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20 Grid Protection Power system protection should be provided for abnormal conditions— undervoltage, overvoltage,
20 Grid Protection Power system protection should be provided for abnormal conditions— undervoltage, overvoltage,

Grid Protection

Power system protection should be provided for abnormal conditions— undervoltage, overvoltage, underfrequency, and overfrequency—that may lead to significant equipment damage and/or grid collapse. Open- phase and other conditions that should not cause grid collapse are not addressed in this chapter. Grid undervoltage can be caused by inadequate or insufficient reac- tive support (not enough shunt capacitors and synchronous generators), by sudden load increases, by three-phase faults with delayed clearing, by loss of multiple facilities within a short period of time, etc. Grid overvolt- age can be caused by sudden loss of load, by inadequate reactive com- pensation (no shunt reactors and not enough synchronous generators), by loss of multiple facilities within a short period of time, etc. Grid under- frequency occurs when system load exceeds available generation. Grid underfrequency may be caused by loss of multiple transmission paths, by loss of multiple generators, etc. Grid overfrequency occurs when available generation exceeds system load. Grid overfrequency may be caused by loss of multiple transmission outlets, by sudden loss of load, etc.

multiple transmission outlets, by sudden loss of load, etc. 20.1 Voltage Issues Whenever var load exceeds
multiple transmission outlets, by sudden loss of load, etc. 20.1 Voltage Issues Whenever var load exceeds

20.1 Voltage Issues

Whenever var load exceeds var capability, voltage will sag. If voltage sags gradually, time-delayed undervoltage relaying can actuate to initiate load shedding. If voltage drops suddenly, high-speed undervoltage relaying is needed. The setpoints of undervoltage relays need to be based on the design objective. If the objective is to protect the power grid from collapse, relatively high dropout undervoltage trip settings should be established. If the objective is to protect connected loads from damage, specific calcu- lations need to be developed for the protected loads.

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316

Protective Relay Principles

Power Grid 345 KV Undervoltage Relay
Power Grid
345 KV
Undervoltage Relay

Protected Area

Power Grid 345 KV Undervoltage Relay Protected Area 138 KV Bus 13.8 KV Bus Load that

138 KV Bus

13.8 KV Bus

Load that Can Be Shed
Load that
Can Be Shed

Figure 20.1 One-line diagram showing simplified transmission system and traditional undervoltage relay applications.

system and traditional undervoltage relay applications. 20.2 Undervoltage Protection—Grid Protection The objective
system and traditional undervoltage relay applications. 20.2 Undervoltage Protection—Grid Protection The objective

20.2 Undervoltage Protection—Grid Protection

The objective is to protect the integrity of the power grid by shedding load when systemic, persistent undervoltage occurs. The trip setpoint (drop- out) for undervoltage relays should be based on the minimum acceptable grid voltage with allowances for setting drift, relay reset, and voltage drop between the power grid and the location of the undervoltage relay. In order to minimize the possibility of inadvertent actuation before capacitor banks switch, or transformer load tap changers actuate, long-time delays (measured in seconds) are utilized. Figure 20.1 illustrates the situation where undervoltage relays would be supplied via voltage transformers connected to the 138-KV bus. When actuated, the undervoltage relaying scheme would trip 13.8-KV feeder cir- cuit breakers. The objective is to protect the grid from sustained undervoltage condi- tions and the basis for the setting is the minimum scheduled 138-KV volt- age with allowances. If the range of 138-KV system operating voltage is 138 KV to 142 KV during peak load periods and 136 KV to 140 KV during light load peri- ods—the range of operating voltages should be determined via load flow analysis that includes automatic transformer tap changer action, automatic

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Grid Protection

Grid Protection Minimum Reset Voltage: 118.0 Volts, 135.9 KV Maximum Trip Value: 115.8 Volts, 133.1 KV

Minimum Reset Voltage: 118.0 Volts, 135.9 KV

Maximum Trip Value: 115.8 Volts, 133.1 KV

Desired Trip Setting: 113.5 Volts, 130.5 KV

Minimum Trip Value: 111.2 Volts, 127.9 KV

317

Figure 20.2 Undervoltage trip setting, range of actual trip values, and reset voltage.

capacitor switching, etc.—the undervoltage relay setpoint would be select- ed as follows:

Minimum grid voltage:

136 KV

VT inaccuracy:

0.5%

Relay setpoint inaccuracy

1.0%

Relay setpoint drift

0.5%

Relay pickup/dropout ratio

2.0%

Total margins

4.0%

Maximum undervoltage setting:

136 KV × (1 – .04) = 130.56 KV, 94.6 % on 138-KV base

With 138-KV, 120-V VTs, the relay would be set at 113.5 volts, which cor- responds to 130.5 KV. The pickup/dropout ratio needs to be taken into account as automatic controls may enable voltage recovery and negate the need for load shedding. Allowance for errors is application specific. The desired trip setting, the maximum undervoltage trip value if all errors combine to increase the actual trip setting, the minimum under- voltage trip value if all errors combine to decrease the actual trip value, and the minimum recovery voltage that is required to allow the under- voltage relay to reset are illustrated in Figure 20.2.

voltage relay to reset are illustrated in Figure 20.2. 20.3 Undervoltage Protection—Load Protection The objective
voltage relay to reset are illustrated in Figure 20.2. 20.3 Undervoltage Protection—Load Protection The objective

20.3 Undervoltage Protection—Load Protection

The objective is to protect equipment by tripping connected loads when persistent undervoltage occurs. The trip setpoint for undervoltage relays should be based on the minimum acceptable load voltage with allowances for setting drift, and voltage drop between the load and the location of the undervoltage relay. When this type of protective scheme is applied, trans- formers equipped with automatic load tap changers cannot be located between the load and the protective relay. In order to minimize the pos- sibility of inadvertent actuation before capacitor banks can switch or load tap changers can actuate, long time delays (measured in seconds) should be utilized.

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Protective Relay Principles

Power Grid 345 KV
Power Grid
345 KV
318 Protective Relay Principles Power Grid 345 KV 138 KV Bus Undervoltage Relay 13.8 KV Bus

138 KV Bus

Undervoltage Relay

Principles Power Grid 345 KV 138 KV Bus Undervoltage Relay 13.8 KV Bus Low Voltage Bus

13.8 KV Bus

Low Voltage Bus

Low Voltage Loads
Low Voltage
Loads

Protected Area

KV Bus Low Voltage Bus Low Voltage Loads Protected Area Figure 20.3 One-line diagram showing multiple

Figure 20.3 One-line diagram showing multiple voltage transformations.

Figure 20.3 illustrates the situation where the undervoltage relays would be supplied via voltage transformers connected to the 13.8-KV bus. When actuated, the undervoltage relaying scheme would trip 13.8-KV feeder cir- cuit breakers. The objective is to protect the load from sustained undervoltage and basis for the setting would be the minimum acceptable load voltage with allowances. If the low voltage system is a 480-volt system with 460-volt motors that have a minimum voltage requirement of 414 volts (90% of 460 volts), the undervoltage relay setpoint would be selected as follows:

VT inaccuracy:

0.5%

Relay setpoint inaccuracy Relay setpoint drift Relay pickup/dropout ratio Voltage drop in motor cables Voltage drop in 13.8-KV, 480-volt transformer

1.0%

0.5%

2.0%

3.0% (calculated, application specific) 2.0% (calculated, application specific)

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Grid Protection

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Minimum motor voltage, 480-volt base:

414 volts ÷ 480 volts =

86.2%

Minimum 480-V bus voltage:

86.2% + 3% =

89.2%

Minimum transformer 13.8-KV voltage:

89.2% + 2% =

91.2%

Minimum undervoltage setting:

13.8 KV × (91.2% + 4%) = 13.14 KV, 95.3% on 13.8-KV base

With 13.8-KV, 120-V VTs, the undervoltage relay would be set at 109.5 volts, which corresponds to 13.14 KV. The load protection criteria would be used to determine setpoints when undervoltage relays are used to initiate load transfers to standby sources. When undervoltage settings for grid protection are lower than under- voltage settings for load protection, the settings developed for grid pro- tection should be applied. If the settings developed for load protection are applied, inadvertent scheme actuation may occur when grid voltage is low, but acceptable.

may occur when grid voltage is low, but acceptable. 20.4 Overvoltage Protection—Grid Protection The objective
may occur when grid voltage is low, but acceptable. 20.4 Overvoltage Protection—Grid Protection The objective

20.4 Overvoltage Protection—Grid Protection

The objective is to protect the integrity of the grid by tripping capacitor banks and/or energizing shunt reactors when systemic, persistent over- voltage occurs. The trip setpoint for overvoltage relays should be based on the maximum acceptable grid voltage with allowances for setting drift and the location of the overvoltage relay. When this type of protective scheme is applied, transformers equipped with automatic load tap chang- ers cannot be located between the load and the protective relay. In order to minimize the possibility of inadvertent actuation before capacitor banks can switch, load tap changers can actuate, etc., long time delays (measured in seconds) should be utilized. Figure 20.4 illustrates the situation where the overvoltage relays would be supplied via voltage transformers connected to the 138-KV bus. When actuated, the overvoltage relaying scheme would trip capacitors and/or energize shunt reactors. The objective is to protect the grid from sustained overvoltage condi- tions and basis for the setting would be the maximum scheduled 138-KV voltage with allowances. If the range of 138-KV system operating voltage is 138 KV to 142 KV dur- ing peak load periods and 136 KV to 140 KV during light load periods, the overvoltage relay setpoint would be selected as follows:

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Protective Relay Principles

Power Grid 345 KV
Power Grid
345 KV
320 Protective Relay Principles Power Grid 345 KV Protected Area Overvoltage Relay 138 KV Bus 13.8

Protected Area

Relay Principles Power Grid 345 KV Protected Area Overvoltage Relay 138 KV Bus 13.8 KV Bus

Overvoltage Relay

Power Grid 345 KV Protected Area Overvoltage Relay 138 KV Bus 13.8 KV Bus Figure 20.4

138 KV Bus

13.8 KV Bus

Figure 20.4 One-line diagram showing two voltage transformations and two switched capacitors.

Maximum grid voltage:

142 KV

VT inaccuracy:

0.5%

Relay setpoint inaccuracy Relay setpoint drift Relay pickup/dropout ratio Total margins Maximum overvoltage setting:

1.0%

0.5%

2.0%

4.0%

142 KV × (1 + 0.04) = 147.7 KV

With 138-KV, 120-V VTs, the relay would be set at 128.5 volts, which cor- responds to 147.8 KV. Allowance for errors is application specific. Automatic tripping of generators to reduce system voltage is not rec- ommended unless load flow studies are developed to demonstrate that system voltage will decrease when generators are tripped off-line. The concern is that if generators that are absorbing vars are tripped off-line, system voltage may increase rather than decrease.

off-line, system voltage may increase rather than decrease. 20.5 Overvoltage Protection—Load Protection The objective
off-line, system voltage may increase rather than decrease. 20.5 Overvoltage Protection—Load Protection The objective

20.5 Overvoltage Protection—Load Protection

The objective is to protect equipment by tripping connected loads when persistent overvoltage occurs. The trip setpoint for overvoltage relays

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Grid Protection

321

should be based on the maximum acceptable load voltage with allowances for setting drift. Little or no allowance should be taken for voltage drop between the load and the location of the overvoltage relay. Transformers equipped with automatic load tap changers cannot be located between the load and the protective relay. In order to minimize the possibility of inad- vertent actuation before capacitor banks can switch, or load tap changers can actuate, long time delays (measured in seconds) should be utilized. Figure 20.5 illustrates the situation where the overvoltage relays would be supplied via voltage transformers connected to the 13.8-KV bus. When actuated, the overvoltage relaying scheme would trip all 13.8-KV feeder cir- cuit breakers as voltage would be expected to increase as load decreases. The objective is to protect the equipment from sustained overvoltage conditions and basis for the setting would be the maximum motor or transformer secondary voltage. The maximum voltage for a 460-volt motor is 506 volts (110% of 460 volts) and the maximum voltage for a transformer with a 480-volt secondary would be 504 volts (105% of 480 volts) at full load and 528 volts (110% of 480 volts) at no load.

Power Grid 345 KV
Power Grid
345 KV
528 volts (110% of 480 volts) at no load. Power Grid 345 KV 138 KV Bus

138 KV Bus

Overvoltage Relay

at no load. Power Grid 345 KV 138 KV Bus Overvoltage Relay 13.8 KV Bus Low

13.8 KV Bus

Low Voltage Loads
Low Voltage
Loads

Low Voltage Bus

Protected Area

KV Bus Low Voltage Loads Low Voltage Bus Protected Area Figure 20.5 One-line diagram showing multiple

Figure 20.5 One-line diagram showing multiple voltage transformations.

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Protective Relay Principles

The overvoltage relay setpoint would be selected as follows:

Maximum transformer voltage:

504 volts, full load

528 volts, no load

VT inaccuracy:

0.5%

0.5%

Relay setpoint inaccuracy

1.0%

1.0%

Relay setpoint drift

0.5%

0.5%

Voltage drop

–2.0%

0%

Relay pickup/dropout ratio

2.0%

2.0%

Total margins

2.0%

4.0%

Maximum overvoltage setting:

Peak load:

13.8 KV × (1 + 0.05) × (1 – 0.02) = 14.20 KV

No load:

13.8 KV × (1 + 0.1) × (1 – 0.04) = 14.57 KV

With 13.8-KV, 120-V VTs, the relay would be set at 123.5 volts, which cor- responds to 14.2 KV. Allowance for errors and voltage drop is application specific.

for errors and voltage drop is application specific. 20.6 Frequency Control Whenever there is a load-generation
for errors and voltage drop is application specific. 20.6 Frequency Control Whenever there is a load-generation

20.6 Frequency Control

Whenever there is a load-generation mismatch, system frequency can- not be maintained at 60 Hz. The usual range of system frequency is 59.98 to 60.02 Hz. On a thirty day average, the system frequency should be 60.00 Hz so every time there is a minor underfrequency excursion (0.01 to 0.02 Hz), there will be an intentional, minor, overfrequency correction period. Similarly every time there is a minor overfrequency excursion, there will be an intentional, minor underfrequency correction period. Generator governors respond to frequency changes and automatically restore system frequency. If, however, system frequency decays substan- tially, there may not be enough generation on the system to restore system frequency. Underfrequency relays are then utilized to shed customer load and restore the balance between load and generation. Likewise, if system frequency rises substantially, the only alternative may be to trip genera- tors off-line. Overfrequency relays are utilized as a last-ditch attempt to shed generators when prolonged overfrequency conditions occur. If power system frequency drops below 57 Hz, damage to blades of large steam turbine generators (caused by mechanical resonance) should be anticipated. For this reason, large steam turbine generators are equipped with underfrequency relays that trip generators off-line when the power system frequency decays to 57 Hz for several seconds. This, however, is a last resort because when generators are tripped off-line as system fre- quency is decaying, system collapse will occur.

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Grid Protection

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Similarly if the power system frequency rises above 63 Hz, damage caused by overspeed should be anticipated. For this reason, some genera- tors may be equipped with overfrequency relays that trip generators off- line when the system frequency rises above 60 Hz. Overfrequency events should, however, be a recoverable transient, that is, system collapse should not occur, if the “proper” generator trips are initiated. If system frequency is increasing and generators are tripped off-line, the system should stabi- lize at a frequency close to normal. Diesel generators and other types of generation are not as sensitive to abnor- mal frequency operation as large steam turbine generators, but in the United States large steam turbines are the workhorses of the industry. Therefore, the system must be designed to protect the large steam turbine generators. Modeling power system frequency transients is an inexact science. The reason for this is that the exact sequence of events that will cause underfre- quency or overfrequency excursions cannot be predicted. If the sequence could be predicted, corrective action would be initiated. Underfrequency events are caused by multiple contingencies, such as line and generator outages, occurring within a short period of time. Underfrequency conditions may be caused by a shortfall of generation, that is, customer load exceeds available generation when several large generators trip within a short period of time, or by the inability to transfer sufficient power across the power system to meet system demand. The solution to the problem is to reduce customer load. Therefore, under- frequency relays are installed in distribution substations. These relays trip and lockout preselected feeders at each substation. Underfrequency relays that are located at generating stations trip generators off-line and ensure power system shutdown. Overfrequency conditions are caused by a sudden drop in load, that is, customer load is significantly less than available generation, or by the inability to transfer generator output power across the power system from generation centers to load centers. The solution to this problem is to trip some generators off-line. Therefore, overfrequency relays are installed in generating stations. Indicators of power system collapse are voltage and frequency. If trans- mission system voltage is dropping and system frequency is rising (to as little as 60.05 Hz), then there is too much generation (watts) and too little vars on the system. The solution to this problem is to either start generation at load centers or to shed customer load at load centers. If transmission sys- tem voltage is dropping and system frequency is also dropping, then there is insufficient generation on the system. The solution to this problem is to start additional generation, shed customer load, or initiate brownouts. Power systems are designed so that they remain stable for transient and steady-state conditions with numerous contingencies, such as line faults, line faults with other lines out of service, line faults with stuck break- ers, bus faults, etc. Power systems are operated so that they remain stable

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Protective Relay Principles

for transient and steady-state conditions in the event the next worse-case, single contingency occurs. When equipment failures occur, a grace period (10–15 minutes) is allowed before the generation mix needs to be adjusted to cover the next worse-case, single contingency. Considering the above, it is easy to see that underfrequency and overfre- quency relay setpoints cannot be determined as exactly as other types of protective relays. The first hurdle is that the initiating event is undefined. The second hurdle is that pre-event system conditions are undefined. The third hurdle is that postevent system conditions are undefined. In special cases, such as the state of Florida and the city of San Francisco, pre-event and postevent conditions are better understood, but the initiating event remains undefined.

understood, but the initiating event remains undefined. 20.7 Underfrequency Relaying Given all of the above listed
understood, but the initiating event remains undefined. 20.7 Underfrequency Relaying Given all of the above listed

20.7 Underfrequency Relaying

Given all of the above listed uncertainties, plus knowledge of past events, such as the Great Northeast Blackout of 1965, how can underfrequency setpoints be determined? One method is to define protective needs based on the limited informa- tion that is available. For example, the expected drop in system frequency for loss of generation can be calculated. Assume that the frequency of a system that has 50,000 MW of generation operating and 50,000 MW of cus- tomer load is expected to drop 0.2 Hz for the loss of 2200 MW of genera- tion (loss of two large 1100-MW generators within minutes of each other). This indicates that the maximum underfrequency setpoint at a distri- bution substation should be 59.8 Hz minus margins for relay accuracy. If the underfrequency relay accuracy is ±1%, the maximum underfrequency relay setpoint should be 59.2 Hz. If the underfrequency setpoint at generating stations is 57 Hz, then the minimum underfrequency setpoint at a distribution substation should be 57 Hz plus 1% margin for relay accuracy at generating stations plus 1% margin for relay accuracy at distribution substations or 58.2 Hz. If three-step underfrequency relaying is installed, the underfrequency setpoints at distribution substations could be 59.2 Hz, 58.7 Hz, and 58.2 Hz. If six-step underfrequency relaying is installed, the underfrequency setpoints at distribution substations could be 59.2 Hz, 59.0 Hz, 58.8 Hz, 58.6 Hz, 58.4 Hz, and 58.2 Hz. The next consideration is how much load shedding is necessary. Is 10% or 5000 MW the proper amount? Would 20% or 10,000 MW be better? How about 30% or 15,000 MW? There is no absolute answer to this ques- tion. When setting underfrequency relays, the assumption is that there

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Grid Protection 325 61 60 59 Frequency, Hertz
Grid Protection
325
61
60
59
Frequency, Hertz

Time, Variable

Design Transient, No Load Shedding

Figure 20.6 Power system frequency, recoverable underfrequency transient, no load shedding.

is insufficient generation (spinning reserve) to automatically correct the problem via generator governor actuations. With three-step underfrequency relaying, a good practice seems to be to shed 10% of the system load for “minor” disturbances of 59.2 Hz; an addi- tional 10% of system load for “greater” disturbances of 58.7 Hz; and an additional 10% of system load if system collapse is imminent as evidenced by a system frequency of 58.2 Hz. Figure 20.6 illustrates a theoretical underfrequency event and system response for a design basis event with no load shedding. The frequency dip is not low enough to cause underfre- quency load shedding. The duration of the recovery transient is a function of the thermal (load-following) capability of generating units. Figure 20.7 illustrates a theoretical underfrequency event and system response for an event with 10% load shedding. Power system frequency suddenly decreases to 59.0 hertz. After 10% load shedding, power system frequency recovers to 59.5 hertz. The duration of the recovery transient is a function of the thermal (load-following) capability of generating units. Figure 20.8 illustrates a theoretical underfrequency event and system response for an event with 20% load shedding. Power system frequency suddenly decreases to 58.0 hertz. After 20% load shedding (10% at 59.2 Hz and 10% at 58.7 Hz), power system frequency recovers to 59.0 hertz. The duration of the recovery transient is a function of the thermal (load-fol- lowing) capability of generating units. Figure 20.9 illustrates a theoretical underfrequency event and system response for an event with 30% load shedding. Power system frequency suddenly decreases to 57.0 hertz. After 30% load shedding (10% at 59.2 Hz, 10% at 58.7 Hz, and 10% at 58.2 Hz), power system frequency recovers to 58.7 hertz. The duration of the recovery transient is a function of the ther- mal (load-following) capability of generating units. The consensus among experts is that if the load exceeds generation by more than 30%, automatic recovery via load shedding will not occur.

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Protective Relay Principles

60.5 60 59.5 59 58.5 Time, Variable Level 1 Transient, 10% Load Shed at 59.2
60.5
60
59.5
59
58.5
Time, Variable
Level 1 Transient, 10% Load Shed at 59.2 Hertz
Frequency, Hertz

Figure 20.7 Power system frequency, 10% load shed.

60.5 60 59.5 59 58.5 58 57.5 Frequency, Hertz
60.5
60
59.5
59
58.5
58
57.5
Frequency, Hertz

Time, Variable

Level 2 Transient, 10% Load Shed at 58.7 Hz, 10% at 59.2 Hz

Figure 20.8 Power system frequency, 20% load shed.

Figure 20.10 illustrates a theoretical underfrequency event and system response for an unrecoverable event with 30% load shedding. Power sys- tem frequency suddenly decreases to 54.0 hertz. After 30% load shedding (10% at 59.2 Hz, 10% at 58.7 Hz, and 10% at 58.2 Hz), power system fre- quency recovers to 57 hertz, but underfrequency relays associated with some major generating units actuate due to setpoint tolerances. When one

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Grid Protection 327 60 59 58 57 56 Time, Variable Level 3 Transient, 10% Load
Grid Protection
327
60
59
58
57
56
Time, Variable
Level 3 Transient, 10% Load Shed at 58.2 Hz, 58.7 Hz, and 59.2 Hz
Frequency

Figure 20.9 Power system frequency, 30% load shed.

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 Time, Variable System Collapse Frequency, Hertz
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
Time, Variable
System Collapse
Frequency, Hertz

Figure 20.10 Power system frequency, system collapse.

or more major generating units trip off during recovery, recovery will be unsuccessful and system collapse will occur. Three-step underfrequency relaying with 10% load shedding is one alternative. Six-step underfrequency relaying (59.2 Hz, 59.0 Hz, 58.8 Hz, 58.6 Hz, 58.4 Hz, and 58.2 Hz) with 5% load shedding at each frequency and twelve-step underfrequency relaying (0.1 Hz increments with 2.5% load shedding at each step) are other alternatives.

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Protective Relay Principles

Generally underfrequency relays that trip radial feeders are allowed to operate instantaneously, underfrequency relays that trip networked feed- ers are delayed 1 or 2 seconds, and underfrequency relays that trip gen- erators are delayed several seconds. Setpoints for underfrequency relays associated with distributed generation must be selected using the same philosophy as for major generating stations. If too much load is shed when underfrequency relays actuate, system frequency will rise above 60 Hz and the pendulum can swing to an over- frequency concern. One alternative is to set the 59.2-Hz relays so that they trip connected loads in six cycles, set 58.7-Hz relays so that they trip con- nected loads in 15 cycles, and set 58.2-Hz relays so that they trip connected loads in six cycles. The 15-cycle delay allows for underfrequency relays set at 59.2 Hz to actuate, for three-cycle circuit breakers to open, and for frequency to begin to recover before underfrequency relays set at 58.7 Hz actuate. Underfrequency schemes are installed at numerous substations throughout the power system. They are applied only to lines with non- critical, nonemergency loads. Only one trip value, that is, either 59.2 Hz, 58.7 Hz, or 58.2 Hz, is used at any one substation. Redundant relays are used to minimize the possibility of inadvertent scheme actuation due to setting inaccuracies and other unknowns. Underfrequency relaying schemes should be used only to trip radial distribution lines or distribution networks where all network feeds can be tripped simultaneously. Underfrequency relaying schemes should not be applied where a significant portion of connected loads are equipped with automatic load transfer switches that transfer loads to other distribution lines. In some power system configurations, motors, acting as generators dur- ing coastdown, can be a concern. Usually this is only a concern when the motors are large and the ratio of motor to nonmotor load is high. Two things can be done to alleviate this concern. First, outputs from two under- frequency relays (with the same underfrequency trip setting), connected to separate power sources, can be connected in series so that two under- frequency relays must actuate simultaneously for underfrequency load shedding to be initiated at any substation. Second, underfrequency relays can be supervised by an overcurrent element. This second scheme is designed so that the underfrequency load shedding scheme actuates only if load current is above a preset threshold. Tables 20.1 and 20.2 show the underfrequency set points and time delays for three-step and six-step underfrequency load shedding schemes. It is important to remember that these settings are based on concepts rather than calculations. It is also important to remember that time delays are arbitrary. The time delays used in these examples were six cycles for underfrequency relays with no intentional time delay and 15 cycles for underfrequency relays with intentional time delays.

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Grid Protection

Table 20.1 Three-Step Underfrequency Load Shedding

329

 

Underfrequency

Underfrequency Scheme Time Delay

Desired Result

Relay Setpoints

Shed 10% customer load

59.2 Hz

6 cycles

Shed 10% customer load

58.7 Hz

15 cycles

Shed 10% customer load

58.2 Hz

6 cycles

Shutdown system

57.6 Hz

5 seconds

Table 20.2 Six-Step Underfrequency Load Shedding

 

Underfrequency

Underfrequency Scheme Time Delay

Desired Result

Relay Setpoints

Shed 5% customer load

59.2 Hz

6 cycles

Shed 5% customer load

59.0 Hz

15 cycles

Shed 5% customer load

58.8 Hz

6 cycles

Shed 5% customer load

58.6 Hz

15 cycles

Shed 5% customer load

58.4 Hz

6 cycles

Shed 5% customer load

58.2 Hz

15 cycles

Shutdown system

57.6 Hz

5 seconds

Hz 15 cycles Shutdown system 57.6 Hz 5 seconds 20.8 Overfrequency Relaying Overfrequency relay settings
Hz 15 cycles Shutdown system 57.6 Hz 5 seconds 20.8 Overfrequency Relaying Overfrequency relay settings

20.8 Overfrequency Relaying

Overfrequency relay settings cannot be determined as easily as underfre- quency relay settings. The reason for this is that large power systems may have less than 50 large generators (500 MW and larger) and numerous small generators. The large generators are base load units and the small generators are peaking units, cogenerators, independent power produc- ers, waste recovery generators, etc. Loss of a single large generator can stress the power system. Loss of two or more large generators will stress the power system unless the generator tripping can be matched geograph- ically to system load. Small generators, while more numerous, may not be on-line when an overfrequency transient occurs. Nuclear powered generating units are exempt from overfrequency tripping unless the overfrequency trip was initiated by the reactor protection system. With only 50 large generating stations, it is difficult to ensure that over- frequency tripping of generators will not cause oscillations between over- frequency and underfrequency conditions. The recommended practice for setting overfrequency relays is as follows:

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Protective Relay Principles

1. Determine overspeed limitations of turbine generators and other equipment sensitive to overspeed in generating stations.

2. Determine overfrequency setpoints of reactor protection systems at nuclear power plants.

3. Develop regional studies, within an ISO control area or a NERC region, that include load flows showing the effect of several simul- taneous generator trips on power system operation. These studies should demonstrate the continued viability of the power system after preselected generators trip off-line.

The selected setpoints should ensure that overfrequency limits are not exceeded, nuclear units do not trip off-line, and the system returns to a stable configuration. Many utilities rely on mechanical overspeed devices to trip generators off- line when the turbine-generator speed rises to unacceptably high levels. When overfrequency relaying schemes are installed, the preferred alter- native is to delay overfrequency scheme tripping as long as possible so that generator governors can act to restore the load-generation balance. Table 20.3 lists three-step, overfrequency relays setpoints that could be used to trip 15% of generators off-line in four groups. Each generat- ing station that participates in the overfrequency trip program would be equipped with two overfrequency relays set to trip at 61.4 Hz, 62.2 Hz, or 63.0 Hz. Two overfrequency relays are connected in series so that a single relay misoperation will not cause a generator to trip off-line. Figure 20.11 shows a design basis overfrequency transient. Figure 20.12 shows a severe overfrequency transient that would likely result in genera- tor tripping. A severe overfrequency transient would most likely be caused by loss of transmission lines between remote generators and load centers that are importing a large portion of the power they are consuming. Most likely, the load center will experience underfrequency load shedding at the same time that remote generators are experiencing overfrequency.

Table 20.3 Three-Step Overfrequency Generator Tripping

Overfrequency

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

Desired

Relay

Time

Time

Time

Time

Result

Setpoints

Delay

Delay

Delay

Delay

Shed 5%

61.4

Hz

15 seconds

30 seconds

45 seconds

60 seconds

generation

Shed 5%

62.2

Hz

5 seconds

10 seconds

15 seconds

20 seconds

generation

Shed 5%

63.0

Hz

1.0 seconds

1.5 seconds

2.0 seconds

2.5 seconds

generation

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Grid Protection 331 61 60.5 60 59.5 59 Frequency, Hertz
Grid Protection
331
61
60.5
60
59.5
59
Frequency, Hertz
Time, Variable Design Transient
Time, Variable
Design Transient

Figure 20.11 Power system frequency, recoverable overfrequency transient.

65 64 63 62 61 60 59 Time, Variable Severe Transient Frequency, Hertz
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
Time, Variable
Severe Transient
Frequency, Hertz

Figure 20.12 Power system frequency, system collapse

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

332

Protective Relay Principles

Figure 20.12 differs from Figures 20.8 and 20.9 in that overfrequency relay actuations are delayed whereas underfrequency relay actuations are instantaneous. The reason for the time delays used with overfrequency relaying is to ensure that the recovery is unlikely without overfrequency relay operation. If power system frequency rises to 66 Hz, mechanical overspeed trip devices will actuate instantaneously and may trip numer- ous generators simultaneously.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC