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Journal of EU Research in Business


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Vol. 2018 (2018), Article ID 340873, 14 pages
DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873

Research Article
Digital Transformation and its Implications
on Organizational Behavior
Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla
and Christian Hell

The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania

Correspondence should be addressed to: Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz; ulrike.s.foerster@web.de

Received date: 6 September 2017; Accepted date: 22 January 2018; Published date: 14 May 2018

Academic Editor: Janusz Wielki

Copyright © 2018. Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla
and Christian Hell. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0

Abstract

Digital Technologies such as advanced algorithms, robotics, and analytics amongst others are
transforming the dynamics of the workforce within enterprises. Therefore, the authors of this
work have reviewed the implications of rising technologies on Organizational Behavior. Many of
the current studies on this theme have focused on the technological side and understudied the
holistic point of view and its implications on organizational behavior. The novelty of this work
relies on providing an understanding of the most important digital technologies and reviewing
their effects on employees and leadership. For this purpose, and based on the actuality of the
topic, the authors decided to analyze the impacts of digital technologies on organizational
behavior by providing a literature review and structuring it by technology and implication. The
article is structured in three parts: first of all the definition of Organizational Behavior and
digitalization were reviewed to establish a theoretical framework, followed by the analysis of
the impacts and effects of the digitalization on leadership and employees, and finally the
findings were summarized in a structured scheme.

Keywords: Organizational Behavior, Digitalization, Leadership, Employee

Introduction effects associated with these mega trends


and to prepare themselves for the future.
Due to new technologies, algorithms,
Against the backdrop of digitalization,
interconnectedness and big data storage, the
globalization, demographic changes and
world is becoming more and more
shortage of resources, it is important for
digitalized and transparent for all
companies to understand the impacts and
stakeholders. It is no longer only about a

______________

Cite this Article as: Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and
Christian Hell (2018)," Digital Transformation and its Implications on Organizational Behavior ” Journal of EU
Research in Business , Vol. 2018 (2018), Article ID 340873, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
Journal of EU Research in Business 2

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marketing strategy to influence consumers, In literature, we can find extensive


company branding to retain employees or to definitions of the study of Organizational
identify ways to improve processes or Behavior, however, for the purpose of this
automate the manufacturing. Nowadays not paper, the authors will use the definition of
only the integration and utilization of DuBrin (2002, pp.3-4) who describes
innovative technologies and business models Organizational Behavior as the systematic
matter, it is essential to understand the approach to understand the behavior of
interdependencies and impacts on the individuals within organizations. Starting
fundamentals of organizational behavior, from individuals; as the smallest entity of
namely, the interaction between the two study, to big organizations and their
determinants; technology and people. interaction with the environment. In
Therefore, and because of the actuality of the addition, it is important to understand the
topics, the authors decided to investigate interrelations of human behavior with other
and summarize the impacts and effects of the variables such as technology which together
digitalization on leadership and workforce to cover the whole organization (Mullins,
proactively manage the necessary change to 1990). In literature, three major factors can
ensure the companies sustainability and to be found that affect Organizational Behavior.
maintain or extend their position in the These are people, structure and technology
market. The study starts by understanding which constantly interact with the
Organizational Behavior theory, then environment that surrounds them within
followed by summarizing the technology and outside an organization. (Richards,
brought up by digitalization and ending with 2017) Figure 1 describes the factors and the
combining this with the impact on interaction within an organization.
leadership and workforce.

Figure 1: Factors affecting Organizational Behavior

Source: Authors own contribution based on Richards (2017)

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
3 Journal of EU Research in Business

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The influence of technology on work interlinked with each other? and in which
environments and workflows is an ways do they change our whole work and life
important determinant of Organizational environment?
Behavior science, as changes in technology
may not only affect the individual The omnipresence of the words
characteristics of the workforce, but as well digitalization and digital transformation and
the organizational structure of enterprises. their obvious interconnection to all the other
The way technology is implemented or used terms, induced the authors to have a closer
within a company may affect the company’s look to their definitions, characteristics and
inner culture as well as their behavior impact on society and economy. According to
towards stakeholders. Furthermore, the Ernst & Young (2011) Digitization means the
implementation of modern technology may conversion of analogue information to digital
bring along a gradual change in the (computer-readable) information. From the
composition of the workforce. For example, middle of the 20th century onwards, after the
younger, better educated, more mobile as invention of the transistor and
well as more technologically versed microprocessor the technologies of
generations will enter companies in greater digitization enabled the conversion of
numbers as in the past, resulting in a traditional media such as picture, paper,
changeover within organizations that may as sound, video or signal into bits and bytes
well bring along a new set of values, (ones and zeros) of computer storage (Press,
attitudes and concerns that affect the 2015). Since the beginning of the 21st
Organizational Behavior within companies century, with the emergence of social media,
(DuBrin, 2002). social networks and by the improvement of
the sensor technology, additional
Understanding the Meaning of information is being recorded, digitalized
Digitalization and shared such as social life activities and
physical data of life like location,
temperature, force, weight, blood pressure
Over the last decades, the digitalization and
and stress. Today, non-digitalized products
interconnectedness have shifted the
are more and more digitalized as they
economy from a mainly physical to a
receive, for example, tracking sensors to
software controlled economy and the
locate them or network connections to
information technology has become a
deliver status information. The numbers
fundamental part of our industry and
published by BMWi (2016) show that the
society. In this context, buzzwords like
amount of digital information has increased
digitalization, Internet of Things (IoT), big
dramatically, in 1993, it was just 3% and in
data, robotics, automation, mobility and
2007, it reached already 94% of the
others are ubiquitous; they are discussed in
worldwide information (see also figure no
social media, by politics and economy. But
2).
what do these terms mean?, how are they

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
Journal of EU Research in Business 4

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Figure 2: Development of the global information storage capacity

Source: Authors design based on Hilbert (2015)

The last years have shown that the digital international competition, and the increasing
transformation of economic processes and customer demands request new ways of
transactions and human interactions became thinking and acting to identify and deal with
an inescapable megatrend in ways never the related opportunities and challenges
been anticipated years ago, and it is still the (Marquardt, 2017).
beginning. This growing dependence on the
ubiquitous technologies and solutions To provide an overview and to gain a
combined with the demographic changes, common understanding, the authors have
declining availability of resources, summarized in table number 1 the most
globalization of the markets and growing significant digital technologies and solutions,
their meaning and added some examples.

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
5 Journal of EU Research in Business

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Table 1: Overview digital technologies

TECHNOLOGY EXPLANATION / EXAMPLES


INTERCONNECTEDNESS & AVAILABILITY
MOBILE Mobile is the generic term for cellular communication and mobile
IOT computing with wireless networking / Smartphone, tablet, laptop
CLOUD IoT is the connection from on and off switchable devices to the
(COMPUTING) internet. They get a virtual presence and can connect to other objects
and database data (Morgan, 2016)
Cloud is the provisioning of IT infrastructure (e.g., networks, servers,
storage, applications, services) over the internet on demand /
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS),
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
INFORMATION & INTELLIGENCE
BIG DATA & Big Data is the synonym for vast and complex data volumes which
ANALYTICS differs by their size, diversity and rapid pace of change (Plattner,
2016)
Analytics is the process of examining Big data to uncover patterns,
correlations, market trends, customer preferences and other useful
information (Rouse, 2017a)
AUTOMATION & EFFICIENCY
ROBOTICS Robotics is the interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science
AUTOMATION that deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots
ROBOT PROCESS (Rouse, 2017b)
AUTOMATION Automation is the technique of making a machine, a process, or a
(RPA) system to be operated automatically with no or reduced human
INTELLIGENT intervention. It can be done by various means like mechanical,
AUTOMATION hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers
(IA) (ISA, n.d.)
ARTIFICIAL Robot Process Automation is the fully automated processing of
INTELLIGENCE structured business processes (repeatable and predictable
(AI) interactions) by software robots or by using artificial intelligence (AI)
Intelligent Automation is a nascent and high cost technology which
enables automating non-routine tasks such as those involving
intuition, judgement, creativity, problem solving, etc. based on
dynamic information (Deloitte, 2017)
Artificial Intelligence is part of computer science bringing human
capabilities and characteristics to machines like understanding
language, learning, reasoning, solving problems, etc. (McKinsey, 2017)
/
Digital assistant Siri, Alexa, Cortana or Echo
COMMUNICATION & COLLABORATION
SOCIAL (MEDIA) is the collection of online communications channels dedicated to
community-based input, interaction, content-sharing and
collaboration (Rouse, 2016a) / Facebook, Twitter, Instagram,
Pinterest, Snapchat, YouTube
PRIVACY & SECURITY

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
Journal of EU Research in Business 6

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NEXT- is a new generation of intelligent, highly scalable security products


GENERATION and platforms which includes both cybersecurity and physical
SECURITY security and with a more proactive and adaptive approach (Rouse,
2016b)

Source: Authors’ own research results/contribution

All the above listed technologies and only imply changes in the economy and work
solutions have and will have a growing and system, it also implies changes in leadership
powerful effect on economy, environment management, thinking and acting. To
and society. They provide new support this digital transformation, the
functionalities, increase productivity and company needs to shift from their
efficiency, give higher flexibility and traditional, hierarchical structure to a
diversity and allow more reusability, flexible, decentralized organization with a
parallelism and duplication. In addition, they team/project-oriented leadership to keep
will change the business models, production pace with the complex and fast changing
processes, the way of working and environment (digital-centric business) and
collaborating, will also permit more mobility, the increasing customer requirements
enable faster decision making and delivery, (customer-led market). Additionally, the
and support higher standardization, generation change from the baby boomer to
customization and prosperity. On the other the digital natives (Generation Y and Z),
side, they can also be related to negative which have unique characteristics and
impacts as such as unemployment, capabilities in comparison to past
immiseration, pressure, always on mentality, generations, will require new working
ever-increasing exhaustion, despair, higher structures and leadership.
complexity and social isolation. Therefore, it
is important to be aware of these impacts, The new leadership, digital leadership or
whether they are positive or negative and to leadership 4.0 does not only mean the usage
deal with them from the very first beginning. of the new digital media for collaboration
In this connection and interlinked with the and communication, but it also requires the
digital transformation, terms like work 4.0, adaption of the leadership strategies and
management 2.0, and leadership 4.0 came up methods to the digital reality. The future
and their meaning will be reviewed in this leader should be able to utilize the new
article. technologies and solutions, to adapt himself
fast to changes and manage them, to have a
Modern Leadership and the Effects of The pioneer spirit and to be able to learn quickly.
Digitalization He should also be contextual, emotionally
intelligent and trustworthy, and should lead
democratically, share responsibilities, to be
Understanding how digitalization is affecting
decisive and cooperative, control and
and changing leadership practices in
promote networks, trust and motivate
organizations is essential because today
employees, and give them regular feedback
digitization is taking place in almost all
(Sattler, 2016). From the author’s viewpoint,
sectors of the economy at a very fast pace
the so-called VOPA leadership model (see
and in a very deep manner. From
figure no. 3) designed by Buhse (2014),
manufacturing, financial services, customer
combines all those characteristics and can be
service, health, agriculture, retail and
used as the basic model for the digital
logistics all of these sectors are using big
leadership by covering all the central
data, new technologies and solutions to drive
elements for a successful corporate and
their business forward and to survive on the
management culture in the digital age and
highly competitive market. This does not

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
7 Journal of EU Research in Business

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reflecting also the demands from the new Openness and transparency take away the
generations. fear and uncertainty and give a clear view
and gain understanding. Participation and
The core of the digital leadership built on involvement give the possibility to actively
trust is not new because “trust” is one of the engage, modify and assume accountability.
significant emotions in human relationships. Agility allows to react faster and context
The leader needs to trust in the management based and networking enables and support
and the employees need to trust in the the sharing, collaborating and improving.
leader and vice versa, only then the right Leaders need to have a direct and personal
decisions can be made and the required engagement with all employees, especially,
actions can be taken within the time of to the new talents from the next generations
increasing complexity, insecurity and speed. because they are the incubators of change in
All the other four points are supporting the the digitalized world (Ernst and Young,
establishment and maintenance of trust. 2011).

Figure 3: VOPA plus model for digital leadership

Source: Authors design based on Buhse (2014)

The new digital technologies and solutions media platforms can support the
are not just stimulating the need for change, engagement with many more employees in
they also enable and support the change distributed organizations as it was possible
itself. Here are some examples: big data in before with standard meeting structures.
combination with learning algorithms enable Here the leaders can share information, give
organizations and leaders to better predict regular updates, foster understanding and
and control their processes and applications, create conviction to the spread workforce at
allow them to optimize the work such as the same time. Furthermore, the usage of
material flows, targeted marketing activities data-enabled talent-management systems
and evaluating employee’s performance or (based on algorithmic data analysis) can rise
tasks. Likewise, the integration of social the number of meaningfully evaluated

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
Journal of EU Research in Business 8

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employees against their knowledge and Until now, the rationalization of workforce
competencies, increase the precision of these due to the new digitalized world has majorly
evaluations and free up the leadership to affected those employees with low
concentrate on the personal relationship qualifications due to the automation of
(Feser et al., 2017). But it must be kept in production processes. However, the
mind that the way technology takes over or advancements in intelligent automation and
interferes in some of the managerial artificial intelligence start to cast a shadow
activities also bares the risk of decreasing over higher qualified resources. Having a
the creative adaption to a problem and the formal qualification is no longer a guarantee
loss of the historical background and the for a lifelong secured career, this is due to
organizations will be increasingly dependent the fast changes in technology that can no
on the providers of these new technologies longer be secured by the educational system.
as they most likely lack internal resources Nowadays, specially endangered are those
with the capability to program and run this professions in which precision and routine
system. Hence, it is important for the make a high portion of the daily job activity
managers and leaders to analyze their as these can be more easily automated and
business and market situation first, then to replaced by computer algorithms such as
decide about the right strategy and structure sales agents in call centers, clerical workers,
and to involve their employees in the digital packers, pilots and even judges. Regarding
transformation. latter ones, it is argued that they fight an
unequal competition against autopilots and
Impact of Digitalization on Employees algorithms which can navigate flawlessly
and are sly decision takers. On the other
The continuous change that the digitalization hand, jobs that require a higher amount of
of things is bringing along is having a major creativity and social intelligence as well as
impact on the workforce at various levels entrepreneurship, seem to be more
such as rationalization, knowledge, sustainable (Rinne and Zimmermann, 2016).
performance, efficiency, skill set, etc.. Due to the before mentioned the future of
Hereafter, the authors summarized the work based on a digitalized economy also
impact based on an extended literature requires a new skill set which will enforce a
review. sustainable working future. As an example,
the outsourcing industry has started to
demand specific hard and soft skills to be
Digital learning platforms can improve the related to the advancements in technology to
company’s internal education by hosting be able to deliver added value services which
tailored trainings and development will help to win the competition against
programs for employees and leaders, where artificial intelligence and algorithms
they can attend the training in alignment
(Foerster-Metz & Golowko, 2017).
with their work schedules, matched with
their self-pacing and choice of topic. This
new training methods support the Within higher qualified jobs in the digitized
acquisition of skills based on the strategies world, a new working space is created that
the organizations follow and which allows new collaborative working models
educational systems fail to deliver. However, due to cloud computing platforms. The
this on the contrary, demands the employees software industry is one of the trendsetters
to be able to continuously learn to be able to regarding this working model which is based
keep up with the advancements of on agile development such as Scrum with
technology and avoid rationalization in the principles of Lean Production. This new type
long run (Gow and MacDonald, 2006). of collaborative working on clouds permits
quick development sprints which constantly
and in real time allow managers\leaders to
test the performance of each delivered work

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
9 Journal of EU Research in Business

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package. Furthermore, it enables them to contractors are not protected by syndicates


take decisions and direct work at a higher or similar and do not have codetermination
speed as well as to make the work rights. They fall out of the labor law
performance of each team member agreements as they are independent
transparent. Consequently, each team gains entrepreneurs. Furthermore, freelancers are
more empowerment. It also shows the not often integrated by law to the social
tendency of simple execution as in an security systems if the government has not
“assembly line”. foreseen any protection. (Rinne and
Zimmermann, 2016; Staab and Nachtwey,
Due to the digitalized world, employees are 2016).
no longer limited to work only from the
office and for only one employer. This has Performance surveillance has taken a new
brought changes in how workforce is being shape through the digitization of work steps
contracted. Many individuals chose today to for example, the logistics industry in which
work as digital freelancers so called “crowd pickers hold a hand scanner enabled with
worker” who can work from everywhere cameras and microphones which are able to
through mechanisms like clouds, skype, transfer movement data of the workforce.
teleconferences, etc..1 These offer their work Companies can use this information to define
and skills through virtual crowdsourcing performance profiles, measure and compare
platforms in which organizations can the performance of diverse workforce. In
outsource and post specific work packages. addition to having a performance
Due to this flexible work organization and surveillance, a high technical process control
flexible work time models, home office and is enabled through this hand scanners as
variable time schedules will continue to these provide the employees with
increase due to the limited availability of consecutive work steps to maximize
qualified workforce. Through this trend, workflow efficiency. This results in an
entrepreneurial risks are shifted from almost gapless system automation reducing
employer to employee. Instead of strict work the workforce autonomy to structure their
instructions, new civil arrangements come to work place and creativity for innovative
place. Flat hierarchies, as well as solutions. This trend can also be found in
performance based remuneration, gain more higher qualified jobs such as developers,
significance. Employees turn into sales agents and analysts within the tertiary
entrepreneurs which consequently demands sector. This is possible through
entrepreneurial thinking as a key individualized performance review based on
competence for the future work market analysis of big data and control related
place. In addition, work compensation is software. For example, through the analysis
reduced to work packages so that costs last of big data, it is possible to determine if a
for the time of an assignment and hidden sales man had ordered enough products for
cost reserves of permanent employees can a specific selling period as well as to analyze
be reduced. Through these virtual platforms, how many client contacts have been realized
the workforce also turns global and is and what was the duration and outcome of
exposed to higher competition. On the the meeting (Staab and Nachtwey, 2016;
downturn, these “employees” have no sense Boes et al, 2016). Performance measure
of affiliation to companies and therefore, trough target setting becomes also a new
higher effort is requested to motivate and dimension as companies start to use mobile
engage them towards the values, vision and apps with their employees in which these
mission of companies. At the same time can document target accomplishments on
daily basis. These apps create an elevated
1
For a detailed description crowd worker level of transparency as they allow making
consult Boeckler Impuls, 2016 the individual performance transparent to
everyone in the company. Platforms like

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
Journal of EU Research in Business 10

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Twitter allow “following” colleagues and conducts that will protect information from
informing them about alterations in their leaking (Schildt, 2017).
work activities. As a result, communities can
be used to track, measure and influence the In addition, companies need to deal with the
social behavior of employees. fact that the increased digitization of
information generates informed employees,
Dissolution of boundaries regarding time consumers and partners that have real time
and work place started in the 80s with access to competitive pricing and product
telework possibilities. In course of the years, information which increases pricing
due to the increased digitalization of work transparency. Digital platforms allow peer
through the possibility of taking work recommendations by consumers which can
everywhere with smartphones, tablets and be on the one hand freighting as they put
laptops, work has become a constant major pressure on the control of the
companion in many countries and especially branding message and on the other hand, it
for higher qualified jobs. It has become a gives the opportunity for employees to
normality to work on weekends, vacations, engage with consumers as ambassadors for
trains and airplanes, etc.. However, still not the brand. Latter ones are called
all companies allow their employees to make “prosumers”. In this sense, a new two-way
use of these possibilities because despite the communication has been enabled between
advanced possibilities of performance consumer and brand which bares
surveillance, they fear not to have enough opportunities and risks. New collaborative
control over their employees and the approaches towards stakeholders are
expected work results. On the other hand, required to keep the engagement up.
those employees that are enabled to use Companies have started to use this new
these work technologies started complaining digital communication to test in
about the higher expectations of constant communities’ innovations and to receive and
reachability. In this case, again some EU provide feedback on issues of problems with
countries are struggling to find the right products, etc.. However, this active
labor law mix that will cope with this new communication with the stakeholders also
work environments. At the same time, requires a new way of thinking and culture
flexible and boundary free work requires within organizations that is more than ever a
from the individuals a high level of self- service oriented (Ernst and Young, 2011).
organization and time management.
(Carstensen, 2016). Conclusion

Company information which in the past was Cloud computing, advanced algorithms, and
only accessible to higher leadership - as it artificial intelligence are all interrelated and
often implied higher printing and have a major effect on how individuals are
informational costs - can now be shared with changing their way of acting within and
employees through diverse digital outside organizations. The digitalization has
technology like sharing platforms, chatting shown that it has majorly changed the
rooms, intranets, etc.. This allows employees workforce population, the skill set needed,
to have a higher awareness about the and the way to interact and collaborate as
company and its activities permitting well as to communicate within an
organizations to become more transparent organization not only from employee’s side
and open towards employees. Because of but also from the leadership side. Table 2
greater transparency improvements in provides a summary of how each nascent
decision-making, employee confidence and technology is having an impact on the factor
internal networking have been achieved people within an organization.
(Francis and Scheers, 2013). However
increased transparency implies new code of

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
11 Journal of EU Research in Business

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Table 2: Summary of Findings

TECHNOLOGY IMPACT ON WORKFORCE IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP


INTERCONNECTEDNESS & AVAILABILITY
MOBILE • Changes in contracting • Flat Hierarchies
IOT form of Workforce: Crowd sourcing • Implies agility and speed in
CLOUD • Flexible work models in decision taking
time and space • Enforces collaborative
• Free space of self- approach
controlled work • Requires higher motivation
• Entrepreneurship and of employees due to the
empowerment at the risk of simple externalization of work packages
execution and personal distance to the
• Exposure to higher global contractor
workforce competition • Middle Management loses
• Reduction of sense of importance as managers can cover
affiliation of the workforce larger departments and locations
• Lose of social security
protection

INFORMATION & INTELLIGENCE


BIG DATA & • Higher performance • Optimization of processes
ANALYTICS surveillance • Increased evaluation of
• Loss of creativity due to employees, frees up management
higher and detailed process from their surveillance role as
structure analytics start to take over the
• Higher amount of decision
performance based remuneration • Dependency of providers
due to lack of programming
knowledge

AUTOMATION & EFFICIENCY


ROBOTICS • Rationalization of • Level of hierarchies
AUTOMATION workforce for higher qualified and becomes flat
ROBOT PROCESS lower qualified jobs • Loss of creative adaption to
AUTOMATION • Reduction of workforce problems and historical background
INTELLIGENT autonomy, creativity and
AUTOMATION innovation
ARTIFICAL
INTELLIGENCE
COMMUNICATION & COLLABORATION
SOCIAL MEDIA • Transparency • Demand for collaborative
• Knowledgeable workforce and transparent leadership
• Increased need for service • Open and clear
orientation toward client communication
• Enforces collaboration and • Provision and share of
knowledge sharing information company wide at low

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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
Journal of EU Research in Business 12

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cost
• Enforcement of engagement
• Influence social behavior of
employees

PRIVACY & SECURITY


NEXT- • Risk of leakage of personal • Development of new codes
GENERATION employee data of conduct
SECURITY

Source: Authors’ own research results/contribution

Through the authors’ analysis, it has become Perspective, 2nd ed. New Yoork: Pergamon
clear that the workforce of tomorrow will Press Inc..
have to think and act interconnected and will
6. Feser, C., Nielsen, N., Rennie, M., (2017):
need to focus on innovation and creativity to
What’s missing in leadership development?.
be able to cope with structural changes
[online] Available at:
technological development has brought
<http://www.mckinsey.com/global-
along. Questions are still open such as at
themes/leadership/whats-missing-in-
what pace will further rationalization take
leadership-development> [Accessed
place?, and what efforts are being
04.08.2017].
undertaken by the environment to get along
with the skill need of rationalized 7. Förster-Metz, U.S. and Golowko, N.,
workforce?. (2017): Employability skills for the
Romanian Outsourcing Industry, In: 2017
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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873
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Ulrike Stefanie Foerster-Metz ,Katrin Marquardt, Nina Golowko, Andreas Kompalla and Christian
Hell (2018), Journal of EU Research in Business, DOI: 10.5171/2018.340873