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the leading electrical & electronics monthly

VOLUME 9 z ISSUE NO. 9 z MAY 2018 z PGS. 1 ! ISSN 0970-2946 z Rs. 100/-

Beyond Short Circuits
Cover Story
Electrical Fire Safety in Residential
Expert Speak
Electrical Fires - Beyond Short Circuits
Special Report
Safety Audit to Identify Potential
Hazards in Industrial Operations
Lightning Protection & Earthing System
in Commercial & Industrial Buildings
Guest Article
Short Circuit Current Enhancement
for Disconnectors
In Depth
Cause of Fire and to Prevent Fire in
Electrical Installations in Residential
Buildings and Industrial Plants
As Per BS7671:2008 and IEC Standards 60364

View Point
Electrical Fire Safety - An 0ver View
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May 2018 5
From the President’s Desk

Dear Friends,

Electricity is essential to modern life, both at home and on the job. It has become
such a familiar part of our daily life. However, we tend to overlook the hazards
electricity poses and fail to treat it with the respect it deserves. In the Indian
scenario, data shows that the majority of industrial disasters and commercial
or household fires are a result of electrical short circuits. These electrical short
circuits cause fires in the electrical appliances or electrical fittings, which rapidly
spread through flames via the connecting electrical wires to the surrounding
rooms or halls and combustible furniture, etc.
The increased standard of living of an average Indian house hold with the
economic growth has also increased our dependence on electricity in our day to
day life. This also means a typical household has more electrical appliances today
than ever before. Also, the common trend in urban India is high rise residential
construction with the increase in density of population per square foot area.
Considering these facts, it’s important for us to give the electrical wiring its due
attention and follow safe wiring practices to avoid fire accidents.
It may be observed that unsafe conditions prevails in many houses and work
places. Similarly, many of us, one way or other neglect safe practices which
could end up in many electrical accidents. Safe conditions and safe practices
are a prerequisite for reducing electrical accidents.
Section (9) of the National Electrical Code is primarily intended to cover guidelines
on essential design and constructional requirements of wiring installations which
are commonly applicable to all types of occupancies. To make people aware more
about the aspects of electrical fire safety, IEEMA is organizing a electrical Fire
Safety conclave on 29th June, 2018 at ITC Maratha Hotel in Mumbai. I request
your support to make this conclave a huge success.

Shreegopal Kabra

6 May 2018

Dear Members,
The May 2018 issue of IEEMA Journal is focusing on Electrical Fire Safety where
we have experts from the industry talking about various aspects of fire safety.
The recent changes in the governing regulatory and technical standards for
insulated electrical cable and cords used in homes and offices and electrification
are meant to ensure better quality and capacity to withstand higher flames.
Despite regulatory standards being in place, it is felt that the compliance to
the standards should be tightened.
Timely safety audit of buildings and industrial premises which can help eliminate
the risk of fire to a large extent. Safety Audit is a systematic critical examination
of an industrial operation in its entirety to identify potential hazards and levels
of risk. In other words, it is a study aimed to detect any dangers which might
be present in an industrial operation.
It subjects each area of a company activity to a systematic critical examination
with the object of minimising loss. It aims to disclose the strengths and the
weaknesses, the main areas of vulnerability or risk. It is a practical procedure
whereby a workplace and the processes carried on therein, are examined
with a view to ascertain what hazard to health and safety may be in existence.
It is a useful technique to test the effectiveness of a company’s safety
programme. Hence, ‘Safety Audit’ is a form of risk analysis and evaluation in
which a systematic investigation is carried out in order to determine the extent
to which the conditions are present that provide for the development and
implementation of an effective and efficient safety policy, and adopt measures
to mitigate the risk from fire.

Sunil Misra

May 2018 7
Bureaucratic rejig at Centre and managing director for the past eight months since
Sutirtha Bhattacharya retired in August. Kumar replaces
Senior bureaucrat Tripti Patra Ghosh has been
Gopal Singh, who was brought in from Central Coalfields
appointed the CMD of state-owned SPMCIL, which
Ltd, a subsidiary where he was the chairman.
produces banknotes and coins among others, as part of
a mid-level bureaucratic reshuffle effected by the central
Mr Pradip Kumar Mishra appointed as new
Director (Commercial) of NALCO
Ghosh, a 1994-batch officer of Indian Cost Accounts Search Mr Pradip Kumar Mishra appointed as new
Service (ICAS), has been appointed to the post for a Director (Commercial) of NALCOMr Pradip Kumar Mishra
tenure of five ye ars, according to an order issued by the took charge as the new Director of National Aluminium
Ministry of Personnel. Company Limited on 23 April. Prior to this assignment,
he was with Steel Authority of India Limited as Executive
The Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India
Director. A postgraduate in English literature from Utkal
Limited (SPMCIL) is under the administrative control of
University, Mishra started his professional career as
the Finance Ministry.
a Management Trainee in SAIL in the year 1983. He
IAS officer Arvind Shrivastava has been appointed Joint brings along rich and varied experiences in the field of
Secretary (JS) in the Department of Economic Affairs for marketing management. During his 35-year stint in SAIL,
five years, it said. lg the Regional Manager in three regions of SAIL.

Shefali Juneja will be JS in the Ministry of Civil Aviation. Tata Power appoints Praveer Sinha as CEO
Juneja, an Indian Revenue Service (Income Tax cadre)
Tata Power has announced the appointment of Praveer
officer, is at present a Director in the same ministry.
Sinha as the new Chief Executive Officer and Managing
Forest service officer Pravin Laxminarayan Agrawal Director with effect from May 1. This comes after the
has been appointed Joint Secretary in the Department resignation of Anil Sardana as the chief of Tata Power
of Heavy Industry in place of Bhaskar Jyoti Mahanta, citing personal reasons.
who has been sent back to his cadre states of Sinha is currently the CEO & Managing Director of
Assam-Meghalaya before completion of his tenure, the Tata Power Delhi Distribution Ltd. Sinha has over three
order said. decades of experience in the power sector and has
IRS officer Nirupama Kotru has been named Joint been credited with transforming the power distribution
Secretary in the Ministry of Culture. sector and development and setting up of greenfield and
brownfield power plants in India and abroad.
Prashanth Kumar Balsavar will be Managing Director
and Chief Executive Officer of India International Vijay Goel appointed Director, THDCIL
Convention and Exhibition Centre Limited under the Vijay Goel has been appointed as Personnel Director in
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. Balsavar, the THDC India Limited for a period of five years. Goel
a 1991-batch officer of Indian Railway Traffic Service, was earlier serving as General Manager in the THDCIL.
has been appointed to the post for a tenure of five years,
it said.
Additional coal secretary Suresh Kumar
appointed CIL CMD
Post: Director (Finance)
The union coal ministry has appointed additional coal
secretary Suresh Kumar chairman and managing director Applications are invited for the post of Finance Director
of Coal India Ltd (CIL). The state-owned miner announced in the Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited. The last date for
in a regulatory filing. CIL has not had a full-time chairman submission of applications is January 1, 2020.

8 May 2018
May 2018 9

the leading electrical & electronics monthly

Volume 9 Issue No. 09 May 2018 CIN U99999MH1970GAP014629

Official Organ of Indian Electrical & Electronics Manufacturers’ Association
Member: Audit Bureau of Circulation & The Indian Newspaper Society

6 14
From the President’s


This new space in the IEEMA
Journal will incorporate recent
important appointments in the
power and related sectors

Cover Story
Electrical Fire Safety in
20 34
Residential Building
Every year fire occurs in millions
Interview In Focus
of houses causing loss of lifes and The man with a passion K-Class Dielectric Fluids
properties. This phenomenon is not for fire safety: eliminates Fire Hazards
only in India, but these are happening Mr Milindkumar V Deshmukh in Power and Distribution
across the globe. It is estimated that
50% of all the fire in houses are due to
Electricity. In India every year 25000
people die due to fire, 65% of those Special Report
due to Electrical fire. The causes of
Safety Audit to Identify
electrical fire are many. It could be
Potential Hazards in
due to ignorance and negligence
of house owner, it could be due
Industrial Operations
to improper wiring installation, or The audit normally refers to checking
it may be due to old wiring being of financial status of the company. The risk of fire in substations
subjected to overheating by adding Though the word ‘Audit’ has has been historically low, but the
increasingly electrical gadgets. It traditionally been associated with possible impacts of a fire can be
could be due to spurious electrical financial accounting procedures, catastrophic. Fires in substations
product of Commerce and Industry, since 80’s it has come into common can severely impact the supply of
Shri Suresh Prabhu; and eminent usage in India in the field of power to customers and the power
industrial safety, industrial health,
industry veterans who spoke pearls utility revenue and assets. These
and environmental health and so on.
of wisdom to encourage the industry fires can also create a fire hazard
to look at renewable and smart to utility personnel, emergency
solutions for the electrical sector. personnel, and the general public.

10 May 2018

38 62
In Depth
Cause of Fire and to “Prevent
Fire” in Electrical Installations
in Resident Buildings and
Industrial Plants as per
Bs7671:2008 and IEC
Standards 60364

Electric Fire at Cinevista Film Studio 68 74

was completely destroyed at Kanju
Mumbai. January 6, 2018. Expert speak Opinion
Electric Fire at RK Film Studio was Electrical Fires – Beyond Ensuring Safer Wiring for
completely destroyed on September Short Circuits Safer Homes
16, 2017.
The increased standard of living
of an average Indian house hold
57 with the economic growth has also
increased our dependence on
Solutions electricity in our day to day life. This
Lightning Protection & Earthing also means a typical household has
System in Commercial & more electrical appliances today
Industrial Buildings We use electricity knowing that it is than ever before. Also, the common
dangerous. We feel safe, because trend in urban India is high rise
Lightning Protection of structures residential construction with the
are being done in 2 ways, both we have installed protection devices
such as circuit breakers and fuses. increase in density of population per
confirming the Indian Standards. square foot area.
The first method is isolated We assume that it ought to disrupt
protection (for convenience called power in case of risk to human life or
as conventional method) and the property. We trust these protection 80
second one is to use the naturally systems with our lives.
available steel in buildings as parts Insight
of LPS such as down conductor and No Cost Is Higher than Cost
earthing (for convenience called as
of Fire
structural earthing). Viewpoint
Electrical Fire Safety –
62 74
An Overview
Guest Article
Short Circuit Current
Enhancement for
The increased standard of living
Disconnectors of an average Indian house hold
Disconnector is one of the with the economic growth has also
equipments of electrical substation increased our dependence on
which was designed in an early day electricity in our day to day life. This
of electrical power transmission In recent days there are major fires also means a typical household has
and distribution system evoluation. more electrical appliances today
taking place in Urban Areas and
However, like any other T & D than ever before. Also, the common
system component, several design Mega cities. Many Public programs, trend in urban India is high rise
of the disconnector (also known as Entertainment shows and High residential construction with the
Isolator) was evolved as situation Rise Buildings are catching fire increase in density of population per
demands. because of various reasons. square foot area.

May 2018 11

Editorial Board
86 96
Advisory Committee

Thoughts Power Scenario Founder Chairman

Mr R G Keswani
Mr Shreegopal Kabra
Measures to Prevent Global Scenario Members
Mr Sunil Misra
Electrical Fire in Home, Indian Scenario Mr Naveen Kumar
Sub Editor
Offices and Commercial Mr Mustafa Wajid
Mr Vikram Gandotra
Ms Shalini Singh
Complex 98 Mr Vijay Karia
Mr Sunil Singhvi
Electricity is essential to modern IEEMA Database Advertisements Circulation
Incharge Incharge
life, both at home and on the job. Mr Gautam Sakhalkar Ms Chitra Tamhankar
It has become such a familiar part Basic Prices & Indices
Designed by:
of our daily life. However, we tend Production Statistics Statistics & Data
Processed at:
Mr Ninad Ranade
to overlook the hazards electricity India Printing Works
poses and fail to treat it with the 100 Regd Office - Mumbai
respect it deserves. Electricity is 501, Kakad Chambers, 132, Dr A Besant Road,

often referred to as a “silent killer”, IEEMA Activities Worli, Mumbai 400 018.
Phones: +91(0) 22 24930532 / 6528
because it cannot be tasted, seen, Fax: +91(0) 22 2493 2705
heard, or smelled.
102 Corporate Office - New Delhi
Rishyamook Building, First floor,

90 Index to Advertisers 85 A, Panchkuian Road, New Delhi 110001.Phones:

+91 (0) 11-23363013, 14, 16
Fax: +91 (0) 11-23363015
International News 103
Branch Office - Bengaluru
SBI to invest Rs 8,000 crore in
204, Swiss Complex, 33, Race Course Road, Benga-
900 Mw hydro power project in Product Showcase luru 560 001.
Nepal Phones: +91 (0) 80 2220 1316 / 1318
Fax: +91 (0) 80 220 1317
104 Email:
92 Branch Office - Kolkata
SME focus 503 A, Oswal Chambers,
National News 2, Church Lane, Kolkata 700 001.
Phones: +91 (0) 33 2213 1326
NTPC achieves 53,000 MW of Fax: +91 (0) 33 2213 1326
commissioned capacity 105 Email:

94 Articles: Technical data presented and views expressed
by authors of articles are their own and IEEMA does
not assume any responsibility for the same. IEEMA
Corporate News 110 Journal owns copyright for original articles published
in IEEMA Journal.
Vedanta Chairman Commits to

Ramp up Zambia Operations Shocks & Sparks Representatives:
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For subscription queries write to:

Edited, Printed and published by Mr Sunil Kumar Misra on behalf of Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers’ Association, and Printed at India Printing Works,
India Printing House, 42, G. D. Ambekar Road, Wadala, Mumbai 400 031 and Published at 501, Kakad Chambers,132, Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli, Mumbai 400 018.

12 May 2018


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May 2018 13

very year fire occurs in millions of houses causing Faulty socket outlets:
E loss of lifes and properties. This phenomenon is
not only in India, but these are happening across the
Faulty socket outlets cause most electrical fires.

globe. It is estimated that 50% of all the fire in houses Over loaded socket outlets:
are due to Electricity. Too many plugs connected to one socket will give rise
In India every year 25000 people die due to fire, 65% of to situation like improper connection, loose connection,
those due to Electrical fire. arcing etc, for causing fire.

The European Fire Academy estimates that the 2,250,000 Old and outdated appliances
fires (total number of fires) that occur in Europe each Fires are started by faults in appliance cords. Never use
year represent more than 4,000 deaths and 100,000 an appliance with a worn or frayed cable cord.
injuries. The buildings involved are residential buildings
Misuse of extension board
in more than 80 % of cases. Electricity is a very regularly
identified cause of domestic fires In modern world, Misuse of extension board is another cause of Electrical
electricity has become an integral part of our life. Today fire. Whenever there is a shortage of socket outlets at
we cannot imagine life without electricity in our daily life. home, someone will go down to a small electrical shop
Ever increasing demand of electrical power is coming and buy one extension board, with unknown quality
from introduction of newer and newer electrical gadgets and capacity to carry current. Not only the extension
to make our daily life more comfortable. This demand board would become a permanent feature, people add
unfortunately is bringing danger of both electrocution connection from one extension board to another board
and fire in our own home. and connect to high power equipment. Extension board
( should be used only for a temporary measure.
Mobile battery charger
Cause of electrical fire in residential building
When an original battery charger is lost, people buy a
The causes of electrical fire are many. It could be due cheap duplicate battery charger which often catches
to ignorance and negligence of house owner, it could fire. Many serious fire accidents occurred when people
be due to improper wiring installation, or it may be keep mobile phone on charging mode on bed while
due to old wiring being subjected to overheating by sleeping at night.
adding increasingly electrical gadgets. It could be due
to spurious electrical product. Following are the causes
of fire in the house.
Wiring installation
The concept of proper wiring installation as per CEA
Common mistake by house owner Safety regulation and NEC 2011, is not there even in
Normally most of the time electricity user are unskilled electrical contractors in big cities. Most of the small and
house wife and children. Knowledge of causes of medium size houses including society buildings will
electric fire could help prevent them. lack proper Earthing, MCB with inadequate capacity,

14 May 2018
May 2018 15

low quality conductor, combination all these ultimately 3) Provide protection against fire due to arc fault.
results into fire. Even in large society building concept 4) Provide protection devices along with Surge
of automatic disconnection through low impedance Protection Device as the end of life of SPD, it
of earth fault loop is unknown. 30 mA RCD, though creates short-circuit and if backup protection is
mandatory by CEA regulation, is not provided by 95% not provided- fire will take place.
electrical contractors.
Switchboard - So far Indian standard for Switchboard
Outdated wiring IS 8623 was very old. Fortunately, BIS has just
Outdated wiring often causes electrical fires. A house published IS/IEC 61947-2. For any large, complex, and
which was built 25 years back, might not have enough high-rise building Switchboard must be manufactured
capacity to handle the increased amounts of electrical as per IS/IEC 61947-2. This will ensure quality, reliability
load. People use lot of appliances like TV, Fridge, Micro and no risk of fire and explosion in the switchboard.
oven, even in a small house. Also locking of Switchboard door is important as lizard
or rodent can enter the panel leading to short-circuit
Fuse links in many old houses and fire.
Many old housed may still have Fuse links as over load
Bus-trunking – It is imperative that any high-rise
and short-circuit protection which are easily tampered building should use Bus trunking system. BIS is in the
with higher capacity fuse. As a result, it will not provide process of issuing IS/IEC 61439-6 for Bus-Trunking.
protection when conductors are over heated due to
excessive current and fire occurs. Conductor quality - Both size and quality of conductor
play a very important role.
Aluminium wire for household wiring
Neutral conductor – Size of Neutral conductor needs
In early 2000, Electrical wiring was done in many old
to be ascertained because of 3rd harmonic current
houses with Aluminium.
due to use of LED bulb, Computer & other electronic
Aluminium easily corrodes and aluminium oxide being equipment. Loose or floating Neutral cause excessive
nonconductive leads to fire due to hotspot and arc at heating in the circuit.
the connection point.
Inadequate skill of wireman Protection against fire due to Leakage
Many small houses, electrical wirings are carried out current: 300 mA RCD
by electricians who are not adequately skilled to carry
out proper wiring installation to cater for modern day
demand of high power electrical gadgets for an average
household. This results in frequent fire accident.
Low quality wires and cables
Low quality insulation and inferior conductor are often
causes of electrical fire. The problem compounds when
such cables are used as concealed wiring. It becomes
a hidden danger.

Electrical fire in modern large, complex and Whenever there is a damage or degradation of
high-rise building insulation of old cables in a distribution box, a small
leakage current flows during rainy season. The driest
While this paper has so far discussed common cause
part creates a spark on the surface. During summer,
of electrical fire due to negligence of house owners and
leakage current stops flowing. In next wet season, the
inadequate skill of wiremen, yet almost every day there leakage current again start flowing, on the way convert
are news of fire in the new and modern large buildings a dart into carbon by spark. The center of the spark
in Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore. is very hot, approx. 1000 Degree centigrade. With the
Let’s revisit Causes of fires of electrical origin. Electrical help of carbon, every cycle, leakage current increases,
fires are caused not only by overloads, short circuits, meets more dirt on the way, more sparks occur. This
and earth leakage currents, but also by electric arcs in process continues till the carbon is sufficient enough to
cables and connections. induce a flame. A single flame in a favorable condition
can bring disastrous consequences. Laboratory
To prevent electrical fire, one needs to focus on experiment shows that leakage current above 250 mA
following becomes real danger for fire.
1) Switchboard, Bus-trunking, quality of conductor,
NEC 2011, NBC 2016 and IS 732 recommend use
Neutral conductor etc of 300mA RCD for protection against fire in
2) Provide protection against fire due Leakage building. All Developed countries have made 300 mA
current and RCD mandatory.

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Protection against fire due to Arc: ARC Fault

Detection Device (AFDD)
When a cable is locally damaged or an electrical
connection comes loose, there are two phenomena
which can initiate a fire due to an arc:
Carbonization (see Fig. A):
Whenever a conductor is damaged or a connection
is not properly tightened, a localized hot spot occurs
which carbonizes the insulating materials in the vicinity
of that conductor. Carbon being a conductive material,
it enables flow of the current which become excessive
at various points.
Since the carbon is deposited in a non-homogeneous
manner, the currents which pass through it generate
electric arcs to facilitate their paths. Then each arc
amplifies carbonization of the insulating materials,
a reaction thus occurs which is maintained until the
quantity of carbon is high enough for an arc to inflame 2013, the IEC 62606 international standard defines
it spontaneously. Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDDs) which detect the
presence of dangerous Arc.
Resistive Short Circuit (see Fig. B):
Whenever the insulating materials between two live IEC 60364-4-42 recommend use of AFDD in premises
conductors are damaged, a significant current can with sleeping accommodations, in fire propagating
be established between the two conductors, but it structures of High Rise Building, in locations with
is too weak to be considered as a short circuit by a endangering of irreplaceable goods.
circuit breaker, and is undetectable by residual current BIS ET 20 committee is taking initiative to introduce
protective devices as this current does not go to earth. AFDD for critical areas like High-Rise building.
When passing through these insulating materials, these
leakage currents optimize their paths by generating
arcs which gradually transform the insulating materials Conclusion
into carbon. 1. Fire in residential buildings in India is a very
The insulating materials thus carbonized then amplify serious issue. Not only old small houses even
the current leak between the two conductors. Thus, a new and latest large buildings are having fire
new chain reaction occurs, amplifying the quantity of accident, causing both loss of life and property.
arc current and carbon until the first flame appears from 2. Many Electrical fires in houses, small or big, can
the carbon lit by one of the arcs. be avoided by awareness programme for house
owners and house wife.
The common feature of these phenomena is ignition of
3. Skill development programme for unskilled
the fire by arcs which inflame the carbon, that is why
wiremen across country necessary, particularly in
detection of the presence of arcs is one way to prevent
small cities.
them from turning into a disaster. Residual current
devices do not detect these dangerous electric arcs nor 4. Survey should be conducted for millions of old
the circuit breakers or fuses. houses in A, B and C cities across India. IEEMA
could take such survey or urge Government to do
so and prepare a white paper. Many countries are
preparing such white papers.
5. Along with verification of the new buildings, we
must inspect and reverify the old buildings. „

Amitabha Sarkar
Fig. A: Carbonization Fig. B: Resistive short circuit Engineering Graduate & have more than 45 Years of
experience in Electrical field. Mr Sarkar is member of many
ET committees, namely ET 07, ET 20, and ET 50 of BIS. He
Arc fault detection device (AFDD) was in technical committee of NBC 2016-part 8 section
The arc fault detector technology makes it possible to 2 on Electrical and Allied installation. He was involved in
preparation of NEC 2011 and IS 732 (now under printing). At
detect dangerous arcs and thus protect installations. present he is the convener of technical committee of NEC
Such devices have been deployed successfully in the revision work. He is past Chairman of IEEMA Switchgear
United States since the early 2000s, and their installation Division. Last five years he is regularly conducting seminar on
is required by the National Electric Code (USA). Since Electrical Safety across India in association with ICAI.

18 May 2018
May 2018 19

have numerous number of air conditioners, ovens and

all modern equipments which the old electrification
systems do not support; thus cases of short circuit
occurs as the cables used in these old buildings cannot
take the load & are not fire safe.
Similarly in case of industries, the new Commercial and
industrial premises have many types of fire protection
systems and equipment. These are for the most part,
provided to meet the mandatory life safety measures
required by law.
While old industries have two problems, firstly the
entrepreneur has to suffer so many issues and secondly
the buildings are old with no proper refurbishments
and proper maintenance and it is not always electricity
which is the culprit ,there are other issues like that of
unskilled labour, as they are not fully trained to use
safety measures during work.
Talking about the new buildings there is no doubt they
are following the rules and are built keeping in mind
all safety measures, but due to our exposure with the
dŚĞŵĂŶǁŝƚŚĂƉĂƐƐŝŽŶ western culture we are building homes matching to their
culture with a lot of synthetic fibers, from the curtains to
ĨŽƌĮƌĞƐĂĨĞƚLJ the couch to even the coffee table which makes them
very unsafe. Glass facades abroad help in admitting
DƌDŝůŝŶĚŬƵŵĂƌsĞƐŚŵƵŬŚ the limited sunlight in western countries . Here they put
a huge burden for air conditioning on the overloaded
Mr M V Deshmukh started his career as a electrical grids and create fire traps.
&ŝƌĞ KĸĐĞƌ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ LJĞĂƌ ϭϵϳϵ͘ /ŶŝƟĂůůLJ ĨŽƌ ϭϵ LJĞĂƌƐ
ŚĞǁŽƌŬĞĚŝŶƚŚĞ/ŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĞůƚƐǁŚĞƌĞŝŶŚĞŵŝĐĂů͕ Fire Safety Risk Audit is found to be an effective tool
for assessing fire Safety standards of an organization or
an occupancy. In other words, it is aimed to assess the
building for compliance with the National Building Code
of India, relevant Indian Standards and the legislations
enacted by State Governments and Local Bodies, on
Ă ͚&ŝƌĞ ĚǀŝƐĞƌ ƚŽ 'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ DĂŚĂƌĂƐŚƚƌĂ͛ ŝŶ fire prevention, fire protection and life safety measures.
He opined, “There are two types of assessment one is
/Ŷ ƚŚĞ LJĞĂƌ͕ ϮϬϬϱ ŚĞ ǁĂƐ ĂƉƉŽŝŶƚĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ consolidated fire audit of the building where you check
ĂƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚ ʹ ŝƌĞĐƚŽƌ͕ DĂŚĂƌĂƐŚƚƌĂ &ŝƌĞ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ and record the gaps in the audit. This type of fire audit
'Žǀƚ͘ ŽĨ DĂŚĂƌĂƐŚƚƌĂ͘ ƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJ ŚĞ ŝƐ ƐĞƌǀŝŶŐ ĂƐ should be undertaken once in a three years and this
WƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚ͕ EĂƟŽŶĂů ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ &ŝƌĞ ŽĸĐĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ audit should include the life safety measures also.
The second type of audit is secondary audit where
Dƌ͘ ĞƐŚŵƵŬŚ ƐƉĂƌĞĚ ŚŝƐ ƟŵĞ ĨŽƌ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁ we recommend three things which are also now
ǁŝƚŚ/DĨŽƌĂŶŝŶƐŝŐŚƚĂďŽƵƚĮƌĞƐĂĨĞƚLJĂŶĚŚŝƐ statutory requirements of the Maharashtra Government.
DŝƐƐŝŽŶĨŽƌĂ&ŝƌĞ^ĂĨĞ/ŶĚŝĂ͘ The fire detection system, suppression and passive
fire protection system should be checked by all the
buildings once in every six months.

n being asked about the primary reason for The statutory authorities insist for fire safety inspections
O the increasing number of fire these days, Mr
Deshmukh said, “There are umpteen number of old
by external agencies depending on the type of activity
and the nature of the materials handled in the building.
buildings in the country including in Maharashtra. The Maharashtra Fire Prevention and Life Safety Measures
electrification in these old buildings is designed for a Rules, 2009, made it mandatory for building owners
specific load i.e. few tubelights, fans, refrigerator and and residents to have the Licensed Agencies conduct
some other small appliances, nowhere you will find a half-yearly fire safety inspections and submit the report
three phase connection but these days all the buildings to the fire department.”

20 May 2018

The fire safety inspection can address the inherent fire India, and thousands are under construction. Because
hazards associated with the day to day activities in an of its peculiar nature, fire in residential buildings, and
occupancy and recommend measures to reduce the particularly in high rise buildings become more complex
potential fire hazards, there is no clear cut provisions and the salvaging operations become more difficult and
in any of the safety legislations in India regarding the sometimes even resulting in many fatalities and huge
scope, objectives, methodology and periodicity of a property losses.”
fire safety audit. The use of smoke detectors, fire alarms, automatic
Asked about how buildings can be made fire resilient? sprinklers, water mist systems, clean agent suppression
He responded, “There are three stages the first one system, should be encouraged, especially in high rise
being the basic structure of the building and the buildings. Passive fire protection systems as they are
materials used during construction. Second, adequate known play a major role in fire protection. Thus proper
supply of water in the premises and the third is open attention must be paid to minimize fire loss in residential
space and occupant load in the building. A small fire in or commercial buildings.
a residential building may spread very fast and within Most persons when buying a new home check about the
a few minutes it can reach a stage beyond the control facilities like gym, club, garden and aesthetics. Few care
of its occupants and ultimately need the help of fire to check whether the building is Firesafe compliant ,has
brigade to carry out a major firefighting operation. sprinkler systems, firealarm systems. Hence , making
the common man aware of this is the first objective; as
During the last one decade there was a vibrant growth
they in turn will then ensure that builders focus on this
in the construction activities in India, especially in
fire safety measures and offer them.„
High Rise buildings. Thousands of High Rise buildings
are already constructed in metros and major cities in - Shalini Singh



/ϲϭϬϭϬͲϭ /ϲϭϬϭϬͲϭ /ϲϭϬϭϬͲϭ

d/sϯϬϬs d/sϯϬϬs d///ϯϬϬs

22 May 2018

he audit normally refers to checking of financial What is Safety Audit

T status of the company. Though the word ‘Audit’ has
traditionally been associated with financial accounting
Safety Audit is a systematic critical examination of an
industrial operation in its entirety to identify potential
procedures, since 80’s it has come into common usage
hazards and levels of risk. In other words, it is a study
in India in the field of industrial safety, industrial health,
aimed to detect any dangers which might be present
and environmental health and so on. The term ‘Safety
in an industrial operation. It subjects each area of a
Audit’ is commonly found within the safety jargon.
company activity to a systematic critical examination
However, its full meaning, as well as the practical
with the object of minimising loss. It aims to disclose
implications, of the term are not fully appreciated.
the strengths and the weaknesses, the main areas of
It is now recognised that accidents arising from vulnerability or risk. It is a practical procedure whereby
unsuspected risks can result not only in injuries to a workplace and the processes carried on therein,
employees and damage to plant and machinery, but are examined with a view to ascertain what hazard to
also can have far reaching effects on the commercial health and safety may be in existence. It is a useful
viability of a company. Almost always, as an aftermath technique to test the effectiveness of a company’s
of such accidents, resources of manpower and money safety programme. Hence, ‘Safety Audit’ is a form of
are made available to determine causes and implement risk analysis and evaluation in which a systematic
remedial action to prevent a recurrence. It may be investigation is carried out in order to determine the
pointed out here that if the same resources were extent to which the conditions are present that provide
utilised for the purpose of identifying the potential risks for the development and implementation of an effective
and eliminating them before incidents occur, reliability and efficient safety policy.
and profitability of the company would be increased.
Everyone who is, in a way concerned with occupational Why Safety Audit
safety and health would agree that it is essential to
perform ‘Safety Audits’ of a workplace in order to detect We must have a method, which will give a reasonable
indication of how well a company’s safety programme
any dangers which might be present there.
is working, in all its aspects, i.e., how hazards are being
Safety Audits can be carried out for determining the recognised and controlled, how unsafe acts are being
overall status of safety, health, and environment of an eliminated and how accidents are being avoided. It
organisation. It can also be conducted for determining may be reminded here that injury frequency, cost of
the performance of a specific activity, for example: accidents, loss due to fire and explosions, number
Preventive Maintenance (engineering department), and types of injuries, etc. are not always related to the
Laboratory Inspection and Testing (product quality), quality of an employer’s safety effort. What is needed,
Environment Audit (gaseous, liquid, and solid), Energy therefore, is a method, which will give a reasonable
Audit (electrical, fuel), Fire Safety Audit, Building Safety indication of how well a company’s safety programme
Audit, Hospital Safety Audit, etc. is working in all its aspects and how potential

24 May 2018

accidents are being avoided without using only failures safety activities, the need for the systematic study
as a yardstick. as visualised in a Safety Audit Report becomes
very vital. The major objective of a safety audit is to
Safety Audit and Inspection determine the effectiveness of the company’s safety
and loss prevention measures. The objectives can be
It was not until 1972, with the publication of the Robens stated as under:
Committee Report in U.K. that the value of the safety
audit became really apparent. In examining the role h To carry out systematic critical appraisal of all
of management, the report discussed methods for potential hazards involving personnel, plant,
the control of safety emphasising: “Safety audits in services and operation methods.
which each aspect of workplace organisation and h To ensure that occupational health and safety
operation is subjected to a carefully planned and standards fully satisfy the legal requirements
comprehensive safety examination”. The difference
and those of the company’s written policies,
between inspections and audits then began to emerge
objectives and programmes.
and these techniques came to be employed more and
more by safety professionals and company managers. In general, the objectives should cover the examination
When health and safety became an integral element of and qualitative assessment of all facts of safety of
the management process, audits became important every activity. The activities should include research
activities for management. Moreover, the use of audits and development, design, occupational health and
is one way of demonstrating that duties imposed by hygiene, environmental control, product and public
safety legislations have been effectively discharged. safety (including storage, packaging, labelling and
transportation) as well as those associated directly with
Since many of the functions of audits and inspections production-technical operation, maintenance, clearance
are similar and indeed complementary, for these certificates, emergency procedures, job descriptions
techniques to be used effectively, it is necessary to and operating instructions, training, housekeeping and
demonstrate their main differences. There should be personal attitudes.
a distinction to be made between ‘Safety Audit’ and
‘Inspection’. A ‘Safety Audit’ is a practical procedure
whereby, a workplace and the process carried on therein Popular Audit Systems
is examined with a view to ascertain what hazards to the A number of safety auditing systems are in existence.
health or safety may be in existence. It is an in-depth Various institutions and individuals or a group of
appraisal of the health and safety management culture. institutions for a period of time developed all these
An Inspection would appear to be the same thing but, systems. Due to limitations of space, it may not
technically, there is an important difference between be possible to explain all the systems in existence.
these terms. Inspections should be looked upon as However, some of the most popular systems are listed
being formal exercise, which aim at detecting the total below:
sum of hazards, which may arise within a workplace
or in connection with any employer’ work activities.
NOSA 5 Star System
An ‘Inspection’, therefore, is really the first stage in
the process of managing safety. It is a technique for The first safety audit system was developed by Mr.
the monitoring of performance, a fact-establishing Bunny Matheson in South Africa. He developed this
approach concerned with issues that can usually be system for the National Occupational Safety Association
corrected by supervisory and middle management. (NOSA) of South Africa. It is based on very simple
An inspection will produce an action list rather than an concepts of safety and in its application appears to be
assessment sheet. largely concerned with housekeeping and orderliness.

It may be reminded that safety does not arise by

accident, rather it is a state, which is achieved after
NSCA 5 Star System
much effort by all concerned. Inspection will help to set The NSCA 5 Star Health and Safety Management
objectives for improvement, whilst and ‘audit’ is a faster System was developed by the National Safety Council of
process. Safety audit, therefore, is intended to monitor Australia (NSCA). Mr.Derek Viner designed this system
the achievement and maintenance of those standards in 1983 under contract to the NSCA. It is based on the
of safety performance and improvements, which the concepts of risk and energy damage. It was revised
formal inspection has revealed to be necessary. In without Derek Viner’s assistance in about 1997/1998.
addition to the time span differences between audits
and inspections, another difference is that audits BSC 5 Star System
apply to strategic health and safety management while British Safety Council (BSC) developed this 5 Star
inspections relate to tactical questions.
Audit System. This system is based on the NOVA 5
Star System. It identifies 5 major elements and 73
Objecives of Safety Audit sub elements. Recently, some amendments in the
With the development of the concept ‘total loss distribution of the sub elements have taken place, but
prevention’, which is an offshoot of a company’s essentially the system remains the same.

26 May 2018

ISRS 18002, Guidelines for the implementation of OHSAS

18001, have been developed in response to customer
The International Safety Rating System (ISRS) was
demand for a recognizable occupational health and
developed by Frank Berd and Co-Workers at the
safety management system standard against which
International Loss Control Institute (ILCI) at Georgia
their management systems can be assessed and
State University, USA, in early 60’s and was sold to
certified. OHSAS 18001 has been developed to be
Det Norske Veritas (DNV) in 1997. It is based on the
compatible with the ISO 9001:2000 (Quality) and ISO
concepts of ‘management of safety’, which reflect the
14001:2004 (Environmental) management systems
ideas of 1930’s viz., Unsafe Acts and Unsafe Conditions.
standards, in order to facilitate the integration of quality,
The system measures management performance in 20
environmental and occupational health and safety
elements of a loss control programme.
management systems by organizations. However, in
2018, the BS OHSAS 18001:2007 was superseded by
RCRS the British Standard ISO 45001:2018.
The Risk Control Rating System (RCRS) has been
developed by Derek Viner Pvt Ltd, Australia and is IS 14489:1998:
based on the modern management concept of risk
IS 14489 – Code of Practice on Occupational Safety
control i.e. safety is an acceptable level of risk.
and Health Audit was published by Bureau of Indian
Standards in 1998. The standard is an exhaustive
Pellenberg Audit System one and more suited for Indian Industry. The standard
The name Pellenberg Audit System (PAS) derives from dealt with various aspects of safety audit such as
the place where the designers gathered many times definitions, scope, goals, objectives & responsibilities,
to develop the system. Incidentally, the designers auditing methodology, preparations of audit report
gathered in a building of the Catholic University of and its implementations, etc. The standard also gives
Leuven at the Maurissens Chateau in Pellenberg. three annexures viz.: (i) elements of occupational
PAS encompasses an entire set of criteria that a superior safety and health system, (ii) types of records to be
company prevention system ought to meet. The criteria examined during the safety audit and (iii) safety audit
are classified in accordance with ISO Standard Systems. questionnaire. This standard is general in nature to
permit it to be applicable or adaptable to different kinds
OHSMS of organisations. However, each organisation should
develop its own specific procedures for implementing
An Occupational Health and Safety Management the standard. It may be reminded here that, the standard
System (OHSMS) is a coordinated and systematic does not cover audit of environmental management
approach to managing health and safety risks. system for which a separate Indian standard IS / ISO
OHSMSs help organisations to continually improve their 14001 is available.
safety performance and compliance to health and
safety legislation and standards. In doing so, they
establish safer working environments that protect Elements of Safety Audit
people at work by eliminating, or better managing, For conducting an effective safety and health audit of
health and safety hazards. an organisation/occupancy, various elements are to be
considered, and some of them are listed below:
The International Standards for Occupational Health and
Safety Management System (OHSMS) was developed (1) Occupational safety & health policy
in early 1999 by a group of institutions using national (2) OS & H organizational set-up
standards (British, Australian and South African) and
of accreditation bodies such as Lloyds Register, Det (3) Education and training
Norske Veritas, SGS, etc. The group produced a draft (4) Employees participation in OS & H Management
standard on OHSMS (ASA: 18010), which also follows (5) Motivational and promotional measures for
the familiar quality standards format of ISO 9001:2000 OS & H
(Quality) and ISO 14001:2004 (Environmental).
(6) Safety Manual and rules

BS ISO 45001:2018 (7) Compliance with statutory requirements

The OHSAS Standard specifies requirements for an (8) New equipment review/inspection
OH&S management system to enable an organization (9) Accident reporting analysis investigation and
to develop and implement a policy and objectives which implementation of recommendations
take into account legal requirements and information (10) Risk assessment including hazard identification.
about OH&S risks. It is intended to apply to all types
and sizes of organizations and to accommodate diverse (11) Safety inspections
geographical, cultural and social conditions. (12) Health and safety improvements plan/targets
The Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (13) First aid facilities – occupational health centre
(OHSAS) Standard and the accompanying OHSAS (14) Personal protective equipment

May 2018 27

(15) Good housekeeping with compressed gas from Chief Controller of

(16) Machine and general area guarding Explosives (where applicable).
(17) Material handling equipment (12) Certificate of authorisation for use of boilers/
economisers, from Chief Inspector of Boilers
(18) Electrical and personal safeguarding
(where applicable).
(19) Ventilation, illumination and noise
(13) Authorisation for handling hazardous wastes,
(20) Work environment monitoring system (units generating different categories of hazardous
(21) Prevention of occupational diseases including wastes) listed, in quantities exceeding regulatory
periodic medical examination values, from the State Pollution Control Board.
(22) Safe operating procedures It is also essential that the auditing team should verify
(23) Work permit systems various records, documents, etc. maintained by the
organisation and some of them are listed below:
(24) Fire prevention, protection and fighting systems
(25) Emergency preparedness plans (on-site/off-site) (1) Safety Organization chart
(26) Process/plant modification procedure (2) Training records on safety fire and first-aid
(27) Transportation of hazardous substances (3) Record of plant safety inspections
(28) Hazardous waste treatment and disposal (4) Accident investigation reports
(29) Safety in storage and warehousing (5) Accidents and dangerous occurrences - statistics
and analysis
(30) Contractor safety systems
(6) Record of tests and examinations of equipment
(31) Safety for customers (including material safety
and structures as per statutes
data sheets)
(7) Safe operating procedures for various operations
During the course of safety audit, the auditor should
verify the following documents pertaining to the (8) Record of work permits
organisation: (9) Record of monitoring of flammable and
(1) Environmental clearance for new projects or explosives substances at work place
for the expansion and modernisation of any (10) Maintenance and testing records of fire detecting
activity from the Central Government or the State and firefighting equipment
Government, as the case may be. (11) Medical records of employees
(2) Approval of the site and building plan (all (12) Records of industrial hygiene surveys (noise,
factories). ventilation and levels, illumination levels, airborne
(3) Appraisal of site by State Site Appraisal and toxic substances, explosive gases)
Committee (in respect of hazardous process (13) Material safety data sheets.
(14) On site emergency plans and record of Mock
(4) Notification of site to the Central or State Drills
Pollution Control Board (in respect of Hazardous
(15) Records of waste disposal
Chemicals units).
(16) Records of effluent discharges to the environment
(5) Certificate of stability to be submitted to the Chief
Inspector of Factories (all factories). (17) Housekeeping inspection records
(6) Registration of the factory and issue of licence by (18) Minutes of safety committee meetings
the Chief Inspector of Factories (all factories). (19) Approval of layouts, and other approval from
(7) Consent from the State Pollution Control Board statutory authorities
for discharge of trade effluents, and disposal of (20) Records of any modifications carried out in plant
hazardous wastes. or process
(8) Consent from the State Pollution Control Board (21) Maintenance procedure records
for operation of plants (in air pollution control (22) Calibration and testing records
(23) Shut down maintenance procedures
(9) Licence for storage and transport of petroleum
(24) In service inspection manuals, records including
from the Chief Control of Explosives (where
that of material handling
(25) Safety budget
(10) Licence for installing static unfired pressure
vessels, from Chief Controller of Explosives (26) Inspection books and other statutory records
(where applicable). (27) Records of previous audits
(11) Licence for filling and possession of gas cylinders (28) Safety in transportation of hazardous substances

28 May 2018
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May 2018 29

Questionnaire and Checklist The adapted version of this standard is popularly known
as ‘Dow Chemical’s Standards’.
The conduct of a safety audit is assisted by the use of
aids such as questionnaire and checklist. A checklist is The methods recommended by BCISC / CIA Standards
a vital tool for successful audit. It serves as a guide to and Dow Chemicals Standards provide a qualitative
the inspection process. It helps as a reminder of what assessment for safety activities of a company. It not only
to look for. It also helps for on the spot recording of all sets out in detail various aspects to be checked, but also
findings and comments by the auditors. If the checklist provides a rating form by means of which standards may
is carefully constructed, the answers can reveal many of be compared within an organisation. These standards
the key areas needing attention. also suggest the methods for a quantitative assessment
of health and safety performance. The quantitative
The checklists are prepared in detail and can be further
assessment can be worked out by assigning numerical
developed depending upon the type of plant to be
values to each level of performance, for example, Score
audited. All the checklist may not find the same degree
0 for Poor Performance; Score 5 for Fair Performance;
of usefulness in all the industries. The usefulness may
Score 10 for Good Performance; Score 15 for Excellent
vary from industry to industry. Utmost care should be
Performance. If necessary, each activity can also be
taken to prepare the list. First of all, it should be a
given a weightage depending on its relative merit. The
comprehensive list. It is therefore necessary to finalise
weighted ratings for all activities are added upto give
the breadth and depth of the audit before finalising a
the total score. The total becomes the overall score for
checklist. Once this is finalised, the auditing team
the location.
should prepare a checklist containing questionnaires.
The preparation of a health and safety performance
Most of the audit systems provide a checklist/
activity standard is a time consuming affair. The
questionnaire. There is no hard and fast rule that the
performance activity standard being a part of a safety
safety audit system should follow a particular checklist/
audit report, the responsibility of preparing such a
questionnaire. The auditors are at liberty to use any
standard lies with the auditor. It can be prepared
checklist/questionnaire or modify the same according to
only when the auditor is having a good grasp of the
their needs. Of course, in principle, the auditors should
operations and health and safety activities carried
prepare their own checklist/questionnaire based on the
by the auditee. The auditor should also have a
activities carried out by the auditee and the scope of the
thorough knowledge of the existing statutory
audit. If such a checklist/questionnaire is prepared, it can
requirements applicable to the activities carried out by
serve most, than the standard checklists/questionnaires
the auditee. The methods suggested in the BCISC/
available elsewhere. No doubt, the preparation of a
CIA Standards and Dow Chemicals Standards can
safety audit checklist/questionnaire is a time consuming
guide the auditor in preparing a performance activity
process and therefore many of the auditors prefer to
standard for an organisation. However, it should be
use a standard checklist/questionnaire.
borne in mind that the auditor must be objective in his
assignment. His evaluation should be free from bias.
Performance Activity Standards His objective should be to guide the management in
A qualitative and quantitative assessment of health and enhancing the performance of health and safety activity
safety performance activity is a must, if the audit has to in the organisation.
be carried out with an objective of improving a safety
and health conditions in a plant. The qualitative and Statutory Requirements
quantitative evaluation of health and safety performance
Rule 10, Sub Rule (4) of the Manufacture, Storage
activity can be assessed by various methods. The first
and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989
known document on health and safety performance
framed under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1989,
activity standard appeared in an article form entitled “A
of India, insists that in case of both the new and
Quantitative and Qualitative Measurements in Industrial
the existing activity, the occupier shall carry out an
Safety” by Diekemper and Spartz which was published
independent safety audit of his activity with the help of
in December 1970 issue of American Society of Safety
outside experts.
Engineers (ASSE) Journal. It gives a list of activities
and activity standards. The members of the working Though the Factories Rules framed under the Factories
party of the Work Safety Committee of the British Act, 1948, does not specify safety audit as compulsory,
Chemical Industry Safety Council (BCISC) found safety audit is highlighted in many of the safety functions
the importance of this document while preparing a listed in various Factories Rules brought out by various
publication entitled ‘Safety Audit – A Guide to Chemical states. For example, Rule 73-J (e) of Maharashtra
Industry’ which was published by the Chemical Factories Rules, 1963, does specify that functions and
Industries Association (CIA), U.K. in 1972. Since duties of the Safety Committee shall deliberate on
then this standard is popularly known as ‘BCISC/CIA safety audit. Also Rule 73-L, Sub Rule 5 (e) insists for
Standards’. Dow Chemicals Company Limited of a ‘health and safety policy’, which should specify the
U.S.A., has further modified the list of activities and relevant techniques and methods such as safety audit
activity standards developed by Diekemper and Spartz. for periodical assessment of the status of health, safety

30 May 2018

and environment. remembered that a safety audit carried out by an internal

team may not always bring the factual scenario as the
Some of the Municipal Corporations in the country
team can be influenced to project a biased scenario
also insists for safety audit report by the manufacturing
and therefore become a ritual. Whereas a safety audit
company for several issue of licence. The Industrial
by an external team, who can project a more realistic
Development Bank of India (IDBI) and several other
scenario as they have highly experienced experts.
agencies also insist for a safety audit report as one of
Many of the legislations also insists for an external or
the conditions for granting finance for expansion for
third party safety audit. It would be ideal that an internal
audit or inspection be carried out in every six months
The Annex E-7 of National Building Code of India 2016 and external audit every year. In any case the frequency
recommends that: (1) fire and life safety audit shall be will depend on the nature and type of activities carried
carried out for all buildings having a height of more than out in the organisation.
15m; (2) such audits shall preferably be conducted by
a third party auditor having requisite experience in fire
and life safety inspections; and (3) frequency of such
Management’s Role
audits shall be once in two years. In case of industrial Management’s role is very important for the success
buildings, the statutory authorities like State Factory of a safety audit. An essential requirement of an
Inspectorate insist for fire safety audit by external audit system is that it should originate with the policy
agencies depending on the type of activity and the making executive of the organisation. The system
nature of the materials handled in the building. The and its objectives shall also be meaningful to the line
Maharashtra Fire Prevention and Life Safety Measures management who, must not only understand and
Rules, 2009, made it mandatory for building owners accept it, but also be prepared to adjust their own
and residents to conduct half-yearly fire safety audits safety and loss preventive activities in accordance with
and submit the report to the fire department. indications, deficiencies, and trends revealed by it. The
senior management is the authority for the audit system,
as the implementation of the recommendations of audit
Auidtor’s Role may need policy decisions and capital expenditure.
The auditor is ultimately responsible for all the phases
of the audit; it is therefore important that he is given
authority to make final decisions regarding the conduct
of the audit, and any audit observations. It may be Safety audit is increasingly being used as a general term
reminded here, that audits should be carried out by to describe any of a wide range of levels of surveillance.
competent trained auditors (with some health and A safety audit subjects each area of company’s
safety knowledge) who may or may not be part of the activity to a systematic critical examination with the
organisation. If they are part of the organisation, it is object of minimising loss. It aims to disclose the
important that they do not audit areas for which they are strengths and weaknesses and the main area of
directly responsible. Auditors should be free from bias vulnerability or risk and a formal report and action plan
and influences, which could affect objectivity. is proposed and maintained.

The major duty of an auditor is to look at his company’s When health and safety became an integral element
safety management systems and assess them in line of the management process, audits became important
with criteria. In doing so, he can determine compliance activities for management. Moreover, the use of audit is
with (i) current legislative requirements and (ii) one way of demonstrating that duties imposed by safety
good safety management practice. He can also assess legislations have been effectively discharged.
whether systems developed from previous audits Regular audits of the workplace are excellent managerial
have been put into practice, and if so, determine their tasks to be included in an accident prevention
effectiveness. Lastly, the auditor has a key role as a policy. Audits allow a pro-active approach. It may be
‘systems analyst’ in identifying weak areas of safety remembered that organisation, which successfully
management systems and potential areas of lack of managed health and safety, display a number of
management control, and recommending corrective common characteristics: one of the most significant
actions. is, the deployment of regular health and safety audit
and inspections. Thus the safety audit is more over a
Audit Team statutory obligation.
A Safety Audit can be carried out by an internal team REFERENCES
or external team. If it is an internal team, its members (1) Alcock, P.A. - Safety Audit and Inspections. Industrial
should be chosen from senior management, middle Safety Data File, United Trade Press Limited, London,
management, safety officers, safety committee 1982.
members, engineering and technical staff, etc. In any (2) Alcock, P.A. - Safety Inspections: the detection of
case, the audit team should not be large and two or hazards at work. H.K. Lewis and Co., London.
three members will be ideal. There is need for careful (3) British Chemical Industry Safety Council of the Chemical
selection and training of the team. However, it may be Industries Association - Safe and Sound. BCISC, London.

May 2018 31

(4) British Standard ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health

and Safety Management Systems.
(5) Diekemper and Spartz – A Quantitative and Qualitative
Measurement of Industrial Safety. ASSSE Journal, Dec
(6) Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, 4th
Ed, 4 volumes. International Labour Office, Geneva,
(7) India, Maharashtra Fire Prevention and Life Safety
Measures Act, 2006.
(8) India, Maharashtra Fire Prevention and Life Safety
Measures Rules, 2009.
(9) India, The Environment (Protection) Act 1986.
(10) India, The Environment (Protection) Rules 1986 as
amended upto 2nd April 1996.
(11) India, The Factories Act 1948 as amended in 1976 and
(12) India, The Hazardous Wastes (Management and
Handling) Rules 1989.
(13) India, The Maharashtra Factories Rules 1963 as amended
upto 1989.
(14) India, The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous
Chemicals Rules 1989.
(15) International Labour Office – The Occupational Safety and
Health Convention No.155 (1981) and Recommendation
No.164, Geneva, ILO.
(16) IS 14489:1998 – Code of Practice on Occupational Safety
and Health Audit. BIS, New Delhi, 1998.
(17) Nair, R.R. – Fire Safety Audit: The need of hour, Industrial
Safety Review, July 2012.
(18) Nair, R.R. – Fire Safety in India – An overview, Industrial
Safety Review, October 2013.
(19) Nair, R.R. – Fire Safety Management, Industrial Safety
Review, January 2014.
(20) Nair, R.R. and Joshi, D. K. – Safety Audit (CEP Pub)
Bangalore, All India Council for Technical Education,
(21) National Building Code of India, 2016 - Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi, 2017.
(22) National Safety Council - Fire Safety - Indian Scenario,
Industrial Safety Chronicle, January-March 2018.
(23) Ramaswamy, S.S. and Nair, R.R. – Statutory Provisions
on Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental
Safety in India (CEP Pub –957), Bangalore, All India
Council for Technical Education, 2000.
(24) Safety Audits carried out in a number of organisations by
the Authors.
(25) U.K., Chemical Industries Association – Safety Audits:
A guide for the chemical industries (reprinted in India
by the Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association,
Bombay, April 1987).
(26) U.K., Safety and Health at Work – Report of the
Committee 1970-72 (Robens Committee Report). HMSO,
London, 1972. „ Registered Office : Leebo Metals Pvt Limited
R R Nair Unit No 510, 5th floor, The Western Edge - 1 Condominium,
Director of Safety and Health Information Bureau. He has CTS No 163 A and 165, Off Western Express Highway,
more than 50 years’ experience in OHS & Fire Protection. He Above Metro Mall Village Magathane, Borivali - East Mumbai 400 066
had represented India at the 23rd meeting of ILO-CIS held Tel : +91 22 6269 4200 to 6269 4299
at Geneva. He has carried out about 85 projects in safety,
health, environment and fire protection (safety audits, accident
Email:, Web.:
investigations, environmental studies, hazard identification and
risk assessment (HIRA), hazardous zone classifications, fire WORKS: Plot No 8 & 9, Premier Industrial Area, Kachigam, Daman - 396 210.
safety audits in high rise buildings, etc.) PAN India.

32 May 2018
May 2018 33

he risk of fire in substations has been historically

T low, but the possible impacts of a fire can be
catastrophic. Fires in substations can severely impact
6. Flammable liquid storage or handling 3.1

7. Miscellaneous fires 15.8

the supply of power to customers and the power utility
revenue and assets. These fires can also create a 8. Hot work procedures (welding, cutting, 9.3
fire hazard to utility personnel, emergency personnel, and grinding)
and the general public. The recognition of the fire 9. Smoking 6.0
hazards, the risks involved, and the appropriate fire-
protection mitigation measures are some of the key One of the key steps in the design of new substations
considerations for the design and operation of new or and the assessment of existing substations is to identify
existing substations. conditions that are fire hazards. Once the fire hazards of
a planned or existing substation are identified, then fire
This article provides an overview to help substation
protection measures can be incorporated to eliminate
designers identify fire hazards within a substation,
or lessen the fire hazard.
identify appropriate fire protection measures, and
evaluate the benefit of incorporating these measures.
It is only an overview and is not intended to be
all-inclusive or to provide all the necessary details to
carry out a project.

Substation Hazards
The physical objects or conditions that create latent
(undeveloped) demands for fire protection are called
hazards. Every fire hazard has the following attributes:

No. Types and Origins of Fires %

1. Oil-insulated circuit breakers 14.0

2. Current transformers 14.0

3. Power transformers 9.3

The types of fires depend on the equipment and
4. Potential transformers 7.8 systems used in the stations. Fires involving dc valves,
outdoor or indoor oil-insulated equipment, oil-insulated
5. Engine-driven generators 7.0
cable, hydrogen-cooled synchronous condensers, or

34 May 2018

PCB-insulated equipment are usually well documented,

and these types of equipment are easily recognized as
a fire hazard. There are a number of other substation-
specific types of fires that are not as well documented.
IEEE 979, “Guide for Substation Fire Protection;” Factory
Mutual ‘Data Sheets’; NFPA 851, “Recommended
Practice for Fire Protection for Electric Generating
Plants and Current Converter Stations”[2]; and CIGRE
TF 14.01.04, “Report on Fire Aspects of HVDC Valves
and Valve Halls”[3] — provide guidance on other types
of fire hazards and fire protection.
The hazard created by mineral-oil-insulated equipment
Just like politics and science the energy industry is
such as transformers, reactors, and circuit breakers
working on trendsetting solutions that ensure the safety
is that the oil is a significant fuel supply that can be
and sustainability of the environment and population.
ignited by an electrical failure within the equipment.
One way of doing this is by exploiting renewable energy
Infiltration of water, failure of core insulation, exterior
sources. Alternatives to mineral oil are often used in
fault currents, and tap-changer failures are some of the
environmentally protected areas and 1locations with a
causes of internal arcing within the mineral insulating oil
special need for fire safety. Two type of alternatives are
that can result in fire. available, I,e Natural ester fluid and Synthetic ester fluid
Utility’s’ main goal is to provide safe, reliable and
environmental friendly affordable energy to the
consumers and communities they serve.
Natural Ester fluids Envirotemp™ FR3™ can play
an important role in helping to achieve those goals.
Since its introduction and over a million of power and
distribution substation installations across 30 countries,
there has not been a single reported fire-related failure
with FR3 fluid-filled transformers.
FR3 fluid is a FM Approved®, UL certified K-class as per
Depending on the type of failure and its severity, the
(IEC 61039), less flammable fluid. , It’s 360°C fire point
gases can build up sufficient pressure to cause the
is the highest of any dielectric fluid more than twice that
external shell of the transformer tank or ceramic
of mineral oil (160°C) and 50°C higher than synthetic
bushings to fail or rupture. Once the tank or bushing
fails, there is a strong likelihood that a fire or explosion esters (310°C).
will occur. A possible explosion could cause blast h Higher oil flash and fire points make operation
damage. safe and protect valuable assets;
h Lower gas conversion factors reduce risk of tank
h Elimination of fire mitigation, deluge systems and
fire walls
h Reduced clearances to buildings and other
h Potentially reduced insurance premiums due
to using a less flammable fluid in transformer
h Avoid costly fire restorations (liability and property
damage, transformer replacement
These characteristics lead to a high acceptance of
The resulting oil-spill fire could spread to form a large transformers filled with natural esters, especially but
pool of fire, depending on the volume of oil, spill not only in urban areas and environmentally protected
containment, slope of the surrounding area, and the type locations.
of the surrounding ground cover (i.e., gravel or soil).
As the ageing performance of FR3 dielectric esters
Thermal radiation and convective heating from the oil outweigh those of mineral oil, transformers may be
spill fire can also damage surrounding structures and operated at higher temperatures than conventionally
structures above the fire area. filled units. This is also proposed by IEC 60076-14,
Hence Alternative fluids are on the rise all over the world. where over temperatures and hot spot temperatures for

May 2018 35

winding designs using thermally upgraded paper are Petrobras refinery

considered already.
chooses FR3 fluid
As validated by international standard accelerated for improved fire
testing methods, an insulating system with Natural
Ester Envirotemp™ FR3™ fluid can operate up to 20°C
warmer (than mineral oil equivalent) while maintaining Petrobras Northeast
the same life or extended life expectation. Or, utilities Refinery Project “Abreu
can increase their overload capacity by up to 20%. In e Lima”.14 Transformers
many cases, utilities choose to do both – design their using Envirotemp
transformers to run at 120°C to gain overload capacity FR3 dielectric fluid.
and still extend their asset life. A.75/100MVA ,242/72.5
KV -2 transformers.
Furthermore, this capability enables the design of new
transformers to require “less cooling” – up to 20°C B.70MVA, 72.5/15/15 KV - 4 transformers
less cooling – which results in more cost effective
transformers. These smaller transformers could use Transnet BW:
less fluid and construction materials while delivering the
same or increased load capacity. The high temperature
insulation advantage works for both new and retrofilled
power and distribution transformers..

Success Stories
Tata Power: One of the green
milestone in the company’s
centenary year celebrations,
two of India’s first 25 MVA
natural ester filled transformers
were installed in Mumbai. With
this initiative, Tata Power has
A transmission network operator in the German state
once again showcased its
of Baden-Württemberg – commissioned a 420kV power
priority in driving sustainability
transformer in one of its substations in southwest
by implementing path
Germany that is cooled and insulated with Natural Ester
breaking green technology.
FR3. The substation, which has a power rating of 400
Sustainability remains a
MVA is the first in this high-voltage category has been
core business philosophy of Tata Power, and green
working satisfactory since 2013 (OEM Siemens).
transformer is one of the company’s many green
initiatives under its “Be Green” campaign. Tata Power’s
25 MVA transformer filled with Natural ester Enivrotemp Conclusion
FR3 Dielectric fluid. (OEM Schneider India). Among all the alternatives, Natural ester-filled
transformers demands are growing due to their fire
Getco (Gujrat Electric Transmission resistance feature. As natural ester has high fire points
Company) of around 360 ºC, and flash point of 320 ºC, which
is twice the fire points of mineral oil, it makes the
Installed transformers with natural ester fluid FR3 transformers fire resistant. Besides, natural ester is
& after satisfactory on site performance has decided
biodegradable in nature, which makes the transformers
to go in big way with almost 200 plus 66KV, 20MVA
environment friendly. By using Natural ester FR3 Fluid,
units (OEM T&R and Atlanta). Transformers will be
in transformers, the overloading capabilities can be
tested for its higher thermal class as per IEC 60076 part
14, Table C.2.
*See IEC/TS 60076-14 and IEEE C57.154™ Standard for
the Design, Testing and Application of Liquid-Immersed
Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers Using
High-Temperature Insulation Systems and Operating at
Elevated Temperature. „
Rajaram Shinde
(Global Technology Advisor)

Rajib Nayan Chaudhary

(National Head-PowerGen)
Cargill India Pvt Ltd

36 May 2018
May 2018 37


ureau of Indian Standards (BIS) have following oven, Cooker, Kitchen Appliance and etc.
B standards for Electrical installation for buildings. so “PROBABLITY of SHOCK and FIRE are
1 Indian Standards code of practice for electrical increased”.
wiring installation IS732:1989, May 2007 and IS h RCD (residual Current Device) or ELCB, is
3043 MOST widely is used for protection against shock
2 National Electrical code 2011(NEC) from Bureau and fire,
of Indian Standards (BIS). h Protection for shock and fire: RCD 30mA (0.03A)
h Indian standards are based on “International in flat and outdoor circuits, cost Rs.1000/- each
Electrotechanical Commission (IEC)”, is located h Protection against fire material, Timber, Plywood,
in Switzerland. They develop all electrical
Agriculture, RCD 300mA (0.3A)
standards which are followed in Europe and most
of countries in world. h New British Standard will be publishing in in 2018,
h Our standards are NOT UPDATED AT ALL and not
easy to understand and there is no clear answer h I have used red colour, Remember, “Electricity
to electrical installation. This is reason MANY kills” and destruction due to fire.
FIRES HAPPENS IN BUILDINGS. h Electrical System in India is TT system. In French
T word is “Tetra” means “Earth”. TT means
Objective and Overview Earth at Source (Transformer neutral) and
h Prevent “CAUSE OF FIRE AND PREVENT Earth Electrodes at Main consumer intake from
ELECTRIC FIRE” in electrical in Low Voltage Electricity board. During Fault, Current flow in
system. Earth is to trip Circuit breaker. Figure (1).
h This is not required to solve any puzzle. You
require basic Electrical Knowledge. Book Data on shock and Fire in Europe in year
Standard, BS761:2008 cost Rs. 8,000/- and h 2,250,000 Electrical Fire occurs in Europe.
Excellent Guides available from standards from
h Residential Building involved is more than 80%
and excellent books are available to understand
and training from Guide. h 4000 deaths and 100,000 injuries
h Now, MANY electrical equipment’s are installed h Electrical Fire is major cause of fire in domestic
e. g. heaters, Air-conditions, Microwave buildings.

38 May 2018

Authors Articles published by Author in 7 Special Location: Bathroom, outdoors of

IEEMA Journals Locations with building and swimming
increase and high pools and etc.,
h -DQXDU\´2YHUYLHZRI(OHFWULFDO,QVWDOODWLRQV increase shock risk Swimming pool
of buildings as per British Standard BS7671:2008 location
and IEC Standard 60364” Construction site, Petrol
h March 2017, “Use of RCD (ELCB) to Prevent Pumps, Temporary
Shock and Fire.” In Residents building as per Outdoor lights
BS7671:2008. 8 Protection against Use 300mA RCD
fire (ELCB)
h February 2018 issue, “Prevent electric Shock
and Fire in Electrical installation” in Residential
Buildings as per British Standards BS7671:2008 RCD and RCBO are used for Automatic
and IEC Standards. disconnection of circuit to prevent Shock:
h How to “PREVENT FIRE” in Electrical Installations RCD is called “Residual Current Devices”; India is called
in Resident Building and Industrial Plants as per “Earth Leakage circuit breaker (ELCB).”
as per British standard BS7671:2008 AND IEC RCBO is called “Residual Current Circuit
STANDARDS 60364. Step by Step Brief Guide. Breaker+ Overcurrent Protection. This is
Combines RCD 30mA+MCB = Protection against
Voltage shock+Overcurrent+short circuit+additional
protection against fire in Residential Flat.
This standard is applicable to “low Voltage (LV) less
than 1000V AC” or “Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) is 8, Electric Shock and Fire fundamental as per Locations:
applicable to < 50V AC.
Classification of locations as per shock risk due to
external influence
Bureau of India Standards Approval Risk Location Comment
Please, do NOT attempt to do any electrical work by Factor
yourself. Take advice from qualified professional and
Shock Dry Location, Inside the
approval from Bureau of Indian standards (BIS). risk Dry Body, Body building.
(SRL) resistance about
There are seven parts to BS 7671: 2008 1000 ohms

as follows Increase Wet locations, e.g. Construction

shock wet Body, Body sites, Agriculture
Nr. Contents Items risk resistance 500 location, Outdoor
Location ohms. and etc
1 Scope, Object, Protection and Prevent (ISRL)
and Fundamental Shock and fire, Arcing
Principles Ground fault and etc. High Wet Body, wet e.g. Outdoor,
Increase location, Body Bathroom,
2 Definitions Definition of each shock immersed in water, swimming pool
Terms risk Body resistance and etc.
3 Assessment External Influence: (HISRL) 100 ohms.
of General water, dust, high Fire Combustion Mandatory to use
Characteristics and temperature, Presence Material storage, 500mA RCD as
external influences. of Ground and etc. Plywood Main Incomer
4 Protection for safety Over Current, Shock Supply, better
and Fire and etc. 300mA
Protection against RCD (ELCB) 30mA
Shock Types of Distribution Boards for
5 Selection and Voltage drop, use protection against Shock bad Fire
Erection of of RCD, Isolation of
Equipment equipment, size of inside Flat
earth wire and cable. h If one RCD trips the you lose complete power
6 Inspection and RCD tester, Earth Loop supply
Testing impedance tester, Earth h Beside RCD is not Fail-Safe Device.
wire continuity and etc.
There are 2 methods:

May 2018 39

h Install 3 RCD, DB-RCD

Single Line Shock, Fire Total Cost Comments Author’s
h Install RCBO (MCB+RCD 30 mA) for each circuit, Drawing protection for circuits Opinion
Install DB-RCD: Install 3 RCD: Typical Distribution With 3 RCD RCD 30mA Rs, 12,000/- Cost Use in
Circuits, DB-RCD, and Affordable housing: 30mA. 3 MCB effective affordable
for each RCD, housing
DB1: Circuit devices in 3 RCD and Fire Panel from Fig. 15
Separate 30mA RCDO
Each RCBO Rs. 25,000/- Use in I prefer
DB2: Each circuit is protection by Separate Residual circuit with 30mA High in all*
current, MCB+RCD 30mA (RCBO 30mA) MCB+RCD 30 rise and Buildings.
For each circuit
mA = RCBO, Prestige Cost is not
Remembered: Fire Alarm Panel from Separate Fig, 16 building, very high
RCD30mA compare 1
DB-RCD Each RCBO+AFDD, Rs. 50,000/- Very Costly.
circuit with Prestige Approval
MCB+RCD building, from BIS.
against ARC.
30 mA +AFDD This is still
not come
shop and
in India
Art Gallery
and etc.


method 2, install RCBO for each circuit.

Main Cause of Fire: Cable Produce heat,

Figure 1 Insulation is PVC, Plastic, fault produce arc
h 100mA RCD one second time delay is preferably and smoke
to install for Fault protection and Fire, Item Solution Comment
DB-RCBO: Install RCBO for each circuit, in School, Overloads MCB MCCB
Senior Citizen flat and Prestige Buildings: or Fuse
Short circuits MCB or Fuse
Electrical shock & RCD 30mA Arcing fault
Electric Fire in RCD 300MA Timber,
Combustion Agriculture
materials storage
Loose connections Check Main Cause
produce heat. tightness of Fire
Loose at connection Check plug Main Cause
at plug and socket of Fire
Accidental damage Check before
by drill in wall. drill
Ultra Violet rays Install in Manufactuer’s
from sun, E.g.: Conduit, advice
Cable in Terrace Ducts
Figure 2 Rodents and Rat Install Metal Agriculture
Conduit. Area,
this most
Costs Ask
h MCB: Rs. 200/-, RCD 30 mA: Rs. 1000/-, RCBO: problem
MCB+RCD 30mA = Rs. 2000
Old wiring, NO Take
h AFDD: Rs. 2500, RCB0+AFDD: Rs.5000 for each RCD for protection Advice from
circuit. Numbr of circuits 10 against shock and Engineer.
Cost and comparison of 3 different Methods:

40 May 2018
May 2018 41

Loose Connection Main Cause of Fire and Protection Surge Protector

rat chew cable against High
Arcing Ground New device, Arc Rs. 2500
detector Device Fault Detection
(AFDD), widely Device
use in USA and

Cable rating, design, Installation, testing

and commissioning require
h Training and Guide from Mentor
Loose Connection: Major cause of fire, Rat eat cable,
h Attend Cable manufactures’ training program
in Agriculture area
h Hand on approach and visual observation of
construction of industrial plant
h Testing and Commissioning
h Visual inspection after one-year installation
h Cable Design require many year of experience,
on hand approach

Selection of cable rating and Installation

h Cable rating is derated for following Corrections
Figure 3
h Cable space in Conduit, duct and trunking has
Case Study: In UK, Fire due to Insulated DB lower rating since heat is not easily dissipate

in Flat h Then, cable install on cable tray exposed air to

dissipate heat.
h In BS7671:2008, they were allowed to use
insulated plastic Distribution Boards (DB) Correction
Explanation Comment
h There were many fire due to loose connection Factors for cable
h DB, insulated PVC DB were stopped then for Ambient or PVC cable e.g.: during use,
amendment was done, to use only Metal DB. surrounding temp are rated at temperature can
h In My House: I have found loose connection and temperature go up to temp.
RCD trips. 30 C 70 Cent.

Installation in cable Heat cannot Cable are

Electrical Installation protection against in Group dissipate group together
following Basic Faults: in conduit and
Item Method Cost, Rupee
Correction factors Cable in Insulated roof
Overcurrent, MCB, MCCB or 200 t0 5000
for thermal Thermally in house with
insulation. insulated in mineral wool. It
Short Circuit MCB, MCCB or 200 to 5000 ceiling is use in UK
Electric Shock RCD (ELCB) 1500
and Fire in 30mA (0.03) A
Electrical distribution in High Rise Building
Residential Types Comparison Author’s
Each circuit
building fire all Opinion
circuits Cable Most of FIRE
Earth Leakage Relay to trip 2500 to 5000 with PVC in Electrical
Arcing fault breaker. Insulation happens due
Electric Fire RCD (ELCB) 5000 cable Insulation.
500mA (0.5) to Not to ease to
300mA (0.3A) 10,000 installation

42 May 2018

Copper Copper bar so This is

Busbar NO PVC is used Complete inside
Trunking SO NO FIRE RISK the metal. High
Better Ventilation
Rise buildings
in Duct.
go for Busbar
Trunking. Take
Figure 6

Figure 4

Main Advantage of Busbar Trucking

h Busbar trunking systems meet all these
requirements on efficient power distribution by
being easily planned
Figure 7
h It can be quickly installed and economical
compare to cable
h providing a high degree of flexibility and safety From above mention drawing, cable on Cable
h Straightforward network configuration tray
h Low space requirements h Cable are laid in flat and not group together.
h Easy retrofitting in case of changes of locations h Cable are tight with cable tray with clip so no
and consumer loads movement during short circuit.
h High short-circuit strength and low fire load
h Space between cables, minimum diameter of
Increased planning security
cable. If space is less, current correction factor
h NO Cable PVC insulation, NO FIRE, NO SMOKE.
h Ask manufactures for more information
h Because of this, cables installed in groups with
Erection of cable in enclosed in a conduit or trunking carry less
Cable current correction derating Grouping factor: current than
No Air to dissipate heat h Similar cables clipped to or install on cable tray
open to air have higher rating.
The need for the grouping correction factor Cg for
cable current rating: h Thumb rule is that Cable occupy space in
a) widely spaced cables dissipate heat easily conduit, duct and trunking must be less than
b) A closely packed cable cannot easily dissipate heat 50%. Exact calculation sees standards.
and so its temperature rises
Thumb rule, Cable must occupy space in Conclusion
conduit trunking must less the 50%. So, air to h Cable in conduit or duct or trunking then heat
dissipate heat. produce. Cable current rating is reduced.
Exact calculation refers to standards. h If surface mounted cables are touching the
reduction in the current rating is, as would be
expected, greater than

Example, Cable derating factor due to cable

h if a certain cable has a basic current rating of
24 A, size 6mm2, and is installed with six other
Figure 5 What will be cable rating in enclosed conduit and on

May 2018 43

cable tray open air: Fire barrier must install between all floors, widely
available in market, reputed 3 M Company.
I read in Newspaper, 2 accidents happened like this in
1 Cables Install in enclosed conduit:
Mumbai. 10 people died.
h Number of circuits, Correction ground factor Cg,
Ask manufactures for instruction, how to install
Enclosed: 0.57,
h Cg has a value of 0.57 and the cable current
rating becomes 24 x 0.57 = 13.7 A

2 Cable Install on cable tray, open air:

h Derating factor, Touching Flat, Cg = 0.72,
Touching with each other: 24 x 0.72 = 17.28
h Derating factor, Open Space between cable is
equal to diameter of cable Cg = 0.90. current
rating = 24 x 0.9 = 21.6
Cable rating in enclosed conduit is 13.7 ohms. On cable
tray, open to air, touching 17.28 and
Open Space between cable diameter of cable is : 21.6A
Numbers are rounded
Figure 9
Cable in conduit current rating is reduce from 24A to
14, almost half. Duct of cable heat in high rise building
&ŝŐ͘Ϯ/ŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶŵĞƚŚŽĚƐĨŽƌƐŝŶŐůĞͲĐŽƌĞĐĂďůĞƐ Hot air goes from ground floor to top floor. Temperature
;ĂͿ&ůĂƚͲƐƉĂĐĞĚ;ďͿ&ůĂƚΘƚŽƵĐŚŝŶŐ;ĐͿdƌĞĨŽŝů is very high at top.
ĞƌĂƟŶŐĨĂĐƚŽƌ͕ŐсϬ͘ϵ Solution: Barrier between floors

Figure 10

Fire Resistance Cable

h Mineral Insulated Copper Sheathed (MICS) cable
Touching, Derating Factor Cg = 0.72
h Mineral insulation such as magnesium oxide is an
Figure 8 excellent insulator.
h The resulting cable is totally fireproof and will
Fire Barrier in each floor in cable duct or operate at temperatures of up to 250°C.
cable tray in Building: h Great mechanical strength, Very durable, long
Thus is major cause of fire accidents as smoke travel lasting, Current rating higher than similar other
ground floor to top floor. Very important for high rise cable.
building. Please, DO NOT under estimate important for h Application: Widely use in All Industrial area,
especially chemical works, boiler house, petro
During Fire, Smoke flow from cable duct in ground floor filling stations, Fire Alarm System, harsh condition
to top floor residential flats such as extreme hear and corrosion.

44 May 2018





"#$% &'( )' %*&  (+%  ( ,-.##$
)/0#1."".0$"-02#-% 3/0#1."".0$.-1%
+ ()' )'6 77( +)89'(::: 77( +

May 2018 45

LSF (Low smoke and fume), outer sheath is AL. Cinema as Cinema Theatre fire in Delhi, Many people
Mylar Tape. died
Materials which have reduced smoke and corrosive
gas emissions in fire compared with p.v.c. have been
available for some years. In case of fire, person has to escape immediately from
Exit door with emergency light
Application: Can be considerable safety advantages
in situations where numbers of people may have to be Design by qualified professional. I do not know we have
evacuated in the event of fire. Fire Alarm and emergency Indian standards.
Supply from separate MCB and separate conduit and
may be tested every six months
Important, Manufactures’’ instruction for maintenance.
These do not cost much. LED lamps are life long.

Figure 11 Figure 14

11.11, Isolating of Electrical at point of location in

emergency to prevent Shock and Fire: Outdoor neon sign board
h Many Sign boards are NOT weather proof; Fire
Any Electrical equipment must be isolated at point of
may be due to rain. must weatherproof to IP 44
Utilization E.g. Panel is located one place and motor
pump is located 100 meters away. h Fire main switch, to switch off supply in
There must emergency Isolator to swath off power in
case of shock and fire.

Figure 12 Figure 15

12, Fault Current path in TT system, Figure (1): Widely

use in India
Fault Current Path is RED dotted Line, -------

Figure 13

Emergency Light and Exit Light LED lifelong

available: Please, do not lightly and overlook
Case Study:
Happen in Kamala Neural Mill fire in parel, Mumbai,
No Exit light and Emergency Light, many Accident Figure 16

46 May 2018

Falut current path is from earth h RCD must be install to Limit the Shock Fault
Voltage Uf to 50V and trip within 0.2 seconds
electrodes in groun
Automatic disconnection by RCD in TT Systrm h Maximum value of RCD rating for main breaker to
incase of fault to prevent shock and fire, RCD prevent shock is Uf/RA =50V/RA =
currevnt rating and Shock Voltage Uf 50V h 50V/20 ohms= 2.5 Amp = 2500mA.
h RCD rating of MCCB at meter room must less the

Automatic Disconnection in TT system during fault is
achieved by RCD.
Ircd less than or equal to 50V/ RA, where RA is Earth
Electrode Résistance at consumer.

Existing Electrical Installations in meter

room in 15 story building, Fire Hazard

Figure 17

Main Breaker 100A with RCD 2.5A

Why RCD is used to prevent shock and fire in

TT system
h What is Value of Shock TOUCH Voltage Uf and
fault current flow If:
h 100A MCCB as Main Incomer at Consumer trips
during fault in 0.1 seconds at 10 times the rated
current = 1000A Existing Meter Room, Figure 18

h In Fig. 2, RA = 20 ohms, Rn = 10 0hms. Rn +RA

Item Deficiencies Hazards
= 30A. If = fault current = 240/30 = 8A
Main Fuse In case of Fire, The “UNSKILL
h Answer: MCB 100A will “NOT TRIP DURING
with fuse cannot switch PERSON”, flat
FAULT” since fault current only 8A.
holder, OFF power owners and
h Due to above reasons RCD must be used in TT Bottoms immediately. security persons,
installations, Earth Electrodes resistance Rn and circle DO NOT KNOW
RA are high and change as per climate. HOW TO SWITCH
OFF. If he
h Answer: Shock Fault Voltage, Uf =RA x If = 20 removes fuse
ohms x 10A = 160V. Dangerous then THERE WILL
h If Rn and RA are equal, e.g. 10 ohms each then
shock voltage Uf = 120V Wires, Top Many wires Loose connection
circles connection, at wires is main
SHOCK AND FIRE. in Electrical
What is RCD value for Main Breaker to Limit
Open busbar Elecric shock
shock voltage Uf to 50V? Fig. 2
Wooden Major fire
h Rn and RA are HIGH so fault current is less so
Cupboard hazard
Main breaker will not trip.

May 2018 47

Existing Single Line Drawing Electrical Panel with metal enclosure to Prevent fire in
Residential buildings:
All Wires, Busbars, wire connection to busbars, Meters
and etc. in Metal Enclosure.
Right side is Main handle, Main MCCB with RCD.
In case of Fire, Complete building can be switched
OFF by “UNSKILL person, flat owners and watchmen
Left side compartment for each Flat with switch off
Measure current for each flat and complete building
with Ammeter fix on Panel to check any overload in
NO open busbar and No loose wire.

Proposed Single Line Drawing:

h Time delay between rcds in each level to maintain
interigity of supply:

Figure 19

([LVWLQJ 0HWHU URRP LV 0$-25 ),5( +$=$5' DQG
due to fuse with holder can not switch OFF immeditely.
Open Busbar if touch then shock hazard.
If arcing faut occurs at fault F1 and F2, fire amplify due
to Plastic PVC cable insulation and creates smoke.
Exiting meter room is not as per IEC stanfards, THIS IS
Many Fires happens from Meter Room. Fire creates arc
and smoke.

Proposed Electrical Panel, with metal

enclosure in Meter Room: Fig. 7

Figure 21

Analysis of Protection against Fire with 3 levels of RCD

There are three level of RCD protection, RCDm, RCDb
Figure 20 and RCDdb.

48 May 2018
May 2018 49

Time Delay between RCD: Different Time Delay between

RCDdb, RCDb and RCDm to trip in case of fault so only Mandatory to use in following Locations
level RCD trips. Less than or equal to 300mA
In case of Fault at (1) then RCDm must trip. In case of 3 All circuits in < RCD 300 mA
Fault at (2) , RCDb trips agricultural installation
RCDm 500mA trips in 1 second, RCDb 150mA trips in (Expect Sockets
o.5s and RCDdb, 30mA each circuits trip in 0.04s. Outlet)
This is called Time selectivity or time discrimination 4 Risk of fire due to < RCD 300 mA,
between RCD between each level. storage Combustion Main Incomer at
material. E.g. Timber meter Room
due to Arcing ground fault in cables,RCDm and RCDb
is for protection against Fire, at Fault (1) and Fault (2}. 5 Circus Temporary < RCD 300 mA at
and fault in flat then RCDdb trips, supply Meter room.
As I know, they are not use in India. 6 Temporary Supply, < RCD 300 mA at
SO MANY FIRE WILL OCCURE IN BUILDINGS. Festival, Exhibition Meter room.
and etc.
STANDARDS (BIS) Discussion:
h Residential and Industrial Building, 75% fire is due
Protection against FIRE to electrical Fault.
h Many fire can be Prevented if 300mA RCD is
installed at Main Intake, at meter room.
h 300mA RCD, 3P+N, It can SAVE LIFE and
DESTRUCTION of Building due to fire.
63A RCD only cost Rs.5000/- to Rs. 10,000/-

Which are “HIGH increase shock risk

locations” in building? Question and
h Bathrooms
Figure 22
h Outdoor
from the Cinevista studio in Mumbai’s Kanjurmarg Bathroom
suburb, where a fire broke out and Audio assistant
suffered 100% burns and was killed. Complete Studio
was burned.
Case Study 2: Fault in AC Unit Caused Fire at Malabar
This was duplex flat occupied by Dr, Keku Kavrana. 76,
he is the MOST revered Surgeon, who was in Critical
condition. Complete 50/- crores flat was buried
There were about 10 Electric fire happens from

Location Methods
1 Protection against RCD 30mA can give
Shock inside and primary protection
outdoor of Resident against shock and
building. additional protection
against Fire. Figure 23

2 Protection against Fire Less than < 500 mA 1 Location

RCD but preferably h Wet body, presence of water, bare foot, Shower
< 300mA with flexible pipe can spray water all over place.

50 May 2018

h The presence of water can occur in several

ways (for example, splashing, steam/humidity,

h There may be leakage in concrete floor, touching

earthed reinforcing steel bar. In Fla, This requires
careful planning and study. Locations are most
discussed and challenging.

Case Study:
Three children were in bath tub with hand dryer. Hand
Dryer is not water proof.
Figure 25
Children resistance in water is about 240 ohms. Voltage
is 240V divide by 240 Ohm, current flow in body 1A. All Locations:
three children died.
h Outdoor lights and equipment are widely use.
2 Fault current path in Human to ground when metal Light can be fixed on perimeter wall, light fix on
pipe is Touch in Bathroom: the path, decorative lights, flexible lights within
reach of person, Fix pole light. Lawn mower, drill
h This requires careful planning and study to
prevent shock.
h Outdoor are HIGH increase shock risk location,
where many accidents are happened
h Case Study: Person was using Lawn Mover in
Garden, wire got cut and touched wire and was

Figure 24

3 What types of electrical equipment can be installed

in bathroom?
As per standards, Electrical installations shall comply
Figure 26
with following points:
Location, Fault current EASY path through human
Nr. Bathroom Items Comments body and ground:
1 Light fitting, preferably IP44 or IP54
insulated, must be

2 Weather-proof lights to IP 30 mA RCD

44 and other circuit passing
inside the wall

3 NO Exhaust fan 230V, NO High risk

socket 230V and NO water shock
heater 230V MUST NOT be location
installed in Bathrooms.
Nr. Outdoor, Item Comment
4 My opinion Exhaust Fan Available in 1 1, All outdoor SOCKETS Buy from
waterproof 12V AC or UK Market. and MOVABLE items with Reputed
Ventilation Grill, less than 32A must be Company.
protected by 30 mA RCD.
5 NO Light switches inside the
Bathroom 2, All Lights with in Arm Philips, Bajaj
reach of person shall be and Crompton
protected by 30mA RCD Greaves
Location: Outdoor Electrical Installation:

May 2018 51

2 RCD, Tripping time Values:

2 All electrical items water Weather proof
proof to IP54 or IP55. Check Symbol RCD 30mA, Testing trip time for shock protection
On Lights fitting. and additional Fire protection
for Buy from
Nr. Test Current Operating Tripping
Reputed Co.,
for 30mA RCD Tripping Time Time
3 Decorative movable light Available in for shock
fittings within arm reach of Market protection
person and landscape lights 1 15mA No Trip
shall be SELV to 12V AC or
30V AC. 2 30mA Less than Less than
200ms (0.2) 0.2S
4 Now days outdoor weather Install as per seconds
proof LED lights wide range Manufacturer’s
3 5 x30mA Less than Less than
available 12 DC instruction.
40mA 0.04S

Omitting RCD protection for any socket-outlet on RCD less and Equal to 300mA for Fire Protection,
the basis of a risk assessment is a serious matter Tripping time
and must never be done lightly. Designer has to justify
4 Testing current Tested at Trip in less
for omission.
300mA 300mA rated the 0.2
RCD current seconds
RCD tripping without fault 3 Maintenance:
h RCD trips even there is NO fault, complete h RCD is “NOT FAIL-SAFE” device and it is
darkness in house the person can trip and get hurt. electromechanical device with switch
h Computer and electronics have switched mode h BS standard says, RCD is tested integral mounted
power supply, capacitors are connected to earth “push button” to PRESS to regularly, what is
so leakage current in Earth wire may trip RCD. period of testing, I am still trying to get answer.
h Computer Leakage current is about 2 mA. 30mA h Main cause of failure is accumulation of dust in
RCD trip between 15 mA and 30mA. Connect 6 switch so better test regularly.
computers per circuit of 30mA RCD otherwise it
may trip. This is often overlooked h Caution: These must be tested and maintain by
skill qualified trained electricians and Engineer.
h Cooker leakage current and overvoltage due to
lightning and etc.
Ingress Protection for Enclosure against
RCD Testing and Commissioning, Solid Particle and Liquid as per BS EN
Tripping Time 60529
h IP is an acronym for “Ingress Protection”. Refer
1 RCD must be tested with RCD meter, inject mA
to on line for more information.
current and measure Tripping current time
RCD “SAVES LIFE AND PREENT FIRE”, must be h How to specify IP protection of equipment? First
tested during commissioning and regularly after letter “generally Dust and second letter Water”.
installation h In Bathroom and outdoor, light fitting and
equipment shall be IP44 to IP55.
h Many times, Electricians do not know, it is
OVERLOOKED. Buy from reputed company
Philips, Bajaj and etc. Check Symbol on lamp
IP44 to IP55. P

New Device
“Arc Fault Detector device (AFDD)”
h RCD will NOT trip, if wire phase to phase arcing
fault and cable is cut since there is NO Earth
Fig. 27, RCD Meter, Cost about Rupee 10,000/- current,

52 May 2018
May 2018 53

h Fire Risk: Mandatory to install RCD less than

or equal to < 300mA at main breakers in
Increase fire risk locations, Agriculture, Timber
and Plywood storage, Exhibition, Temporary
Installation and etc.
2 Distribution board (DB) with RCD and RCB0 30mA
to prevent shock and fire inside the flat
h RCD and RCBO install in DB give protection
against fire and shock
h Integrity of supply: DB-RCD with 3 RCD 30 mA
and DB-RCBO with each circuit with 30mA RCBO
h Prefer to install with DB-RCBO, cost for 5 circuit is
Rs.7,000/- and 10 circuits is Rs. 15,000/-
3 Cable correction factors
Figure 28
h Cable current rating require correction factor due
h 1, Widely use in USA, Europe and New British to > Ambient Temp > Cable install in Group >
standard BS7671:2018 to introduce in 2018. thermal insulation in roof
h 2, Available MCB+RCD 30 mA+AFDD combine h Proper Planning > experience > hand on
for final circuit in flat. Cost Rupee, 5,000/. approach.
Protection against overcurrent+short 4 Electrical distribution in high ruse building:
circuit+electric shock+Fire+ Arcing Fault
There are 2 options 1, Cable or 2, Busbar Trunking
h 1, Cable is main cause of fire due to fault which
cause PVC insulation burn and smoke
h 2, Busbar Truncking: Copper busbar with steel
enclosure. No cause of Fire. Economical and
easy fix
h You ask manufacturer.
5 Types of cable for fire protection: Ask for
manufacturers for more information:
h Mineral Insulated
h Low smoke
h Use: Fire panel, Emergency and Exit Light and
6 Erection of Cable;
h Fire barrier in each of cable duct in each floor
Figure 29 stop smoke, Many accident happens
h Cable heat goes from bottom floor to top floor,
Summary temperature high at top. Install barrier at each
1 Cause of Electrical Fire: floor.
7 Isolating of Equipment at point of utilization:
h Electrical fire is due to Overcurrent, Loose
connection, aging cable Insulation, rat chew h Switch off in case of Emergency prevent shock
insulation, etc. and fire
h Cable fault produce ARC > ARC will cause 9 Exist and Emergency light:
insulation PVC to burn > Plastic burn faster and h 7KLVLV0$-25&$68(2)3(32/(*(7.,//
major fire > Smoke > Arc temperature is 25,000
h Take professional advice.
h Example: Fire at Kamala Nehru park
h Rat can chew cable insulation. This is major
problem in Agriculture. Install metal conduit, take 10, Existing Electrical Meter room are not as
Standards, Major Deficiencies:
advice from manufacturer.
h Cable produce heat > heat has to dissipate > h These are full of Fire Hazards.
Major cause of fire is cable bunch together so h Fuse with fuses holder: In case of Fire, cannot
inside conduit do not dissipate heat switch OFF Power for complete building.

54 May 2018

h Main Switch fuse with fuse holder, Unskilled Published by Schneider Electric, leading French
persons, Flat Owners and watch men, cannot company in world. This company is actively
switch off main power in case of Fire. If fuse is involved to develop IEC standards. “Quick
removed then there will Arc. Wooden cupboard reference, read chapters E, F and Q,
increases fire risk. 2 Further Detail Reading:
11 Proposed Electrical Panel in meter room with
metal enclosure in TT Installation: 1 Electrical Contractor Association (ECA), UK,
“Guide to the Wiring Regulations, 17th Edition,
h In meter room Main breaker, submain breaker, IEE Wiring Regulations (BS 7671: 2008)”, book by
wires and meters are enclosed in Metal Darrell Locke, This book is written
Enclosure. by Practical people in this field. You get from
h In case of FIRE, MAIN INCOMER CAN BE, Cost Rs.1600/-
SWITCHED OFF IMMEDITELY. 3,, “Requirement of Electrical
h In TT Earthing system, Mandatory to install Main Installation as per IEE Wiring Regulations” British
at Incomer and sub breaker with RCD for arcing Standard 7671:2008. IET (Institute of Engineering
fault fire. As I know, RCDS are NOT USE. All and Technology), UK. Cost is about Rs.8000.
BUILDINGS are at Fire risk. 4 you can refer to Guidance 9 notes and other
12 Rating of RCD for Main breaker in mA depends books available to explain this standard
Earth Electrode Resistance:
IET, develop and publish the guides to standards as
h During fault, Value of shock Voltage when touch below. Each book cost about Rs.2500/-
electrical metal enclosure must be less than 50V.
h RCD sensitivity rating for Main Incomer MCCB in
mA must be less than or equal to < 50V/RA. RA is
Earth Electrode Resistance at Consumer. ‡ ,((*XLGDQFH1RWH1R,QVSHFWLRQDQGWHVWLQJ
13 RCD Cost for Protection against Shock and Fire: ‡ ,((*XLGDQFH1RWH1R3URWHFWLRQDJDLQVWILUH
h “SHOCK” can be prevented by RCD (ELCB) 30mA
in Residential Flat in Building and give additional electric shock;
protection against fire. Cost Rupee Rs. 1000/- ‡ ,((*XLGDQFH1RWH1R3URWHFWLRQDJDLQVW
each, overcurrent;
h Protection against “FIRE” by 500mA at Main ‡ ,((2QVLWH*XLGH*XLGDQFHIRUWKHVPDOO
Incomer Breaker, preferably 300mA in Meter room. installation.
h Cost Rupee. 5000 to 10.000/- each. We conduct Training course for Electrical Engineers
and Electricians on Electrical Installations
We conduct short Course, 2 to 4 weeks, for “training
Initial reading for Electrical Engineers and Electricians” on Electrical
Installation as per “British and IEC Standards” in Low
You can Read first 1, 2, first then 3 and 4. These are
Voltage for Residential Buildings and Industrial Plants
easy to understand.
to Prevent Shock and Fire
Objectives are as below:
2017, Special focus: “Overview of Residual
Current Device (RCD), ELCB for Protection Brief Introduction to Standards. Recommend books for
against shock and Fire as British Standard reading
BS7671:2008. Prevent “shock and Fire” in Resident building and
2 is part of Industrial Plants.
Electric Safety council, UK. Consumer friendly
“SHOCK” can be prevented by RCD (ELCB) 30mA, cost
information. very easy to follow and you can
Rs. 1000/- in Residential Flat
download free.
3 Please, refer to < Right side click “FIRE” by 300mA, Cost. Rupee. 1000 to 10.000/- „
Other IET Web Site < click IET Electrical < Go to Gajaria Gokal
down Middle page, Click Wiring Matters. You can B.E. and M.E. (U.S.A.)
download free and explain very simple way. Electrical Engineer
4, Electrical Installation Guide 2016, (IEC), is Gajaria Electrical Training Consultant

May 2018 55
56 May 2018

ightning Protection of structures are being done

L in 2 ways, both confirming the Indian Standards.
The first method is isolated protection (for convenience
Protection Measures (touch and step
potential) P

called as conventional method) and the second one No Protection measures 1

is to use the naturally available steel in buildings as
Warning notices -1
parts of LPS such as down conductor and earthing (for 10

convenience called as structural earthing). Electrical insulation of exposed LPS parts 10-2
In conventional method down conductors are outside Soil equipotentialisation -2
the building and generally isolated from the structure.
Vertical Earth electrodes are used outside the building. Structural Earthing 0
Generally the LPS is not connected to Equipotential
Bonding bar, but in some cases earth electrodes are Protection Measures (Physical Damages) B

connected to other earthing system under soil. No protection measures 1

In structural earthing method, continuous conductors External LPS Class IV 0.2
super imposed inside RCC columns and foundation External LPS Class III 0.1
which runs along with construction steel will do the job
External LPS Class II 0.05
of down conductor and earthing.
External LPS Class I 0.02
Risk Analysis on injury to living being by Air termination (Class I) + structural
Earthing 0.01
electric shock due to a direct lightning
Metal roof + air termination (class 1) +
strike in the structure structural earthing 0.001
IS/IEC 62305-2 explains the risk assessment and
probability of damages in a building during a lightning. Probability of injury PA Chance of accident
Probability of injury to living being due to touch and
No protection Each strike will
step potential (PA) in a building depends on the 1
measures create damage
protection measures provided in the building against
touch and step potentials (PTA) as well as the external Class IV external One strike out of 5
LPS provided (PB). LPS and no soil 0.2 can create physical
equipotentialisation damage

May 2018 57

Whereas a conventional LPS is subjected to corrosion,

One strike out of 50 theft, vandalism etc hence need periodic inspection
Class I with no protection
0.02 can create physical
measures PTA and maintenance
A properly installed Structural Earthing system is
NO Chance of permanent in the building and well shielded, provided
Structural Earthing 0
accident welded iron reinforcing bars are used for concrete outer
walls. Note that a good electrical bonding is necessary.
Electrical Safety and Power Frequency In several situations the steel reinforcing bars may
not represent an adequate shield. A well-designed
Fault Voltage and implemented lightning conductor with conductive
Industrial / IT and commercial establishments need to connections to structural steel is an alternate method.
use TN-S network for L.V electrical distribution with in Some tips about this conductor are
the facility. For establishments with number of electronic
systems, TN-S is the recommended network by Galvanized steel inside concrete may create problem to
every modern standards. The method is explained concrete and hence avoid GI inside concrete.
and recommended in IS 3043 as PME (Protected All penetrations of steel in reinforcement to an outer area
Multiple Earthing). need careful design and installation. Use only Copper,
Properly implemented structural earthing ensures Copper coated steel or SS material for this application.
easy implementation of PME and thereby reduce Use only copper, copper coated steel or SS in soil if
the power frequency fault voltage between electricity connected to steel in reinforcement as recommended
using equipment and extraneous conductive parts in IS/IEC standard.
in a building during a fault. Equipotential bonding
thus created avoids dangerous spark over and fire
during a fault
Cheap and Best in long run
To achieve a cost-effective and efficient protection
system, the design should be carried out during the
Protection of Electronics building concept stage and before construction. This
Modern day electronic installations are highly sensitive allows one to optimize the use of the natural components
to Transients. Transients in a building are created due
of the structure and to choose the best compromise
to radiated Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP) due to various
for the cabling layout and equipment location. For a
reasons. Future electronic installations will be smaller
retrofit of shielding measures in conventional Lightning
& faster which means more sensitive to EMP. Electro
Magnetic Shielding plays a major role in protecting Protection System the cost is generally higher than the
modern day electronics. cost for structural Earthing.
A properly installed Structural Earthing system mean
a large volume shield created by natural components
Structural earthing and Bonding system
of the structure such as the metal reinforcement in h More safety for human beings during lightning
ceilings, walls and floors, the metal framework, the h More safety for electrical installations during fault
metal roofs and metal facades. These components & lightning
together create a grid-like spatial shield (faraday h Protect Electronic systems against EMP
cage). The current injected into the reinforcing rods h No Corrosion and Less Maintenance
is assumed to flow through a large number of parallel
h Cheap and Best in long run
paths. The impedance of the resulting mesh is thus low
and, as a consequence, the voltage drop due to the
lightning current is less. The magnetic field generated
Structural Bonding is a standard construction
by the current in the reinforcing steel mesh is weak practice in developed countries
due to the low current density and the parallel current Abstract of the paper presented during ICES-2017 at
paths generating opposing electromagnetic fields. Trivandrum on 18 Feb 2017 by S. Gopa Kumar, CAPE
Interference with neighboring electrical conductors is
electric pvt ltd, Chennai
correspondingly reduced.
Without any doubt, structural earthing provides Comparison of Different Earthing System for Industrial /
the best equipotential is at ion and protection of Commercial and IT buildings
electronic systems. Structural earthing
Current method
with TNS-PME
Corrosion and Associated problems (separate earth
(Different Earthing
Steel inside concrete have the advantage that, if the electrodes
bonded together
concrete is of adequate construction and covers the Method for LPS, DG,
including extraneous
steel by at least 50 mm, they are reasonably protected Transformer
conductive parts)
UPS, Lift etc
against corrosion, throughout the life of the building.

58 May 2018
May 2018 59

No confirmation Over Voltages in

IS 3043, IS 732, IS/
to IS/IEC/IEEE the installation
Confirmation to IEC 62305, IEC No Power frequency
standards. ( and
standards 60364, IEEE 142, fault voltage due to
IS3043 wrongly fire/flashover
interpreted) during a fault
System TN-S/TT/ not
TN-S with PME
Earthing (LV) clearly defined Slow due to
Quick operation of
short and
Separate for switchgear due to low
Transformer All earthing loop
body & N, DG connected together Operation of Resistance offered by
body & N, through Earth Switchgear PE and PME. More
resulting in
Lightning grid formed in human
increased loop
Earth Protection, UPS, the building/floor safety and less
Electrodes Lift, Electrical satisfying the Resistance. High
chance of fire
installation etc. bonding regulations chance of fire
Sometime these for increased safety
and Protection of Need to be
electrodes are
electronics. designed based Only partial fault
interconnected Electrode on full current through Earth
under soil design
prospective short electrode
not defined circuit current
/ designed PE conductor
Line to Body through earth Each electrode
Fault current
No Supplementary PE resistance is Measured as per IS/
return path Periodic
supplementary conductor through measured. This IEC 62305-3 (less
PE conductor grid value varies than 0.2 ohms)
Faraday Cage and
Shielding No shielding
perfect shielding Measurement Requested for
Assured less than 1
for Electrode less than 1 ohm,
Referance for Well defined ohm. measured as
Not defined very difficult to
Voltage reference voltage Resistance per IS 3043
Equipotential Very Good base for
Less possibilities Short (5 to 15
Bonding equipotentialisation Until the building last
independent GI strip is used
earth electrodes Ring Earth / in General which Connections in soil
at Various Foundation corrodes are exothermically
places in the earthing. welded.
Lightning Due to bimetallic
building. Not Recommended Copper / Copper
current and galvanic
recommended by IS/IEC 62305 coated steel material
Discharge effects. Need
by IS/IEC for protection of is used
62305 for large electronics and replacement in
Life inside concrete /
buildings with increased safety every 5 to 15
electronic years soil and connecting
systems points to Steel in
depending upon
concrete. High
the soil condition
Number of corrosion resistance
earth electrodes and life similar to
around the One building / One galvanic copper
earthing satisfying influence
building requirement of
damaging every electrical and
concrete electronic system IS 3043 permits to use steel in reinforcement foundations
installation / and piles as an effective electrode system without
necessity to provide buried electrode for application
High cost, such as power Generation and Distribution stations.
Advantages / complication Less cost. Increased
Disadvantages and failure in life of equipment TNS-PME earthing including Structural steel is for
electronics earthing for equipment, Lightning Protection, Transformer
Chance / DG Neutral & Body. Maintenance free for decades. This
of Neutral method is much more efficient and used as a standard
circulating NO failures due to
construction practice in developed countries „
Neutral circulating
through earth currents. S Gopakumar
and failures as a
result Managing Director of CAPE electric pvt ltd. Member of
National Building Code (NBC-2016)

60 May 2018

May 2018 61

Disconnector is one of the equipments of electrical substation which was designed in an early day of
electrical power transmission and distribution system evoluation. However, like any other T & D system
component, several design of the disconnector (also known as Isolator) was evolved as situation demands.
Present scenario calls for enhancement of the power handling capacity of the existing substation. In other
words, newly developed substations for utilities or industries are expected to handle more power in a smallest
possible area. This imposes challenge to redesign the existing disconnector with the capability of higher
continuous and short circuit current handing capability. In this paper, a theoritical approach is presented to
estimate the design margin of short circuit current handling capability of an existing disconnector along with
the experimental validation of the design. This also presents the parameters which can be altered to enhance
the short time current rating of the disconnector.

ne of the most safety critical equipment in air and continuous) of all the components of the electrical
O substation is disconnector. Disconnector breaks
the electrical path between two lines, which can be
substation. Various components of disconnector need
to be evaluated for the purpose of enhancement of
physically seen. It is essential to witness discontinuity current rating. Below are the typical components of
of electrical circuit before carrying out any installation any disconnector,
/ maintenance work in electrical lines. Disconnector is h Current carrying blades- openable blade provide
classified into On load and Off load type based upon the the main current carry path from input side to
operating condition of it. In the present work, discussion output side.
will be restricted on the off load type disconnector. It
has several design requirements among which dielectric h Insulators- This provides the insulation between
withstand voltage, current carry capacity during normal the live parts (current carrying blades) and the
and fault condition, seismic vibration, earthing capacity, base support.
synchronous operation of 3 arms, mechanical strength h Motor or manual operating device- For rotation
and lowest contact resistances are the few critical for of the blades, electrical motor with coupling
selecting the disconnector for a particular application. device can be used. Some cases this is done
Disconnector also needs to operate several times unlike manually also.
other fixed contacts in a sub-station. Hence, reliability h Structure- This provide the mechanical support
of the operation is also critical. As the electrical energy and capable to take the load of the terminals and
consumption is increasing day by day, utilities are the input and output lines.
looking for power level up gradation of existing energy h Base cum rotor housing- This provides the
transmission and distribution corridor. As a result, the foundation support to the whole disconnector and
substations are required to be designed with higher house the rotor.
current handling capacity with minimum power loss. This h Terminal connectors- This acts as coupler for
calls for augmentation of current rating (both short term input or output lines to the disconnector’s current

62 May 2018

carrying blades.Earth switch- This provides the

ground connection to the live component of the
disconnector after blades open. This ensures live
parts are at ground potential and provide safety
during maintenance.
h Interpole cable termination- This contains the
auxiliary power line for drives.
Figure 1 shows the arrangement of some of the critical
component of any typical connector.

Figure 3 Single break vertical opening disconnector

Single break- Here the current carrying blades will open

up from the center of the two ends. It will have single
break point of the current carry path. Figure 2 shows
the general arrangement of a center break disconnector
(CB) with horizontal open option.
This is one of the basic models of the disconnector. It
provides single point breaking of the current path. It can
have a horizontally rotating option or vertical opening
option. Opening directions to be chosen based upon
the available space. Figure 3 shows option of vertically
opennable disconnector.
Vertical opening option is useful when the space is not
sufficient. This takes advantage of height to provide
sufficient clearances in the open condition of the
(a) Current carrying blade; (b)Insulators; (c) Motor or manual operating
disconnector. This option is viable if the voltage rating
device; (d)Structure; (e)Base cum rotor housing; (f) Terminal connector;
(g)Earth switch;
is not very high. However, the load of the connector
terminal and the incoming / outgoing lines are rested
Figure 1 Different component of a disconnector on the rotatable base. The alignment of the contacts
may get changed due to wear and tear of the bearing
Types of disconnector due to high mechanical load over the bearing[1,2]. This
poses a limitation on the usage of this type in case of
There are variuos types of disconnector to suit different
higher terminal load with longer life.
application, voltage rating and reliability of the operation.
Following are some typical design of disconnector, Double break (DBRB) – This model will have one
rotating blade. This provide double break in the current
carry path. Figure 4 shows a typical double break
rotating blade model. Here the load of the incoming

Figure 2 Centre break (CB) disconnector Figure 3 Double break rotating blade (DBRB) disconnector

May 2018 63

/ outgoing line and terminals will not come over the while increasing the current rating of the disconnector.
rotating insulator. The reliability of the disconnector
The electromagnetic repulsive forces increase as the
increases. This requires usage of additional insulator
short circuit current rating increase. So it is important to
and structure to hold this rotating blade.
revisit the holding mechanism of the opennable contact.
Knee type - With the increase of the voltage level, the The holding force in the contact region is achieved
air gap between the income and outgoing terminal by the spring compression in design. FE simulation
increases. This means the openenable arm length has done to calculate the Lorentz force felt outwards
become taller in a vertically openable single break or opening direction. This force will be generated due
design. At very high voltage level, it becomes difficult to changes in the current direction and the generated
to give rotating torque to a very long arm and support force is proportional to the current density[3, 4]. Figure
this during the open condition. To overcome these 7 shows the current density plot in the fingers of the
difficulties knee type disconnector is developed, where moving contact of DBRB type disconnector.
the openable blade will be folded (Figure 5).

Figure 5 Knee type disconnector

Figure 7 Current density distribution in a finger of DBRD disconnector
Pantograph type (PG) - This variety is useful if there is a
height differences between incoming and outgoing line. This force needs to be countered by the spring
This also helps to tap the power without any physical compression force. The spring force is calculated
break of the main power line (figure 6). based on the below formula,
F= k (L1+L2)
Where, L1= Precompression length
L2= Compression length

k= spring constant which can be calculated as below

This also needs to be noted that due to loop shape of
the contact finger, there is will be repulsion in the top
and bottom ribs in a finger. In case force is exceeding
Figure 3 Double break rotating blade (DBRB) disconnector the mechanical stiffness of the finger then it will provide
better gripping of the finger over the moving blade
Design for higher current rating (Figure 8).

Design of certain components needs to be reviewed or This has to be noted that the other two phases will also
re designed in case the current rating of the disconnector put repulsive force on the other phase disconnector
to be increased. In the subsequent paragraphs, a blade. The locking mechanism of the rotating blades
design approach has been presented in relation with counters this huge force. If there is a shift in the center of
enhancement of short circuit current rating from 50 gravity of one phase to another, then a resultant torque
kA to 63 kA and continuous current rating of 2500 A will try to rotate the blade which will be proportional to
to 3000A. Design to be revisited for both short circuit the off centering length. Hence it is extremely important
current rating and maximum continuous current rating, that all the disconnector is anchored similarly.

64 May 2018

May 2018 65

value predicted by the FE analysis.

Figure 10 Experiential setup for temperature rise test

Figure 8 Current flow path and repulsive force direction in a fixed
contact finger It has also cleared all the required tests like di electric
withstand, seismic, induced voltage & current test
Apart from the electromagnetic repulsive force, the including the short circuit test
contact regions are also worst region where thermal
stress is very high during the short circuit condition.
Transient thermal analysis was done to understand
temperature shoot up during this scenario[5,6]. Figure
9 presents a typical temperature distribution during
the short circuit condition. For achieving better contact
resistance, contact zones are silver coated. It is important
that coating does not reach to melting temperature.
It is possible to achieve lower temperature by increasing
the contact surface area. It is also important to have
proper contact pressure to have lowest possible
resistance in the contact zone.

Figure 10 Temperature data in different location of the disconnector

current carry path

Preventive maintenance
Since disconnector consist of rotating parts and it has
opennable contacts, hence preventive maintenance
need to be carried out in a regular intervals. During
preventive maintenance as well as post installation,
alignment of the moving blades is checked critically[8].
Thermal vision cameras [9] can be used to understand
the hot spot temperature in the contact zones.
This will give indication of contact condition. Some
cases contact resistance is also measured as part of
health checking. Generally, utilities have their own
guideline and predefined intervals for this type of critical
Figure 9 temperature distribution patterns in a contact zone

Experimental results Conclusion

After validation of the design using FE tools, the actual
An overview of different type of disconnector based
prototype of a DBRB has been made. This has subjected
upon the applications is presented. A design approach
to short circuit current testing as per IEC-62271-102[7].
for up gradation of the existing disconnector for higher
Disconnector has also subjected to continuous 3000 current rating has been explained. Virtual validation of
A current for 2 hr. K- type thermocouple was placed the design using FE analysis is extremely helpful for
at different location of the current carry path of the reducing the number of actual prototype iteration. This
disconnector (Figure 10). The maximum temperature also helps to predict the design margin. However, the
is stabilized at 60o C (Figure 11) which is close to the design needs to be finally validated with the testing.

66 May 2018

Future Trends
Some advance work is also in progress where the
spring less contact system is under development. This
required a special alloy which can provide the elastic
contact with the higher conductivity. This advancement
will radically change the concept of contact design.
With the advancement of wireless technology, R & D
work is in progress where wireless smart controller to
be implemented. This will offer a wireless operating
mechanism with wireless electrically gang of all the
phases with no cabling between switchyard and
remotely located control room as well as in-between the
different phases of disconnector.

1 Chao Bian, Yug Zhon, Weimin Guan, Jinggang
Yang and Zhiue Xu, “Study on the closing state
of high voltage disconnector based on the modal
analysis”, 20th International conference on Electrical
machines and systems ( ICEMS), 2017, DOI 10.1109 /
2 Chao Yang, Gang Li, Yonghuai AN, Shenyi Bai, Shuibin
Zhou, “VLD- based position monitoring method for
intelligent disconnector”, High Voltage electrical
appliances, Vol. 50, No. 7, Pp 76-82,2014.
3 Xiangyu Guan, Naiqiu, Shu, Bing Kang and Minghan
Zou, “ Multiphysics of analysis of plug I connector under
steady and short circuit conditions”, IEEE Transaction on
components, packaging and manufacturing technology,
Vol. 5, No. 3, March 2015.
4 Gholamreza Kodhodaei, Keyhan Sheshyekani,
Mohsen Hamzeh, “ Coupled electric-magnetic-thermal
mechanical modeling of busbars under short circuit
conditions”, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution,
Vol. 10, Issue 4, Pp 955-963, 2016
5 Yuqin Ding, Qiaogen Zhang, Xuandong Liu, Meng Gao,
Yuan Li, Yi Zhao, Hengchi Ma,Guangqi Liu, Ke Wang,
“Study on thermal circuit model of typical disconnector
and current transformer”, 2017 1st International
conference on electrical materials and power equipment
(ICEMPE), Pp 179-183.
6 David Simek, “The thermal model and temperature rise
test of disconnector”, 17th International conference on
Mechatronics-Mechatronika (ME), 2016.
7 IEC-62271-102, “High Voltage switchgear and
controlgear –Part 102: Alternating current discnnectors
and earthing switches”, 2003.
8 Jan Henning, Jurgensen Anna Brodersson, Lars
Nordstrom, Patrik Hilber, “Impact assessment of remote
control and preventive maintenance on the failure rate of
a disconnector population”, IEEE Transaction on power
lumasense-technologies.html „

Subhankar D, Fency A, Nachiket B,

Sarvanan T, Alka S, Ravi A,
Energy product division
Rachem RPG (Pvt) Ltd

Kaladhar D
Hivelm Indusries

May 2018 67

e use electricity knowing that it is dangerous. We time I realized the spark appearing at the power outlet
W feel safe, because we have installed protection
devices such as circuit breakers and fuses. We assume
where my cellphone was charging. I switched off all the
devices in my room and went to the distribution board.
that it ought to disrupt power in case of risk to human I was surprised to find none of the circuit breakers had
life or property. We trust these protection systems with tripped. What was I supposed to do now? I started
our lives. Have we asked ourselves – are they enough? turning some other devices in the house to see what
How often do you see a nuisance tripping of your circuit happened. I stood close to the distribution box and
breaker? The circuit breaker trips, we turn it back on and assumed in the worse case I would trip some circuit
circuits are working just fine. We have all experienced breakers. Cautiously, I started switching one appliance
it. We all have. Experiencing frequent nuisance tripping at a time in the living room. The first switch was for a
is certainly not a good sign. It is an indication that your tubelight, it worked, but output was low. The next switch
electrical systems need to be examined. It could also was for a fan -- that didn’t work. Next I tried one of the
mean that your circuit breakers are getting old and halogen spotlights in the passage close to my bedroom,
need to be changed. But, amongst the many evils this and BOOM -- a small explosion!!! The bulb exploded.
is by far better, in comparison to a circuit breaker not No breaker tripped and luckily, no other damage. This
tripping when there is actually an significant electrical time the sound was enough to wake up the rest of my
risk. How is that possible you might ask. family. I turned off the main circuit breaker and then
Let me share my experiences from a few years ago. The went to ask the others if they noticed anything odd.
date is 23rd February 2014. I had started to observe My father complained, that the AC in his room stopped
issues with my electrical supply the night before. I working and the fan started operating really fast. My
reached home and wanted to watch a football match brother smelt some burnt electronics in his room.
but the set-top box kept turning off randomly. A closer Sparking, fans operating at high speeds, bulbs bursting
examination revealed sparking at the spike guard and all indicated overvoltage. But, nobody else in the
intermittent supply from the power adapter to the set- building seemed to be complaining. The problem was
top box. I assumed that there was a problem with the localized to my home. How was our flat the only one
adapter. Everything else worked fine at the moment. in the building receiving a higher voltage. We do have
Later, close to midnight one of the lights near the same a three phase supply at home. It was possible that we
set-top box started to flicker. Since the supply to the rest were receiving a Phase-to-Phase voltage of 415V at the
of the house seemed fine, I thought it was too late to appliances/outlets, instead of Phase-to-Neutral of 230V.
bother. I switched off the lights and went to bed. While I did not have my voltage meter and could not be sure.
I was sleeping, close to about 5am I heard a sound, But, I still had some lingering thoughts. What was the
like somebody was knocking at the bedroom door. I cause of the Phase-to-Phase voltage? It would have to
woke up, checked the bedroom door and nobody was suggest a Phase-to-Neutral Short. Which should have
there, just then I heard the knocking sound again. This tripped the circuit breakers. And what was the reason

68 May 2018

for the low light output, flickering, random switching off

the set top box – all indicated an undervoltage condition
or an intermittent power supply.
A few hours later, at a more decent time in the morning
morning I went down to the meter room with the local
electrician. He measured the incoming supply to
the meter and confirmed it was alright. However, the
antiquated meter installed in 1981 had a connection
in the neutral path that had failed, and about time.
The meter had outrun its lifetime. Certainly, it was an
oversight on our part. This poor maintenance of the
electrical system created an rather scary situation for
my family.
The fault that we had experienced is commonly known
as a “floating neutral”, “neutral open” or a “neutral
fail”. It is one of the more challenging electrical faults
to detect and protect. When you face it the effects are
catastrophic. The voltage observed at different phases
could be anywhere from 0V-415V, but most probably
somewhere in between. This rather precarious situation
arises from the fact that the neutral is floating and
would “assume” an voltage based on loads connected
amongst the respective phases.
The floating neutral condition clearly explains why
some of the devices were observing a higher voltage
and other devices connected to another phase were
observing low voltage levels. It also confirms why
none of the circuit breaker tripped. There wasn’t any
short circuit condition. The problem was related to
the voltages levels and they were enough to damage
appliances and even trigger fires.
Understanding the gravity of the situation I am happy
that with Gods grace we avoided a major calamity that
day. It makes we wonder how many of the recent fires
making daily headlines could have been averted with
better more sound protection devices. It is a fact that
the circuit protections that we use, rely on, and trust
are not designed to cover all known electrical risks.
Our application of circuit protection theory needs
to be revisited. During the course of the research
performed at Jhaveri Power Labs we have identified 20
unique electrical problems that one faces in the Indian
environment. Issues such as neutral failure, exposed
wires, loose connections, rats nibbling on insulation
amongst others are all cause of fires. There are a total of
12 fire causing events that are all misclassified as short
circuits. At Jhaveri Power Labs we have indigenously
developed the POWEReasy solution that can monitor
your electrical supply and protect against 20 unique
electrical faults including the 12 fire causing events. It is
the only solution to have complete coverage of 20 known
electrical faults and comes with additional features to
improve electrical quality, maximize equipment life and
save energy. „
Tejas Jhaveri
PhD, is Founder, Jhaveri Power Labs LLP

May 2018 69

n recent days there are major fires taking place in till the completion of the construction.
I Urban Areas and Mega cities. Many Public programs,
Entertainment shows and High Rise Buildings are
h Shipyards, R C C Casting Yards and similar sites
where wires and cables are just sprayed on
catching fire because of various reasons. However the
ground and subjected to all handling of trollies,
moment fire is quinced the fire Dept quickly announces
falling of material, etc.
that the fire was due to short circuit. The site of fire
is Not even visited by the concern Electrical Inspector h Typical type of Industrial Establishments like Steel
even then fire Dept announces the reason behind fire. plants, Cement plant, fish processing plants.
The announcement of cause of fire is the responsibility Food processing yards, etc.
of the Electrical Inspector as per Electricity Rules. h Agricultural fields, where temporary nature of
Then the question comes that installation is used permanently.
1) who has carried out the wiring/installation, h In general where installation work is not done as
per standard practices and carried out carelessly.
2) whether it was inspected and approved by
Electrical Inspector,
Rules & Regulations
3) Whether the Installation carried out by Licensed
Central Electricity Authority have formulated Rules and
Electrical Contractor,
Regulations for Electrical Safety and is titled as :
4) In accordance with the standard norms and
practices followed for proper installation? “Central Electricity Authority (Measures relating to
Safety and Electric Supply) Regulation – 2015”
5) If ISI marked material was used or not?
The Electrical Short Circuit or Electrical Fire generally In our country Roti, Kapada and Makan were earmarked
takes place mainly on the following Installations. as basic needs, but today Electricity is also considered
as basic need, particularly in the Urban Areas. As
h Events, Programs, Large Public meetings where such all the cities, towns and even villages do have
temporary wiring is carried out for the Tenure of the Electricity Board’s/Licencee’s wire Network which
the event. is tapped at the consumer’s premises and meters are
h Old buildings, where old electrical Installation installed. The accidents starting point begins here.
(Generally for more than 25-30 years old) exists,
The reasons
which has grossly over loaded wires and cables
due to additional load put on the old installation. h Unauthorised tapping of 440 V; 3 ph. Supply from
h Construction sites, where the wires and cables overhead L.T. Lines.
switchgear are laid without following the proper h Improper Installation of wires, cables and other
Installation procedure, which results in to over electrical equipments as well as illiteracy about
loading of wires, cables and switchgears installed Electricity Rules and Regulations.

70 May 2018

h Joints, Tappings of wires and cables are generally the Stair Case, which do not have manuvaring
loosesly done and Not properly Insulated with space as well as there is poor ventilation.
Tapes. These leads to small sparkings. b) To take cables on the upper floors, generally a
h Connectors are generally not used for the cut is provided on the slab of landings of the
purpose of continuation of wires and termination Stair cases, hardly a separate Electrical Duct is
of wires. provided in the Buildings.
h Loose Termination gives sparking, joint’s heating c) Due to space constrains generally safe clearance
and charring effects. and distances between cables coming from
Substation to Meter Room and from Meter Room
h Not Maintaining the adequate clearances/
to every floor are not observed.
distances between two feeder wires which
are open wires in the overhead supply, which d) Ground Clearances in Substation is NOT
generates Electrical field and offen arcing is also observed.
seen. e) Less no of Earthing Stations are provided due to
the paucity of open space as well as Lightening
h Installation Not having proper earthing and No
Arrestors are shifted at rear side of the building
ELCB or MCB for tripping of supply in case of
instead of Highest Point.
f) Not using Standard ISI marked material and
h In the villages where Electricity Tripping is a equipments.
frequent phenomina, there is a tendancy of
g) The Labours are ill qualified and not having
tieing of switchgear handles with a rope, so that
adequate experience and expertise.
the Switchgear/starters do not tripp off when
power failure and there is no need to restart the h) Standard Procedure as required by National
switchgear when power is re-established. Building Code/National Electricity Code is NOT
h The life of wiring as per National Electricity Code
i) Workmen and Supervisors do NOT have required
of 2011 is 20 to 25 years, during this period the
Training for the proper installation and Not having
wires, cables, switchgears get deteriorated and
the knowledge of Rules; Regulations & Practice of
get under rated. They are also overloaded due
to additional load. Hence they need to be
replaced with new equipments and wires. j) For underground cable proper Cable Trenches
This is NOT done. with covers and/or RCC Pipe Duct with chambers
are NOT provided in the campus.
h Flamable material like paper Rags, kerosene,
chemicals, Gas Cylinder etc. are stored around k) Control Panels do NOT have a separate Panel
the electrical installation. Room with Cable Trenches, instead they are
located below the stair case space.
h The fire occurs due to fire triangle components
l) Cable Trays are NOT provided, but cables are laid
e.g. spark, flammable
on wall or laid loose above false ceiling.
Oxygen substance and oxygen
Flammable And the total Electrical
Substance In Industry/Factories/Workshop
fires to the extent of 40
The Industry has large consumption of Power as
to 45 percent are due to
Spark such large power consuming machinery need bigger
Electrical Short Circuit.
Electrical Equipments like Switchgears, Transformers,
About 2500 people died
D.G. Sets, Control Panels, Cables, Trunking Bus Bars
due to Electrical Fire last Spark year. etc. are used invariably. Hence Trained and Expert
h For avoiding these short circuits we need to figure Electrical Staff has to be appointed in the Industry.
out the reasons and try to eliminate these reasons
a) While original Installation as well as subsequent
to avoid fire break ups.
addition and alteration in the Installation all
h In order to avoid Electrical Fires we shall start proper procedure of laying cables on trays,
looking & avoiding reasons from beginning fixing them with proper sized saddles; keeping
adequate clearances between cable, giving
In Civil Construction cable ties and numbering them. Keeping vertical
a) The Architect generally looks for aesthetic show clearance/distance below control panel form the
of the building and Ambiance surrounding. He is maintenance point of view has to be done.
generally not concerned with the Electrical Safety b) Substation and Main Control Room must display
due to unawareness. Cable Layout Plans, Drawings of the Control
You will find at many places that the Electrical Panel, Details of DG Sets, Transformer and other
Control Room and Meter Room is located below Heavy Switchgear Equipments.

May 2018 71

c) Fire Protection System, Co2 Gas Cylinders, First Earthing :

Aid Box, Respiration Chart, Safety Equipments Testing the Earth pits for its proper functioning and
like H. T. Hand Gloves, D. O. Fuse Fixing Rod, checking IR values, Earth Resistance Values.
Rubber Mat (Electrical Grade) with ISI marking,
Fire Buckets & Co2 Extinguishers etc. Will have to Testing Lightning Arrester and checking its Conductive/
be provided. Resistive Values.

d) If Installation is Big and Factory is working in Two/

Three Shifts there should be available a team
Flammable Area in the Factory
of Electrical Engineer, Electrical Supervisor and Checking installations and other electrical equipments
Licensed Electricians/Wiremen per shift as well in Paint Shop, Battery Room, Gas Cylinder Storage,
as Senior Electrical Engineers during day for Chemical Storage Area and Keeping up to date record
overseeing and future planning. of all these Installations and the protection equipments
Electrical Audit
Preventive Maintenance
In order to avoid any Electrical Accident and Electrical
Fire due to Short Circuit, the Electrical Audit must be Regularly checking for preventive maintenance all the
carried out every three/five years. Electrical Lighting; Motive power equipments, Earthing
Systems and conforming that the results are as per
The following procedure should be adopted for carrying specified in IS; Register of Electrical Fire and Accidents
out the Electrical Audit. should be maintained.

History of Electrical Installation Hot Spot

The book should be maintained giving list of all the Checking the areas of overloading and taking THERMAL
equipments in the Installation, Load Sanction Papers IMAGING of the equipments cables, wires Distribution
& list thereof. New additional load spare capacity Board for possible overloading and getting the images
provided. thereof and maintaining the record.
Sanction letters, approval letters and approved
Electrical Layout Plans by Electrical Inspector and /or Lift Inspection
Chief Engineer of Supply Company, Building/Factory Ensure that the Lifts are properly maintained by the
Layout Plan for complete Electrical Installation and Fire properly trained workforce, it is inspected very regularly
Protection Installation and also Control Panel Drawings. by the authority, the operating staff is properly trained
and update them with changes in the Lift Operations,
Certification from Electrical Inspector and Chartered
Maintenance and the Acts & Rules.
Electrical Safety Engineer and / or Electrical Auditor for
Total Installation that Installation is carried out as per
prevailing Rules, Regulations and Standard Practices of General Precautions
Electrical Installation. The Non Electrical Staff of Administration HR, Security,
Stores & Godowns as well as engineers of other
Observations Notes branches like Mechanical, Civil, Chemical, IT etc.
should be given basic training of Electrical Safety and
If the Installation carried out is as per National Electricity
handling of routine equipments.
Code as well as the other Rules, Regulations and
Practices. Provisions of various Electricity Act, Rules and
Regulations, Code of Practice should be made aware
Documentation to all concern.

h Following Papers should be prepared for Audit All the Electrical Installations i.e. Residential, Commercial
& Industrial as well as H. T. Installation should be got
h Inspection Report
done from a Licensed Electrical Contractor in order
h Single Line Diagram to have proper, electrically safe and as per the Rules,
h Transformer Oil Breakdown Voltage Test Regulations & Standard Norms & Practices of carrying
out safe installation. This is mandatory as per Electricity
h Insulation Test Report
Act 2003.
h Earth Resistance Test Report
If these practices are adopted for permanents,
h Capacitor Test Report
Temporary or casual Installations there will be NO threat
h Protection Relays Test Report of Short Circuit and Electrical Fire. „
h Log Book for Transformers and Allied Equipments
Anil Gachke
Former General Secretary
h Log Book for DG Set Working & its maintenance. Electrical Contractors’ Association of Maharashtra

72 May 2018
May 2018 73

The increased standard of living of an average Indian c. For medium heavy electrical loads (Air-
house hold with the economic growth has also increased conditioners, geyser, grinder, washing
our dependence on electricity in our day to day life. This machine, oven etc) between 1000 watts to
also means a typical household has more electrical 3000 watts always use 4 Sq. mm copper wires
appliances today than ever before. Also, the common 3. Ensure the electrical points are properly
trend in urban India is high rise residential construction planned in the house not only for present use
with the increase in density of population per square but also for future applications. When more
foot area. Considering these facts, it’s important for us plugs are connected to one point, it results in
to give the electrical wiring its due attention and follow the cables drawing cumulative current of all the
safe wiring practices to avoid fire accidents. appliances connected to that point resulting in the
At present in India home owners are not involved in overloading and short circuit
decision making of matters related to electrical wiring 4. Ensure correct planning and designing of the
both due to concealed nature of the application and electrical circuit
the limited knowledge and home owners tend to a. Ensure independent circuits for each room
focus more on paint, electrical accessories, plumbing
b. Keep higher load gadgets in separate circuits
accessories etc. But considering the importance of the
like AC, Geyser, Heater, Iron etc.
electrical wiring for the overall safety of the household
it is important for home owners to involve and ensure c. Isolate each major circuit and connect it to a
good wiring practices are followed by the developers / Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)
contractors. d. Circuits should be further sub distributed for
each room
Key steps to ensure safer wiring & safer homes:
5. Follow right earthing practices to avoid electric
1. Use copper wires made of pure copper shocks
(electrolytic) only for optimum current carrying
a. Use copper wires, plates and rods for earthing
capacity. You can ensure this by buying
as Galvanized Iron plates and rods tend to
cables of reputed brands that are ISI marked
corrode and disintegrate
2. Wiring specification:
a. For light electrical loads (tube-lights, fans etc) Central Electricity Authority (Measures
less than 250 Watts use 1.5 Sq. mm copper
relating to safety and Electric Supply)
b. For medium electrical loads (TV, refrigerator, Regulations, 2010.
computer, music system etc) between 250 h The regulations specify the following key
watts to 1000 watts use 2.5 Sq. mm copper requirements concerning home and other
wires installations:

74 May 2018
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Licensed contractors only suppliers are required to inspect and test installations
Under regulation 29(1), only an electrical contractor under the provisions of Regulation 30(3). Form I (for
licensed by the state government can undertake installations up to 250 volts) requires the report to cover
electrical works. Those executing the work under him the condition of service lines, cables, wires, apparatus
must have a certificate of competency of wireman’s and “such other fittings placed by the supplier or owner
grade issued by state government. And all workers of the premises.” The report must state whether the
must be deployed under supervisors who have have a condition of these is satisfactory or not. Form II (for
certificate of competency of supervisor’s grade issued installations above 250 volts and below 650 volts)
by the government. The regulation is applicable to all has a provision to also report whether the register
electrical installation work except 250-volt or below of designated persons is kept as required under
sundry fixtures like lamp replacement and the like. Regulation 3 and that it is duly updated and attested.
Regulation 29(2) further prohibits the powering up of Essentially, the thrust of the regulations is on following
electrical installations and wiring done by any person
and enforcing prescribed standards to enhance the
other than those certified.
safety of installations, as the very title specifies. The
provisions also seek to build an ecosystem where the
Right person, right records entire electrical system -- from supplier through the
The rules also recognize that different levels of distributor to the end user -- is built, maintained and
proficiency will be required for various installations. supervised in a manner that it is robust, safe and can be
House wiring calls for skills materially different form operated with minimal losses.
those required for high tension power lines. Regulation
3(1) calls for designation of persons to execute specified
tasks, with their names recorded in a register as National Electrical Code of
specified in Regulation 3(2) to ensure that only qualified India 2011 – Key Provisions
and certified persons are working in a given designated
h Section (9) of the National Electrical Code is
area. Regulation 3(3) specifies that no person shall be
designated unless he has a certificate of competency primarily intended to cover guidelines on essential
or electrical work permit issued by the appropriate design and constructional requirements of wiring
government and his name is entered in the said register. installations which are commonly applicable to
all types of occupancies. The NEC guides for
This helps not only keep a record of work and people selection and safe installation of equipment and
but also to fix responsibility in case of mishaps. Under
materials. However, the NEC is not intended as
Regulation 4(1), the records are liable to be produced
a design specification, but rather, is for reference
before an Electrical Inspector, who is empowered under
Regulation 4(2) to recommend removal of the names and guidance.
of those not qualified. This keeps an external check on
contractors and will help ensure that work standards are Estimation of Electrical Loads and Related
not compromised or work is not handed to ill-trained Protection
staff just to cut down on spends at the cost of safety. Different types of circuits are needed to carry the load
in each location like room. Wiring in each circuit is
Inspection forms protected by an over current device, either a fuse or
Schedule IV of the Regulations lists the forms of Circuit Breaker. If a circuit becomes overloaded, or a
Inspection Report which are required to be filled when short circuit develops, the breaker will open to stop

Statistics of Electrical Accidents State wise Electrical Accidents

Human & Animal [Fatal/Non-Fatal] (Major Contributors)




16000 3032

14000 2548
2218 2450
12000 2500

10000 2000
8000 1500 1133





960 969 2016-17


6000 1000



603 2015-16


4000 500



2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
Total Human Fatal Human Non-Fatal Animal Fatal Animal Non-Fatal

Central Electricity Central Electricity

Electrical Accident Analysis – Issues & Challenges Authority
Electrical Accident Analysis – Issues & Challenges Authority

76 May 2018
May 2018 77

the current flow. By providing multiple branch circuits Residential Wiring – Key Considerations
within a house, one can keep costs down and ensure
safe operation. The load carrying capacity of a wire is
measured in amperes and stated as ampacity. Wire with h Installation shall be separate for ceiling and
higher cross section has a higher ampacity. Appliances higher levels in walls
having higher power need will require larger wire with a h Devices consuming higher power or supplied by
higher ampacity. cord n plug separate wiring
h For plug-in equipment, provisions for ELCB at sub
Circuits distribution board
The various types of circuits include: h Separate circuits for Kitchen and bathroom
h Each sub circuit shall not have more than 10
h General Purpose Circuit: A General-Purpose points (light, fan n 6A sockets)
Circuit includes all lighting outlets and most
h Power sub circuit designed as per load but in no
receptacles. These circuits do supply lighting but
case more than two 16A socket; practice is 16A
are rather used to connect other items such as
socket for RAC, cooking range, storage water
vacuum cleaners, radios, televisions, computing
heater etc.
gadgets, entertainment devices etc., to them.
h Common area lighting separate
h Small Appliance Circuit: Small Appliance Circuit h Large halls 3 wire control with individual and
are often the ones used in the kitchen area to master control for effective conservation
supply power to mixers, toasters, blenders, and h Any fire alarm / emergency lighting circuits shall
other small appliances. be segregated from all other cables and from
h Individual Branch Circuits: Individual Branch each other, Extra low voltage circuit like ICE must
Circuits are wired directly from the breaker be having separate system
panel to only one appliance. They are used for
items that require larger loads, e.g. A/C, water Large Buildings – Key Recommendations
heater, etc. (CLAUSE
h Deploy sub distribution board (final circuit
Electrical Devices – Precautions distribution board) to avoid cable length or
Electrical wiring, if fireproofed with thermal insulation, prevent voltage drop at more distant points
must be de-rated in ampacity. Extra length of wire (lamps n fans etc)
should be provided so that it gives it the flexibility h Number of sub main circuits (distribution Ckt),
and liberty as to where to attach the wire. And it also sub distribution boards (branch distribution
prevents possible stress on a too tight wire. The cable boards), final circuits to load are decided as per
can be installed on a wall, in cable tray or embedded number of points to be wired and load to be
in or below a concrete slab. Where cables embedded connected per circuit.
in concrete emerge from the slab, protection against h Distribution board with plenty of wiring space
sheer damage shall be provided by means of a short between terminals and adequate size
PVC conduit stub, metal plate or angle, at that point. h Branch distribution board with surge protective
Reasonable precautions should be taken against blows
device and earth leakage protection on live
with sharp instruments and pulling over sharp objects.
conductor of each sub circuit and the earthed
And extra care should be taken to avoid the ingress of
neutral conductor connected to common link but
moisture due to condensation.
capable of being disconnected for
Electric motors generally draw a high current during testing purpose
starting cycle, requiring wire and fuse sizes to be h Power socket outlet circuit not to exceed 3000 W.
calculated carefully. Even during the run cycle of In case of fault only particular circuit should get
a motor, if the voltage is low it causes the motor to disconnected
overheat and may cause failure. If the voltage drops h Essential loads fed by standby source through
considerably, the wire size is too small. Low voltage can separate wiring; wiring for safety services
cause the motor to fail. separate and distinct
Critical equipment includes all emergency shutdown h Unless otherwise specified wiring shall be done
equipment such as block valves; emergency lighting only by ‘looping system’. Phase conductors
equipment; and any other monitoring equipment. All looped at switch boxes and neutral at point
electrical work requires a permit, licensed electricians outlets. „
to carry out all such work. In case the installation is not Amol C Kalsekar
proper, then the connections (where the wires join to Chief Manager – Building Wire
the outlets and switches) can present a fire hazard. International Copper Association India

78 May 2018
Providers of High Voltage Testing Solutions Since 1970









10/3, DLF Industrial Area, Moti Nagar, New Delhi-110015

Phone: 91-11-43680100 (10 lines) | Fax: 91-11-41425853

May 2018 79

se of fire survival cables in buildings and or with unfamiliar layout of buildings like malls
U establishments are a key to minimize loss during
fire breakouts.
and cinema halls and crowded places like offices,
schools, etc where the need to evacuate people during
While electricity is a wonderful aspect of modern life, fire breakouts is of primary concern.
it can be dangerous if we aren’t careful. Electrical fires Cables play a key role in safety of an establishment
are a frequent occurrence in India. We read and hear of with respect to fires, as they are a vital link between
instances in the news regularly describing ghastly fire emergency equipment and their power or control
accidents causing massive damage to property and source and hence it is crucial that they must remain
claiming innocent lives. Majority of electrical fires are functional even during a fire. In case of a large fire;
a result of short circuit due to old wiring, damaged or Elevators, escalators, extraction fans, emergency
poor quality of equipment and faulty outlets. lighting, warning sirens, etc; need to keep running as
long as possible so people can get out.
Warning signs of electrical dangers
include Electrical cables and wires - the
h Reoccurring or frequent issues associated with significant fire safety issue in today’s
blowing fuses in machinery, appliances or tripping establishments and installations:
circuit breakers.
h If the insulating or jacketing materials in cables
h Tingling sensation as you touch an electrical catch fire, they can represent a significant quantity
appliance at home. of fuel for fire, because of the sheer volume of
h Sparks coming from an outlet or discolored or cables in modern buildings (electrical, telephone,
warm wall outlets. computer connections …etc.).
h A continuous burning smell from a room or h If cables are not fire safe, then they are highly
appliance. susceptible to be the cause of fire, making
h Lights that frequently flicker or dim. overheating of wires, arcing, short circuits or
electrical faults develop into flames of burning
Cables are like ‘Arteries & Veins’ of any construction
insulating material.
reaching each & every corner of the building, hence
selection of right cable, its sizing, testing and installation h Furthermore, cables are often the carriers of fire
all put together plays a vital role for in-service through a building, as they cross fireproof walls,
performance of the cable. And with the rapid growth in linking occupied spaces to service areas, ceiling
infrastructure and urbanization there is a growing need voids and other parts of the building. In case of
for specialty cables. Fire survival cables, especially, fire, they can also result in:
have seen a steady demand in places inhabited by h Increased smoke emission (sufficient to limit
people with limited mobility like hospitals, clinics visibility and inhibit escape).

80 May 2018

non-LSZH jackets, which facilitate easier cable

LSZH cables are perfect for applications that require high
performance and reliability while offering outstanding
safety, typically used for Hospitals & Clinics, Shopping
Malls, Public Buildings, Airport Terminals, Cinemas
& Theaters, Hotels, Commercial Offices, Schools &
Colleges, Residential Compounds, etc.

Flame Retardant Cables

Flame retardant cables are designed for use in fire
situations where the spread of flames along a cable
route needs to be retarded. This is achieved through
the use of sheathing materials that do not readily burn
and will tend to self-extinguish. Normally, for this type
of cables, flame retardant Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
sheathing is used.
h Increased carbon monoxide production (the most
lethal gas in fires). The typical application for flame retardant cables is in
h Release of irritant gases (depending on the places where fire needs to be curbed, but smoke and
materials used, hydrochloric acid HCl, hydro acid gas emission does not pose a serious threat to life
fluoric acid HF, carbonyl fluoride COF2, and or property. Due to relative low cost, flame retardant
acrolein). cables are also widely used as fire survival cables.

Types of Fire Safety Cables: LSZH Cables Fire Resistant Cables

Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH) cables are the safe The Resistance-to-fire (of a cable) is the term used to
choice for locations where in which there is fire potential describe how long a cable continues to operate during
and the potential for people to be near that fire. a fire. This is of primary importance in the running of fire
fighting installations.

Why LSZH Cables? Fire resistant cables are designed to maintain circuit
h Eliminates the hazard of suffocation by inhalation integrity of the vital safety and rescue equipment during
of highly irritant Hydrochloric acid that is formed the fire. In addition to maintaining circuit integrity under
fire conditions, Fire resistant cables have limited smoke
emission and corrosive gases when assessed under
the fire conditions, thus safeguarding human life and
protecting equipment.

Performance of Cables in the Event of

Many tests have been developed over the years in
an attempt to evaluate the potential performance of
both individual materials and complete cables. Fire
Prevents release of dense smoke that impairs visibility test methods relating to cables can be split into two
of the fire exit routes and hampers rescues operations. categories, those which test the whole cable and those
which evaluate individual component materials. The
h Reduces confusion, panic and suffocation ratio,
tests on materials are not specific to cable standards
which allows people to reach safety
but are often specified therein.
h Slow to burn, therefore increases the time to carry
out rescue operations and reduces the immediate h For standard installation conditions – cables with
damage. standard flame retardancy are used.
h For installations in non-hazardous industries and
h More environmentally-friendly than other materials
open conditions–Cables with improved oxygen
h Flame retardant property prevents the fire from index are used, popularly known as ‘FR’ cables.
spreading throughout the premises.
h For installations with human surroundings and
h Cables allow smooth functioning of Fire safety chemical or refineries, or hazardous plants etc
equipments. – Cables with improved oxygen index and low
Jackets have a lower coefficient of friction than some smoke properties are used, popularly known as

May 2018 81

‘FRLS’ cables. Flame Propagation Test: (IEC 60332-1,

Further cables with ‘Low smoke & Zero halogen
(LSZH)’ are used in Hospitals, Railways and
BS EN 60332-1)
metros, high rise buildings, shopping malls,
theaters, airports, i.e. basically areas of high
population in closed circumstances.
h - Fire survival cables are mandatory to use where
circuit integrity is of prime importance in case of
fire. Those are used mainly along with fire alarm
systems, elevators, lighting systems at Metro
railways, airports, high rises, mines, etc.

Fire Testing Standards and Methods:

Fire testing methods and building safety standards This test is used to measure the resistance to vertical
define specific fire safety requirements applicable to flame propagation for a single vertical electrical
cables. Fire safety of cables can be achieved by different insulated conductor or cable under fire conditions. The
methods, depending on the degree of fire resistance single insulated conductor or cable shall pass the test if
required for the given application. the distance between the lower edge of the top support
Indian standards for cables e.g. IS 1554 (for PVC and the onset of charring is greater than 50 mm. In
insulated Cables), IS 7098 (for XLPE insulated cables, or addition, a failure shall be recorded if charring extends
IS- 694 for wires and flexibles) covers the requirements downwards to a point greater than 540 mm from the
for cables for safety against fire. On the cable or wire lower edge of the top support.
outer jacket additional properties against fire are
mentioned by marking word ‘FR’ or ‘FRLS’. By this user Flame Spread Test: (IEC 60332-3, BS EN
understands the cable type.
Internationally also, similar practices are followed
This test attempts to simulate a real installation
&there are tests to monitor the performance of the cable
under fire condition. environment and uses bunched cables, 3.5m long,
fixed in a vertical arrangement. The ignition source is a
a) Smoke emission from cable during fire is monitored ribbon type propane/air burner with a fuel input of 73.7
as under: MJ/hour. The burner is arranged horizontally at the foot
- For ‘FRLS’ cables during fire, visibility maintained of the ladder to which the cables are fastened and is
is at least 40% or smoke density of 60% applied for 20 or 40 minutes, depending on the category.
maximum. It is measured as per IS 10810 Part 63 The bunched wires or cables shall pass the test if the
or ASTM D 2843. maximum extent of the charred portion measured on
- For ‘LSZH’ cables during fire, visibility maintained the samples shall not have reached a height exceeding
is at least 80% or smoke density of 20%. It is 2.5 m above the bottom edge of the burner.
measured as per IS 10810 Part 63 or ASTM D
b) Halogen Acid gas emission from cable during fire
is monitored.
- For ‘FRLS’ cables during fire, maximum halogen
gas emitted should be 20% by weight. It is
measured as per IS 10810 Part 59 or IEC 60754
Part 1.
- For ‘LSZH’ cables during fire, maximum halogen
gas emitted should be 0.5% by weight. It is
measured as per IS 10810 Part 59 or IEC 60754
Part 1. Fire Resistance Test: (IEC 60331, BS 6387)
c) Flame retardant tests for cables installed in group
- Condition of fire for group of cable is simulated This test is intended to evaluate cables which are
& extend of fire propagation is measured. It is designed as fire survival cables to be used for fire
measured as per IS 10810 part 62 or IEC 60332-3. alarm circuits, emergency lighting, and cables for other
The performance of cables under fire conditions is emergency services. The test establishes whether a
defined in a number of international standards – cable can maintain electrical circuit integrity for a time
British Standards (BS) also, the outline of which is as up to 3 hours at temperatures ranging from 650 °C up
follows:- to in excess of 950 °C.

82 May 2018
May 2018 83

950 °C with mechanical shock for 15 minutes.

Resistance to Fire with Water BS 7846 (Category F30): Resistance to fire with direct
BS 6387 (Category W): Cables are subjected to fire at mechanical impact & water jet assessed in combination,
650 °C for 15 minutes, then at 650°C with water spray when tested in accordance with BS 8491 for 30 Min.
for further 15 minutes.
BS 7846 (Category F60): Resistance to fire with direct
mechanical impact & water jet assessed in combination,
when tested in accordance with BS 8491 for 60 Min.
BS 7846 (Category F120): Resistance to fire with direct
mechanical impact & water jet assessed in combination,
when tested in accordance with BS 8491 for 120 Min.
(All cables manufactured as per BS 7846 are supposed
to pass all the tests as per BS 6387)
The cable will possess the characteristics for providing
circuit integrity so long as during the course of the test;
Resistance to Fire with Mechanical the voltage is maintained i.e. no fuse fails or circuit-
breaker is interrupted and a conductor does not rupture,
Shock i.e. the lamp is not extinguished.
IEC 60331-31: Cables are subjected to fire at 830 °C
with mechanical shock for 120 minutes.
Determination of the Halogen Acid Gas
BS 6387 (Category X): Cables are subjected to fire at
650 °C with mechanical shock for 15 minutes. Content
IEC 60754-1 and BS EN 50267-2-1 Standards specify
BS 6387 (Category Y): Cables are subjected to fire at
a test for determination of the halogen acid gas other
750 °C with mechanical shock for 15 minutes.
than the hydrofluoric acid evolved during combustion
BS 6387 (Category Z): Cables are subjected to fire at of compound based on halogenated polymers and

84 May 2018

compounds containing halogenated additives taken results are defined as oxygen index values at the test
from cable constructions. In this test, when the burner temperature.
is heated to 800 °C, 1g sample is placed inside and the
HCL is absorbed into water inside the chamber fed with To conclude, it is important to look beyond the bliners
air flow. The water is then tested with its acidity. If the of price and rather put more emphasis on upgrading
hydrochloric acid yield is less than 5 mg/g, the cable technology and incorporating means of mitigating risks
specimen is categorized as LSHF. that arise from fires. Unfortunately, we are still not very
serious about safety standards in our country. The first
concern being that Costs still have precedence over
Determination of Acidity Safety and the second are the outdated standards of
IEC 60754-2 and BS EN 50267-2-2 Standards specify a quality checks and testing that we still follow, while the
test for the determination of degree of acidity of gases world has moved to more upgraded standards for safety
evolved during combustion of the cable specimen by and protection of their consumers. The question to ask
measuring its pH and ionic conductivity. The specimen is, while we are updated in terms of providing global
is deemed to pass this test if the pH value is not less technology, why are we lagging behind in adhering to
than 4.3 when related to 1 litre of water and the weighted global standards of safety and quality?
value of conductivity is less than10 μS/mm.
Generally public sector undertakings follow the ‘L1’
approach, where the lowest quotation is approved. This
forced economy reduces profitability and the initiative
to invest in R&D. Unlike here in India, in European or
American economies innovations and R&D is welcomed
by the governments which aid safety of the population
at large.
There are an increasing number of cases of fire due to
short circuit, and especially in crowded cities, and high
rises where countless lives have been lost. It is high
time that even the establishment owners take onus of
the high degree of risk that comes with the use of poor
quality cables and should conduct proper research
before making the final selection. The quality of cables
should not be compromised for the sake of price.
Moreover, people should be made aware that a
standardized and a well-engineered product will give
Smoke Emission Test: (IEC 61034, BS EN higher returns on investment as compared to a non-
standardized one. Selecting quality cables is important
61034) not only as property and life-saver, but also because it
IEC 61034 and BS EN 61034 Standards specify a test reduces electricity consumption.
for determination of smoke density. Also there have to be stringent quality checks of cables,
A one-meter length of cable is placed in the 3 m3 both at manufacturers’ end as well as at users end.
enclosure, and a fire is then generated within the Getting the installations checked regularly through
container and the minimum light transmission is specialized agencies for homes as well as other
recorded. The result is expressed as percentage of light establishments will also help lower the risk of fires, as
transmitted. The specimen is deemed to pass this test installation can also play a big role in avoiding mishaps.
if the value is greater than 60%. The higher the light
transmittance, the less smoke emitted during a fire. Although we do see an increasing trend in industry,
especially the large ones who buy cables directly, to
focus on flame retardant cables, the other segments
Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI): (BS EN ISO need to bring in the focus on this aspect, especially
4589, ASTM D 2863) builders and utilities. Some high rises are now asking
for FR/FRLS as well as Fire Survival cables and this
BS EN ISO 4589 and ASTM D 2863 Standards trend is slowly increasing, which we need to speed up
Specify methods for the determination the minimum so that customers demand cables with additional fire
concentration of oxygen, in a mixture with nitrogen, safety features. „
which will support combustion of small vertical test
specimens under specified test conditions over a Piyush Karia
range of temperatures between 25 °C and 150 °C. The Director, Ravin Cables Ltd.

May 2018 85

lectricity is essential to modern life, both at home it is felt that the compliance to the standards should
E and on the job. It has become such a familiar part
of our daily life. However, we tend to overlook the
be tightened. Unfair trade practices and lower quality
manufacturing of wires by the unorganised cable
hazards electricity poses and fail to treat it with the manufacturers makes the competition unhealthy and
respect it deserves. Electricity is often referred to as a the consumers unsafe.
“silent killer”, because it cannot be tasted, seen, heard,
or smelled. It is essentially invisible. One of the most Statutory provisions
important responsibilities of any facility’s management
As per Section 29 of the Indian Electricity Rules 1956, all
is to keep employees safe. Each facility will have
electric supply lines and apparatus shall be of sufficient
a different list of potential hazards to address, and
ratings for powers, insulation and estimated fault current
properly addressing them will protect employees and
and of sufficient mechanical strength, for the work
contribute to the facility’s future success. Electricity has
they may be required to do and shall be constructed,
also introduced a wide range of potential dangers that installed, protected, worked, and maintained in such a
really didn’t exist before its widespread use. Taking manner as to ensure safety of personnel and property.
electrical safety seriously in the homes and facility will
help to get all the benefits, while minimizing any risks. This provision covers all the aspects for ensuring
safety right from choosing of materials for electrical
In the Indian scenario, data shows that the majority of
installation, actual installation, protective devices to be
industrial disasters and commercial or household fires
provided, tests to be taken, periodical maintenance and
are a result of electrical short circuits. These electrical
upkeep, etc. In fact there are specific rules elsewhere
short circuits cause fires in the electrical appliances or
in the Electricity Rules, specifying requirements in
electrical fittings, which rapidly spread through flames
connection with the various aspects mentioned above.
via the connecting electrical wires to the surrounding
But where no such specific rules exit this provision can
rooms or halls and combustible furniture, etc. Apart
be made applicable to ensure general safety. While
from igniting the combustible furniture, other connected
choosing materials for the electrical installation it is
electrical equipment, these ‘under fire’ cables emit thick
smoke from the burning insulating compounds in the always desirable to go in for materials manufactured to
wires, which cause asphyxia in humans, if exposed to the specifications of Bureau of Indian Standards.
such hazardous environments for prolonged periods
lead to their falling into coma or their death if unattended Causes of Electrical fire
or untreated.
When a wire or cable is punctured, but not completely
Recent changes in the governing regulatory and severed, the electric current can move away from its path
technical standards for insulated electrical cable and and result in an incredible amount of heat. This leaking
cords used in homes and offices and electrification of the current is called an arc fault. The heat from an
are meant to ensure better quality and higher flame arc fault can eventually cause a fire, which may quickly
withstand parameters of these wires and cables. spread to surrounding wood and other combustibles,
Despite the fact that regulatory standards are in place, as well as other wiring. Take extra care when doing

86 May 2018

home renovations to ensure that do not damage any surfaces such as curtains, beds, clothing, chairs,
wires when hammering or drilling into walls. couches and rugs. Coil space heaters are especially
dangerous in this regard because the coils become so
The arc fault causing an arc fire can prevent with the
hot they will almost instantaneously ignite any nearby
help of by installing an arc-fault circuit interrupter to
flammable surface. If we do use space heaters, use the
the circuit breakers. When arc fault circuit interrupters
radiator-type that diffuse heat over the entire surface of
detect irregular current flow, they shut down the circuit
the appliance.
to prevent overheating and combustion. Using a stud
finder to locate framing studs behind drywall can also
prevent arc faults from occurring. Wiring
In India, the harsh environmental conditions of ambient Outdated wiring often causes electrical fires. If a home is
temperatures (up to 55° C) and high humidity which over 20 years old, it may not have the wiring capacity to
are common in summers and monsoons, mandate handle the increased amounts of electrical appliances
unambiguous and strict standards for the conductors in today’s average home, such as computers, wide-
and insulation. The months with the most electrical screen televisions, video and gaming players,
fires are December and January due to increased use microwaves and air conditioners. Breakers should be
of heating appliances and lights. Most electrical fires triggered when circuits get overloaded by too much
electricity, but outdated breaker boxes often have worn
start in the bedroom, but the highest number of fatalities
connectors that do not work, causing the system to
occur with fires located in the living room, family room
overload and start an electrical fire.
and den. Some electrical fires happen because of
problems in house wiring or appliance failure, but many
occur due to mistakes that homeowners make like Water or moisture
overloading electrical outlets or extension cords. It’s one of the cardinal rules of electrical safety: don’t mix
electricity and water. Always keep electrical appliances
Common causes of electrical fires. away from water and moisture. Whether it’s on or off, if
a plugged-in appliance falls – or is accidentally dropped
Some of the common causes of electrical fires in homes – into water, do not attempt to retrieve or unplug it. Go
and work places are as follows: immediately to the home’s panel board and shut off
power to the corresponding circuit. Once that’s done,
Faulty outlets, appliances the appliance can be safely unplugged and removed
from the water.
Most electrical fires are caused by faulty electrical
outlets and old, outdated appliances. Other fires It may be observed that unsafe conditions were
are started by faults in appliance cords, receptacles prevailed in many houses and work places. Similarly,
and switches. Never use an appliance with a worn or many of us, one way or other neglect safe practices
frayed cord which can send heat onto combustible which could end up in many electrical accidents. Safe
surfaces like floors, curtains, and rugs that can start a conditions and safe practices are a prerequisite for
fire. Removing the grounding plug from a cord so it can reducing electrical accidents. With this in view some of
be used in a two-prong electrical outlet can also cause the Do’s and Don’ts for working with electricity are given
a fire. below:

Light fixtures Do’s for working with electricity:

Light fixtures, lamps and light bulbs are another common
reason for electrical fires. Installing a bulb with a wattage h Always wear rubber soled shoes and safety
that is too high for the lamps and light fixtures is a leading gloves when working with electricity
cause of electrical fires. Always check the maximum
recommended bulb wattage on any lighting fixture or h Use double insulated tools.
lamp and never go over the recommended amount.
h Use rubber floor mating if possible
Another cause of fire is placing materials like cloth or
paper over a lamp shade. The material heats up and h Utilize nonconductive tools and ladders
ignites, causing a fire.
h Use only three pin plugs, which provide a path to
Extension cords ground that helps prevent the built up or voltages
that may result in an electrical shock or spark.
Misuse of extension cords is another electrical fire
cause. Appliances should be plugged directly into h Use shut off switches and / or circuit breakers
outlet and not plugged into an extension cord for any
to shut off equipment in the event of fire or
length of time. Only use extension cords as a temporary
Always use ground fault circuit interrupters around
areas where there is water
Space heaters
Because these types of heaters are portable, many h Keep combustible materials away from lamps or
times people put them too close to combustible heating devices.

May 2018 87

h Live parts of electrical equipments must be Recommendations

guarded against accidental contact
Following are the recommendations to prevent electrical
h Limit the use of extension cords or multiple fire in homes, offices and commercial complex:
adapters 1 Have only licensed electricians install, repair
h Inspect the wiring of equipment before each use and dismantle jobsite wiring. That way, everything
will be completed according to electrical safety
h Switch off lamps when changing light bulbs. codes, ensuring greater protection for the workers
h Disconnect appliances before cleaning. who will be using the wiring to power tools and
equipment. Bringing in a professional electrician
h Call the fire station in case of an electrical fire. also prevents the injuries that result when less-
h Before work on a rooftop television antenna, qualified individuals attempt electrical jobs that
make sure the area is clear of power lines.Install they aren’t properly trained to do.
antennas where they won’t touch or fall on electric 2 Always plug into a GFCI. Ground Fault Circuit
lines. Interrupter protection is required at every plug-
in point associated with the jobsite’s temporary
h If a cord or plug is warm or hot to touch, unplug
electrical supply – right down to extension cords.
it immediately, check wires, extension cords and
Make sure that only GFCI receptacles are installed,
appliances for signs of wearing.
and that portable GFCIs are kept on hand in case
h In case of an electrical fire, unplug the appliance additional grounding needs arise.
and use DCP type fire extinguisher to douse the 3 Check each extension cord before use. Ensure
flames. that insulation is completely intact (free from
h Stay in the car during a storm because the rubber cracks, tears, or abrasion) and that power
tires stop electricity from passing through it, if the extension cables haven’t been knotted, which can
car is struck by lightning or fallen cable. cause conductor damage and increase the risk of
Don’ts for working with electricity 4 Do a thorough check for electrical wiring before
cutting through any wall or floor. Any time that a
h Do not plug electrical appliances in bathroom
tool inadvertently makes contact with an unseen
unless specific safety devices have been installed. electrical line, the person holding that tool is likely
h If person is in contact with water never touch to be shocked or electrocuted. Always size up the
electrical light switch. situation before you get started to reduce your risk
h Do not put your fingers in a light bulb holder. of injury.
h Do not put any into an outlet except a plug.’ 5 Inspect power tools on a regular basis. Look
over the tools’ power cords and plugs for any sign
h Do not leave electric devices where small children
of damage to the insulation, blades, or grounding
may have access.
pin. If the signs of excessive wear and tear find, take
h Do not use a lamp in a metal holder fixed to the end tools out of commission until they’ve been properly
of a loose flexible wire as a portable hand lamp. repaired. Maintain awareness during electrical tool
h Don’t attempt to fix cord that have been cut or use as well; if a tool starts to overheat, smoke, give
damaged. off a burning smell, or shock person on contact,
h Never use damaged cords. discontinue use immediately.
h Never pull out a plug by the cord. 6 Check insulated tools for damage before each
use. Once the insulation layer of an insulated hand
h Never place electrical cords under carpets which
tool becomes nicked, cracked or cut, the tool is no
can result in wearing of the cord.
longer effectively insulated – it actually becomes
h Never bend or remove the ground on a three pin more of an electrical conductor, and can increase
plug, which is designed to help prevent shock and risk of injury. If a tool has damaged insulation, it is
may save life. no longer safe to use – destroy and replace it right
h Do not use extension cords as permanent wiring away.
as they are not designed for it. 7 Keep extension cords in a safe place. The
h Never use cords or plugs that show wear or force of a vehicle – or even repeated treading
damage, they can cause shock or fires. by pedestrians – can cause an extension cord’s
conductor to become misshapen or break, a
h Do not overload an extension cord.
problems that can lead to electrical fires. Because
h Never puncture insulation of electrical cords by it occurs in the core of the cable, conductor
nailing them to any substances. damage isn’t always obvious to the eye, so play
h While climbing trees stay away from those near it safe from the start by guarding jobsite extension
power lines. cords with heavy-duty cord covers.

88 May 2018

Use the right extension cord for the job. Before plug in,
make sure that the wattage rating of the extension cord
using is greater than the pull (or power requirement) of
the equipment it’s powering. Using an extension cord
to supply more wattage than it’s rated for can cause
conductor strain, overheating, and possibly even fire.
Pay attention to what appliances are telling. When
an appliance repeatedly trips a circuit breaker, blows a
fuse, or gives shocks, it’s not just a coincidence, these
are signs that something is wrong. Prevent further –
and possibly more dangerous – malfunctions from
occurring by immediately unplugging the appliance
and discontinuing use until a professional electrician
can inspect it, make repairs, and ultimately declare safe.
Make sure using the right size circuit breakers and
fuses. If fuses and circuit breakers aren’t the right
size and wattage rating to match the specifications of
their circuits, they’re going to fail right when you most
need them to perform. Read packages carefully when
shopping for replacements.
Replace missing or broken wall plates. They’re not
just there for the looks – wall plates also protect your
fingers from making contact with the electrical wiring
behind them. Broken wall plates, or the absence of
them altogether, can be especially dangerous in the
dark – when trying to locate a switch by touch, you may
end up being shocked or electrocuted if you miss the
mark and end up hitting live wires instead.
Keep electrically powered yard-care tools
dry. Whether it’s raining, just finished raining, or person
recently run the sprinklers, never attempt yard work with
electrically powered tools in wet conditions. Protect
TDK Technology
himself from shock and electrocution by keeping
electric hedge trimmer, weed whacker, and lawnmower
Advancing power
safely unplugged and stowed away until precipitation
has stopped, grass and foliage is dry, and puddles can solutions.
be easily avoided.
Rare-earth magnets Varistors and
with high magnetic surge arresters
Conclusion field strength for wind with high surge
power generators capability
Shockingly, almost 90 percent of all fire accidents
originate from “electrical” causes, and behind a vast
majority of these fires are low-quality wires and cables,
that is, either low-quality insulation or inferior conductor
or both. The past several decades have been a grim
reminder of countless human lives lost in fire accidents
resulting from electrical fires. The fatal fire of Delhi’s
Uphaar Cinema is just one of endless examples of
electrical fire accidents that occur routinely year after
year, taking toll of precious human life, property and
EMC filters and Aluminum electrolytic
data. The basic problem of such irrational buying sine-wave filters for and film capacitors
decisions is a general lack of awareness or insensitivity currents up to 8 kA for high ripple currents
to safety issues until such a calamity strikes. „
Ashok Upadhyay
BE (Electrical), M Tech. Hon. (Ind. Engg.)
M. Phil (Renewable Energy), PHD Scholar
Dy. Director (Generation)
M.P. Electricity Regulatory Commission Bhopal (M.P.)

May 2018 89


SBI to invest Rs 8,000 crore in 900 Mw Nick Emery of Fred. Olsen group of companies, said:
“Origami Energy has made great progress in the two
hydro power project in Nepal years since our original investment and we are pleased
The State Bank of India (SBI) will be investing a total of to continue to support the company. The energy world
Rs 80 billion in the Arun III hydropower project of Nepal, is changing rapidly; we see Origami Energy at the
which has 900 (MW) electricity production capacities. forefront of developing technology to capitalise on the
The SJVN, which has been awarded with the opportunities presented to energy market participants.”
construction of the mega power project of Nepal, has This funding round provides the company with additional
made an informal agreement with the SBI to acquire capital to continue the delivery of its growth plans and
the investment as a loan and soon will make the formal become a strategic technology partner for some of the
agreement, sources informed ANI. world’s largest energy companies. The funds will be
“The Director Committee Meeting of the bank is due to used to help accelerate the growth of Origami Energy
make the recommendation. They soon will decide over. in the UK and to prepare for international deployment.
As of now they have decided over the loan extend and Andrew Williamson of Cambridge Innovation Capital
the interest rate over it has been finalized,” the source added: “We are pleased to see that Origami Energy
informed with anonymity. continues to meet key targets in commercialising
“The 1.4 trillion rupees over the project will be its technology to provide value to energy market
expended for the construction of the structures and participants. We look forward to working with the
additional 11 billion rupees for the transmission lines,” company during the next phase of its expansion.”
the source briefed. Simon King of Octopus Ventures commented: “Origami
Energy has a compelling proposition for the rapidly-
With the completion of the project, Nepal will get 21.9
evolving distributed energy market. It is making excellent
percent of the total electricity produced in a year i.e.,
197 MW electricity with 86 crore unit for free in a year. progress in commercialising its technology platform to
meet the challenges and opportunities presented by a
changing energy landscape.”
Origami Energy raises £18.6m series ‘B’ Peter Bance, chief executive of Origami Energy
funding commented: “The continued support of our existing
Origami Energy, technology platform provider to the shareholders and Aggreko’s major investment in
energy market, today announces that its latest funding our company demonstrates their confidence in our
round, completed in March, has raised a total of £18.6m. business growth. Furthermore, our recent partnership
This takes the total funds raised by the company to announcements with SmartestEnergy and Good Energy
£36m since 2014 and includes the major investment demonstrate that innovative energy market players
from FTSE-listed Aggreko plc, the global leader in realise the value in using our intelligent technology
on-site power generation with a presence in over 100 platform to improve their profitability by enabling new
countries. Current investors who participated in this services.”
funding round include Octopus Ventures, Cambridge Energy flexibility (the ability for generation, storage and
Innovation Capital, and Fred. Olsen related companies. demand assets to turn up/down or on/off) is growing
Over the last 12 months Origami Energy has progressed in importance globally as the industry embraces the
from deploying commercial projects with industrial structural changes resulting from decentralisation,
and commercial customers to signing multi-year decarbonisation and digitalisation. By harnessing
partnership agreements with leading energy suppliers energy flexibility, Origami Energy’s technology enables
including SmartestEnergy (owned by Marubeni, the greater use of renewables and increases profitability for
Japanese-headquartered global trading company) and energy market participants including energy suppliers,
the renewables specialist Good Energy plc. traders and distributed energy asset owners.

90 May 2018

FirstEnergy Solutions begins bankruptcy Son told reporters the “two visions have come together
to create clean, sustainable, low-cost and productive
Attorneys for FirstEnergy Solutions and six affiliated
renewable energy”.
debtors are to appear in U.S. Bankruptcy Court Tuesday
to begin Chapter 11 proceedings before Judge Alan A government-backed plan to develop more than
M. Koschik, a move that parent company FirstEnergy 100GW of solar in the Kingdom stuttered and stalled
Corp. sees as a necessary step for it to remain viable despite great fanfare. A more conservative tender
and start anew. programme open to private investors has been more
FirstEnergy is one of America’s largest utilities. It for successful with 300MW of solar already awarded. It is
years had owned the Davis-Besse nuclear plant east targeting more than 9GW of renewable deployment by
of Toledo, the Perry nuclear plant east of Cleveland, 2023 and 3.3GW of solar tenders in 2018 alone.
the twin-reactor Beaver Valley nuclear complex west
of Pittsburgh, and one of the nation’s largest coal-fired
power plants, the Sammis plant in eastern Ohio, as well
Suzlon installs and commissions S128;
as the much smaller Bay Shore power plant in Oregon, India’s largest wind turbine generator
which in 2012 shut down its last three coal-fired units Suzlon Group, India’s largest renewable energy
but has continued producing electricity from one unit solutions provider, has announced the installation
that has operated on petroleum coke from the nearby and commissioning of its new product, S128; the
BP-Husky refinery since 2000. largest wind turbine generator (WTG) in India. The
first prototype of S128 has been commissioned at the
SoftBank, China’s GCL team up for $930 Sanganeri, site in Tamil Nadu. Testing is underway with
million Indian solar venture certification expected in Q3 of Calendar Year 2018
(CY2018). The S128 WTG is available in 2.6 MW to 2.8
Japan’s SoftBank Group Corp has agreed to launch
MW variants and offers hub heights up to 140 meters.
a $930 million Indian joint solar energy venture with
Chinese firm GCL System Integration Technology Co The S128 wind turbine generator is the latest addition to
as part of its India solar investment roadmap. Suzlon’s product portfolio and features the time tested
The venture will work on photovoltaic technology, which Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) technology.
is used in solar panels. GCL will provide technology and It also consists of the country’s largest rotor blade
SoftBank will assist in obtaining land and regulatory measuring 63 meters and has a rotor diameter of
approvals, GCL said in a filing to the Shenzhen stock 128 meters. The SB 63 blade has been engineered
exchange dated Friday. and developed by Suzlon utilizing carbon fiber which
provides the capability to utilize thinner aerodynamic
SoftBank said in 2015 that it would invest up to $20 profiles. This technology provides excellent performance
billion along with Foxconn Technology and Bharti
in low wind sites. The S128 series offers ~33% more
Enterprises in solar projects in India and aimed to have
swept area (12,860 m2) and is expected to deliver
a capacity of up to 20 gigawatts (GW).
~32% more energy generation compared to the S111.
India has set a target to achieve an operational solar It is designed to optimally harness wind resources at
power capacity of 100 GW by 2022, five times current higher altitudes making low wind sites viable. This next
levels, under Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s renewable generation turbine is well equipped to improve energy
energy strategy. yield and support competitive tariff environment in India
while protecting customers return on investment (ROI).
Softbank Vision Fund to seed investment in J.P. Chalasani, Group CEO, Suzlon Group said “The
200GW of Saudi Arabian solar S128 wind turbine is going to be a revolutionary product
in India. It has been our continuous effort to reduce the
The Softbank Vision Fund will begin a major investment
levelised cost of energy (LCoE) and we continue to
partnership with Saudi Arabia that could see 200GW of
invest in R&D with an aim to develop technologically
solar generation capacity installed.
advanced and innovative products. It is a proud
In comments to reporters in New York that have been moment for us to manufacture, install and commission
reported widely, Softbank chief Masayoshi Son said the the largest wind turbine generator in the country. With
first phase would involve the development of 7.2GW of its reduced levelised cost of energy (LCoE), cost
solar. Softbank’s Vision Fund will provide US$1 billion effective design and superior performance S128 will
of the total US$5 billion required. Project finance will be unlock unviable sites and set new benchmarks in the
sought for the remainder. Indian wind industry”
By 2030 the collaboration could yield 200GW of Duncan Koerbel, Chief Technology Officer (CTO),
generation capacity including energy storage and Suzlon Energy, said “Our focus is on developing efficient
Saudi-based manufacturing for PV modules. turbines that ensure higher ROI to our customers. The
Saudi Arabia has a young, growing population, soaring prototype of the S128 is delivering close to conventional
electricity demand and a desire under the country’s fuel competitive Plant Load Factor (PLF). We are
new leadership to aggressively diversify its economy. leveraging the S128 technology to further grow our
The package of reforms are collectively referred to as portfolio to bring offshore size technology onshore to
Vision 2030. India and other developing markets.” „

May 2018 91


NTPC achieves 53,000 MW of

commissioned capacity
With an unswerving commitment to meet India’s rising
power demands, NTPC Limited today announced
commissioning of the first unit of 2x660 MW super-
critical Meja Thermal Power Project.
A joint venture between NTPC Limited and the
Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited
(UPRVUN), the Meja Urja Nigam Private Limited
(MUNPL) successfully achieved its full load of 660 MW
from its first unit on March 31.
Located in the trans-Yamuna region of Meja in Allahabad,
the two 660 MW thermal power plants boast of
super-critical technology that enables higher
temperature and pressure resulting in higher efficiency, Saptarshi Roy and other Directors of NTPC Limited on
reduced fuel consumption and minimal emission of March 28, 2018.
greenhouse gases.
With this announcement, NTPC’s total power generation Skill India joins hands with Ministry of
stands at a record of 53,651 MW. Last month, NTPC
announced the commissioning of 800 MW Kudgi Super
Power to support household electrification
Thermal Power Station in Karnataka and the first unit scheme ‘Saubhagya’
of 2x800 MW Lara Super Thermal Power Station in Aiming to empower and uplift the rural youth and
Chhattisgarh. development, Ministry of Skill Development &
Entrepreneurship partnered today with the Ministry
NTPC Group has 21 coal based, 7 gas based, 11 solar
of Power to ensure access to electricity for every
PV, 1 hydro, 1 small hydro, 1 wind and 9 subsidiaries
household in the country through an ambitious
/ joint venture power stations. The state-owned power
scheme, Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojna
generator is currently building an additional capacity of
(SAUBHAGYA). The scheme aims to achieve universal
over 19,000 MW at multiple locations across the country.
household electrification in all parts of the country at
a cost of Rs 16,320 crore, including Gross Budgetary
NSPCL pays interim dividend for the Support of Rs 12,320 crore from the government.

Financial Year 2017-18 In order to successfully deliver a project of this

NTPC-SAIL Power Company Limited (NSPCL), a joint magnitude, huge volume of skilled workforce would be
venture of two Maharatna companies, NTPC Limited required across different job roles to enable completion
of various components of the work. To support the
and Steel Authority of India Limited, paid an interim
successful execution of the scheme, the vocational
dividend amounting to Rs.100 crore for financial year
training program has been launched in Six States today
2017-18. Ever since its inception in March 2001, NSPCL
namely Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand,
has been a continuous dividend paying company.
Odisha and Uttar Pradesh. A total estimated number of
Shri Praveen Kumar Bondriya, CEO, NSPCL along with participants to be trained between the two job roles of
Shri Niranjan Ghosh, CFO, NSPCL presented a dividend Lineman Distribution (Multiskilled) and Techical Helper
cheque of Rs. 50.00 crore to Shri Gurdeep Singh, CMD is 47000 in these six focus states and more than 55000
NTPC Limited in the presence of Chairman NSPCL Shri across the country.

92 May 2018

The launch was done through a video conferencing India probes dumping of EVA sheets for
with States where eminent dignitaries including State
Ministers like Dr. Neera Yadav, Hon’ble Minister for solar modules by 5 nations
Labour and Skill Development, Uttar Pradesh and India has initiated a probe into the alleged dumping
Shri Deepak Joshi, Hon’ble Minister of Skills, Madhya of EVA sheets used in solar cell industry, imported
Pradesh, were present. The Ministers engaged to from China, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and
discuss local challenges and targets to support the Thailand.
project have the best output. The investigation on imports of ‘Ethylene Vinyl Acetate
(EVA) sheets for solar modules’ is carried out by the
As the scheme is to be implemented across the Directorate General of Antidumping and Allied Duties
country with 200 districts as major focus area, the (DGAD), which is an arm of the commerce ministry.
skilling initiatives are proposed to be delivered in In the probe, the directorate would determine the
a decentralized mode at district level. The training existence, degree and effect of the dumped products
infrastructures available with ITI’s at district level as on the domestic industry.
well as the infrastructures available with the State If established that dumping had caused material injury
Power Distribution Utilities will be utilized for skill training to domestic players, the DGAD would recommend
of the candidates ensuring successful implementation imposition of anti-dumping duty on the imports of the
of the scheme. sheet from these nations.

Highlighting the role of electricity in boosting socio-

economic development of a nation and congratulating NIWE invites EOI for development of 100W
all partners contributing to the success of the projects, MW Offshore Wind in India, off the coast
Hon’ble Minister for Petroleum & Natural Gas and
Minister for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship Shri
of Gujarat
Dharmendra Pradhan said, “Today’s announcement NIWE invites EOI for 1st time in India for development
is a new chapter in the development of our nation. Is of 100W MW Commercial Offshore Wind of the coast
it in line with the structured approach of our Hon’ble off Gujarat.
Prime Minister and his vision of One Team India. With Global Bidder required to have a global experience
our Skill India program supporting Ministry of Power of installing more than 500MW of offshore wind
and the contribution being made from REC, NSDC and projects, while Indian manufacturers/developers having
the respective State Governments, this is yet another developed 500 MW of onshore wind with tie up of
milestone reflecting how a joint organized mechanism experienced global entity can apply.
is institutionalized to ensure efficient delivery of projects Last date of submission is 25-05-2018.
and schemes.”

“Saubhagya is a scheme with estimated expenditure of

Manipur sees 640 kW of completed solar
16000 crore our of which 25% is estimated cost against rooftop systems
wages and margin for human resource being deployed Hyderabad-based Freyr Energy, a solar solutions
for the project. This is a big employment opportunity for provider in India and Ghana, has announced the
skilled workforce and we will work jointly with Ministry completion of over 600 kW of solar PV rooftop plants
of Power across the nation to ensure that we avail this across Manipur, thus bringing the company’s portfolio
opportunity for our youth and help them better their in North East India to more than 1 MW.
livelihood,” he further added. Around INR 50 million was invested in the 640 kW, which
included a 100 kW off-grid battery powered system at
Commenting on the partnership Shri Raj Kumar Manipur’s Central Agricultural University.
Singh, Hon’ble Minister of State (I/C) for Ministry of
Of the system, Freyr writes, “The inverter maximizes
Power (MoP) said, “Under the able leadership of the solar power generation and helps stabilize power from
Honourable Prime Minister, all our efforts are underway the grid. It also has the functionality to smartly optimize
in ensuring electricity connections reach all homes and export solar power when the cost of grid power is at
and that even people living in remote villages have its highest, and draws power when it is low. The system
access to it. Our Government’s aggressive village helps withstand power fluctuations and guarantees
electrification programme like Deen Dayal Upadhyay power round the clock, and can also be monitored
Gram Jyoti Yojana, launched in July 2015 and remotely.”
Saubhagya are assisting in electrification. In delivering Other rooftop systems were installed at: the city
our varied projects, our biggest challenge has been convention center (100 kW); DM College (50 kW);
skilled manpower. This initiative will help us in meeting Inner State bus terminal (100 kW); the National Sports
our daily targets for electrification. We are certain Academy Hostel (100 kW); Khwairamband Bazaar (50
that with this partnership we will get huge support in kW); Manipur State Film Development Society (50 kW);
meeting this mammoth task of rural electrification that State Kala Academy (50 kW); and a Secured Office
we have ahead.” Complex (25 kW). „

May 2018 93


Vedanta Chairman Commits to Ramp up enterprise in defence electronics and tactical systems,
have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
Zambia Operations to cater to the needs of evolving domestic and export
Anil Agarwal, the Chairman of Vedanta Resources Plc, markets for defence products and systems.
outlined a Path to Growth for the Konkola Copper Mines
The MoU seeks to leverage the capabilities of both
(KCM), a Zambian subsidiary of the diversified global
the firms for meeting the growing requirements of the
mining and resources company. The Chairman also
Indian Armed Forces. The MoU also intends to leverage
expressed confidence in what he sees as the start of an
the well-developed supply chain, vast experience and
African economic resurgence driven by various metals.
expertise of BEL and L&T to synergise and enhance
Mr. Agarwal, who is on a two-day visit to Zambia, where exports in the defence sector.
he has attended the India-Zambia Business forum, said
Mr. Jayant Patil, Whole-time Director (Defence) and
Vedanta was fully committed to supporting KCM’s plans Member of L&T Board, said: “This MoU offers an
to increase production to 400,000 metric tonnes per opportunity for public-private sector partnership
annum in the next few years. The growth will be driven by between two industry leaders in Defence Equipment
an injection of $700 million, following Vedanta’s previous & Systems to synergise their strengths to deliver to
injection of $3 billion (comprising the $1 billion pledge of the Indian Armed Forces and to the export market
fresh investments made by Mr Agarwal in 2017) contemporary products with high indigenous content.”
Speaking on the sidelines of the Zambia-India Business The decision to formalise the partnership through this
forum, the Chairman said that KCM will construct a new MoU, a key milestone for both L&T and for BEL in
cobalt refinery, a coal-fired power plant, a training school their long-term relationship, was made after extensive
for upskilling local talent and continue to invest in local evaluation and identifying the core competencies and
communities in the areas of education, health, sport strong synergies between the two of them. L&T and BEL
and poverty eradication and sustainable livelihoods. have collaborated and partnered on co-development
Mr Agarwal commented: “I was eager to come to and production of major subsystems involving complex
Zambia almost 15 years ago at a time when KCM was technologies and sophisticated weapon systems such
facing a lot of challenges. We have now created a strong as Akash Missile launchers and other radar platforms
position for KCM after investing over $3 billion. Last year for Indian MoD orders.
I pledged to invest an extra $1 billion. We are targeting L&T has been delivering a range of launcher systems, fire
strong growth for KCM in the years ahead. control systems and airframes / sub-systems for various
Mr Agarwal said Zambia remains one of Africa’s indigenous weapon programmes as development
preferred investment destinations and that further partners and production agency to DRDO and DPSUs.
improvements to investment climate, stability in the tax By synergising L&T’s manufacturing, system design &
regime and affordable power would attract still more integration capabilities and extensive global footprint
foreign direct investment to the country. Zambia has with BEL’s core competencies in electronic equipment
an excellent pool of talent, which Vedanta and KCM will & systems, the companies look forward to enhancing
continue to nurture. their product range, jointly evolve new products and
enhance business prospects.

L&T and BEL sign MoU for Defence NPCIL joins hands with NSDC to support
Products and Systems Skill India Mission
In line with the efforts to indigenise the defence sector Aiming to contribute towards economic and sustainable
under ‘Make in India’ initiative, Larsen & Toubro (L&T), development of the communities, National Skill
India’s multinational engineering conglomerate, and Development Corporation (NSDC) has signed a
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a leading public sector memorandum of understanding with Nuclear Power

94 May 2018

Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) to provide skill out with various engagement plans and marketing
training to 500 youth and women at Kudankulam in initiatives around the tie-up.
Tamil Nadu.
Speaking on the company’s association with RCB in T20
The skill development project will be executed by this season, Mr.Gautam Seth, Joint Managing Director,
NSDC through its approved training partners near HPL Electric & Power Ltd said, “It is a matter of great
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP), the single pride for us to be a part of T20 season and teaming
largest nuclear power station in India, situated in the up with the dynamic Royal Challengers Bangalore. As
Tirunelveli district of the southern Indian state of Tamil HPL Electric is growing and strengthening its presence
Nadu. Under this tripartite agreement between NSDC, in the market, we intend to take the brand to individual
NSDF and NPCIL; NSDC will conduct a baseline survey consumers by making it a household name and to build
in 19 villages in Tirunelveli district to examine nature an instant connect with the wider audience through the
and extent of talent gap and will accordingly identify T20 platform. We are positive that the association will
job roles for the training. The skill development project help us in strengthening our brand image amongst the
aims to provide gainful employment (wage and self- youth.”
employment) to nearly 70% of the trained candidates
post-training. NPCIL has committed INR 1.74 crore The company is on a growth trajectory and is looking to
under its CSR contributions towards this project, which substantially increase the annual budget on marketing
is estimated to be complete in 15 months. this year.

Speaking about the project, Jayant Krishna, ED & Royal Challengers Bangalore Chairman, Amrit Thomas
COO, NSDC said, “NSDC’s Industry Partnerships said, “We are extremely delighted to have HPL Electric
and CSR Wing has been working collaboratively with as the official team partner in LED & Switchgears
various public-sector undertakings and private sector category. Team RCB is synonymous with performance
corporates to leverage their CSR funds towards the Skill and delivery and having a brand like HPL with us which
India which is a nation-building mission. Initiatives such rings in the same values is a great opportunity. We
as these, not only bring positive changes in the lives of look forward to delivering great values to the company
underserved, but also help in capacity building of the through this association.”
local communities and improve economic performance
of the regions, thereby reducing the rural-to-urban
migration.” Sterlite Power’s OPGW facility receives
Commenting on the initiative, Site Director of KKNPP, 17025:2005 accreditation by NABL
Mr. D.S. Choudhary, shared “This initiative by NPCIL Sterlite Power’s Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) facility in
is a part of our commitment towards the welfare of the Silvassa has been granted a prestigious accreditation
people around us. This skill development programme, by National Accreditation Board for Testing and
I hope, will pave a path to social and economic Calibration Laboratories (NABL). This is for the first
growth, especially for the underprivileged sections in time that an OPGW laboratory in India has received
the nearest society.”Upon successful completion of this rating for testing OPGW cables, ACS Wires, Alloy
the training, the trainee will receive a certificate which Wires and Optical Fibres. With this rating, products
conforms to National Skills Qualification Framework manufactured by Sterlite Power in this facility can be
(NSQF), a competency-based framework for skills. The used in user countries without the need for additional
program will also embed soft skills and digital modules. re-testing, resulting in cost savings.
NSDC will ensure quality training and management of
the structured skill development program, while NPCIL Talking about the development, Pratik Agarwal, Group
will monitor the progress of the implementation of the CEO Sterlite Power said, “For India to achieve its “Make
project to ensure that the objective of the project is met in India” vision and supply products of the highest
effectively. standards globally, the country needs ‘state of the art’
testing facilities. This accreditation is a step forward in
that direction and towards playing a greater role in the
HPL Electric ties-up with RCB for T20 global markets.”
Season- 2018 Manish Agarwal, CEO, Solutions Business, Sterlite
HPL Electric & Power Ltd, established electric Power said: “The accreditation by NABL gives our
equipment manufacturing company in India, has tied- customers the assurance that the equipment used and
up with RCB (Royal Challengers Bangalore) in T20 product provided has passed the highest standards.
this season as the official partner in LED Lighting & This certification demonstrates our commitment to
Switchgears category. As a part of the association, deliver reliable products and to constantly improve the
Royal Challengers Bangalore will sport the company’s development processes.”
branding on its uniform.
Valid for two year, till March 2020, the certificate
The company will further leverage the association establishes that the lab infrastructure operates at the
by using RCB & its associated players in all highest standards for all tests conducted at the facility,
communications related to LED & Switchgears for the including manpower, documentation, calibration and
agreement duration. The company also plans to come the Inter Lab Comparison (ILC) test. „

May 2018 95

Key Energy Statistics 2017

Coal Production
Producers MT Net Exporters MT Net Importers MT
People Rep of China 3242 Australia 389 People Rep of China 247
India 708 Indonesia 367 India 199
United States 672 Russian Federation 147 Japan 189
Australia 503 Colombia 83 Korea 134
Indonesia 460 South Africa 76 Chinse Taipei 66
Russian Federation 365 United States 46 Germany 53
South Africa 257 Mongolia 26 Turkey 36
Germany 176 Kazakhstan 26 Malaysia 29
Poland 131 Canada 24 Thailand 23
Kazakhstan 98 DPR Of Korea 21 Brazil 20
Rest of The World 657 Others 8 Others 215
World 7269 Total 1213 Total 1211

Natural Gas Production

% of
Producers Bcm World Net Exporters Bcm Net Exporters Bcm
United States 749 20.7 Russain Federation 205 Russain Federation 205
Russian Federation 644 17.8 Qatar 117 Qatar 117
Islamic Rep of Iran 190 5.3 Norway 115 Norway 115
Canada 174 4.8 Canada 61 Canada 61
Qatar 165 4.6 Algeria 54 Algeria 54
People Rep of China 137 3.8 Turkmenistan 53 Turkmenistan 53
Norway 121 3.3 Australia 41 Australia 41
Algeria 92 2.5 Indonesia 34 Indonesia 34
Saudi Arabia 90 2.5 Malaysia 24 Malaysia 24
Australia 88 2.4 Nigeria 23 Nigeria 23
Rest Of The World 1163 32.3 Others 142 Others 142
World 3613 100 Total 869 Total 869

Crude Oil Production

% of Net Net
Producers MT World MT MT
Total Exporters Importers
Saudi Arabia 583 13.5 Saudi Arabia 369 United States 348
Russian Federation 546 12.6 Russian Federation 243 People Rep of China 333
United States 537 12.4 Iraq 148 India 203
Canada 220 5.1 United Arab Emirates 125 Japan 165
Islamic Rep of Iran 200 4.6 Canada 116 Korea 139
People Rep of China 200 4.6 Nigeria 104 Germany 91
Iran 191 4.4 Kuwait 100 Italy 67
United Arab Emirates 182 4.2 Venezuela 98 Spain 65
Kuwait 159 3.7 Angola 86 Netherlands 59
Brazil 135 3.1 Islamic Rep Of Iran 64 France 57
Rest Of The World 1368 31.8 Others 539 Others 514
World 4321 100 Total 1992 Total 2041

Source: World Key Energy Statistics 2017

96 May 2018

All India Installed Capacity (in MW) of Power Stations

(As on 31.03.2018)

Modewise Breakup Grand
Thermal Total
Ownership/ RES*
Region Nuclear Hydro
Sector Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE)

State 16888.00 2879.20 0.00 19767.20 0.00 8643.55 689.56 29100.31

Northern Private 22760.83 558.00 0.00 23318.83 0.00 2514.00 11854.66 37687.49

Region Central 13290.37 2344.06 0.00 15634.43 1620.00 8596.22 329.00 26179.65

Sub Total 52939.20 5781.26 0.00 58720.46 1620.00 19753.77 12873.22 92967.45

State 21280.00 2849.82 0.00 24129.82 0.00 5446.50 311.19 29887.51

Western Private 34285.67 4676.00 0.00 38961.67 0.00 481.00 19473.89 58916.56

Region Central 15042.95 3280.67 0.00 18323.62 1840.00 1520.00 661.30 22344.92

Sub Total 70608.62 10806.49 0.00 81415.11 1840.00 7447.50 20446.38 111148.99

State 19432.50 791.98 287.88 20512.36 0.00 11808.30 518.02 32838.41

Southern Private 12124.50 5322.10 473.70 17920.30 0.00 0.00 33359.36 51279.66

Region Central 14225.02 359.58 0.00 14584.60 3320.00 0.00 491.90 18396.50

Sub Total 45782.02 6473.66 761.58 53017.26 3320.00 11808.30 34369.28 102514.57

State 7070.00 100.00 0.00 7170.00 0.00 3537.92 225.11 10933.03

Eastern Private 6375.00 0.00 0.00 6375.00 0.00 399.00 803.29 7577.29

Region Central 13876.64 0.00 0.00 13876.64 0.00 1005.20 10.00 14891.84

Sub Total 27321.64 100.00 0.00 27421.64 0.00 4942.12 1038.40 33402.16

State 0.00 457.95 36.00 493.95 0.00 422.00 254.25 1170.20

North Private 0.00 24.50 0.00 24.50 0.00 0.00 23.31 47.81
Region Central 520.02 1253.60 0.00 1773.62 0.00 920.00 5.00 2698.62

Sub Total 520.02 1736.05 36.00 2292.07 0.00 1342.00 282.56 3916.63

State 0.00 0.00 40.05 40.05 0.00 0.00 5.25 45.30

Private 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.21 2.21

Central 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.10 5.10

Sub Total 0.00 0.00 40.05 40.05 0.00 0.00 12.56 52.61

State 64670.50 7078.95 363.93 72113.38 0.00 29858.00 2003.37 103974.75

Private 75546.00 10580.60 473.70 86600.30 0.00 3394.00 65516.72 155511.02

All India
Central 56955.00 7237.91 0.00 64192.91 6780.00 12041.42 1502.30 84516.63

Sub Total 197171.50 24897.46 837.63 222906.59 6780.00 45293.42 69022.39 344002.39

* Break up of RES all India as on 31.03.2018 as below(in MW)

Small Hydro Wind Solar Total
Power Power BM Power/ Waste To Power Capacity
Cogen Energy
4485.81 34046 8700.8 138.3 21651.48 69022.39

Source: CEA

May 2018 97

Basic Prices and Index Numbers

Unit as on Unit as on
01.2.18 01.2.18
BLOOMS(SBLR) Epoxy Resin CT - 5900 `/Kg 462.00
`/MT 39956.00
Phenolic Moulding Powder `/Kg 105.00
BILLETS(SBIR) 100MM `/MT 39944.00
PVC Compound - Grade `/MT
CW - 22
CRNGO Electrical Steel
Sheets M-45, C-6 (Ex-Rsp)
`/MT 57500.00 PVC Compound Grade `/MT 134000.00
HR - 11
CRGO ELECTRICAL STEEL Transformer Oil Base Stock `/
SHEETS 65008.00
(TOBS) KLitre
a) For Transformers of rating OTHER IEEMA INDEX NUMBERS
up to 10MVA and voltage up `/MT 227130.00
to 33 KV IN-BUSDUCTS (Base June
2000=100) For The Month 243.93
b) For Transformers of rating December 2017
above 10MVA or voltage `/MT 288500.00 IN - BTR - CHRG (Base June
above 33 KV
Electrolytic High Grade Zinc - `/MT 258500.00 Wholesale price index number
for ‘Insulators’ (Base 2011-12 = 114.60
Lead (99.97%) - `/MT 194300.00 100) for the month Dec. 2017
Wholesale price index number
Copper Wire Bars `/MT 466653.00 for ‘Manufacture of Basic
Metals (Base 2011-12 = 100)
Copper Wire Rods `/MT 481473.00 for the month December 2017
Wholesale price index number
Aluminium Ingots - EC Grade for’ Fuel & Power (Base 2011-
(IS 4026-1987)
`/MT 159804.00 95.50
12 = 100) for the month
Aluminuium Properzi Rods - December 2017
EC Grade (IS5484 1978)
`/MT 166343.00 All India Average Consumer
Price Index Number For
Aluminium Busbar Industrial Workers (Base
(IS 5082 1998)
`/MT 225300.00
2001=100) December 2017

# Estimated, NA: Not available

Aluminium Ingots - EC Grade (IS 4026-1987) Rs./MT





March 2016 - February 2018


The basic prices and indices are calculated on the basis of raw material prices, exclusive of excise/C.V.
duty wherever manufactures are eligible to obtain MODVAT benefit.
These basic prices and indices are for operation of IEEMA’s Price Variation Clauses for various products.
Basic Price Variation Clauses, explanation of nomenclature can be obtained from IEEMA office.
Every care has been taken to ensure correctness of reported prices and indices. However, no
responsibility is assured for correctness. Authenticated prices and indices are separately circulated
by IEEMA every month. We recommend using authenticated prices and indices only for claiming
price variation.

98 May 2018

Accounting For the From Feb. 17
Name of Product Highest Annual
Unit Month to
Feb 2018 Jan. 18 Production
Electric Motors*
AC Motors - LT 000' KW 1043 11395 11580
AC Motors - HT 000' KW 353 3721 5091
DC Motors 000' KW 40 370 618
AC Generators 000' KVA 1085 12586 11544
Contactors 000' Nos. 607 9974 9743
Motor Starters 000' Nos. 168 1934 1986
Switch Fuse & Fuse Switch Units Nos. 70637 763995 947878
Miniature Circuit Breakers 000' Poles 10625 156935 159917
Circuit Breakers - LT Nos. 134906 2542653 2736967
Circuit Breakers - HT Nos. 6093 75048 72492
Custom Built Product Rs. Lakhs 78570 266911 265267
HRC Fuses & Overload Relays 000' Nos. 1285 14456 16875
Power Cables* KM 71112 648163 565332
Power Capacitors - LT & HT* 000' KVAR 5203 50539 53417
Distribution Transformers 000' KVA 4704 48047 46761
Power Transformers 000' KVA 28559 244443 202036
Instrument Transformers
Current Transformers 000' Nos. 55 601 705
Voltage Transformers Nos. 11574 107968 114488
Energy Meters* 000' Nos. 3665 30123 29317
Transmission Line Towers* 000' MT 112 1159 1250
* Weighted Production
IEEMA Database

May 2018 99

Meeting regarding Development Council for

Heavy Electrical and Allied Industries
On 20th April 2018, IEEMA attended In view of these changes /amendments the procedures
a preparatory meeting to finalize the have become complex & tedious, on the following
agenda point for the 1st meeting of the grounds –
Development Council for Heavy Electrical (i) Pre-import condition for physical exports only,
and Allied Industries of Department of makes the importer to segregate / separate the
Heavy Industry Government of India. stocks (inputs and output) and also manufacture
The meeting was chaired by Shri separately, thereby storage & production capacity
Bhaskar Jyoti Mahanta, Joint Secretary, cannot be optimum.
the Department of Heavy Industry. Shri
(ii) Blockage of Inventory and Fund.
R K Chugh, Vice President, Shri K B
(iii) In a Large Scale Industries, the process of
Sreekumar, Member, and Shri Manoj
manufacturing being bulky and continuous,
Belgaonkar, Member, attend the meeting,
separate manufacturing from IGST free and IGST
along with Shri J Pande, Sr. Director
paid inputs is not feasible and hence one to one
IEEMA Activities

and Shri Sudeep Sarkar, Director, from

co-relation of inputs and resultant finished goods
IEEMA Secretariat. The meeting was is impossible.
called to arrive at a common agenda
(iv) If the Advance Authorization is issued for bigger
points of various stakeholders of the
quantity where imports & exports are made in
Development Council.
piece meal during longer period, how to determine
Policy Advocacy which portion of import is under pre-import and
post-import basis.
IEEMA submitted a representation
to the Department of Commerce, (v) If import (whether pre-import or post-import) is
Ministry of Finance and Directorate made on payment of IGST (without claiming IGST
General of Foreign Trade, on 4th April exemption), then Input Tax Credit on such imports
2018, regarding the issue on Advance cannot be disallowed and restricted, but Para 4.10
Authorization Schemes and IGST Refund of HBP, disallows the Input Tax Credit, and hence
on Exports. needs amendment in Para 4.10.
A new Para No. 4.14 is added in the IEEMA requested that once an Advance Authorization
Foreign Trade Policy, which entitles the is issued based on SION Norms, then the Government
importers to import the inputs without should ideally examine only the following limited and
payment of IGST (under Advance relevant parameters to ensure its compliance : –
Authorization) subject to pre-import (a) The quantity and value of Duty Free Inputs
condition only for physical exports and imported in the Advance Authorization.
such exemption from IGST is available
up to the 01.10.2018. By Notification (b) Whether export obligation is fulfilled under Advance
No. 79/2017-CT dated 13.10.2017, MoF Authorization in proportion to the duty free inputs
/ CBEC has also amended the original imported. If not, whether duty with Interest thereon
Customs Notification No.18 / 2015-Cus., is paid.
dated 01.04.2015, in the similar line to (c) Whether imports and export obligation is fulfilled
FTP, making the imports IGST free subject within the prescribed time limit.
to pre-import conditions. Similarly, Rule
(d) Whether actual user condition of the Advance
96 of the CGST Rules, 2017, relates to
Authorization is met, or the duty free inputs
“refund of IGST paid on exports”, got
imported thereunder are used within the premises
amended retrospectively from 23.10.2017
of the license holder.
by Notification No. 3/2018-CT dated
23.01.2018, disallowing refund of IGST On 16th April 2018, IEEMA submitted a representation
exports when such exports is made out of to the Ministry of Commerce & Industry and Ministry of
IGST free inputs imported under Advance Finance, Government of India regarding Anti-Dumping
Authorization. Duty on Cold-Rolled Flat Products of Stainless Steel.

Readers are requested to send their feedback about content of the Journal at

100 May 2018


Vide Notification no. 52/2017-Cus, dated 24.10.2017,

the Government of India had imposed Anti-Dumping
Duty on cold-rolled flat products of stainless steel of
IEEMA 5th Executive
width greater than 1250 mm of all series not further council meeting
worked than Cold rolled (cold reduced) with a thickness The fifth Executive council meeting of IEEMA
of up to 4 mm (width tolerance of +30mm for Mill Edged was held on 14th March 2018 at IEML Greater
and + 4 mm for Trimmed Edged). Noida. Mr Shreegopal Kabra, President, IEEMA
congratulated all the EC and OC members for
Indian Elevator Industry uses certain products such the successful completion of ELECRAMA. The
as 5 WL, Linen, Check, Canvas, 2K coated with PE, President informed that external branding of
Leather grains etc. Cold rolled polished “2K” is further IEEMA/ELECRAMA has gone up. It is time to
worked upon and is therefore not included under the create our internal branding of ELECRAMA/
Anti-Dumping Notification. Similarly, there should not be IEEMA in a different way so that next ELECRAMA
any levy of Anti-Dumping Duty on Cold Rolled Special /IEEMA will become very strong. Mr Kabra
Finish Stainless Steel. also announced the appointment of Mr. Vikalp
Mundra as Chairman ELECRAMA 2020 and Mr.
IEEMA requested the Government to remove Cold Anil Saboo as Vice Chairman. The date for next
Rolled Flat Products of Stainless Steel, from the purview ELECRAMA will be announced within next three
of Anti-Dumping Duty Notification no. 52/2017-Cus, months. „
dated 24.10.2017.

IEEMA Workshop on
Power Transformer Tank Fabrication
ower Transformer division of IEEMA organized Mr. P Ramachandran (ABB), Mr. Rajan Choran (TELK),
P a one day workshop at Vadodara exclusively
for transformer tank fabricators and transformer
Mr. Satish P Sawant (Institute Of Welding and Testing
Technology, Thane, Mumbai
manufacturers with the dedicated theme of improving and Meghan M Manjarekar (National Institute of Coating
the quality, surface finish and aesthetics of tanks to Technology, Pune). There were lively discussions and
global standards. This workshop, first of its kind from experience sharing during each session.
IEEMA to support sub –vendors to achieve excellence
In the concluding session chaired by Mr.Manjit S Sethi
was held on March 23, 2018 at Hotel Mercure,
Vadodara. Approximately 170 participants, with nearly the following way forward actions were agreed upon:
equal participation from transformer manufacturers and (a) Formulate a common industry specification for
tank fabricators, attended the workshop. Tank designers, Tank covering fabrication, welding, surface treatment,
quality inspectors, fabrication engineers, welding and painting and testing requirements
painting experts from industry actively participated in
the workshop. (b) Guide lines for fabrication friendly designs meeting
aesthetic requirements
Workshop was opened for deliberations by Power
Transformer Division Chairman, Mr. Manjit S Sethi (c) A standardization and variety reduction Guide –
who emphasized the need for super quality tanks fixing sizes and grades of materials for transformer
with excellent surface treatment and painting to meet industry, standard flanges, man holes and hand holes.
the challenges in the transformer export markets. All these will be compiled in to an IEEMA standard
There were four sessions covering topics viz (a) that will be adopted, in due course, by utilities in their
tank specifications and aesthetic requirements, (b)
specifications as happened in case of IEEMA Standard
materials, fabrications and fitting (c) welding and testing
for Transformer Radiators. Committees are being
(d) surface treatment and painting. Each session had
formed from industry experts to draft the above guides.
an expert key note speech covering current and latest
trends on the topic, followed by summary reports It was also suggested to plan for annual mutual visits
from rapporteurs, covering the supplementary papers by designers and fabricators for close interactions for
and case histories (a total of 32 papers and problem quality improvement. Fabricators should arrange annual
histories from industry members) and bringing out the audit by welding and painting experts to improve their
cardinal learnings from them. Key note speakers were quality and productivity to global levels.

May 2018 101

OBO 109




HAVELLS 21, 23 & 25 UJAS (SHOKS & SPARKS) 110

102 May 2018



housings is now completed by the
versions with two straight cable entries.
the user with straight cable inputs is given easier and
faster assembly even under cramped space conditions.
entries are located on the side, making it difficult to
access the locking screws with a tool. Consequently, it
is necessary to place the housings next to each other
at a certain distance to enable locking and unlocking.
Kyoritsu, Japan. A frontline global three straight cable entries, the locking screws are more
presence in Electrical Test & easily accessible and the housings can thus be
sited much more densely next to one another,
with specialized expertise in Low KRXVLQJV ZLWK  DQG  SROHV RIIHU RQO\ D VWUDLJKW
Voltage Test & Measurement. FDEOH HQWU\7KH QHZ YHUVLRQV LQ   DQG  SROHV
now offer two straight cable entries in combination with
easy accessibility to the locking screws, thus permitting
the housings to be placed in very close proximity to
In India, the company has been present for many
miniaturisation and offers the customer valuable space
decades already, offering world class products optimized
for Indian needs at 'just right prices'. Many of these savings in its application.
products have for long been the choice equipment of
every Indian electrical installation professional. “KUSAM-MECO” Volt / mA Calibrator Source &
Kyoritsu’s Voltage detector is handheld probe for non
Measures MODEL - KM - CAL-700
contact voltage detection. Voltage detectors or test pens .XVDP ² 0HFR 0RGHO .0 ²  9ROW P$
rely on capacitive current only and essentially detect the 3UHFLVLRQ+DQG+HOG&DOLEUDWRU6RXUFHDQG
changing electric field around AC energized objects. 0HDVXUH LV 3RZHU DQG &XUUHQW &DOLEUDWRU
Kyoritsu’s 5711 Voltage detector Senses non contact introduced by “Kusam – Meco”, an ISO
voltage through Insulation in cable, cord , circuit &HUWLILHG &RPSDQ\ 7KLV 8QLTXH
breakers and switches. Buzzer sounds and tip glows 9ROW P$ &DOLEUDWRU 6RXUFH  0HDVXULQJ
on upon AC voltage detection. 'HYLFHKDVD'&9ROWDJH,QSXWDQG2XWSXW
Kyoritsu’s 5711 key features are: 9ROWDJH RI  WR P99 ZLWK DQ
Kyoritsu KEW India Instruments Pvt. Ltd. VL]H RI  PP  WKH GLPHQVLRQ RI WKLV GHYLFH LV
#4, S P Nagar, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380006.
T : 91 79-2640 9686 | M 0 98246 80404
D-Sub Inducom For More Details Contact :
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May 2018 103


Relief for MSME Borrowers registered under Goods and

Services Tax (GST)
resently, banks and NBFCs in India generally borrower does not exceed ` 250 million as on
P classify a loan account as Non-Performing Asset
(NPA) based on 90 day and 120 day delinquency
January 31, 2018.
(iii) The borrower’s account was standard as on
norms, respectively. It has been represented to us that August 31, 2017.
formalisation of business through registration under GST
had adversely impacted the cash flows of the smaller (iv) The amount from the borrower overdue as on
entities during the transition phase with consequent September 1, 2017 and payments from the
difficulties in meeting their repayment obligations to borrower due between September 1, 2017 and
banks and NBFCs. As a measure of support to these January 31, 2018 are paid not later than 180 days
entities in their transition to a formalised business from their respective original due dates.
environment, it has been decided that the exposure of (v) A provision of 5% shall be made by the banks/
banks and NBFCs to a borrower classified as micro, NBFCs against the exposures not classified as
small and medium enterprise under the Micro, Small NPA in terms of this circular. The provision in
and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, respect of the account may be reversed as and
2006, shall continue to be classified as a standard when no amount is overdue beyond the 90/1201
asset in the books of banks and NBFCs subject to the day norm, as the case may be.
following conditions:
(vi) The additional time is being provided for the
(i) The borrower is registered under the GST regime purpose of asset classification only and not for
as on January 31, 2018. income recognition, i.e., if the interest from the
(ii) The aggregate exposure, including non-fund borrower is overdue for more than 90/1202 days,
based facilities, of banks and NBFCs, to the the same shall not be recognised on accrual basis.

GST4MSME: A SIDBI-FISME initiative to assist GST adoption

by MSMEs
IDBI– India’s premier development finance institutions system. Such a system may consist of a practical
S dedicated to MSMEs, and the FISME– the largest
network of MSME associations, joined hands to organize
guide for MSMEs on GST, a helpline where MSMEs
can ask questions and support portal to interact and
awareness campaign, establish MSME Forum on GST also disseminate knowledge. For more information, you
to keep track of developments and develop a support may visit

IEEMA SME Division meeting

EEMA SME Division meeting
I was held on 12 April 2018
at IEEMA, Mumbai. Chairman
reviewed the performance of
the division. Visions for the
SME Division and Action Plan
for year 2018-19 were finalised.
Chairman informed members
about the need of fixing KPI for
SME Division for measuring its
performance. Also discussed
on how to work closely with the
MSME supporting organization
etc. for the benefit of SME

104 May 2018


Test Laboratory (Accredited by NABL)

h DC power, AC power and efficiency measurement
as per IEC 61683
h Environmental tests as per IEC 60068-1, IEC
60068-2, IEC 60068-14 and IEC 60068-30

Solar Cables Test Laboratory

(Accredited by NABL)
h Complete type testing of solar cables as per
international standards BSEN 50618 and TUV
2Pfg 1169
h Equipped with advanced programmable test and
weathering chambers

PV and Solar Luminaries Test Laboratory

(NABL Accredited & MNRE Approved)
h Evaluation of solar photovoltaic modules as per
IS & IEC standards and related products like
solar home lighting systems, solar street lighting
Future Ready: ERDA’s Services for systems and solar lanterns
Renewable Energy and Emerging Smart h Automated computerized solar sun simulator
Grid Technologies class A conforming to IEC 60904-9 with PV
reference module conforming to IEC 60904-2
To ensure the reliability and operational efficiency of
h PV Module I-V characteristic measurement system
the key enabler technologies critical to growth of the
with software conforming to IEC 60904-1
emerging renewable energy and smart grid infrastructure
in the country, ERDA offers comprehensive range of h Capable to test solar panels (PV module) of size
technical services, under its three business verticals of 2m x 1m
“Testing and Evaluation”, “Field Services” & “R&D and h Automated computerized spectral flux
Expert Services”. Summary of the capability profile is measurement system with 76 inch (2m)
presented below: integrating sphere and reference lamp traceable
to NIST (National Institute of Standards and
Testing and Evaluation Technology)
h Mirror type “C” Goniophotometer for LED
Solar Pumping Systems Test Laboratory, Luminaries
upto 10 HP Rating (NABL Accredited and h Lumbase software for computer controlled
approved by MNRE and BIS) Goniophotometric measurements
h Set up as per guidelines specified by MNRE. h Controlled environment conditioning chambers
Equipped with advanced PV array simulator and
PV panel mounting structure with auto tracking Life Cycle Evaluation for Solar Batteries
system h Capability for evaluation of batteries from 1A to
h Equipped with high precision digital pyranometer 2000A & IV to 72V DC
(for sun irradiance measurement), power analyzer, h Facility for capacity evaluation between fully
magnetic flow meter and pressure transducers charged & load cut off conditions
with data logging facility h Batteries evaluated include stationery lead acid
h Using this system, it becomes possible to test batteries in mass block containers and stationery
solar pumps at any time (day or night) VRLA GEL type solar batteries
Complete facility for battery testing as per IS 1652,
Solar Inverter and Solar Charge Controller h
IS 15549, & IS 13369
Evaluation of Smart Meters
(Recognized by BIS)
h Evaluation of smart energy meters as per IS:
h Communication protocol verification of smart
Outdoor Setup with meters as per DLMS/COSEM as well as
Pyranometer (upto 10 HP) Solar Sun Simulator IS: 16444 & IS: 15959

May 2018 105


Communication Protocol Verification Power Quality Assessment and Mitigation

Laboratory for Smart Grid Devices h Voltage and current harmonics measurement as
per IEEE 519
h Communication protocol verification for smart grid
related devices such as smart meters, relays and h Flicker measurement as per IEC 61000-4-15
IEDs h DC current injection into grid as per CEA
h Equipped with DNV-GL developed test tools for
verification of communication protocol based on h Sag and swell measurements
IEC 61850 h Current and voltage unbalance
h Phase shifting and reactive power
Field Services h Voltage dips and short term overvoltage
h Switching surge measurements
Services provided include
h Technical audit of wind energy systems Forthcoming Training Programs
h Third party inspection of PV modules / PV plant Workshop Calendar - 2017
Programme Title Date

R&D and Expert Services Safety & Performance Evaluation of 07-08

Cables & Accessories June
R&D Services Performance Evaluation of Solid 21-22
Design of micro-grids Insulation Materials June
h Integration of micro-grid with various renewable Design Aspects and Performance 04-05
sources (wind, solar, biogas etc.) Evaluation of Motors & Pumps July
h Design & development of grid tied power Performance Evaluation of Low 19-20
electronics including inverters and converters Voltage Switchgears July
h Design of solar enabled vehicles & pumping
systems Energy Audits of Industries & Power 09-10
Plants August
h Development of anti-dust coatings for solar panels
and other nano-enabled material technologies for RLA & NDT of Power Plants and 30-31
the smart grid Failure Analysis of Components August

Expert Services Quality Assurance of Wiring

Accessories - Switches, Plugs &
Power System Studies September
h Equipped with various power system analysis
software such as Mi-Power, ETAP, EMTP-RV, 24-25
Transformer Testing Techniques
h Power system studies provided include load flow, Evaluation of Solar Lighting and
short circuit / fault level studies, transient stability Pumping System as per MNRE
/ dynamic stability, relay co-ordination, protection Specification
audit, insulation co-ordination, transmission 25-26
High Voltage Evaluation Techniques
planning and power evacuation, power quality, October
sub-synchronous resonance, reactive power
resonance, reactive power compensation, Condition Monitoring & Health 15-16
Assessment of Power Transformers November
performance analysis of FACTs devices, etc.
Condition Monitoring of Motors, 29-30
Generators, Pumps & Turbines November

Uncertainty Measurement in Electrical 06-07

Discipline December

EMI/ EMC Evaluation Techniques for

Electrical and Electronic Equipment &

Rajib Chattopadhyay
Head BD & CRM
Phone (D): 0265-3021505, Mobile: 9978940954
Power Quality Measurement Type-C Goniophotometer

106 May 2018

the leading electrical & electronics monthly the leading electrical & electronics monthly the leading electrical & electronics monthly

VOLUME 9 z ISSUE NO. 5 z JANUARY 2018 z PGS. 10 ISSN 0970-2946 z Rs. 100/- VOLUME 9 z ISSUE NO. % z JANUARY 2018 z PGS. 124 ISSN 0970-2946 z Rs. 100/- VOLUME 9 z ISSUE NO. 8 z APRIL 2018 z PGS. 100 ISSN 0970-2946 z Rs. 100/-

ELECRAMA 2018 ELECRAMA Inaugurated!

METERING INDUSTRY The Biggest Edition of ELECRAMA Hon’ble Vice President of India, M Venkaiah Naidu inaugurated
i tto LLength
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dth off IIndia ƚŚĞϭϯƚŚĞĚŝƟŽŶŽĨ>ZD

Whatever be the application area, if it is about electricity, then it is

on display and discussion in ELECRAMA-2018.
Presenting you a wide gamut of industries and application areas
that are strategic to the electrical business of the future.
11th T&D Conclave
Country Profile
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Energy Efficiency Measures for

Thermal Power Stations A Power-Packed Event !

Redefining Electricity for Smarter Living

Be ready for Powerplay upto 33kV Power Quality for Smart Grid Special Report
Financial performance of Indian Cover Story
Face 2 Face Electrical Equipment Industry ELECRAMA-2016
Strong political will needed to execute for FY 2015-16
In Depth
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Mr Pawan Kumar Jain Special Feature optimistic scenario in the Indian EE industry New Tariff Policy
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Energy Convention in India and its challenges Energy Efficiency Measures
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May 2018 109


„ Santa & Banta got tired of mobile & decide

to use pigeons. 1day a pigeon reaches Banta
without message. Angry Banta calls Santa!
Santa: Oye, this was a missed call

„ Boy: Wow so big a house???

Girl: Yes, we have money!!
Boy: Wow such a big car??
Girl: Yes, we are money!
Boy: Oh my God so much gold???
Girl: Yes, we are money.
Boy: Take this Letter!
„ English Teacher: - ok children ..somebody have to Girl: What is this???
ask something? Boy: We are INCOME TAX
Pintu: - Sir ...
Teacher : - Ask ... „ Diet Tip
Pintu: - Sir, How to call Hindi in English ? !!! Stay away from things that make you fat.
Such as weight weighing machines, glasses
„ Q: Why dogs don’t marry? and photos. And thin friend!
A: Because they are already leading a dog’s life!
„ I’ve been arrested for being the ugliest person
„ Santa falls in luv with a nurse... After much thinking, in India. Can you come down the police
he finally writes a love letter to her: “I luv u sister.” station and show them that it’s all a mistake

„ A lady went out to buy an Indian flag. The shop „ What do you call a woman in heaven?
owner gave her the flag. John: An angel!
She asked ... Can you show few more colors A crowd of women in heaven?
John: A host of angels!
„ What’s Ford?
All the women in heaven?
Santa: Gaadi.
What’s Oxford?
Santa: So simple, Bail Gaadi

„ Banta: Name the 3 fastest means of communication. Vikalp Mundra

Santa: Telephone, Television, Tell-a-woman Jt. MD
Ujaas Energy Ltd.

110 May 2018
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