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COUNSELING AND ITS WORK SETTING

COUNSELORS IN SCHOOL
According to Gibson and Mitchell (2003), counselors and recognized especially in the
preventive interventions and developmental stage. The counselling service in school are
usually located under the Student. Affairs Program, under the supervision of the Dean of the
Student Affairs.
COUNSELORS IN COMMUNITY SETTING
This refers to employment in a community, agency, and other non-school professional
situations. Counselors in community and mental health agencies, employment and
rehabilitation agencies, correctional settings, and marriage and family practice (GIBSON
AND MITCHELL 2003).
COUNSELING IN THE PRIVATE SECTORS
This setting refers to the counselors who chose to do full time work as private practitioners or
engage in part-time private practice while employed by community agencies. This is possible
if the counselors’ expertise and specialization matches or relevant to a adequate client
population in the geographic area.
COUNSELING IN THE GOVERNMENT
Counselors are also present in various agencies of the government or institutions supported
by the government that are into social welfare, health and education. Relevant agencies or
institutions include public school, public hospitals, public social welfare agencies such as
that for the youth, the children and the aging,
COUNSELING AND ITS METHODS, PROCESSES AND TOOLS
PROCESS IN COUNSELING
THE SIX STAGES OF COUNSELING PROCESS9 (Nystul, 2003):
1. Stage One: Relationship Building
- Heart of counselling process because it provides the force and foundation for the
counselling to succeed. This involves establishing rapport, promote acceptance of
the client as a person with worth, establishing genuine interaction, promote direct
mutual communication, helping clients understand themselves, helping client to focus
and slowly promote counseling relevant communication from the client. (Tylus, 2003)

2. Stage Two: Assessment and Diagnosis


- One of the most crucial stages and serves as the window for the counselor to have a
thorough appreciation of the client’s condition. This entails analysis of the root
causes of the problem. The date that will be gathered in the diagnosis will be utilized
in the formulation of goals.

3. Stage Three: Formulation of Counseling Goals


- Goals are important as it sets the direction of the counseling process. Counseling
goals may be treated as a process goal (institute the circumstances needed to make
the counseling work progress which includes promoting a good relationship) or
outcome goal (stipulate the desire of the client in terms of counseling process).
COUNSELING AND ITS WORK SETTING

4.Stage Four: Intervention and Problem-Solving


- Interventions comprise of individual, group, couples and family counseling. The client’s
participation in choosing intervention strategies has more benefits. Cormier and Cormier
(1998) as cited by Tysul (2003) recommended some guidelines which will motivate client
participation. The guidelines include the following: (a) the counselor has to provide a
mapping of the different approaches offered, (b) describe the role of the counselor and client
for each procedure, (c) identify possible risks and benefits that may come and (d) estimate
the time and cost of each procedure. Problem-solving approach may be applied in the
counseling process. Kanfer and Busemeyer (1982) as cited in Tysul (2003), identified the
six-stage model for problem-solving: problem detection, problem definition, identification of
alternative solutions, decision-making, execution and verification.

5. Stage Five: Termination and Follow-Up


- the essential goal in counseling to witness a client progress on his/her own without the
assistance of the counselor. There are four components of termination which were identified
by Quintan and Holahan (1992) as cited in Tysul (2003):
a. Discussion of the end of counseling
b. Review of the course of counselling
c. Closure of the counselor-client relationship
d. Discussion of the client’s future and post-counseling plan.
These four components indicate that the client-counselor relationship must be ended aptly.
6. Stage Six: Research and Evaluation
- This stage can be undertaken at any point in the counseling stage. Research and
evaluation are fundamental part of the evaluation. Results of the research provide a scientific
appreciation of the counseling situation.

METHODS IN COUNSELING
- involve the theoretical orientations of counselors and their corresponding approaches
- the approaches to be studied which include psychoanalytical, affective, cognitive,
and behavioral
1. Classic Theories
A. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
- The approach of freud in counseling and psychotherapy is popularly known as
psychoanalysis which is an analysis of the mind.
- It focuses on personal adjustment through reorganization of internal forces within the
person to help him/her become aware if the unconscious (i.e., repressed memories)
aspects of his/her personality.
Psychoanalysis has 3 goals:
a. To help clients gain insights about themselves
b. To help clients work unstuck issues
c. To help clients cope with the stresses of the society.
B. Adler’s Individual Psychology
- Its objective is to gain understanding of the clients and assess why clients behave
and think in certain ways.
COUNSELING AND ITS WORK SETTING

Alderian counseling focuses on 4 goals:


a. Establishment and maintenance of an egalitarian relationship.
b. Analysis of client’s lifestyle
c. Interpretation of client’s lifestyle in a way that promotes insight.
d. Reorientation and reeducation of the client with accompanying behavior change.

C. Jung’s Analytic Psychology


- The approach applies dreams and other procedures to determine the unconscious
processes to utilize the result to boost the functioning of personality and to enhance
mental health and wellness
- Counselors help the client appreciate the meaning of the dreams and utilize them to
understand more the client’s personality.

2. Experiential Theories
- The experiential theories fall under the affective theories which are concerned about
generating impact on the emotions of clients to affect change.

The well-known experiential theorists


a. Roger’s Person –Centered Counseling
-the Person-Centered Theory has been described as “if-then” approach because this
approach considers that if certain conditions exist in the counseling relationship, then
the client will move toward self-actualization.
-Manifestation that the client is ready to move toward self-actualization include:
openness to experience, self-trust, possesses internal source of evaluation, and
willingness to grow.
b. Perls Gestalt Therapy

- Gestalt’s counseling approach focuses on the here and now (Yontef’s and Jacob,
2000 as cited by Tysul, 2003). Refers to a dialogue between the therapist and the client
wherein the client experiences from the inside what the therapist observes from the outside (
Yontey and Simkin, 1999 as cted by Tysul, 2003).

3. Cognitive- Behavioral Theories: Rational Emotive Behavior and Transaction


Analysis
- the cognitive-behavioral theories highlight the task of cognition in psychological
functioning. According to Holden (1993) as cited by Gladding (2000), cognitions are
thoughts, beliefs, and internal images about events in their lives.
a. Ellis’s Rational Emotive Therapy
- this theory highlights the role of cognitions on emotions with the assertion that persons can
be best appreciated in terms of internal cognitive dialogue or self-talk.
b. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
- Cognitive Therapy highlights the vitality off cognitive thinking particularly dysfunctional
thoughts.
c. Berne’s Transactional Analysis
- the Transaction Analysis (TA) approach refers to examining and dissecting transactions
between people. It includes evaluating the “three ego state of parent, adult, and child of each
person”.
COUNSELING AND ITS WORK SETTING
COUNSELING AND ITS WORK SETTING
COUNSELING AND ITS WORK SETTING