiver’s noise
temperature?
 a. 464°K
 b. 754°K
 c. 400°K
 d. 174°K
171. A theoretical antenna has a gain of 1dB. Its gain in nepers is

 a. 8.686
 b. 0.1151
 c. 6.868
 d. 0.5111
172. What is the equivalent output of a circuit in dBm, if it has an output of
10 watts?

 a. 10 dBm
 b. 30 dBm
 c. 20 dBm
 d. 40 dBm
173. An amplifier with an input resistance of 1000 ohms is operating over a
4 MHz bandwidth. Calculate the rms voltage if the amplifier is operating at
27 °C.

 a. 8.14 nV
 b. 8.14 uV
 c. 6.6 nV
 d. 6.6 uV
174. The value of a resistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The noise
power generated is therefore

 a. Halved
 b. Quadrupled
 c. Doubled
 d. Unchanged
175. One of the following is not a useful quantity for comparing the noise
performance of receivers.

 a. Input noise voltage


 b. Equivalent noise resistance
 c. Noise temperature
 d. Noise figure
176. Any unwanted form of energy that tends to interfere with the wanted
signal is called

 a. Noise
 b. Spectrum
 c. Radiation
 d. Absorption
177. The correct symbol for decibel is

 a. DB
 b. dB
 c. Db
 d. db
178. _____ is the noise created outside the receiver.

 a. Internal
 b. External
 c. Shot
 d. Industrial
179. _____ is the noise created by man.

 a. Solar
 b. Industrial
 c. Extraterrestrial
 d. Galactic
180. A voltage change that is equal to twice its original value correspond to
a change of

 a. 3 dB
 b. 6 dB
 c. 9 dB
 d. 10 dB
181. Indicate the voltage level in dB with reference to one volt. This unit is
used in video or TV measurement

 a. dBW
 b. dBk
 c. dBm
 d. dBV
182. which of the following is not an actual amount of power?

 a. dB
 b. dBm
 c. dBw
 d. dBk
183. In noise analysis, the reference temperature is

 a. 75 K
 b. 250 K
 c. 290 K
 d. 300 K
184. Noise from distant panels, stars, galaxies and other celestial objects are
called

 a. Cosmic
 b. Extraterrestrial
 c. Galactic
 d. Black body
185. Indicate which one of the following types of noise does not occur in
transistors

 a. Shot noise
 b. Flicker noise
 c. Partition noise
 d. Resistance noise
186. Which of the following is not a source of space noise

 a. Sun
 b. Star
 c. Lightning
 d. Black body
187. Noise that is due to the random and rapid motion of the charge carriers
inside a resistive component.

 a. Johnson
 b. Thermal Agitation
 c. White
 d. All of the above
188. Indicate the false statement. The square of the thermal noise voltage
generated by a resistor is proportional to

 a. Its resistance
 b. Its temperature
 c. Boltzmann’s Constant
 d. The bandwidth over which it is measured
189. In a communication system, noise is likely to affect the signal

 a. At the transmitter
 b. In the channel
 c. In the information source
 d. At the destination
190. The noise power generated by a resistor is proportional to
 a. Temperature
 b. Bandwidth
 c. a and b
 d. NOTA
191. Thermal noise is also known as

 a. Gaussian Noise
 b. White Noise
 c. Johnson noise
 d. All of the above
192. This type of noise has a power spectrum which decreases with
increasing frequency. It is most important at low frequencies from 0 to
about 100 Hz).

 a. Shot noise
 b. Flicker noise
 c. Diode noise
 d. BJT noise
193. Industrial noise extends up to what frequency?

 a. 500 MHz
 b. 500 GHz
 c. 500 THz
 d. 500 KHz
194. Impulse Noise is

 a. A function of current
 b. A shot duration pulse
 c. Dependent of frequency
 d. Dependent of temperature
195. When the power ratio of the output to input of a circuit is 200. What is
the gain in dB?

 a. 23
 b. 46
 c. –23
 d. –46
196. What is the reference level for random noise measurement, FIA
weighted?

 a. –82 dBm
 b. –90 dBm
 c. –85 dBm
 d. – 77 dBm
197. A 10 dB pad has an output level of -3 dBm. The level at the input is:

 a. 13 dBm
 b. -7 dBm
 c. 1 dBm
 d. 7 dBm
198. The sum of three signals of 45dBm each is ______ dBm.

 a. 45
 b. 135
 c. 20
 d. 50
199. It is characterized by high amplitude peaks of short duration in the
total noise spectrum

 a. Intermodulation voice
 b. Impulse noise
 c. Dropout
 d. Phase hits
200. Originally was determined by measuring the interfering effect of noise
in a Type 144 handset. A tone of 1 kHz, having a power level of 90 dBm was
selected as the reference level.

 a. Noise figure
 b. S/N ratio
 c. Signal Figure
 d. Figure of Merit
 151. 6 dB

 152. A loss of one-half of the power

 153. 1000 volts/volt

 154. bel

 155. Internal

 156. Shot

 157. 0.01

 158. 2.23 & 194°K

 159. Industrial
 160. Unity

 161. Atmospheric

 162. Transmission Level Point

 163. 50 watts

 164. Transmit time

 165. 43.3

 166. 4 dB

 167. 30

 168. Predictable in character

 169. 1.086

 170. 174°K

 171. 0.1151

 172. 40 dBm

 173. 8.14 uV

 174.Unchanged

 175. Input noise voltage

 176. Noise

 177. dB

 178. External

 179. Industrial

 180. 6 dB

 181. dBV
 182. dB

 183. 290 K

 184. Extraterrestrial

 185. Partition noise

 186. Lightning

 187. All of the above

 188. Its temperature

 189. In the channel

 190. a and b

 191. All of the above

 192. Flicker noise

 193. 500 MHz

 194. A shot duration pulse

 195. 23

 196. –90 dBm

 197. 90 degrees

 198. 50

 199. Impulse noise

 200. S/N ratio

201. A power level of 50 µW could be expressed as:

 a. 1.39 dBm
 b. -4.3 dBm
 c. 1 dBm
 d. -13 dBm
202. If a power of 0.25 mW is launched into a fiber system with an overall
loss of 15 dB the output power would be:

 a. 250 µ/W
 b. 31.6 µW
 c. 7.9 µW
 d. 15 dBm
203. A system having an input power of 2 mW an output power of 0.8mW
has a loss of:

 a. 2.98 dBm
 b. 3.98 dB
 c. 3.98 µW
 d. 1.98 mW
204. An output of -10 dB means that the power has been

 a. Halved in value
 b. Increased by a factor of 10
 c. Reduced by a factor of 10
 d. Doubled
205. Any unwanted form of energy interfering the reception of wanted signal
is called

 a. Noise
 b. Sideband
 c. Harmonics
 d. Modulation
206. Is the reduction of signal amplitude as it passed over the transmission
medium.

 a. Noise
 b. Distortion
 c. Attenuation
 d. Interference
207. Signal waveform perturbation or deviation caused by imperfect
response of the system to the desired signal

 a. Noise
 b. Aliasing
 c. Distortion
 d. Interference
208. Signal attenuation can be corrected by
 a. Filtering
 b. Modulation
 c. Equalization
 d. Amplification
209. Distortion in a waveform can be corrected by

 a. Filtering
 b. Modulation
 c. Equalization
 d. Amplification
210. Signal contamination by extraneous or external sources, such as, other
transmitters, power lines, and machinery.

 a. Noise
 b. Distortion
 c. Harmonics
 d. Interference
211. Man-made or industrial noise is also known as

 a. Noise
 b. Distortion
 c. Interference
 d. Thermal Noise
212. The noise performance of a receiver or circuit. It is expressed as ratio
of the S/N power at the output.

 a. Noise figure
 b. S/N ratio
 c. Signal figure
 d. Figure of merit
213. Noise that is caused by natural disturbances such as lightning
discharge.

 a. Static noise
 b. Space noise
 c. Atmospheric noise
 d. A or C
214. Atmospheric or static noise becomes less severe at frequencies

 a. Below 30 KHz
 b. Between 30 KHz and 300 KHz
 c. Between 300 KHz and 30 MHz
 d. Above 30 MHz
215. Considered as space noise or extraterrestrial noise
 a. Solar noise
 b. Cosmic noise
 c. Black-body noise
 d. All of the above
216. Which statement is true

 a. Industrial noise is usually of impulse type


 b. Distant stars produce atmospheric noise
 c. Active switches are sources of man-made noise
 d. Static noise is due to lightning discharges and other natural electric
disturbances occurring in the atmosphere.
217. Noise performance of microwave system is usually expressed in terms
of

 a. Noise voltage, Vn = √4KTBR


 b. Noise power, Pn = KTB
 c. Noise temperature, Te = (F – 1)290
 d. Noise figure, F = (S/N)I / (S/N)o
218. Which circuit contributes most to the noise at the receiver?

 a. RF amplifier
 b. Mixer
 c. Detector
 d. Local Oscillator
219. Which noise figure represents the lowest noise?

 a. 1.5 dB
 b. 2.0 dB
 c. 3.7 dB
 d. 4.1 dB
220. Denote the interference of noise in dB above an adjusted reference
noise. The adjusted reference noise level was a 1 kHz tone, set at -85 dBm

 a. dBa
 b. dBm
 c. dBa0
 d. pWp
221. The extent of noise referred to a test tone level of zero dBm.

 a. dBa
 b. dBm
 c. dBa0
 d. pWp
222. An amplifier operating over a 4 MHz bandwidth has a 100 Ω input
resistance and is operating at 300°K. Determine the noise power generated.

 a. 1.656 x 10-14 Watts


 b. 1656 nW
 c. 1.656 pW
 d. 1.656 uW
223. Generally used when noise readings are measured using the C-
message weighting network. The reference level was 1 kHz tone, set at -90
dBm

 a. dBa
 b. dBm
 c. dBaO
 d. dBmC
224. The measurement of noise was made with a C-message filter, and the
reading is taken at a test point where the level is zero dBm.

 a. dBaO
 b. dBmCo
 c. dBa
 d. dBmC
225. Which of the following is not an important cause of distortion in DC
signaling

 a. line resistance
 b. line inductance
 c. line capacitance
 d. all of the above
226. There are a number of different sources of radio noise, the most
important being

 a. Galactic noise
 b. Man-made noise
 c. Atmospheric noise
 d. All of the above
227. The amount of noise power is measured using a psophometric
weighting network. This unit of measurement is generally used in Europe
where the standard reference tone is 800 hertz, 1 picowatt.

 a. dBa
 b. dBm
 c. dBaO
 d. pWp
228. Noise produced mostly by lightning discharges in thunderstorms.

 a. White noise
 b. Industrial noise
 c. Atmospheric noise
 d. Extraterrestrial noise
229. Propagation of man made noise is chiefly by

 a. Transmission over power lines and by ground wave


 b. Space wave
 c. Sky wave
 d. None of these
230. A more precise evaluation of the quality of a receiver as far as noise is
concerned

 a. S/N
 b. VSWR
 c. Noise factor
 d. Noise margin
231. NIF stands for

 a. Non-intrinsic figure
 b. Noise interference figure
 c. Noise improvement factor
 d. Narrow intermediate frequency
232. External noise fields are measured in terms of

 a. Dc values
 b. Rms values
 c. Peak values
 d. Average values
233. Form of interference caused by rain, hail, snow or dust storms

 a. Shot noise
 b. Galactic noise
 c. Impulse noise
 d. Precipitation static
234. Extra-terrestrial noise is observable at frequencies from

 a. 0 to 20 KHz
 b. 8 MHz to 1.43 GHz
 c. 5 to 8 GHz
 d. 15 to 160 MHz
235. Industrial noise is observable from
 a. 15 to 160 MHz
 b. 200 to 3000 MHz
 c. 0 to 10 kHz
 d. 8 Mhz to 1.43 GHz
236. Noise that becomes significant at VHF range and above

 a. Atmospheric
 b. Transit-time
 c. Galactic
 d. White
237. Noise figure for an amplifier with noise is always

 a. 0 dB
 b. Infinite
 c. Less than 1
 d. Greater than 1
238. The noise generated by the tube, transistor or integrated circuit in an
amplifier.

 a. White noise
 b. Amplification noise
 c. Active noise
 d. Dynamic Noise
239. Electrical noise inherent to a particular device, circuit or system that
remains when no other signal is present.

 a. Shot noise
 b. Thermal noise
 c. Background noise
 d. Static noise
240. A wideband form of impulse noise generated by the electric arc in the
spark plugs of an internal combustion engine. This noise is a common
problem in mobile radio system.

 a. Thermal noise
 b. Shot noise
 c. Amplification noise
 d. Ignition noise
241. The amount of power in dB referred to one Kilowatt

 a. dBW
 b. dBk
 c. dBm
 d. Dbv
242. Noise in any form of electromagnetic interference that can be traced to
non-natural causes.

 a. Man-made noise
 b. Distortion
 c. External noise
 d. Internal noise
243. The frequency range wherein noise is said to be intense.

 a. Noise equivalent bandwidth


 b. Spectral response
 c. Cut-off frequency
 d. Noise cut-off frequency
244. Refers to the temperature that corresponds to the spectral energy
distribution of a noise.

 a. Absolute temperature
 b. Temperature band
 c. Noise-equivalent temperature
 d. Critical temperature
245. A passive circuit, usually consisting of capacitance and/or inductance,
that I inserted in series with the a-c power cord of an electronic device which
will allow the 60-Hz current to pass and suppressed high frequency noise
components.

 a. Noise filter
 b. Noise limiter
 c. Noise floor
 d. Noise quieting
246. What do you call the level of background noise, relative to some
reference signal.

 a. Noise figure
 b. Minimum noise
 c. Reference noise
 d. Noise floor
247. A circuit often used in radio receivers that prevents externally
generated noise from exceeding amplitude. They are also called noise
clippers

 a. Noise floor
 b. Noise filter
 c. Noise limiter
 d. Noise clamper
248. It is referred to as a short burst of electromagnetic energy.

 a. Pulse
 b. Noise pulse
 c. Spike
 d. Noise floor
249. The reduction of internal noise level in a frequency-modulated (FM)
receiver as a result of an incoming signal.

 a. Noise quieting
 b. Noise limiting
 c. Noise suppression
 d. Noise degradation
250. Noise generated within electronic equipment by either passive or active
components.

 a. Shot noise
 b. Thermal noise
 c. Circuit noise
 d. External noise

201. -13 dBm

202. 31.6 µW

203. 3.98 dB

204. Reduced by a factor of 10

205. Noise

206. Attenuation

207. Distortion

208. Amplification

209. Equalization

210. Interference

211. Interference
212. Noise figure

213. A or C

214. Above 30 MHz

215. All of the above

216. Distant stars produce atmospheric noise

217. Noise temperature, Te = (F – 1)290

218. RF amplifier

219. 1.5 dB

220. dBa

221. dBa0

222. 1.656 x 10-14 Watts

223. dBmC

224. dBmCo

225. line inductance

226. All of the above

227. pWp

228. Atmospheric noise

229. Transmission over power lines and by ground wave

230. Noise factor

231. Noise improvement factor

232. Peak values

233. Precipitation static


234. 8 MHz to 1.43 GHz

235. 15 to 160 MHz

236. Transit-time

237. Greater than 1

238. Amplification noise

239. Background noise

240. Ignition noise

241. dBk

242. Man-made noise

243. Noise equivalent bandwidth

244. Noise-equivalent temperature

245. Noise filter

246. Noise floor

247. Noise limiter

248. Noise pulse

249. Noise quieting

250. Circuit noise