Sei sulla pagina 1di 72

Shortlisted

Problems

(with solutions)

59 th International Mathematical Olympiad Cluj-Napoca — Romania, 3–14 July 2018

Q ą 0
f
: Q ą 0 Ñ Q ą 0
x, y
P Q ą 0

f ` x 2 f p y q 2 ˘ f p xq 2 f p y q

a n ` 1 a 1 a n ` 2 a 2

n

ě

3

a i a i ` 1 ` 1 a i ` 2

a 1 , a 2 ,

, a n

 i “ 1 , 2 , , n S F G S ř x PF 1 {x “ ř x PG 1 {x r ă 1 ř x PF 1 {x ‰ r
 F S a 0 , a 1 , a 2 ,
 n ě 2 1 ď k ď n f

a n a n ´ 1 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` a n ´ k k

a 2018 ´ a 2017

.

:

p 0 , 8q Ñ R

a 0

0 a 1

1

ˆ x `

x ˙ f p y q “ f p xy q ` f ´

1

y

x ¯

x, y ą 0
m, n ě
2
f p x 1 ,
]
` x n
f p x 1 ,
, x n q “ Y x 1 `
m
f
n

a, b, c, d

S

c

3

a

b ` 7 `

c

3

b

, x n q

x 1 ,

, x n P 0 , 1 ,

, m ´ 1 (

 c 3 c d ` 7 ` c 3 a d ` 7 , a ` b ` c ` d “ 100

c ` 7 `

 n ě 3 S 2 n m “ 2 , 3 , , n S
 m 20 ˆ 20
 K K

 n n ` 1 0 n n 0 k k n
 n

r xs

Q n

1

U ` Q n U ` Q n

3

2

U

`

¨

¨

¨

`

Q

n

n

U

x

 1 1 ` 2 ` 3 ` 4 “ 10
 2018 1 1 ` 2 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` 2018 k 2 k

a

b

 p iq a b p iiq p iq p iiq

ABC

Γ

D

E

 AB AC AD “ AE Ŋ Ŋ BD CE AB AC F G DE F G
 ABC AB “ AC M BC P P B ă P C P A BC X Y

P B

P C

B

P X C

P Y

 = P XM “ = P Y M AP XY ω T
 p iq T ω p iiq T
 t n n t
T

BC

CA

T

AB

ABC

A 1

B 1

C 1

A 1 B 1 C 1

 A 1 T B 1 T C 1 T Ω A 2 B 2 C 2 AA 2 BB 2 CC 2 Ω

 ω I ℓ AI ABC BI CI D E F A B C I x y z AD BE CF Θ Θ ω

ABCD

AB ¨ CD BC ¨ DA

X

 = XAB “ = XCD = XBC “ = XDA = AXB ` = CXD “ 180 ˝ O Ω ABC P Ω A B C Ω AOP BOP COP O A O B O C ℓ A ℓ B C ℓ A ℓ B ℓ C BC CA AB O A ℓ O B O C OP

 p n, k q s sn sk n ą 1 n ˆ n
 p iq 1 n p iiq n n 2 R i j i C j R 1 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` R n C 1 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` C n n 4 a 0 , a 1 , a 2 , a n “ 2 n ` 2 tn { 2u
 m a 1 a 2 a n a 1 ` a 2 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` a n ´ 1 ` a n a 2 a 3 a n a 1 n ě k k a n “ a n ` 1 n ě m x y z t xy ´ zt “ x ` y “ z ` t. xy zt

f : t1 , 2 , 3 ,

.u Ñ t2 , 3 ,

.u

f p m ` nq |

f p mq ` f p nq

 m, n c ą 1 f

 n ě 2018 a 1 , a 2 , , a n , b 1 , b 2 , , b n

5 n

a

1

b

1

,

a 2 ,

b

2

.

.

.

,

a n

b

n

 Q ą 0

f

: Q ą 0 Ñ Q ą 0

f ` x 2 f p y q 2 ˘