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general. with a high percentage of workers and intellectuals.

The land-owning Cossacks held out longest of all,<br>

dreading an agrarian revolution in which the majority of them would lose, and not gain-. More than once after<br>
the revolution- individual Cossack divisions carried out punitive operations, but in- general these differences
merely in the date and tempo of disintegration-. The blind struggle had its ebbs and flaws. The officers would<br>
try to adapt themselves; the soldiers would again begin to bide their time. But durin temporary relief, during<br>
these days and weeks of truce, the social hatred which was decomposing the army of the aid regime would<br>
became more and more intense. Oftener and oftener it would flash out in a kind of heat lightning. In Moscow,<br>
in one of the amphitheatres, a meeting of invalids was called, soldiers and officers together. An orator-cripple<br>
began to cast aspersions on the officers. A noise of protest arose, a stamping of shoes, canes, crutches. And how<br>
long ago were you, Mr. officer, insulting the soldiers with lashes and fists?' These wounded, shell-shacked,<br>
mutilated people stood like two walls, one facing the other. Crippled soldiers against crippled officers, the<br>
majority against the minority, crutches against crutches. That nightmare scene in the amphitheatre<br>
foreshadowed the ferocity of the coming civil war. Above all these fluctuations and contradictions in the army<br>
and in the country, one eternal question was hanging, summed up in the short ward, war. From the Baltic to the<br>
Black sea, form t to the Caspian and beyond into the depths at Persia, on an immeasurable front, stood sixty-<br>
eight corps of infantry and nine of cavalry. What should happen to them further? What was to be done with the<br>
war? In the matter of military supplies the army had been considerably strengthened before the revolution.<br>
Domestic production for its needs had increased, and likewise the importation of War material through<br>
Murmansk and Archangel - especially artillery from the Allies. Rifles, cannon, cartridges, were on hand in<br>
incomparably greater quantities than, during the first years of the war. New infantry divisions were in process<br>
of organisation. The engineering corps had been enlarged. On this ground a number of the unhappy military<br>
chieftains attempted later ta prove that Russia had stood on the eve of victory, and that only the revolution had<br>
prevented it. Twelve years before, Kuropatkin and Linevich had asserted with as good a foundation that Witte<br>
prevented them from cleaning up the Japanese. In reality Russia was m victory in 1917 than at any other time.<br>
Along with the increase in ammunition there appeared in the army toward the end of 1916 an extreme lack of<br>
food supplies. Typhus and scurvy took mare victims than the fighting. The breakdown of transport alone<br>
cancelled all strategy involving large-scale regroupings of the military mass. Moreover an extreme lack of<br>
horses often condemned the artillery to inaction. But the chief trouble was not even here; it was the moral<br>
condition of the army that was hopeless. You might describe it by saying that the army as an army no longer<br>
existed, Defeats, retreats, and the rottenness of the ruling group had utterly undermined the troops. You could<br>
no more correct that with administrative measures, than you could change the nervous system of the country.<br>
The soldier now looked at a heap of cartridges with the same disgust that he would at a pile of wormy meat; the<br>
whole thing seemed to him unnecessary and good for nothing; a deceit and a thievery. And his officer could say<br>
nothin to him, couldn't even make up his mind to crack him an the jaw. The officer himself felt deceived by the<br>
higher command, and moreover not infrequently ashamed before the soldiers for his awn- superiors. The army<br>
was incurably sick. It was still capable of speaking its word in the revolution, but so far as making war was<br>
concerned, it did not exist. Nobody believed in the success of the war, the officers as little as the soldiers.
wanted to fight any mare, neither the army nor the people. Ta be sure, in the high chancelleries, where a special<br>
kind of life is lived, they were still chattering, through mere inertia, about great operations, about the spring<br>
offensive, he capture of the Dardanelles. in the Crimea they even got ready a big army far this latter purpose. It<br>
stood in the bulletins that the best element, of the army had been designated for the siege. They sent the<br>
regiments of the guard from Petrograd. However, according to the account of an officer who began, drilling
on the 25th of February before the revolution- these reinforcements turned out to be indescribably bad. Not the<br>
slightest desire to fight was to be seen in those imperturbable blue, hazel and grey eyes. All their thoughts and<br>
their aspirations were for one thing only - peace. There is no lack of such testimony. The revolution merely<br>