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Ilocos Norte is found in the north-westernmost part of Luzon covering a land area of 366,200
hectares. It is bordered by the Babuyan Channel to the north; Ilocos Sur to the south; Abra to the
southeast; Cagayan to the east; and the South China Sea to the west.

It is composed of 22 municipalities with Laoag City as the province’s capital and Batac City as
another major city in the province. And Ilocos norte has 557 barangays

Just like the rest of the Ilocos Region, Ilocos Norte experiences both dry and wet seasons. The
dry season starts from November until April, while the wet season from May to October –
wherein rainfall is brought about by the southwest monsoon or Habagat. The average
temperature experienced by Ilocos Norte is 26.8*C.POLITICAL STRUCTURE.

Physical features of the region: hills, mountains.coastal,and miscellaneous


The province specializes in the following products and industries:

 Agriculture — rice, corn, garlic, legumes, root crops, tobacco, and other fruits and
 Fishery — tilapia and assorted fishes
 Livestock — swine and cattle
 Cottage industries — loom weaving, furniture, ceramics, iron works
 Manufacturing and food processing — salt, empanada, bagoong, patis, basi (native
Ilocano wine), vinegar, longganisa, chicharon, bagnet, chichacorn (cornick), jewelry,
garments, cereal processing, packaging, mechanized processing equipment
 Wind Power — Ilocos Norte's position on the northwest corner of Luzon makes it ideal
for wind power generation. There is currently a 25 Megawatt wind farm in Ilocos Norte,
and several more wind energy projects are being planned
 Tourism
 Pottery

Long before the coming of the Spaniards, there already existed an extensive region consisting of
the present provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra and La Union) renowned for its gold mines.

Merchants from Japan and China would often visit the area to trade gold with beads, ceramics
and silk. The inhabitants of the region, believed to be of Malay origin, called their place “samtoy”,
from “sao mi toy, which literally meant “our language”.

In 1571, when the Spanish conquistadors had Manila more or less under their control, they began
looking for new sites to conquer. Legaspi’s grandson, Juan de Salcedo, volunteered to lead one
of these expeditions. Together with 8 armed boats and 45 men, the 22 year old voyager headed

On June 13, 1572, Salcedo and his men landed in Vigan and then proceeded towards Laoag,
Currimao and Badoc. As they sailed along the coast, they were surprised to see numerous
sheltered coves (“looc”) where the locals lived in harmony. As a result, they named the region
“Ylocos” and its people “Ylocanos”.

As the Christianization of the region grew, so did the landscape of the area. Vast tracks of land
were utilized for churches and bell towers in line with the Spanish mission of “bajo las campanas”.
In the town plaza, it was not uncommon to see garrisons under the church bells. The colonization
process was slowly being carried out.

The Spanish colonization of the region, however, was never completely successful. Owing to the
abusive practices of many Augustinian friars, a number of Ilocanos revolted against their
colonizers. Noteworthy of these were the Dingras uprising (1589) and Pedro Almasan revolt (San
Nicolas, 1660). In 1762, Diego Silang led a series of battles aimed at freeing the Ilocanos from the
Spanish yoke. When he died from an assassin’s bullet, his widow Gabriela continued the cause.
Unfortunately, she too was captured and hanged. In 1807, the sugar cane (“basi”) brewers of
Piddig rose up in arms to protest the government’s monopoly of the wine industry. In 1898, the
church excommunicated Gregorio Aglipay for refusing to cut off ties with the revolutionary forces
of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. Unperturbed, he established the “Iglesia Filipina Independiente”.
Aglipay’s movement and the national sentiment it espoused helped restore the self-respect of
many Filipinos.

“The great increase in population from 1715 to 1818 from 18,980 to 282,845 made the
administration of the province very difficult. Due to the excessive monopolies and forced labor,
there were several uprisings: first by the people of Dingras in 1589; one that was led by Pedro
Almazan in 1616; the revolt of Diego Silang in 1762-1763; by Ambaristo in 1788; by Pedro Mateo
in 1808 and uprising of Sarrat in 1815. For this reason, the division of the Ilocos into two provinces
was recommended by the local authorities. On February 2, 1818, a Spanish Royal Decree was

promulgated dividing the Province of Ilocos Norte from Ilocos Sur. Laoag City, which was then
the biggest center of population, was made the capital of Ilocos Norte.”


 Poay sand dunes – hop in 4x4 jeep and experience an adrenaline rush as they go up and
down the terrain, it feels like a roller coaster ride without the harness. A sand boading
comes as a bunos for the brave ones
 Poay church- is formally called st.agustine catholic purish church is one of the oldest
churches in the Philippines and inscribe on the UNESCO’s world heritage.
 Malacanang of the north”malacanang ti amianan.- built overlooking the legendary poay
lake is imposing two-story malacanang of the north. The mansion was established as the
official residence of Pre. Ferdinand Marcos in Ilocos Norte.
 Bangui wind farm-Bangui Wind Farm is a wind farm in Bangui, Ilocos Norte, Philippines.
The wind farm uses 20 units of 70-metre high Vestas V82 1.65 MW wind turbines,
arranged on a single row stretching along a nine-kilometer shoreline off Bangui Bay,
facing the West Philippine Sea.
 Cape Bojeador Lighthouse- also known as Burgos Lighthouse, is a cultural heritage
structure in Burgos, Ilocos Norte, that was established during the Spanish Colonial period
in the Philippines
 Kapurpurawan rock formation-Noteworthy geological formation by the beach,
accessible by hiking or horseback riding.and Kapurpurawan gots its name from the
Ilocano word "puraw" which means white.
 Patapat bridge-The Patapat Viaduct is a viaduct at the municipality of Pagudpud, Ilocos
Norte, a coastal resort town on the northernmost tip of Luzon Island in the Philippines.
The bridge is elevated 31 meters over sea level.
 Juan luna’s shrine- houses the reproductions of Juan Luna's paintings,the shrine in badoc,
ilocos norte, is a reconstrcution of the two-story house in which the patriot and foremost
filipino painter were born on octrobe 24,1857.
 Kabigan falls- A rustic trail through tropical forest leads visitors to this dramatic natural
 Bantay church and bell towe- are considered two of the oldest strugtures in the province,
as the bell tower was built in 1590 and the church was in the following year. One of
Vigan’s most iconic symbols is the Bantay Bell Tower. First built in 1591, it served as the
town’s watchtower before being turned into a bell tower by the nearby church in 1857.

Located roughly 10 minutes from the town of Vigan, it’s located in the town of Bantay,
Ilocos Sur.


 Longganisa – A Vigan Food Speciality -Longganisa is an emblematic Ilocos food. These

pork sausages are the star at any Ilocano table. The sausages from Vigan are the most
famous and they are distinctly small and plump.These sausages are made from ground
pork, mixed with garlic, vinegar and a mix of other local seasonings. They are delicious
and have a spicy bite. These traditional sausages are not to be missed on a trip to the
Ilocos region.
 Batac Empanadas – Striking Orange Empanadas One of the most striking
characteristics of the Batac empanada is its bright orange color. The empanadas are
deep fried and stuffed with green papaya, chopped up longganisa sausages and hard
boiled eggs. The orange colored dough is made of rice flour and the color comes from
the use of annatto seeds.
 Bagnet – Deep Fried Crispy Pork Cracklings -The Ilocano Bagnet is also known as
Chicharon Baboy or deep-fried pork meat. It is pork belly deep-fried in its own fat.
Once fried, it is air dried up to drain the fat. The process is repeated over and over
until the pork reached is maximum crispiness.
 Pinakbet – Popular Mixed Vegetable Ilocos Food Pinakbet is a popular Ilocano
vegetable dish that can be found all over the country. It is a vegetable stew made with
tomatoes, eggplant, string beans, okra, and bitter gourd.
 Okoy – Best Shrimp Fritters from Vigan -These delicious treats are crispy shrimp
fritters cooked in their shell in a glutinous rice batter and shaped into a round form.
These fritters are garnished with fresh shallots and a mix of garlic and chili
peppers.The unique flavors come to life when dipped in an Ilocos style vinegar called
sukang iloko.
 Poqui-Poqui – An Ilocano Grilled Eggplant Dish This simple Ilocano dish- will please
any vegetarian. In a country, where pork is a daily staple, it is hard to find any dish
that is not served with meat or fish. However, you will find eggs battered in Poqui-
Poqui.Poqui-poqui is made of grilled eggplants sauteed with onions, garlic and
tomatoes. Eggs are added and stirred with the other ingredients. All the ingredients
are cooked together making this Ilocos delicacy slightly soupy.

 Garlic at the Sinait Garlic Festival-Garlic also known as locally as “bawang” is a root
crop that is native to the Ilocos region of the Philippines.This essential food condiment
is found in every Filipino kitchen and is used to add flavor to almost every dish. What
makes this particular garlic unique is that it is more pungent and aromatic compared
to garlic from other countries.
 The Dragon Fruit in Ilocos Norte-Dragon Fruits are a beautiful fruit and packed with
several health benefits. The fiber in dragon fruit helps with digestion. The fruit also
helps regulate blood sugar spikes and lowers bad cholesterol. Dragon fruits are also
full of antioxidants which help clear the body of cancer causing free radicals. And, the
fruits are rich in Vitamin B1, B2 and C, which help repair tissues and keeping the skin


 the Ilocano trait for hiya or amor propio (sense of shame). Ilocanos fear of gossip and
would strongly avoid being envied by others.
 It is essential to show panagdayaw (respect for the sensitivities of others). Ilocanos tend
to speak about themselves in the humblest of terms.


WEDDING Tradition

 Thegroom makesapanagpudno (formal announcement) to thesoon- to-be

bride’sparentsabout his intention of marrying their daughter. Hisparentswill then
visit the bride’sparentsto set thewedding date. Usually, parentsconsult a planetario ,
which islikean almanac that identifies“lucky” days. Another highlight of thefeast isthe
bito r wherein guestscontributecash to thenewlywedseither by dropping money onto
theplatesor by pinning billsto thecouple’sclothes.

DEATH Tradition

 To announceadeath of afamily member, apieceof ato ng wood islit in front of

thedeceased’shouse. It iskept burning until after theburial. Thefireis extinguished
with whitewine.
 Beforethefuneral, relativespay respect by kissing thedeceased’shandsor raising it to
his/her forehead(mano)
 Thosewho attended theburial in the cemetery must return to thedeceased’s homeby
taking adifferent routefrom theonethey’vetaken to get there. Upon arrival, they must
wash their facesand hands. It issaid to removethepower of death.


 Pamulinawen Festival - Laoag City, February 10 A floral parade and street dancing
 Guling-Guling Festival - Paoay, Eve of Ash Wednesday Residents, dressed in their Ilocano
costume adorned with antique jewelries, dance and sing around town while being blessed
with the Sign of the Cross using pounded rice instead of gray ash.
 December Festival - Laoag City Highlighted by the lantern parade and decor competition
ending in the Palarong Pamasko. Ilocos Norte: Cultures & Traditions Festivals
 Farmer’s Festival,-Bacarra This festival highlights a street dance parade participated by
dressed up farmers with their products, agro-industrial, trade fair, contest of the biggest
farm harvest and livestock and "pinaka" contests of agro products.