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Awakening from the Sleep

of Inhumanity

From Sobrino’s The Principle of Mercy: Taking


the Crucified People from the Cross
Jon Sobrino, S.J.
Dogmatic slumber

Sleep of Inhumanity

…pagkatulog saan?
Daloy ng talakayan:
1) Paunang pagninilay ni Jon Sobrino
1.1. journeying with/accompanying
1.2. contextualization/inculturation
2) 5 Katotohanang hatid ng karanasan ni Sobrino
- katotohanan tungkol sa Diyos
- katotohanan tungkol sa tao
2.1. nakapakong sangnilikha
2.2. tingin o titig ng Diyos
2.3. pagpapakatao
2.4. pakikidigma ng Diyos
- ‘beautitudes’
2.5. prinsipyo ng habag
- corporal at spiritual works of mercy
- Ang Mabuting Samaritano
3) Pagpapalalim ng pagninilay ukol sa prinsipyo ng habag
- habag bilang paglalim ng pagpapakatao
- habag bilang tanda ng mas malalim na kapangyarihan ng Diyos
4) Pagsasara ng talakayan
- tula bilang tulong pagninilay
- paglalagom
Sobrino’s experience and reflection

“ . . . I witnessed appalling poverty, but even though I


saw it with my eyes, I did not really see it; thus that
poverty had nothing to say to me for my own life as a
young Jesuit and as a human being. It did not even
cross my mind that I might learn something from
the poor.”

journeying WITH accompanying


…paglalakad ni Hesus?
Sobrino’s experience and reflection

“ But I did come to understand that it was absurd to go


about trying to Rahnerize or Moltmannize the people
of El Salvador. If there was something positive I could
bring from the perspective of my studies, the task
would have to be reverse: If at all possible, we needed
to Salvadorize Rahner and Moltmann.”

contextualization inculturation
Sobrino’s experience and reflection

WHO is the example of this “journeying with, going


into the context and culture”?

Word Made
Flesh
Sobrino’s experience and reflection

“Nevertheless, even with many changes for the better,


we had not changed fundamentally. I, at least,
continued to be a Frist World product, and if I were
changing, it was in accordance with that First World’s
process . .

“We had awakened from the dogmatic slumber, if you


will, but we continued to sleep in the much deeper
sleep of inhumanity. . . “
Sobrino’s Discovery of Truth
on:

Human Beings

God
(1) “The world is one gigantic cross for
millions of innocent people who die at
the hands of executioners.”
“The world is one gigantic cross for millions of
innocent people who die at the hands of
executioners.”

Why gigantic cross?

- Suffering of an “entire crucified peoples”


 Crucified WHO/WHAT and WHY?

- Esp. the collective suffering from the sin of the


world (personal sin and social/structural sin)
“The world is one gigantic cross for millions of
innocent people who die at the hands of
executioners.”

Die of what? From what?


- SIN. What Sin?
- Esp. from Social / Structural Sin. Like what?

Kind of Death?
- Slow: “at the hands of structures of injustice”
* the poor from physical death, and all of us from
moral death (indifference, apathy, hopelessness)
- Swift and violent: persecution when standing
up and fighting for social justice. Like who?
“The world is one gigantic cross for millions of
innocent people who die at the hands of
executioners.”

Innocent people?

- Why innocent?

- Pertains to the world’s poor


“The world is one gigantic cross for millions of
innocent people who die at the hands of
executioners.”

Innocent people?

- “The world’s poor are practically of no


consequence to anyone – not to the people
who live in abundance or to the people who
have any kind of power.”
“The world is one gigantic cross for millions of
innocent people who die at the hands of
executioners.”
Executioners?
- Obviously, the perpetrators of injustices.

But how about us?


- “People do not want to acknowledge or face
up to the reality of a crucified world, and
even less do we want to ask ourselves what is
our share of responsibility for such a world.”
What is our tendency in the face of a crucified world?
“The world is one gigantic cross for millions of
innocent people who die at the hands of
executioners.”
Executioners:
But how about us?

- “It is surprising that (we) can know so much


and yet ignore what is so fundamental about
the world in which we live.
It is also frustrating, because the problem is
not a lack of means by which to learn the
truth.”
“The world is one gigantic cross for millions of
innocent people who die at the hands of
executioners.”
Executioners:
But how about us?
- “We have enough knowledge to place a man on
the moon or Mars, but we sometimes do not
even know how many human beings share this
planet, much less how many of them die every
year from hunger…

What is our tendency in the face of a crucified world?


(2) “. . . We have rediscovered how God
looks at God’s crucified creation.”
“. . . We have rediscovered how God looks at
God’s crucified creation.”

- “The Lord saw that the wickedness of humankind was


great in the earth. And the Lord was sorry that he
had made humankind on the earth, and it grieved
him to his heart.” (Genesis 6: 5-6)

- “grieved him to his heart”


* looks with mercy, compassion
* God looks… see with His heart  compassion
(companionship and a passion/urge to take action)
* loving which exposes oneself to vulnerability
“. . . We have rediscovered how God looks at
God’s crucified creation.”

- What are Scriptural accounts of God looking with


mercy, compassion, love?

- How do we look at the crucified creation around us?

- Crucified creation pertains to??


Romans 8: 22 “We know that all creation is groaning in
labor pains even until now.” (even the world)
“. . . We have rediscovered how God looks at
God’s crucified creation.”

- What do we see in God’s crucified creation?

POVERTY, GENEROSITY,
INJUSTICE, JUSTICE,
HOPELESSNESS HOPE

(SIN) (GRACE)
- God’s self-gift
 Love
“. . . We have rediscovered how God looks at
God’s crucified creation.”

We carry the SAVING CROSS through


The roads of the world.
Through the alleys of poverty and misery.

Marching to a dawning day to freedom and victory,


To God’s life and endless glory.
(3) “. . . We have also learned to ask
ourselves what is truly human about
human beings.”
Ano ang pagpapakatao?

Ngunit kung susuriin, ano ang


pinapahalagahan ng tao
ngayon?

Ano ang panukat o pamantayan


ng ating pagpapakatao?
“. . . We have also learned to ask ourselves what is
truly human about human beings.”

- We continue to suppose that we know what it is to


be human and that everyone else must be like us in
order to become human.

* Feeling like a Prometheus:


overvaluing the capacity to achieve, to
struggle and emerge victorious – unneedful
of anything or anyone else, including GRACE.
“. . . We have also learned to ask ourselves what is
truly human about human beings.”

“Nowadays, everyone wants to be successful. Success is the goal


of life. You need to be an achiever. And the more you achieve
your self-worth goes higher… Everything is measured according
to achievement, success.

…To be successful you don’t tolerate failure. The greatest sin of


our time is to say, ‘I have failed.’ And it’s a no-no to say I cannot
do it.”
Catechesis for the Youth by Cardinal Tagle
World Youth Day
Krakow, Poland, 29 July 2016
“. . . We have also learned to ask ourselves what is
truly human about human beings.”

“So I can be a self-made human being. And it is an insult to me


to say [that] somebody made me who I am. So I protect myself,
but I’m actually protecting my pride. I don’t need anyone… I
deny my wounds, I deny my being lost. It is embarrassing, I will
lose my dignity. So leave my alone, I will do it my way.

That person will not allow anyone – even God – to touch his
heart or her heart for it is an insult.”

Modern people, said the cardinal, are all victims of this


“mistaken notion of human dignity, of human worth.”
“. . . We have also learned to ask ourselves what is
truly human about human beings.”

In being At times, may lead


HUMAN to
DEHUMANIZATION
(where
measure is (of ourselves & of
success & our fellow)
achievements)
Ano ang pagpapakatao?

Sino ang nagpagpapakatao?


“. . . We have also learned to ask ourselves what is
truly human about human beings.”

- What then is being human?

* Created in the image and likeness of God – Genesis


1:27
* The image? LOVE. God is love.

* God created us out of the abundance of His love.

* Being human, therefore, is embodying love.


“. . . We have also learned to ask ourselves what is
truly human about human beings.”

- What then is being human?

* Beatitudes of Jesus – Luke 6: 20-26

* Good Samaritan – Luke 10: 29-37


“. . . We have also learned to ask ourselves what is
truly human about human beings.”

- What then is being human?


* God created us out of the abundance of His love.
Being human, therefore, is embodying love.

* To come to know God, to hold and keep faith in


God is the ultimate mystery of the human being.
Deepest longing: belongingness, identity
rooted from a relationship and an
experience of being loved first
(4) “. . . this true God is at war
with other gods.”
“. . . God on the cross is as impotent
as the victims themselves,
and such impotency is
God’s way of being in
solidarity with those victims.”

“. . . this true God is at war


with other gods.”
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

The Beatitudes / Sermon on the Plain


Luke 6: 20-26
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

Sermon on the Plain.

20* And raising his eyes toward his disciples he said:


“Blessed are you who are poor,*
for the kingdom of God is yours.

21 Blessed are you who are now hungry,


for you will be satisfied.
Blessed are you who are now weeping,
for you will laugh.l
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

Sermon on the Plain.

22 Blessed are you when people hate you,


and when they exclude and insult you,
and denounce your name as evil
on account of the Son of Man.m

23 Rejoice and leap for joy on that day! Behold,


your reward will be great in heaven. For their ancestors
treated the prophets in the same way.n
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”
Sermon on the Plain.

24 But woe to you who are rich,


for you have received your consolation.o

25 But woe to you who are filled now,


for you will be hungry.
Woe to you who laugh now,
for you will grieve and weep.p

26 Woe to you when all speak well of you,


for their ancestors treated the false prophets in this way.
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

 The Beatitudes (Sermon on the Plain) take the


accepted standards and turn them upside down.

 What then is the key to this? In verse 24, have.


The word Jesus used for have is the word used for
receiving payment in full of an account.

“If you set your heart and bend your whole energies
to obtain the things which the world values, you will get
them – BUT THAT IS ALL YOU WILL EVER GET.”
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

 What then is the key to this?


“If you set your heart and bend your whole energies
to be utterly loyal to God ad true to Christ, you will run into
all kinds of trouble;

You may by the world’s standards look unhappy, but much


of your payment is still to come; and it will be joy eternal.”
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

 The Challenge:
Will you be happy in the world’s way, or in Christ’s way?

“I like getting into hot water. It keeps you clean.”


G.K. Chesterton
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

“From the perspective of the poor, we have rediscovered


the need for a new kind of (humane) civilization:
* civilization of poverty - impossible
or austerity abundance for all

* civilization of work - capital

* community - individual
“. . . this true God is at war with other gods.”

“From the perspective of the poor, we have rediscovered


the need for a new kind of (humane) civilization:

* transcendent values - crass pragmatism

* celebration - mere diversion

* hope - calculated optimism

* faith - positivism
(5) “. . . We have rediscovered that the
faithful response to this world of victims is
the constant exercise of mercy.”
““. . . We have rediscovered that the faithful response
to this world of victims is the constant
exercise of mercy.”

WORKS OF MERCY

Corporal Spiritual
CORPORAL WORKS OF MERCY
(kawanggawang pangkatawan)

1. Feed the hungry (pakainin ang nagugutom)

2. Give drink to the thirsty (painumin ang nauuhaw)

3. Clothe the naked (paramtan ang walang maisuot)

4. Shelter the homeless (patuluyin ang walang


masilungan)
CORPORAL WORKS OF MERCY
(kawanggawang pangkatawan)

5. Visit those in prison (dalawin ang mga


binilanggo)

6. Visit the sick (dalawin ang mga maysakit)

7. Bury the dead (ilibing ang mga namatay)


SPIRITUAL WORKS OF MERCY
(kawanggawang pangkaluluwa)

1. Instruct the ignorant (turuan ang mga hindi


maalam)

2. Admonish the sinner (bigyang-babala ang mga


makasalanan)

3. Counsel the doubtful (pagpayuhan ang mga


naguguluhan ng isip)

4. Comfort the sorrowful (aliwin ang mga tumatangis)


SPIRITUAL WORKS OF MERCY
(kawanggawang pangkaluluwa)

5. Bear wrongs patiently (pagtiisan ang mga


pagkakamali)

6. Forgive all injuries (patawarin ang mga nagkasala)

7. Pray for the living and the dead


(ipanalangin ang mga nangabuhay at nangamatay)
““. . . We have rediscovered that the faithful response
to this world of victims is the constant
exercise of mercy.”

?
WORKS OF MERCY
< MERCY PRINCIPLE
The Good Samaritan
Luke 10: 25-37
The Parable of the Good Samaritan.

29 But because he wished to justify himself, he said to Jesus,


“And who is my neighbor?”

30 Jesus replied, “A man fell victim to robbers as he went


down from Jerusalem to Jericho. They stripped and beat him
and went off leaving him half-dead.

31 A priest happened to be going down that road, but when he


saw him, he passed by on the opposite side.

32 Likewise a Levite came to the place, and when he saw him,


he passed by on the opposite side.
The Parable of the Good Samaritan.

33 But a Samaritan traveler who came upon him was moved


with compassion at the sight.

34 He approached the victim, poured oil and wine over his


wounds and bandaged them. Then he lifted him up on his
own animal, took him to an inn and cared for him.

35 The next day he took out two silver coins and gave them to
the innkeeper with the instruction,

‘Take care of him. If you spend more than what I have given
you, I shall repay you on my way back.’
The Parable of the Good Samaritan.

36 Which of these three, in your opinion, was neighbor to the


robbers’ victim?”

37 He answered,
“The one who treated him with mercy.”
Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”
Jerusalem to Jericho
the traveller
the Jewish priest
the Levite
the “good” Samaritan
The Greatest Commandment.
25 There was a scholar of the law who stood up to test him and
said, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”

26 Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you


read it?”

27 He said in reply, “You shall love the Lord, your God, with all
your heart, with all your being, with all your strength, and
with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself.”

28 He replied to him, “You have answered correctly; do this and


you will live.

The Parable of the Good Samaritan.


29 But because he wished to justify himself, he said to Jesus,
“And who is my neighbor?”
“How do you read it?”
PHYLACTERIES
The Greatest Commandment.
25 There was a scholar of the law who stood up to test him and
said, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”

26 Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you


read it?”

27 He said in reply, “You shall love the Lord, your God, with all
your heart, with all your being, with all your strength, and
with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself.”

28 He replied to him, “You have answered correctly; do this and


you will live.

The Parable of the Good Samaritan.


29 But because he wished to justify himself, he said to Jesus,
“And who is my neighbor?”
The Good Samaritan

The Point:

1. “And who is my neighbor?”


(Sino naman ang aking kapwa?)
The Parable of the Good Samaritan.

29 But because he wished to justify himself, he said to Jesus,


“And who is my neighbor?”

Jesus’ answer.
36 Which of these three, in your opinion, was neighbor to the
robbers’ victim?”

37 He answered,
“The one who treated him with mercy.”
The Good Samaritan

1. Who is my neighbor?

“The one who treated him with mercy.”


(Ang taong nahabag sa kanya)

Being a neighbor denotes action.


That is -- MERCY in action.
- KAPWA ay nakipagKAPWA-TAO -
The Good Samaritan

The Point:

2. Why is the Samaritan identified


as the neighbor?
The Parable of the Good Samaritan.

33 But a Samaritan traveler who came upon him was


moved with compassion at the sight.

34 He approached the victim, poured oil and wine over his


wounds and bandaged them. Then he lifted him up on his
own animal, took him to an inn and cared for him.

35 The next day he took out two silver coins and gave them to
the innkeeper with the instruction,

‘Take care of him. If you spend more than what I have given
you, I shall repay you on my way back.’
The Good Samaritan

The Point:
2. Why is the Samaritan identified
as the neighbor?

Because of his compassion.

What is compassion in the


original translation of the Scriptures?
The Good Samaritan

Compassion –
Greek “Splagchnizomai” in Scriptures

-- to be moved in the inward parts, i.e. to feel compassion;

-- "from splanxna, 'the inward parts,' especially the nobler


entrails – the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys; these
gradually came to denote the seat of the affections"
Mercy –
as “ re-action” (response – action)
-- (Exodus 3: 7-8) “I have witnessed the affliction of my people in
Egypt and have heard their cry of complaint against their
slave drivers, so I know well what they are suffering.
Therefore I have come down to rescue them.”
-- Mercy: a re-actions to someone else’s suffering, now
interiorized within oneself – a reaction to a suffering that
has come to penetrate one’s own entrails and heart

The interiorized suffering of another is the first principle and


foundation of the reaction of mercy.
““. . . We have rediscovered that the faithful response
to this world of victims is the constant
exercise of mercy.”

WORKS OF MERCY
- Acting in order to
< MERCY PRINCIPLE
- Basic structure of the
fulfill a commandment response to this
world’s victims
- Making someone else’s
pain our very own and
allowing the pain to
move us to respond
The Good Samaritan

Compassion –
Greek “Splagchnizomai” in Scriptures

-- to be moved in the inward parts, i.e. to feel compassion;

-- "from splanxna, 'the inward parts,' especially the nobler


entrails – the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys; these
gradually came to denote the seat of the affections"

-- sa atin, pamilyar ang mga katagang


“hindi ko MASIKMURA yan”
The Good Samaritan

The Point:

3. How or when should I show


mercy/compassion and be
a neighbor?
The Good Samaritan

3. How should I show mercy/compassion and be a neighbor?

Jewish priest –

“The Temple duties and


its liturgy meant more to
him than the pain of the
man.”
The Good Samaritan

3. How should I show mercy/compassion and be a neighbor?

Levite –
Suspecting of the
wounded man and
would not take risk to
help anyone
The Good Samaritan

3. How should I show mercy/compassion and be a neighbor?


The Good Samaritan

3. How should I show mercy/compassion and be a neighbor?

Samaritan –
Was prepared to
help the man even
when he has brought
his trouble on
“A man fell victim to robbers himself.
as he went down from Jerusalem
to Jericho.”
The Good Samaritan

3. How should I show mercy/compassion and be a neighbor?

Samaritan –
Sees and helps not a
Jew but a fellow
human being who
desperately needs
“They stripped and beat his help
him and went off leaving him
half-dead.”
3. How should I show mercy/compassion and be a neighbor?

Samaritan –
Help was as wide as
the love of God –
even exposing
himself to danger
“He approached the victim, and vulnerability
poured oil and wine over his wounds
and bandaged them.
Then he lifted him up on his own animal... “
3. How should I show mercy/compassion and be a neighbor?

Samaritan –
Help was as wide as
the love of God
“…took him to an inn and cared for him.
(remains a present
The next day he took out two silver and active love
coins & gave them to the innkeeper throughout the
with the instruction, process)
‘Take care of him. If you spend more
than what I have given you, I shall
repay you on my way back.’”
Paano na natin naaalala o nakikilala
ang Samaritano ngayon?

Paano na nakikilala ang


Kristyano ngayon?

Paano na nakikilala ang


Atenista ngayon?
The Parable of the Good Samaritan.

36 Which of these three, in your opinion, was neighbor to the


robbers’ victim?”

37 He answered,
“The one who treated him with mercy.”

Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”


The Good Samaritan

The Point:
1. “And who is my neighbor?”
Those with Mercy in action.
2. Compassion “Sphlagchnizomai”
“Hindi natin masikmura yan…”
(malalim na pagkagambala sa loob ng tao)
3. Our motives and ways of showing mercy
Like the priest, Levite or Samaritan?
“Mercy: the fundamental law
that dwells in the heart of
every person who looks
sincerely into the eyes of his
brothers and sisters on the
path of life.

Mercy: the bridge that


connects God and man,
opening our hearts to the hope
of being loved forever despite
our sinfulness.”

-- Misericordiae Vultus
(Pope Francis)
““. . . We have rediscovered that the faithful response
to this world of victims is the constant
exercise of mercy.”

The exercise of mercy is the


measure of freedom.

WHY?
Misericordiae Vultus. BULL OF INDICTION OF THE
EXTRAORDINARY JUBILEE OF MERCY.
Given by Pope Francis in Rome, at Saint Peter’s, on 11 April, the Vigil of the Second
Sunday of Easter, or the Sunday of Divine Mercy, in the year of our Lord 2015, the
third of my Pontificate.
6. “It is proper to God to exercise mercy, and he manifests his
omnipotence particularly in this way”.[5]

Saint Thomas Aquinas’ words show that God’s mercy, rather


than a sign of weakness, is the mark of his
omnipotence.
For this reason the liturgy, in one of its most ancient collects,
has us pray: “O God, who reveal your power above all in your
mercy and forgiveness …”[6]
Throughout the history of humanity, God will always be the One
who is present, close, provident, holy, and merciful.
MERCY PRINCIPLE
Let us reflect on the Mercy Principle through this
poem/prayer (author unknown)

I was hungry …
And you formed humanities groups to discuss my
hunger.

I was imprisoned …
And you crept off quietly to your church and prayed for
my release.

I was naked …
And in your mind you debated the morality of my
appearance.
I was sick …
And you knelt and thanked God for your health.

I was homeless …
And you preached to me of the spiritual shelter of the
love of God.

I was lonely …
And you left me alone to pray for me.

You seem so holy, so close to God …


But I am still hungry … and lonely … and cold …
Principle of Mercy?
Sleep of Inhumanity
…pagkatulog saan?

Truth mercy
Gratitude

Faith Grace