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# Department of Mechatronics Engineering

## 18MT302 – Thermal and Fluid Engineering

MODULE – I (Two Marks with Answers)
Prepared by: - Mr. S. Madhankumar, AP/MCT
1. Compare liquids and gases.
Ans: In a liquid, chunks of molecules can move relative to each other, but the volume remains relatively
constant because of the strong cohesive forces between the molecules. As a result, a liquid takes the
shape of the container it is in, and it forms a free surface in a larger container in a gravitational field.
A gas, on the other hand, expands until it encounters the walls of the container and fills the entire
available space.
2. Compare real fluids and ideal fluids.
Ans:

3. Unlike a liquid, a gas does not form a free surface, and it expands to fill the entire available
space. Examine why it is.
Ans: In a liquid, chunks of molecules can move relative to each other, but the volume remains relatively
constant because of the strong cohesive forces between the molecules. As a result, a liquid takes the
shape of the container it is in, and it forms a free surface in a larger container in a gravitational field.
A gas, on the other hand, expands until it encounters the walls of the container and fills the entire
available space.
4. If there is bucket full of oil and bucket full of water and you are asked to lift them, which one of
the two will require more effort given that volume of buckets remains same and why?
Ans: Water Bucket.
Density of water is more that oil. Hence, its weight for same volume of oil will also be higher.
Therefore, more effort will be required.
5. Define density or mass density.
Ans: Density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of a fluid to its volume.
Density, ρ = mass/volume (Kg/m3)
ρwater = 1000 Kg/m3
6. Define specific weight or weight density.
Ans: Specific weight or weight density of a fluid is defined as the ratio between the weights of a
fluid to its volume.
Specific weight, w = weight/volume (N/m3)
w = ρg
wwater = 9810 N/m3
7. Determine the mass and the weight of the air contained in a room whose dimensions are 6 m ×
6 m × 8 m. Assume the density of the air is 1.16 kg/m3.
Ans:

8. A 3-kg plastic tank that has a volume of 0.2 m3 is filled with liquid water. Assuming the density
of water is 1000 kg/m3, determine the weight of the combined system.
Ans:
9. Define viscosity.
Ans: Viscosity is defined as the property of fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer
of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid.
10. Define Kinematic viscosity.
Ans: It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density of fluid.
𝜸 = μ/ρ (m2/s)
1 stoke = 10-4 m2/s
11. Define surface tension.
Ans: It defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of a liquid in contact with a gas or on the
surface between two immiscible liquids such that the contact surface behaves like a membrane under
tension.
12. A small-diameter tube is inserted into a liquid whose contact angle is 110°. Will the level of
liquid in the tube rise or drop? Justify.
Ans: The liquid level in the tube will drop since the contact angle is greater than 90°, and cos 110° < 0.

13. Nutrients dissolved in water are carried to upper parts of plants by tiny tubes partly because of
the capillary effect. Determine how high the water solution will rise in a tree in a 0.005-mm-
diameter tube as a result of the capillary effect. Treat the solution as water at 20°C with a
contact angle of 15°. Take the surface tension of water at 20oC is 0.073 N/m.
Ans:

14. The excess pressure inside a bubble is known to be a function of surface tension and radius. By
dimensional reasoning identify how the excess pressure will vary if we double the surface
Ans:
𝑝𝑑 4𝜎
𝜎 = 8 or 𝑝 = 𝑟
If we double the surface tension and radius, pressure inside a bubble remains the same.
15. Determine the bulk modulus of elasticity of a liquid, if the pressure of the liquid is increased
from 70 N/cm2 to 130 N/cm2. The volume of the liquid decreases by 0.15 percent.
Ans:

## 16. Define cavitation.

Ans: The pressure developed by the collapsing bubbles is so high that the material from the adjoining
boundaries gets eroded and cavities are formed. on them.
17. Mathematically relate,
(i) the absolute pressure, atmospheric pressure and gauge pressure.
(ii) the absolute pressure, atmospheric pressure and vacuum pressure.
Ans:
18. A vacuum gauge connected to a chamber reads 36 kPa at a location where the atmospheric
pressure is 92 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the chamber.
Ans:
Pabs=Patm-PVacuum
= 56 kPa
19. What do you understand by Hydrostatic Law?
Ans: It states that rate of increase of pressure in a vertical direction is equal to weight density of the
fluid at that point.
20. Tell Pascal’s law, and give a real-world example of it.
Ans: It states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point in a static fluid is equal in all directions.
Applications: Hydraulic press and Hydraulic brakes.
21. List the types of fluid flow.
Uniform and non-uniform flow
Laminar and Turbulent flow
Compressible and incompressible flow
Rotational and irrotational flow
One, two- and three-dimensional flow.
22. Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow.
Ans: Laminar – The fluid particles move along well-defined paths or stream line and all the stream-
lines are straight and parallel.
Turbulent – The fluid particles move in a zig-zag way.
23. Define steady flow and uniform flow.
Ans: Steady – The fluid characteristics like velocity, pressure, density, etc., at a point do not change
with time.
Uniform – The velocity at any given time does not change with respect to space.
24. Define Rotational and Irrotational flow.
Ans: Rotational flow
Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along stream lines
and also rotate about their own axis.
Irrotational flow
If the fluid particles are flowing along stream lines and do not rotate about their own axis that
type of flow is called as ir-rotational flow.
25. Define the equation of continuity.
Ans:
The fluid flowing through the pipe at all the cross-section, the quantity of fluid per second is constant.
A1V1 = A2V2
26. Tell an expression for continuity equation for a three-dimensional flow.
Ans:
𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤
+ + =0
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
27. For the Euler’s equation of motion, which forces are taken into consideration?
Ans:
In which the forces due to gravity and pressure are taken into consideration.
28. Define Bernoulli’s theorem for steady flow of an incompressible fluid.
Ans:
It states that in a steady, ideal floe of an incompressible fluid, the summation of pressure head, velocity
head and datum head are constant at any point of the fluid.
29. A pitot-static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipe. The difference of pressure
head is 1 m. Solve for the velocity of flow assuming the coefficient of tube equal to 0.98.
Ans:
30. List the practical applications of Bernoulli’s equation.
Ans:
1. Venturimeter
2. Orifice meter
3. Pitot-tube
31. What is venturimeter?
Ans: It is a device used for measuring the rate of a flow (discharge) of a fluid flowing through a pipe.
32. What factor decides the type of flow in pipes?
Ans: Based on Reynolds number (Re)
• Laminar flow, Re<2000
• Turbulent flow, Re>4000
• Transition flow, 2000<Re<4000
33. How will you determine the loss of head due to friction by using Darcy formula?
Ans:
4𝑓𝐿𝑉 2
ℎ𝑓 =
2𝑔𝑑
Where, ℎ𝑓 = loss of head due to friction
f = co-efficient of friction (function of Reynolds number)
16
= 𝑅 for Laminar flow
𝑒
0.079
= 1/4 for 𝑅𝑒 varying from 4000 to 106
𝑅𝑒
L = length of pipe
V = mean velocity of flow
d = diameter of pipe
34. How will you determine the loss of head due to friction by using Chezy’s formula?
Ans:
𝑉 = 𝐶√𝑚𝑖
Where,
V = mean velocity of flow
𝜌𝑔
C = Chezy’s constant = √ 𝑓
m = hydralic mean depth = d/4
ℎ𝑓
i= 𝐿
35. Define a centrifugal pump.
Ans: The hydraulic machines which convert the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy are called
pumps.
36. Tell an expression for the work done by impeller of a centrifugal pump on water per second per
unit weight of water?
1
Ans: W= 𝑔 [𝑉𝑤2 𝑢2 ]
37. How to prevent cavitation in centrifugal pumps? (or) Discover why cavitation occurs in
centrifugal pumps?
Ans:
Lower the temperature.
Raise the liquid level in the suction vessel.
Change the pump.
Reduce motor RPM.
The special materials or coatings should be used.
38. List the main parts of centrifugal pumps.
Ans:
1. Impeller
2. Casing
3. Suction pipe with a foot valve and strainer
4. Delivery pipe
39. List the losses in centrifugal pumps.
Ans:
• Hydraulic losses
• Frictional losses
• Leakage losses, etc.,
40. Draw outlet velocity triangles for a centrifugal pump.
Ans:

Ans:

## 42. Define CFD.

Ans: Computational Fluid Dynamics is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and
data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Computers are used to perform the calculations.
With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved.
Initial experimental validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final
validation coming in full-scale testing.
43. Write a brief definition of computational domain and provide example.
Ans: A computational domain is a region in space (either 2-D or 3-D) in which the numerical
equations of fluid flow are solved by CFD. The computational domain is bounded by edges (2-D) or
faces (3-D) on which boundary conditions are applied.
44. Write a brief definition of mesh and provide example.
Ans: A mesh is generated by dividing the computational domain into tiny cells.
The numerical equations are then solved in each cell of the mesh. A mesh is also called a grid.