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general. with a high percentage of workers and intellectuals.

The land-owning Cossacks held out longest of all,<br>


dreading an agrarian revolution in which the majority of them would lose, and not gain-. More than once after<br>
the revolution- individual Cossack divisions carried out punitive operations, but in- general these differences
were<br>
merely in the date and tempo of disintegration-. The blind struggle had its ebbs and flaws. The officers would<br>
try to adapt themselves; the soldiers would again begin to bide their time. But durin temporary relief, during<br>
these days and weeks of truce, the social hatred which was decomposing the army of the aid regime would<br>
became more and more intense. Oftener and oftener it would flash out in a kind of heat lightning. In Moscow,<br>
in one of the amphitheatres, a meeting of invalids was called, soldiers and officers together. An orator-cripple<br>
began to cast aspersions on the officers. A noise of protest arose, a stamping of shoes, canes, crutches. And how<br>
long ago were you, Mr. officer, insulting the soldiers with lashes and fists?' These wounded, shell-shacked,<br>
mutilated people stood like two walls, one facing the other. Crippled soldiers against crippled officers, the<br>
majority against the minority, crutches against crutches. That nightmare scene in the amphitheatre<br>
foreshadowed the ferocity of the coming civil war. Above all these fluctuations and contradictions in the army<br>
and in the country, one eternal question was hanging, summed up in the short ward, war. From the Baltic to the<br>
Black sea, form t to the Caspian and beyond into the depths at Persia, on an immeasurable front, stood sixty-<br>
eight corps of infantry and nine of cavalry. What should happen to them further? What was to be done with the<br>
war? In the matter of military supplies the army had been considerably strengthened before the revolution.<br>
Domestic production for its needs had increased, and likewise the importation of War material through<br>
Murmansk and Archangel - especially artillery from the Allies. Rifles, cannon, cartridges, were on hand in<br>
incomparably greater quantities than, during the first years of the war. New infantry divisions were in process<br>
of organisation. The engineering corps had been enlarged. On this ground a number of the unhappy military<br>
chieftains attempted later ta prove that Russia had stood on the eve of victory, and that only the revolution had<br>
prevented it. Twelve years before, Kuropatkin and Linevich had asserted with as good a foundation that Witte<br>
prevented them from cleaning up the Japanese. In reality Russia was m victory in 1917 than at any other time.<br>
Along with the increase in ammunition there appeared in the army toward the end of 1916 an extreme lack of<br>
food supplies. Typhus and scurvy took mare victims than the fighting. The breakdown of transport alone<br>
cancelled all strategy involving large-scale regroupings of the military mass. Moreover an extreme lack of<br>
horses often condemned the artillery to inaction. But the chief trouble was not even here; it was the moral<br>
condition of the army that was hopeless. You might describe it by saying that the army as an army no longer<br>
existed, Defeats, retreats, and the rottenness of the ruling group had utterly undermined the troops. You could<br>
no more correct that with administrative measures, than you could change the nervous system of the country.<br>
The soldier now looked at a heap of cartridges with the same disgust that he would at a pile of wormy meat; the<br>
whole thing seemed to him unnecessary and good for nothing; a deceit and a thievery. And his officer could say<br>
nothin to him, couldn't even make up his mind to crack him an the jaw. The officer himself felt deceived by the<br>
higher command, and moreover not infrequently ashamed before the soldiers for his awn- superiors. The army<br>
was incurably sick. It was still capable of speaking its word in the revolution, but so far as making war was<br>
concerned, it did not exist. Nobody believed in the success of the war, the officers as little as the soldiers.
Nobody<br>
wanted to fight any mare, neither the army nor the people. Ta be sure, in the high chancelleries, where a special<br>
kind of life is lived, they were still chattering, through mere inertia, about great operations, about the spring<br>
offensive, he capture of the Dardanelles. in the Crimea they even got ready a big army far this latter purpose. It<br>
stood in the bulletins that the best element, of the army had been designated for the siege. They sent the<br>
regiments of the guard from Petrograd. However, according to the account of an officer who began, drilling
them<br>
on the 25th of February before the revolution- these reinforcements turned out to be indescribably bad. Not the<br>
slightest desire to fight was to be seen in those imperturbable blue, hazel and grey eyes. All their thoughts and<br>
their aspirations were for one thing only - peace. There is no lack of such testimony. The revolution merely<br>