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Misamis University

H.T. Feliciano St, Ozamiz City, 7200 Misamis Occidental




Submitted By:
John Jacob Ezekiel B. Cais

Submitted To:
Mr. Bryan E. Alingaro
The Circulatory System

 Blood- it is the medium of transport which is pumped by an organ called the heart.
Blood is a liquid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, platelets and white blood
cells. It helps in the transportation of various substances, protection of the body
against diseases as well as regulation of temperature and water content in the body.

 Blood vessels- a network of tubes where the heart circulates blood across the body.
There are three kinds of blood vessels namely:
- Arteries- carry blood away from the heart.
- Veins- carry blood back to the heart.
- Capillaries- exchange oxygen, food, carbon dioxide and waste products
between the blood and the body cells.

 The Heart - it is made of specialized cardiac muscle tissue that allows it to act as a
pump within the circulatory system. The human heart is divided into four chambers.
There are one atrium and one ventricle on each side of the heart. The atria receive blood
and the ventricles pump blood.
The Digestive System

Mouth - the mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when
taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested,
while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can
absorb and use.

Esophagus- located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food
from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular contractions called
peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach.

Stomach- a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes
that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the
stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown
process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the
small intestine

Small intestine -Made up of three segments - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum - the small
intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the
pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through
and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely
responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly
responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.

Pancreas- secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine.
These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin,
secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar.

Liver - has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the
nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine
also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body's chemical
"factory." It takes the raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various
chemicals the body needs to function. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It
breaks down and secretes many drugs.

Gallbladder- The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum
to help absorb and digest fats.

Colon (large intestine) -The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small
intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon,
the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects
to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly
specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy
and convenient.

Rectum- (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the
rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be
evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens.

Anus- the last part of the digestive tract. It is a 2-inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor
muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external). The lining of the upper anus is
specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or
solid. The anus is surrounded by sphincter muscles that are important in allowing control of
stool. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool
from coming out when it is not supposed to. The internal sphincter is always tight, except when
stool enters the rectum. It keeps us continent when we are asleep or otherwise unaware of the
presence of stool. When we get an urge to go to the bathroom, we rely on our external sphincter
to hold the stool until reaching a toilet, where it then relaxes to release the contents.
The Respiratory System

Nose and Nasal Cavity- form the main external opening for the respiratory system and are the
first section of the body’s airway—the respiratory tract through which air moves. The nose is a
structure of the face made of cartilage, bone, muscle, and skin that supports and protects the
anterior portion of the nasal cavity. The nasal cavity is a hollow space within the nose and skull
that is lined with hairs and mucus membrane. The function of the nasal cavity is to warm,
moisturize, and filter air entering the body before it reaches the lungs. Hairs and mucus lining the
nasal cavity help to trap dust, mold, pollen and other environmental contaminants before they
can reach the inner portions of the body. Air exiting the body through the nose returns moisture
and heat to the nasal cavity before being exhaled into the environmen

Mouth (Oral Cavity)- the secondary external opening for the respiratory tract. Most normal
breathing takes place through the nasal cavity, but the oral cavity can be used to supplement or
replace the nasal cavity’s functions when needed. Because the pathway of air entering the body
from the mouth is shorter than the pathway for air entering from the nose, the mouth does not
warm and moisturize the air entering the lungs as well as the nose performs this function.

Pharynx(Throat)- a muscular funnel that extends from the posterior end of the nasal cavity to
the superior end of the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx is divided into 3 regions: the
nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the superior region of the
pharynx found in the posterior of the nasal cavity. Inhaled air from the nasal cavity passes into
the nasopharynx and descends through the oropharynx, located in the posterior of the oral cavity.
Air inhaled through the oral cavity enters the pharynx at the oropharynx. The inhaled air then
descends into the laryngopharynx, where it is diverted into the opening of the larynx by the
epiglottis. The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage that acts as a switch between the trachea and
the esophagus. Because the pharynx is also used to swallow food, the epiglottis ensures that air
passes into the trachea by covering the opening to the esophagus. During the process of
swallowing, the epiglottis moves to cover the trachea to ensure that food enters the esophagus
and to prevent choking.

Larynx (Voice Box)- a short section of the airway that connects the laryngopharynx and the
trachea. The larynx is located in the anterior portion of the neck, just inferior to the hyoid bone
and superior to the trachea. Several cartilage structures make up the larynx and give it its
structure. The epiglottis is one of the cartilage pieces of the larynx and serves as the cover of the
larynx during swallowing. Inferior to the epiglottis is the thyroid cartilage, which is often
referred to as the Adam’s apple as it is most commonly enlarged and visible in adult males.

Trachea(Windpipe)- a 5-inch long tube made of C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings lined with
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The trachea connects the larynx to the bronchi and
allows air to pass through the neck and into the thorax.

Bronchi and Bronchioles- at the inferior end of the trachea, the airway splits into left and right
branches known as the primary bronchi. The left and right bronchi run into each lung before
branching off into smaller secondary bronchi. The secondary bronchi carry air into the lobes of
the lungs—2 in the left lung and 3 in the right lung. The secondary bronchi in turn split into
many smaller tertiary bronchi within each lobe. The tertiary bronchi split into many smaller
bronchioles that spread throughout the lungs. Each bronchiole further splits into many smaller
branches less than a millimeter in diameter called terminal bronchioles. Finally, the millions of
tiny terminal bronchioles conduct air to the alveoli of the lungs. The main function of the bronchi
and bronchioles is to carry air from the trachea into the lungs. Smooth muscle tissue in their
walls helps to regulate airflow into the lungs.
Lungs- pair of large, spongy organs found in the thorax lateral to the heart and superior to the
diaphragm. Each lung is surrounded by a pleural membrane that provides the lung with space to
expand as well as a negative pressure space relative to the body’s exterior. The negative pressure
allows the lungs to passively fill with air as they relax. The left and right lungs are slightly
different in size and shape due to the heart pointing to the left side of the body. The left lung is
therefore slightly smaller than the right lung and is made up of 2 lobes while the right lung has 3
The Endocrine System

Hypothalamus- located in the lower central part of the brain. This part of the brain is important
in regulation of satiety, metabolism and body temperature. In addition, it secretes hormones that
stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland. Many of these hormones are
releasing hormones, which are secreted into an artery that carries them directly to the pituitary
gland. In the pituitary gland, these releasing hormones signal secretion of stimulating hormones

Pituitary Gland - located at the base of the brain beneath the hypothalamus and is no larger than
a pea. It is often considered the most important part of the endocrine system because it produces
hormones that control many functions of other endocrine glands. When the pituitary gland does
not produce one or more of its hormones or not enough of them, it is called hypopituitarism.

Thyroid gland- located in the lower front part of the neck. It produces thyroid hormones that
regulate the body's metabolism. It also plays a role in bone growth and development of the brain
and nervous system in children. The pituitary gland controls the release of thyroid hormones.
Thyroid hormones also help maintain normal blood pressure, heart rate, digestion, muscle tone,
and reproductive functions.

Parathyroid glands- two pairs of small glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid gland, one
pair on each side. They release parathyroid hormone, which plays a role in regulating calcium
levels in the blood and bone metabolism.

Adrenal glands- triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands are
made up of two parts. The outer part is called the adrenal cortex, and the inner part is called the
adrenal medulla. The outer part produces hormones called corticosteroids, which regulate the
body's metabolism, the balance of salt and water in the body, the immune system, and sexual
function. The inner part, or adrenal medulla, produces hormones called catecholamines (for
example, adrenaline). These hormones help the body cope with physical and emotional stress by
increasing the heart rate and blood pressure.

Pineal gland- located in the middle of the brain. It secretes a hormone called melatonin, which
may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle of the body.

Reproductive glands- the main source of sex hormones. In males, the testes, located in the
scrotum, secrete hormones called androgens; the most important of which is testosterone. These
hormones affect many male characteristics (for example, sexual development, growth of facial
hair and pubic hair) as well as sperm production. In females, the ovaries, located on both sides of
the uterus, produce estrogen and progesterone as well as eggs. These hormones control the
development of female characteristics (for example, breast growth), and they are also involved in
reproductive functions (for example, menstruation, pregnancy).

Pancreas- an elongated organ located toward the back of the abdomen behind the stomach. The
pancreas has digestive and hormonal functions. One part of the pancreas, the exocrine pancreas,
secretes digestive enzymes. The other part of the pancreas, the endocrine pancreas, secretes
hormones called insulin and glucagon. These hormones regulate the level of glucose in the
The Nervous System

Neuron (Nerve Cells)- communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals.
Neurons look quite different from other cells in the body due to the many long cellular processes
that extend from their central cell body. The cell body is the roughly round part of a neuron that
contains the nucleus, mitochondria, and most of the cellular organelles. Small tree-like structures
called dendrites extend from the cell body to pick up stimuli from the environment, other
neurons, or sensory receptor cells. Long transmitting processes called axons extend from the cell
body to send signals onward to other neurons or effector cells in the body.

3 Basic Classes of Neurons:.

1. Afferent neurons (sensory neurons) transmit sensory signals to the central nervous
system from receptors in the body.
2. Efferent neurons (motor neurons) transmit signals from the central nervous system to
effectors in the body such as muscles and glands.
3. Interneurons form complex networks within the central nervous system to integrate the
information received from afferent neurons and to direct the function of the body through
efferent neurons.

Neuroglia (Glial cells)- act as the “helper” cells of the nervous system. Each neuron in the body
is surrounded by anywhere from 6 to 60 neuroglia that protect, feed, and insulate the neuron.
Because neurons are extremely specialized cells that are essential to body function and almost
never reproduce, neuroglia are vital to maintaining a functional nervous system.

Central Nervous System

 Brain - The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body,
interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and
soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things
governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum,
cerebellum, and brainstem.
o The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste,
and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has
meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls
our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the
function of many organs within our body.
o The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The
peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of spinal nerves that branch from
the spinal cord and cranial nerves that branch from the brain.

The brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.

 Cerebrum: the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It
performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech,
reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
 Cerebellum: located under the cerebrum. Its function is to coordinate muscle
movements, maintain posture, and balance.
 Brainstem: acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal
cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body
temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and
 Spinal Cord - The spinal cord, along with the brain, makes up the central nervous
system. It resembles a thick, cream-colored rope and is made up of nerves that relay
messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It stretches from the medulla
oblongata, at the base of the brain, to the lower back, and is housed in a tunnel made by
the vertebrae, or bones of the spinal column. All vertebrate animals have spinal cords,
from simple jawless fish to complex birds and mammals.

o The spinal cord works a bit like a telephone switchboard operator, helping the
brain communicate with different parts of the body, and vice versa. Its three major
roles are:

- To relay messages from the brain to different parts of the body (usually a muscle) in
order to perform an action

- To pass along messages from sensory receptors (found all over the body) to the brain

- To coordinate reflexes (quick responses to outside stimuli) that don't go through the
brain and are managed by the spinal cord alone

 Meninges - the protective coverings of the central nervous system (CNS). They consist
of three layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

 Dura mater- which means “tough mother,” is the thickest, toughest, and most
superficial layer of meninges. Made of dense irregular connective tissue, it contains
many tough collagen fibers and blood vessels. Dura mater protects the CNS from
external damage, contains the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the CNS, and
provides blood to the nervous tissue of the CNS.

 Arachnoid mater- which means “spider-like mother,” is much thinner and more
delicate than the dura mater. It lines the inside of the dura mater and contains many
thin fibers that connect it to the underlying pia mater. These fibers cross a fluid-filled
space called the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.
 Pia mater - which means “tender mother,” is a thin and delicate layer of tissue that
rests on the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Containing many blood vessels that
feed the nervous tissue of the CNS, the pia mater penetrates into the valleys of the
sulci and fissures of the brain as it covers the entire surface of the CNS.
 Cerebrospinal Fluid - The space surrounding the organs of the CNS is filled with a clear
fluid known as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is formed from blood plasma by special
structures called choroid plexuses. The choroid plexuses contain many capillaries lined
with epithelial tissue that filters blood plasma and allows the filtered fluid to enter the
space around the brain. Newly created CSF flows through the inside of the brain in
hollow spaces called ventricles and through a small cavity in the middle of the spinal
cord called the central canal. CSF also flows through the subarachnoid space around the
outside of the brain and spinal cord. CSF is constantly produced at the choroid plexuses
and is reabsorbed into the bloodstream at structures called arachnoid villi.

- Cerebrospinal fluid provides several vital functions to the central nervous system:

- CSF absorbs shocks between the brain and skull and between the spinal cord and
vertebrae. This shock absorption protects the CNS from blows or sudden changes in
velocity, such as during a car accident.
- The brain and spinal cord float within the CSF, reducing their apparent weight through
buoyancy. The brain is a very large but soft organ that requires a high volume of blood to
function effectively. The reduced weight in cerebrospinal fluid allows the blood vessels
of the brain to remain open and helps protect the nervous tissue from becoming crushed
under its own weight.

- CSF helps to maintain chemical homeostasis within the central nervous system. It
contains ions, nutrients, oxygen, and albumins that support the chemical and osmotic
balance of nervous tissue. CSF also removes waste products that form as byproducts of
cellular metabolism within nervous tissue.

 Sense Organs - All of the bodies’ many sense organs are components of the nervous
system. What are known as the special senses—vision, taste, smell, hearing, and
balance—are all detected by specialized organs such as the eyes, taste buds, and olfactory
epithelium. Sensory receptors for the general senses like touch, temperature, and pain are
found throughout most of the body. All of the sensory receptors of the body are
connected to afferent neurons that carry their sensory information to the CNS to be
processed and integrated.

Peripheral Nervous System

 Nerves - Nerves are bundles of axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that act as
information highways to carry signals between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of
the body. Each axon is wrapped in a connective tissue sheath called the endoneurium.
Individual axons of the nerve are bundled into groups of axons called fascicles, wrapped
in a sheath of connective tissue called the perineurium. Finally, many fascicles are
wrapped together in another layer of connective tissue called the epineurium to form a
whole nerve. The wrapping of nerves with connective tissue helps to protect the axons
and to increase the speed of their communication within the body.

 Afferent, Efferent, and Mixed Nerves. Some of the nerves in the body are
specialized for carrying information in only one direction, similar to a one-way street.
Nerves that carry information from sensory receptors to the central nervous system
only are called afferent nerves. Other neurons, known as efferent nerves, carry signals
only from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles and glands. Finally,
some nerves are mixed nerves that contain both afferent and efferent axons. Mixed
nerves function like 2-way streets where afferent axons act as lanes heading toward
the central nervous system and efferent axons act as lanes heading away from the
central nervous system.

 Cranial Nerves. Extending from the inferior side of the brain are 12 pairs of cranial
nerves. Each cranial nerve pair is identified by a Roman numeral 1 to 12 based upon
its location along the anterior-posterior axis of the brain. Each nerve also has a
descriptive name (e.g. olfactory, optic, etc.) that identifies its function or location.
The cranial nerves provide a direct connection to the brain for the special sense
organs, muscles of the head, neck, and shoulders, the heart, and the GI tract.

 Spinal Nerves. Extending from the left and right sides of the spinal cord are 31 pairs
of spinal nerves. The spinal nerves are mixed nerves that carry both sensory and
motor signals between the spinal cord and specific regions of the body. The 31 spinal
nerves are split into 5 groups named for the 5 regions of the vertebral column. Thus,
there are 8 pairs of cervical nerves, 12 pairs of thoracic nerves, 5 pairs of lumbar
nerves, 5 pairs of sacral nerves, and 1 pair of coccygeal nerves. Each spinal nerve
exits from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen between a pair of
vertebrae or between the C1 vertebra and the occipital bone of the skull.

 Basal Ganglia - The basal ganglia are a group of neurons (also called nuclei) located
deep within the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. The basal ganglia consist of the
corpus stratium (major group of basal ganglia nuclei) and related nuclei. The basal
ganglia are involved primarily in processing movement related information. They
also process information related to emotions, motivations, and cognitive functions.
Basal ganglia dysfunction is associated with a number of disorders that influence
movement including Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, and uncontrolled or
slow movement (dystonia).
The Muscular System

There are three types of muscle tissue: Visceral, cardiac, and skeletal.

 Visceral Muscle - Voluntary muscle tissue is also called skeletal muscle, because it
makes up the muscles that attach to bones and help move parts of your skeleton, such as
your arms and legs. Skeletal muscle is voluntary, because it responds to your conscious
thoughts and intentions. Skeletal muscle cells have regular patterns, called striations,
made up of specialized proteins that facilitate strong muscle contraction. These muscle
cells are rectangular and tightly attached to one another end to end. Groups of these
joined cells, called fibers, bundle together in larger and larger groups attached to one
another by connective tissue. The largest groups of fibers eventually end in tendons,
which attach your muscles to your bones.

 Cardiac Muscle - The third type of muscle in your body is cardiac muscle, which is
highly specialized and found only in the walls of your heart. Microscopically, cardiac
muscle fibers are rectangular and have striations like those in skeletal muscle. But cardiac
cells branch and join with neighboring cells and have specialized connections with one
another that allow for both tight attachment and rapid cell-to-cell communication.
Cardiac muscle fibers also contain exceptionally high numbers of mitochondria, which
are energy-producing components. They're also surrounded by an extensive network of
capillaries containing oxygen-rich blood. These and other adaptations help cardiac
muscle cells contract constantly and steadily, keeping the heart pumping blood without

 Smooth Muscle - The muscular system contains two types of involuntary muscle that
function automatically without conscious thought. One kind, called smooth muscle, is
mostly found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, intestines and bladder.
It's also found in the walls of arteries, which are vessels that carry blood away from the
heart and receive a surge of pressure each time your heart beats. Under a microscope,
smooth muscle lacks the striations of skeletal muscles, although its contractile proteins
are similar to those in skeletal muscle. These proteins produce slower, more rhythmic
contractions than those in skeletal muscle. This type of contraction helps smooth muscle
carry out its functions, such as moving food through your gastrointestinal tract and
emptying your bladder. It also contracts or relaxes to adjust the diameter of arteries in
response to changes in your circulatory system.

 Regulation - Your body regulates contraction of the three types of muscle in different
ways. Skeletal muscles contract in response to impulses from nerves, called motor
nerves, whose endings contact muscle cells and release neurotransmitters. Smooth muscle
cells are stimulated to contract in response to activity of nearby nerve cells or hormones
and other molecules in their vicinity. Smooth muscle also contracts as a natural response
to stretching. Contraction of cardiac muscle and the rate of your heartbeat are controlled
by nerve endings in the heart wall and by hormones, such as epinephrine and
norepinephrine, that circulate in the blood.

 Repair - Both skeletal and smooth muscle tissue can repair themselves after injury and
can increase the number of cells they contain when needed, such as when you exercise
and build your muscle mass. Smooth muscle cells divide when new cells are needed.
Although skeletal muscle cells can't divide, special cells called satellite cells can develop
into new muscle cells as needed. This mechanism remains functional throughout life.
Cardiac muscle cells can enlarge but can't divide to produce new cells. Many research
studies, suggest that undifferentiated cells called adult stem cells might help replace
damaged cardiac muscle. But additional work is needed to determine whether this
strategy will eventually be used to treat people with heart disease.
The Reproductive System

There are 2 types of Reproductive Systems: The Male and Female

Male Reproductive System:

 Penis - This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the
root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans,
which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The gland, also called the
head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is
sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. The opening of the
urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. The
glans of the penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.

 Scrotum - This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below
the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and
blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. For
normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler
than body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to
contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther
away from the body to cool the temperature.

 Testicles (testes) - These are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in
the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most
men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the
primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled
masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubes are responsible for
producing sperm cells.

 Epididymis - The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of
each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It
also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm
that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During
sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.

 Vas Deferens - The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the
epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens
transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to
outside of the body, in preparation for ejaculation.
 Ejaculatory ducts - These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the
seminal vesicles (see below). The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
 Urethra - The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of
the body. In males, it has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the
man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is
blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
 Seminal Vesicles- The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas
deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich
fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move.
The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man's
ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
 Prostate Gland - The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located
below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes
additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The
urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the
center of the prostate gland.
 Bulbuorethral Gland - Also called Cowper's glands, these are pea-sized
structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These
glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This
fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be
present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Female Reproductive System

 Labia majora - The labia majora enclose and protect the other external
reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are
relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The
labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia
majora are covered with hair.

 Labia Minora - Literally translated as "small lips," the labia minora can be
very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and
surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the
uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from
the bladder to the outside of the body).

 Bartholin’s Gland - These glands are located beside the vaginal opening and
produce a fluid (mucus) secretion
 Clitoris - The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive
protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by
a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of
the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can
become erect.
 Vagina -.The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus)
to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal.

 Uterus (womb) - The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home
to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is
the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus,
called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A
channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit.

 Ovaries - The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either
side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. The ovaries have
two main reproductive functions in the body. They produce oocytes (eggs)
for fertilisation and they produce the reproductive
hormones, estrogen and progesterone. The function of the ovaries is
controlled by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone released from nerve cells
in the hypothalamus which send their messages to the pituitary gland to
produce luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.

 Fallopian Tubes - These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part
of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the
ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm,
normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the
uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall.
The Skeletal System
An adult body is made up of 206 individual bones. These bones are arranged into two major
divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.

Components of a Skeleton

 Bone - a type of mineralized connective tissue that contains collagen and calcium
phosphate, a mineral crystal. Calcium phosphate gives bone its firmness. Bone tissue
may be compact or spongy. Bones provide support and protection for the
body's organs.

 Cartilage - a form of fibrous connective tissue that is composed of closely packed

collagenous fibers in a rubbery gelatinous substance called chondrin. Cartilage
provides flexible support for certain structures in adult humans, including the nose,
trachea, and ears.

 Joint - a site where two or more bones or other skeletal components are joined

 Tendon - a fibrous band of connective tissue that is bonded to bone and connects
bone to bone.

 Ligament - a fibrous band of connective tissue that joins bones and other connective
tissues together at joints.

Divisions of a Skeleton

1. Axial Skeleton - The axial skeleton includes bones that run along the medial sagittal
plane of the body. Imagine a vertical plane that runs through your body from front to
back and divides the body into equal right and left regions. This is the medial sagittal
plane. The axial skeleton forms a central axis that includes bones of the skull, hyoid,
vertebral column, and thoracic cage. The axial skeleton protects numerous vital organs
and soft tissues of the body. The skull provides protection for the brain, the vertebral
column protects the spinal cord, and the thoracic cage protects the heart and lungs.

Components of an Axial Skeleton:

 Skull: includes bones of the cranium, face, and ears (auditory ossicles).
 Hyoid: U-shaped bone or complex of bones located in the neck between the chin and
 Vertebral column: includes spinal vertebrae.
 Thoracic cage: includes ribs and sternum (breastbone).

2. Appendicular Skeleton - The appendicular skeleton is composed of body limbs and

structures that attach limbs to the axial skeleton. Bones of the upper and lower limbs,
pectoral girdles, and the pelvic girdle are components of this skeleton. Although the
primary function of the appendicular skeleton is for bodily movement, it also provides
protection for organs of the digestive system, excretory system, and reproductive system.
Components of an Appendicular Skeleton:

 Pectoral girdle: includes shoulder bones (clavicle and scapula).

 Upper limbs: includes bones of the arms and hands.
 Pelvic girdle: includes hip bones.
 Lower limbs: includes bones of the legs and feet.

Bone Cells

Bone consists primarily of a matrix that is composed of collagen and calcium phosphate
minerals. Bones are constantly being broken down and rebuilt to replace old tissue with new
tissue in a process called remodeling. There are three main types of bone cells that are involved
in this process.

1. Osteoclasts - These large cells have several nuclei and function in resorption and the
assimilation of bone components. Osteoclasts attach to bone surfaces and use acids
and enzymes to decompose bone.
2. Osteoblasts - Osteoblasts are immature bone cells that form bone. They help to
control bone mineralization and produce the proteins needed for bone formation.
Osteoblasts produce osteoid (the organic substance of bone matrix), which
mineralizes to form bone. Osteoblasts may develop into osteocytes or into lining
cells, which cover bone surfaces.
3. Osteocytes - Osteocytes are mature bone cells. They have long projections that keep
them in contact with each other and with lining cells on the bone surface. Osteocytes
assist in bone and matrix formation. They also aid in maintaining a proper blood
calcium balance.

Bone Tissue

 Compact Bone - is the dense, hard outer layer of bone. It contains osteons or Haversian
systems that are tightly packed together. An osteon is a cylindrical structure consisting of
a central canal, the Haversian canal, which is surrounded by concentric rings (lamellae)
of compact bone. The Haversian canal provides a passageway for blood
vessels and nerves.
 Cancellous Bone - is located within compact bone. It is spongy, more flexible, and less
dense than compact bone. Cancellous bone typically contains red bone marrow, which is
the site of blood cell production.

Classifications of Bones

 Bones of the skeletal system can be classified into four major types, categorized by shape
and size. The four main bone classifications are long, short, flat, and irregular bones.
Long bones are bones that have greater length than width. Examples include arm, leg,
finger, and thigh bones
 Short bones are almost the same in length and width and are close to being cube-shaped.
Examples of short bones are wrist and ankle bones.
 Flat bones are thin, flat, and typically curved. Examples include cranial bones, ribs, and
the sternum.
 Irregular bones are atypical in shape and cannot be classified as long, short, or flat.
Examples include hip bones, facial bones, and vertebrae.
The Excretory System

Kidneys - paired, bean-shaped organs located in the abdomen, on either side of the spine, under
the diaphragm. They are made of a large number of structural and functional subunits called
nephrons. These nephrons perform the primary task of filtering blood and removing waste
products. Each nephron snakes between the outer cortex of the kidney and the inner medulla,
with different activities occurring at each site.

Urinary bladder - a sac-like structure with muscular walls that holdS urine until it is expelled
from the body during micturition. The bladder receives urine through two ureters – one from
each kidney –that enter through openings called ureteric orifices. These orifices are located at the
convex fundus of the organ. Urine exits the bladder through the urethra. The walls of the bladder
are made of smooth muscle and the inner epithelial lining of this organ consists of a remarkable
tissue called transitional epithelium. The cells of this stratified tissue change shape based on
whether the bladder is empty or full, allowing it to remain elastic, accommodating up to half a
liter of urine.

In men, the bladder lies on the pelvic floor in front of the rectum. In women, it is located near the
uterus, leading to a number of changes to the patterns of micturition during the course of

Liver - the main detoxifying organ of the body, especially for nitrogenous wastes. The cells of
the liver play host to biochemical processes that create ammonia from amino acids. Since
ammonia is extremely toxic, it is quickly converted to urea before being transported in the blood
towards the kidney.

Large Intestine- the liver is also necessary for the removal of the decomposed hemoglobin, some
drugs, excess vitamins, sterols and other lipophilic substances. These are secreted along with bile
and finally removed from the body through feces. The large intestine therefore plays a role in
excretion, especially for hydrophobic particles.

Skin - a secondary excretory organ, since sweat glands in the dermis can remove salts and some
excess water. The skin also has sebaceous glands that can secrete waxy lipid