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Shortlisted Problems (with solutions) 59 t h International Mathematical Olympiad Cluj-Napoca — Romania, 3–14 July
Shortlisted Problems (with solutions) 59 t h International Mathematical Olympiad Cluj-Napoca — Romania, 3–14 July

Shortlisted

Problems

(with solutions)

59 th International Mathematical Olympiad Cluj-Napoca — Romania, 3–14 July 2018

 
 

 
 

 

 

 

             

Q ą 0 f : Q ą 0 Ñ Q ą 0 x, y P
Q ą 0
f
: Q ą 0 Ñ Q ą 0
x, y
P Q ą 0

f ` x 2 f p y q 2 ˘ f p xq 2 f p y q

2 f p y q 2 ˘ “ f p x q 2 f p y

a n ` 1 a 1 a n ` 2 a 2

n

ě

3

a i a i ` 1 ` 1 a i ` 2

a 1 , a 2 ,

, a n

i 1 , 2 ,

, n

 

S  

S

 

 

F

G

S ř x PF 1 {x ř x PG 1 {x

 

r

ă 1

ř x PF

1 {x r

F

S

a 0 , a 1 , a 2 ,

a 0 , a 1 , a 2 ,

n ě 2

1 ď k ď n

f

f

a n a n ´ 1 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` a n ´ k k

a 2018 ´ a 2017

.

:

p 0 , 8q Ñ R

a 0

0 a 1

1

ˆ x `

x ˙ f p y q “ f p xy q ` f ´

1

y

x ¯

x, y ą 0 m, n ě 2 f p x 1 , ] `
x, y ą 0
m, n ě
2
f p x 1 ,
]
` x n
f p x 1 ,
, x n q “ Y x 1 `
m
f
n

a, b, c, d

S

c

3

a

b ` 7 `

c

3

b

, x n q

x 1 ,

, x n P 0 , 1 ,

, m ´ 1 (

 

c

3

c

d ` 7 `

c

3

a

d

`

7 ,

a ` b ` c ` d 100

 

c ` 7 `

n ě 3 S 2 n

n

ě

3

S

2 n

m 2 , 3 ,

, n S

m

 

20 ˆ 20

20 ˆ 20

K

K

 

n n ` 1 0 n n 0 k k n

n n ` 1

0 n

n

0

k

k

n

n

r xs

Q n

1

U ` Q n U ` Q n

3

2

U

`

¨

¨

¨

`

Q

n

n

U

x

 
 

1 1 ` 2 ` 3 ` 4 10

 

 

 

2018

1

1 ` 2 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` 2018

 
 

k

k

2 k

 

a b     p i q a b p ii q   p i

a

b

 
 

p iq

a

b

p iiq

 

p iq

p iiq

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

ABC Γ D E AB AC AD “ AE   Ŋ Ŋ BD CE AB

ABC

Γ

D

E

AB

AC

AD AE

 

Ŋ

Ŋ

BD

CE

AB

AC

F

G

DE F G

 
 

ABC AB “ AC M BC P

ABC

AB

AC

M

BC

P

P B ă P C

P A

BC

X

Y

P B

P C

B

P X C

P Y

= P XM = P Y M

AP XY

 

ω T

ω

T

 

p iq

T

ω

p iiq

T

t

n

n

t

 

T
T

BC

CA

T

AB

ABC

A 1

B 1

C 1

A 1 B 1 C 1

A 1 T B 1 T C 1 T

A 2

B 2

C 2

AA 2 BB 2

CC 2

 

ω I ℓ

ω

I

AI

ABC BI CI

D

E

F

A B

C

I

x

y

z

AD

BE

CF

Θ

Θ

ω

I x y z AD BE CF Θ Θ ω ABCD AB ¨ CD “ BC

ABCD

AB ¨ CD BC ¨ DA

X

= XAB

= XCD = XBC

= XDA

= AXB `

= CXD 180 ˝

 

O Ω ABC

O

ABC

P

A

B C

 

AOP

BOP COP

O A

O B

O C

A B

C

A

B

C

BC

CA AB

O A

O B

O C

OP

 
p n, k q

p n, k q

s

sn

sk

 
 

n ą 1 n ˆ n

n

ą

1

n ˆ n

 

p iq

1

n

p iiq

n

n 2

R i j
R i
j

i

C j

R 1 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` R n

C 1 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` C n

n 4

 

a 0 , a 1 , a 2 ,

a n

2 n ` 2 tn { 2u

m
m
 

a 1 a 2

a n

 

 

a 1

` a 2 ` ¨ ¨ ¨ ` a n ´ 1 ` a n

 

a 2

a 3

a n

a 1

n ě k

k

a n a n ` 1

n ě m

 
 

x y z t  

x

y z

t

 
 

xy ´ zt x ` y z ` t.

 

xy

zt

 
 

x ` y “ z ` t.   xy zt     f : t 1

f : t1 , 2 , 3 ,

.u Ñ t2 , 3 ,

.u

f p m ` nq |

f p mq ` f p nq

m, n

c ą 1

f

 
| f p m q ` f p n q m, n c ą 1 f

 

n ě 2018

a 1 , a 2 ,

, a n , b 1 , b 2 ,

, b n

5 n

a

1

b

1

,

a 2 ,

b

2

.

.

.

,

a n

b

n

 

 

 

Q ą 0

Q ą 0

f

: Q ą 0 Ñ Q ą 0

f ` x 2 f p y q 2 ˘