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SỞ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO LÀO CAI KỲ THI CHỌN ĐỘI TUYỂN THI HỌC SINH GIỎI QUỐC

INH GIỎI QUỐC GIA


ĐỀ THI CHÍNH THỨC NĂM HỌC: 2017-2018

Môn thi: TIẾNG ANH


Thời gian thi: 180 phút (không kể thời gian giao đề) Số phách
Ngày thi: 4/10/2017
Đề thi có 15 trang
 Thí sinh không được sử dụng tài liệu, kể cả từ điển.
 Giám thị không giải thích gì thêm.

I. LISTENING (50 POINTS)

Part 1: You are going to hear a writer called Peter Watkins being interviewed by the
programme presenter, Sue Manchester. He is talking about his book, which discusses the
behaviour of animals and birds in relation to the weather. For questions 1-6, decide whether
these statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).

1. Sue has little faith in the accuracy of sayings about the weather.
2. Peter says that low-flying birds suffer badly in storms.
3. Peter believes that there is a logical explanation for why certain birds change their habits.
4. According to Peter, insects have difficulty in sensing changes in the atmosphere.
5. Peter says that weather sayings used to be confined to the farming community.
6. Peter says that in the past people relied on animal and bird behaviour to predict the weather.

Your answers
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6.

Part 2: You will hear two well-known singer songwriters, Cathy and Paul, talking about their
approach to writing songs. For questions 7-12, decide whether the opinions are expressed by
only one of the speakers, or whether the speakers agree.

Write C for Cathy.


P for Paul.
Or B for Both when they agree.

Opinions Speaker
7. Many of my songs have never been recorded.
8. I have to view songwriting as a job.
9. I rarely have difficulty in coining up with new songs.
10. I don't allow myself to waste time on a song that is hard to complete.
11. I've been surprised by the success of some of my songs.
12. I need to have an idea before I can write a song.

Your answers
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Part 3: You will hear a group of art history students going round an art gallery with their
teacher. For questions 13 - 17, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which best fits according to what
you hear.

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13. Which is true about Burne-John’s belief in art?
A. Art ought to be true to nature.
B. Art must have a clear moral point.
C. Art should play an instructive role in a modern industrial society.
D. Art need not any realistic value.
14. It appears that the story of the King and the Beggar Maid was ____________
A. a well-known Victorian tale.
B. popularized by a poet.
C. brought to the artist's attention by his wife.
D. taken up by novelists at a later stage.
15. According to the student, how did the painter approach the work?
A. He wanted to portray the beggar very realistically.
B. He copied parts of the painting from an Italian masterpiece.
C. He had certain items in the painting made for him.
D. He wanted to decorate the clothing with jewels.
16. The student thinks that in some ways the painting depicts ____________
A. an uncharacteristically personal message.
B. the great sadness of the artist.
C. the artist's inability to return the girl's love.
D. the fulfillment of the artist's hopes and dreams.
17. What was people's reaction to the painting?
A. They recognized Frances Graham as the model for the Beggar Maid.
B. They realized how personal the painting was for the artist.
C. They interpreted the painting without difficulty.
D. They did not approve of the subject matter of the painting.

Your answers
13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Part 4: Listen to BBC news and fill in the missing information from questions 18 to 25 with NO
MORE THAN TWO WORDS.

Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump have clashed over jobs, trade, taxes, (18) ____________and security in
their first presidential debate. Each candidate tried to (19) ____________the other and argued over who had
the (20) ____________to be president. (21) ____________ was an issue for both candidates. For Mr Trump
that's about not releasing his (22) ____________and for Mrs Clinton it concerns thousands of emails which
were deleted from her private server when she was Secretary of State.
Reports from Aleppo say that Syrian Government Forces are making advances in the centre of the divided
city. It follows several days of (23) ____________against the rebel-held East.
And scientists in the United States say the World's first baby has been born using a new
(24) ____________ technique. The New Scientist magazine said it had allowed them to bypass an
(25) ____________ condition.

Your answers
18. 19. 20. 21.
22. 23. 24. 25.

II. LEXICO – GRAMMAR (20 POINTS)

Part 1: For questions 26-35, choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D to each of the following
questions. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes provided.

26. When the heater caused a fire, Gloria kept her ____________ up and phoned for assistance right away,
otherwise, the whole house might have burned down.
A. mind B. head C. finger D. eyes

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27. I was sitting on the bus when I heard this odd ____________ of convesation.
A. lump B. air C. snatch D. stab
28. It is best that a judge be as ____________ as possible when deciding cases.
A. intentional B. impartial C. perceptible D. equalized
29. Have you been ____________against flu in the last few years?
A. prescribed B. diagnosed C. injected D. inoculated
30. Because of the ice, drivers found their cars ____________ on the road.
A. skidding B. slipping C. squeaking D. squealing
31. At the scene of the disaster the Prime said some comforting words to the ____________ relatives.
A. lamenting B. wailing C. promting D. grieving
32. The complicated medical operation was ____________ for several hours. We can do nothing but wait for
the result.
A. touch and go B. caught on C. on edge D. covered up
33. Do not____________yourself; you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate.
A. depreciate B. delude C. relinquish D. prohibit
34. The administrative law is intended to ____________ spending cost.
A. acquaint B. bash C. coin D. curb
35. From the top of the hill the village looks quite close, but distances are ____________.
A. deceptive B. deceitful C. illusory D. false

Your answers
26. 27. 28. 29. 30.
31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Part 2: Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a
word that fits in the gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

SHOPAHOLIC

“Retail therapy” – Shopping to improve your mood – has become something of a fashionable leisure (0) pursuit
in Britain in recent years. It is the acceptable face of something much more sinister – the serious medical condition
of shopping addiction. The number of people suffering from this illness has (36) ____________ (TAKE) the
number of drug and addicts combined. Some experts believe that twenty per cent of the female population
may be shopaholics. The condition has led to family (37) ____________ (BREAK), depression and
homelessness. Psychiatrists claim one reason for the epidemic is that shopping has never been so (38)
____________ (ALLURE). Shopping centers are no beautiful, attractive places. In some shops, store card or
loyalty cards are offered (39) ____________ (DISCRIMINATE) at the till, and credit is still relatively easy to
obtain. Experts also claim that shopping addiction often masks deeper problems. As one of them says, “Mostly
there is (40) ____________ (LIE) depression and anxiety, sometimes caused by a disturbed relationship with
one of parents. Cold and unemotional parents often lavish presents on their offspring, who then come to
associate that with pleasure.
Your answers
36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Part 3: Complete each sentence with a suitable particle or particles.


41. Mr Jerkin must be getting ______ _______ 80 at the end of this month.
42. He was tricked ____________ signing the document, which effectively handed over possession of his
house to his nephew.
43. I made a small mistake and my boss bit my head____________.
44. I put it all ______ ______ his hard work and initiative.
45. Would you mind running your eyes ____________ this report.

Your answers
41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

III. READING (50 POINTS)


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Part 1: Read the following passages and decide which answer (A, B, C, or D) best fits each gap. Write
your answers (A, B, C, or D) in corresponding numbered boxes.

Passage 1
Singaporeans tend to consider their nation an outpost of progress in an untidy world – a 19th century
English colonial outlook transposed into a “modern” Asia (46) ____________ on hard work and intelligence.
That’s understandable, for Singapore is an object lesson in how to (47) ____________national priorities –
and (48) ____________ through on them year upon year. From an inhospitable swampland has (49)
____________ a modern affluent city-state-part financial services center, part hi-tech manufacturer, part
entrepot to its less developed neighbours. Few doubt that, by the end of the decade, living (50)
____________ in Singapore will be on a (51) ____________ with those of the developed world.

46. A. grounded B. lay C. stemmed D. counted


47. A. base B. set C. attribute D. place
48. A. spark B. lead C. follow D. sparse
49. A. emerged B. established C. embodied D. encompassed
50. A. measures B. levels C. standards D. rates
51. A. scale B. patch C. term D. par

Your answers
46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

Passage 2
Celebrity role-models

Research in the University of Leicester Department of Media and Communication examined interest in celebrities and
gossip about them. It was carried out by Dr Charlotte De Backer who sought in her study to explain interest in
celebrity culture. According to Dr De Backer: 'Life is about learning and (0) ___B___experience, and in that process
we have a tendency to observe and mimic the actions of others. Ideally we mimic what makes others successful and
(52) ____________unsuccessful actions others have trailed and paid for. In reality, humans seem to have the
tendency to mimic the overall behaviour pattern of the higher status of those more successful than themselves.
This explains why celebrities act as role models for broad (53) ____________ of behaviour they display — whether-
good or bad.' Dr De Backer also examined another theory for interest in celebrity, known as the Parasocial
Hypothesis. In this (54) ____________, the bonds are parasocial, or one-way, because the celebrity reveals private
information, often involuntarily. The audience members respond emotionally to this information, although there is
hardly ever any feedback on the private life of the audience going to the celebrity, nor do celebrities (55)
___________ emotions towards their audience. Her study of 800 respondents and over 100 interviews (56)
____________ that younger participants showed greater interest in celebrity gossip, even if it was about celebrities
who were much older than them and even when they did not know who the celebrities were. They showed greatest
interest in internationally-known celebrities, because they considered those as more (57) ____________. Her
study also found that older people were interested in celebrity gossip not because they wanted to learn from the
celebrities, but because it helped them to form social networks with other people. 'We found in the interviews that
older people do not gossip about celebrities because they want to learn from them or feel (58) ____________by
them, but because they use celebrity gossip to (59) ____________with real-life friends and acquaintances. As we
live in scattered societies, celebrities can act as our mutual friends and acquaintances.'

0. A. winning B. gaining C. achieving D. capturing


52. A. escape B. avoid C. prevent D. evade
53. A. reaches B. domains C. ranges D. spheres
54. A. case B. situation C. state D. position
55. A. exhibit B. present C. display D. expose
56. A. reinforce B. assured C. validated D. confirmed
57. A. reputable B. honourable C. prestigious D. illustrious
58. A. befriended B. sustained C. patronized D. upheld
59. A. tie B. link C. cement D. bond

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Your answers
52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

Part 2: For questions 60 to 69, read the following passage, then decide which word best fits
each gap.

A recent report by a government department suggests there has been a significant rise in the
number of young people (60) ____________jobs. Opinions on the reason for this (61) ____________,
according to the report, but there is general agreement that situation is (62) ____________ worse by
employers who refuse to take (63) ____________staff with no experience. Many youngsters still find it
impossible to get a job, even after undergoing (64) ____________ in their chosen fields, which often results
in frustration and depression. The report also points out that older staff are reluctant to make (65)
____________ for younger people as they feel their security is (66) ____________. Although the report is
critical (67) ____________ many employers, it (68) ____________ recognize that some are changing and
recommends that unless attempt are being made to tackle the problem, so support should be given. The
report emphasizes that young people must be prepared to be flexible, accepting jobs they may not have
originally (69) ____________ appropriate.

Your answers
60. 61. 62. 63. 64.
65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

Part 3: Read the article below. For questions 70 to 75, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which
you think fits best according to the text.

RIVARY OR COMPETION

Rivalry differs from other kinds of competition in its intimacy. It often contenders a psychological prize
people cannot win in other contexts, the chance to beat someone obnoxiously familiar, someone whose
abilities and traits are frustratingly matched with their own. Whether on the field, in a classroom or at
work rivalry changes more than our body chemistry. Researchers are now finding that it also sways our
minds, changing how we think and behave during competiton -and outside of it. Rivalry not only boosts
motivation but can also disrupt rational thinking, bias memories and encourage unethical behaviour.

Although competition has long interested social psychologists, only recently have scientists looked at
situations involving true rivals. They are discovering that the psychology of rivalry differs in important ways
from that of ordinary competition. On the positive side, rivalry can be highly motivating. In unpublished
work, social psychologist Gavin J. Kilduff of New York University's Stem Schools of Business analysed six
years' worth of race results achieved by a running club in New York to identify rival racers- runners who
were evenly matched, similar to one another in race and gender, and who frequently competed against
one another. Kilduff found that runners consistently ran faster when competing against rivals. The mere
presence of a rival could trim between 20 and 30 seconds off a runner's total race time in a five-kilometre
race.

Rivalry can often hamper performance, however, especially when it comes to decision- making. In a 2005
study, negotiations expert Deepak Malhotra of Harvard Business School and his colleagues asked
participants to imagine themselves at an auction for a one-of-a-kind item for which they agreed to pay no
more than $ 150. In the final round of bidding, some of the participants were told there were eight other
contenders for the item, whereas others were told they were up against only one, to simulate a type of
rivalry. Then the researchers told all participants that a competitor had bid $150 and that they had to decide
whether as to bid higher. Participants facing a single bidder rated their excitement and anxiety as much
higher than those bidding against a group and were far more likely to exceed the preset bidding limit. This
behaviour is economically inational, because the more bidders remaining in the final round, the more the
the contested object is likely to be worth.

Rivalry impairs not only our judgment but also people's memories. In a study published in February.
psychologist Kevin S. LaBar of Duke University invited male fans of the Duke men's basketball team and of
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the Duke's Mal University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to watch their teams face each other on a big
screen TV. Each participant watched the game with two or three other fans of the same team. Lacer LaBar
asked the fans to view segments of the game while lying in a functional MRI machine. Each segment
focused on a single play whose outcome clearly benefited either Duke or U.N.C. - but the clip always ended
just before the play did, at which point the fan tried to recall how the play ended. Uttar found that fans
remembered outcomes that favoured their team far more accurately than those benefiting the rival team.

Because we encounter people we consider rivals quite often - both in and outside direct competition - rivalries
may alter our motivation and moral code on a regular basis, Kilduff believes. Logging onto Facebook in the
morning and scrolling through your newsfeed only to stumble on a personal rival’s obnoxious status update
or vain photos could influence your behaviour and decisions throughout the day. You may be more likely to,
say, run that red light, cut in line at the movie theatre, claim a co-worker's idea as your own or tell a white
lie to excuse a transgression against someone you love.

In related work, also unpublished, Kilduff tested the relationship between rivalry and unethical behaviour
by simulating rivalries in the laboratory. He set up two contests. In the rival condition, students repeatedly
faced the same opponent and experienced narrow margins of victory and defeat; in the ordinary competition
situation, participants faced different opponents and experienced lopsided margins. The students who faced
a rival later scored higher on a test of Machiavellian attitudes, which measures whether people endorse
selfish, devious and manipulative behaviour. High scores on this scale are correlated with unethical actions
such as cheating, lying and exploitation. Competing against a rival, Kilduff says, may bring out the inner
Machiavelli in people. 'Rivalry opens up the possibility you might behave irrationally or unethically based
solely on the relationship you have with your competitor. It just changes everything.
(From Scientifx Arnett., Mind)
70. What comment does the writer make in the first paragraph about rivalry?
A. Its effects are always harmful.
B. It makes us feel that we understand our opponents better.
C. It has a greater influence on us than our body chemistry does.
D. It creates opportunities that can't be derived from normal competition.
71. What did Gavin J. Kilduff's research show?
A. Contestants performed better when up against unknown rivals.
B. Competing against those with comparable abilities improved performance.
C. Athletes ran faster when competing against more than one rival.
D. Athletes' performance improves during a race once they realize that their opponents are capable of beating
them.
72. What happened during Deepak Malhotra's simulated auction?
A. Those told that they were bidding against just one person became more determined to succeed.
B. Those who thought that they were bidding against a group never bid higher than the agreed
price limit.
C. All the participants behaved in a highly competitive manner.
D. All those who thought that they were bidding against a group had no sense of rivalry.
73. What did the research carried out on basketball fans prove?
A. Participants remembered more when watching the match with other fans of their team.
B. Fans watching with rivals were unable to remember any positive aspects of the opposing team's
performance.
C. Participants felt more rivalry towards opponents when watching the match with other fans of their team.
D. Fans were more likely to recall positive features of their own team's performance.
74. What does the writer imply that Kilduff believes in paragraph 5?
A. Being made aware of the achievements of others can be disorientating.
B. Comparing our own achievements with a rival's can motivate us.
C. People who seek out information about their rivals on Facebook are likely to behave badly.
D. Feeling envious of the achievements of others is a natural reaction.
75. What conclusion does Kilduff come to about rivalry?
A. The margins between victory and defeat are bigger between rivals than between ordinary competitors.
B. In a competition situation, participants behaved in an unethical fashion.
C. Students who had confronted a rival showed more unscrupulous character traits.

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D. There was no evidence to show that students who competed against a rival exhibited worse behaviour than
those who did not.
Your answers
70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.
Part 4: You are going to read an extract from a book on human rights. Seven paragraphs have been
removed from the extract. Choose from the paragraphs A—H the one which fits each gap (76-82). There
is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.

VALUES FOR A GODLESS AGE

When the Berlin Wall came tumbling down in 1989 so did the plaster cast which had kept the idea of human
rights in limbo. It was now free to evolve in response to the changing conditions of the late twentieth
century.

76

Of course, in one sense, the quest for universal human rights standards after the Second World War was an
early attempt to communicate across national boundaries, albeit a rather faltering endeavour, with its claims to
universality challenged both in terms of authorship and content. More recently, a loosening of the reins of the
human rights dialogue has ushered in wider debate.

77

Perhaps the best known of these is Amnesty International, established in 1961. Before Amnesty, there were
very few organizations like it, yet now there are thousands operating all over the world. Whether campaigning
for the protection of the environment or third-world debt relief, any such organization is engaged in the
debate about fundamental human rights. And it is no longer just a soft sideshow.

78

The fact that strangers from different countries can communicate with each other through the worldwide web is
having a similar effect in dealing a blow to misinformation. During one recent major human rights trial over
sixty websites sprang up to cover the proceedings, while sales of the government-controlled newspaper in that
country plummeted.

79

The effect of increased responsibility at this highest level has been to continually extend the consideration of
who is legally liable, directly or indirectly, under international human rights law. In part, this is an
acknowledgement that even individuals need to be held responsible for flagrant breaches of others' rights,
whether these are preventing protesters from peacefully demonstrating or abusing the rights of children.

80

It has been noted that paradoxically, in such circumstances, it may be in the interests of human rights
organizations to seek to reinforce the legitimacy and authority of the state, within a regulated global framework.

81

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Part of the new trend in human rights thinking is therefore to include powerful private bodies within its
remit.The International Commission of Jurists has recently explored ways in which international human rights
standards could be directly applied to transnational corporations.

82

Whatever the way ahead, the lessons of the past must be learnt. Any world view or set of values which is
presented as self-evident is ultimately doomed to failure.The case for human rights always needs to be made
and remade. In a world where globalization too often seems like a modernized version of old-fashioned cultural
imperialism, it is important to query the claim that human rights are universally accepted.

A The problem is that the growth of globalization makes the protection of nation states a
pointless goal in certain circumstances. Transnational corporations with multiple subsidiaries
operating in a number of countries simultaneously wield significant economic and political
power and it is often extremely difficult for the state - both home and host governments
- to exercise effective legal control over them.

B If the proliferation of pressure groups has raised the profile of the human rights debate,
satellite television has reinforced much of the content of their campaigns. The fact that from
our armchairs we can all see live what is happening to others around the world has had an
enormous impact on the way the struggle for human rights is viewed. It would not be remotely
believable to plead ignorance nowadays, for 24-hour news coverage from the world's hotspots
reaches us all.

C This is, after all, a uniquely propitious time, as the values and language of human rights are
becoming familiar to more and more people, who judge the merits or otherwise of political
and economic decisions increasingly in human rights terms. Arguments seem fresh and
appealing in many quarters where once they sounded weak and stale.

D On a global scale, it is not strong states that are the problem here but weak ones, as
they fail to protect their citizens from private power-whether it is paramilitaries
committing murder and torture or transnational corporations spreading contamination
and pollution.

E One of the most significant of these is what has come to be called 'globalization', the
collapsing of national boundaries in economic, political and cultural life. From the expanding
role of the world's financial markets and the spread of transnational corporations to the
revolution in communications and information technology, more and more areas of people's
lives are affected by regional, international or transnational developments, whether they are
aware of this or not.

F Not only must states not infringe rights, and enforce those rights which fall within
their direct sphere (like providing a criminal justice system or holding fair elections), but
they also have 'positive obligations' to uphold rights enshrined in human rights treaties,
even when it is private parties which have violated them.

G The results of its investigations were published in 1999 in a unique pamphlet on


Globalization, Human Rights and the Rule of Law. The issue to be faced is whether to
treat these and other corporations as 'large para-state entities to be held accountable
under the same sort of regime as states', or whether to look for different approaches
to accountability 'that are promulgated by consumer groups and the corporations
themselves'.

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H No longer the preserve of representatives of nation states meeting under the auspices
of the United Nations, a developing conversation is taking place on a global scale and
involving a growing cast of people - for an increasing range of pressure groups now frame
their aspirations in human rights terms.

Your answers
76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82.

Part 5: For questions 83 to 95, read the article about the Megacities and do the tasks that follow.

UNLIKELY BOOMTOWNS: THE WORLD’S HOTTEST CITIES

Megacities like London, New York and Tokyo loom large in our imaginations. They are still associate with fortune,
fame and the future. They can dominate national economies and politics. The last fifty years has been their
era, as the number of cities with more than ten million people grew from two to twenty. But with all espect
to the science-fiction novelists who have envisioned a future of urban giants, their day is over. The typical
growth rate of the population within a megacity has slowed from more than eight per cent in the 1980s to
less than half that over the last five years, and numbers are expected to be static in the next quarter century.
Instead, the coming years will belong to a smaller, far humbler relation — the Second City. Within a few years,
more people will live in cities than in the countryside for the first time in human history. But increasingly, the
urban core itself is downsizing. Already, half the city dwellers in the world live in metropolises with fewer than
half-a-million residents. Second Cities — from exurbs, residential areas outside the suburbs of a town, to
regional centres — are booming. Between 2000 and 2015, the world's smallest cities (with under 500,000
people) will grow by 23 per cent, while the next smallest (one million to five million people) will grow by 27
per cent. This trend is the result of dramatic shifts including the global real-estate bubble; increasing
international migration; cheaper transport; new technologies, and the fact that the baby-boom generation
is reaching retirement age.

The emergence of Second Cities has flowed naturally (if unexpectedly) from the earlier success of the
megacities. In the 1990s, megacities boomed as global markets did. This was particularly true in areas with
high-tech or 'knowledge-based' industries like finance. Bonuses got bigger, bankers got richer and real-estate
prices in the world's most sought-after cities soared. The result has been the creation of what demographer
William Frey of the Washington-based Brookings Institute calls 'gated regions' in whi both the city and many
of the surrounding suburbs have become unaffordable for all but the very wealthy. 'Economically, after
a city reaches a certain size its productivity starts to fall,' notes Mai Pezzini, head of the regional-
competitiveness division of the OECD. He puts the tipping point at about six million people, after which costs,
travel times and the occasional chaos 'create a situation in which the centre of the city may be a great place,
but only for the rich, and the outlying areas become harder to live and work in'. One reaction to this
phenomenon is further sprawl — high prices in the urban core and tradition suburbs drive people to
distant exurbs with extreme commutes into big cities. As Frey notes, in the major US metropolitan areas,
average commuting times have doubled over the last fifteen years. Why does one town become a booming
Second City while another fails? The answer hinges whether a community has the wherewithal to exploit
the forces pushing people and businesses out of the megacities. One key is excellent transport links,
especially to the biggest commercial centre. Though barely a decade old, Goyang is South Korea's
fastest-growing city in part because it is 30 minutes by subway from Seoul.

Another growth driver for Second Cities is the decentralization of work, driven in large part by new
technologies. While more financial deals are done now in big capitals like New York and London than ever
before, it is also clear that plenty of booming service industries are leaving for 'Rising Urban Stars' like
Dubai, Montpellier and Cape Town. These places have not only improved their Internet backbones, but
often have technical institutes and universities that turn out the kinds of talent that populate growth industries.
Consider Montpellier, France, a case study in urban decentralization. Unntil the 1980s, it was like a big
Mediterranean village, but one with a strong university, many lovely villas and an IBM manufacturing base. Once
the high-speed train lines were built, Parisians began pouring in for weekend breaks. Some bought houses,
creating a critical mass of middle-class professionals who began taking advantage of flexible working systems
to do three days in Paris, and two down South, where things seemed less pressured. Soon, big companies
began looking at the area; a number of medical-technology and electronics firms came to town, and IBM
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put more investment into service businesses there. To cater to the incoming professionals, the city began
building amenities: opera house, a tram line to discourage cars in the city centre. The result, says French
urban-plann ing expert Nacima Baron, is that “the city is now full of cosmopolitan business people. It's a new
society”. All this means that Second Cities won't stay small. Indeed some countries are actively promoting their
growth. Italy, for example, is trying to create tourist hubs of towns close to each other with distinctive buildings
and offering different yet complementary cultural activities. Devolution of policymaking power is leaving
many lesser cities more free than ever to shape their destinies. To them all: this is your era. Don't blow it.

Questions 83 - 85:

Which THREE of the following statements are true of megacities, according to the text?

A. They tend to lead the way in terms of fashion.


B. Their population has ceased to expand.
C. They reached their peak in the second half of the twentieth century.
D. 50 percent of the world’s inhabitants now live in them.
E. They grew rich on the profits from manufacturing industry.
F. Their success begins to work against them at a certain stage.
G. It is no longer automatically advantageous to base a company there.

Questions 86 – 88:

The list below gives some possible reasons why small towns can turn into successful cities. Which
THREE of these reasons are mentioned by the writer of the text?

A. The existence of support services for foreign workers.


B. The provision of cheap housing for older people.
C. The creation of efficient access routes.
D. The ability to attract financial companies.
E. The expertise to keep up with electronic developments.
F. The maintenance of a special local atmosphere.
G. The willingness to imitate international-style architecture.

Questions 89 – 95
Complete the summary using the list of words A – R below; Write the correct letter, A – R, in the
space given.

URBAN DECENTRALISATION

It is becoming increasingly obvious that large numbers of (89)___________ are giving up their expensive
premises in the megacities and relocating to smaller cities like Montpellier. One of the attractions of Montellier
is the presence of a good (90)__________that can provide them with the necessary skilled workforce.

Another important factor for Montpellier was the arrival of visitors from the (91) ___________. The
introduction of the (92) ___________meant that increasing numbers were able to come for short stays. Of
these, a significant proportion decided to get a base in the city. The city council soon realised that they needed
to provide appropriate (93) ___________for their new inhabitants. In fact, the (94) ___________ among
them liked the more relaxed lifestyle so much that they took advantage of any (95) ___________
arrangements offered by their firms to spend more of the week in Montpellier.

A. urban centres B. finance companies C. flexible


D. tram line E. cosmopolitan F. service industries
G. capital H. high-speed train I. infrastructure
J. unskilled workers K. jobs L. medical - technology
M. professionals N. European Union O. amenities
P. middle-age Q. overtime R. university

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Your answers
83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89.
90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

IV. WRITING (60 POINTS)

Part 1: Read the following article on Insomnia and use your own words to summarise it. Your
summary should be between 100 and 120 words long. (15 points)
INSOMNIA – THE ENEMY OF SLEEP
It is not unusual to have sleep troubles from time to time. But, if you feel you do not get enough
sleep or satisfying sleep, you may have insomnia, a sleep disorder. People with insomnia have
one or more of the following: difficulty falling asleep, waking up often during the night and having trouble going back to
sleep, waking up too early in the morning and unrefreshing sleep. Insomnia is not defined by the number of hours you
sleep every night. The amount of sleep a person needs varies. While most people need between 7 and 8 hours of sleep a
night, some people do well with less, and some need more. Insomnia occurs most frequently in people over age 60, in
people with a history of depression, and in women, especially after menopause. Severe emotional trauma can also cause
insomnia with divorced, widowed and separated people being the most likely to suffer from this sleep disorder. Stress,
anxiety, illness and other sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome are the most common causes of insomnia. An
irregular work schedule, jet lag or brain damage from a stroke or Alzeimer’s disease can also cause insomnia as well as
excessive use of alcohol or illicit drugs. It can also accompany a variety of mental illnesses.
Not getting enough sleep can make you less productive, irritable and unable to concentrate. Lack of sleep can make it
seem as if you "got up out of the wrong side of the bed.” Early morning headaches and waking up feeling as if you never
went to sleep can result in frustration. Stress can cause insomnia but insomnia also increases stress. Insomnia can make
driving unsafe as well. Insomnia can result in missed work, which can cause you to become less productive and
miss promotions. It can leave you feeling as if you just can’t get enough done. Insomnia can also mask serious mental
disorders. People with insomnia may think that not getting enough sleep is their only problem, but the insomnia may
actually be one symptom of a larger disorder, such as depression. Studies show that people with insomnia are four times
more likely to be depressed than people with a healthy sleeping pattern. In addition, lack of sleep can tax the heart and
lead to serious conditions like heart disease. All of these are important problems that can affect every part of your life.

There are some ways to help people have a better sleep. Improving one’s sleep hygiene is the effective way to improve
insomnia in all patients. Relaxing during the hour before you go to sleep and creating a comfortable environment suited
for sleep can be helpful. Older people who wake up earlier than normal or have trouble falling asleep may need less sleep
than they used to. Changing one’s sleep pattern, either by going to bed later or waking up earlier, can be effective in
dealing with insomnia in older people. Therapy also depends on the cause and severity of the insomnia. Transient and
intermittent insomnia may not require any direct action since these conditions last only a few days at a time. However, if
insomnia interferes with a person’s daily activities, something should be done. Usually the best method of dealing with
insomnia is by attacking the underlying cause. For example, people who are depressed often have insomnia and looking
at this problem may eliminate it. Establishing certain set routines can also help insomniacs get better sleep. Examples of
these routines include: going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, avoiding napping, avoiding caffeine,
nicotine, alcohol and eating heavily late in the day, exercising regularly and making your bedroom comfortable in terms of
the bed, noise and temperature. Insomniacs should also only use their bedroom for sleep so that their bodies associate
the room with sleep. Finally, if you can’t get to sleep, don’t toss and turn all night. Get up and read or do something that
is not overly stimulating until you feel really sleepy again.
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Part 2: The charts below show information about the top five supermarkets in the UK. Summarise
the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant. (15 points)

Supermarkets - How the big five compare


Number of UK stores

Tesco Employees in UK: 200,000 119

Asada Employees in UK: 117,000 480

J. Sainbury Employees in UK: 174,000 463

Safeway Employees in UK: 92,000 258

Morrisons Employees in UK: 46,000 730

UK Market share, September 2016


26%
24.8 %

17% 16.2 %
10 %
6%

Others Tesco Asda J. Sainsbury Safeway Morrisons

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Part 3: Essay writing (30 points)

There is a fact that leaders in an organisation are normally old people. However, there is a
tendency that the young are holding the key positions in many organisations in our society.
Some people think younger leaders would be better. Do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
Write at least 350 words.

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