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# Solved Examples - NUMERICAL CONTROL

NC Applications
Example 1
A machinable grade of aluminum is to be milled on an NC machine with a 20 mm diameter four-tooth end
milling cutter. Cutting speed = 120 m/min and feed = 0.008 mm/tooth. Convert these values to rev/min and
mm/rev, respectively.
120m / min
Solution: N = = 1909.9 rev/min
20 (103 ) m / rev
Feed in mm/rev = (4 teeth/rev)(0.08 mm/tooth) = 0.32 mm/rev

Example 2

A turning operation is to be performed on an NC lathe. Cutting speed = 2.5 m/s, feed = 0.2 mm/rev, and depth =
4.0 mm. Workpiece diameter = 100 mm and its length = 400 mm. Determine (a) rotational speed of the
workbar, (b) feed rate, (c) metal removal rate, and (d) time to travel from one end of the part to the other.
2.5( 60) m / min.
Solution: (a) N = = 477.5 rev/min
100 (103 ) m / rev.
(b) fr = 477.5 rev/min(0.2 mm/rev) = 95.5 mm/min
(c) RMR = vfd = 2.5 m/s(103)(.2 mm)(4.0 mm) = 2000 mm3/s
(d) Tm = 400/95.5 = 4.188 min

## Analysis of Open Loop Positioning Systems

Example 3
Two stepping motors are used in an open loop system to drive the lead screws for x-y positioning. The range of
each axis is 250 mm. The shaft of the motors are connected directly to the lead screws. The pitch of each lead
screw is 3.0 mm, and the number of step angles on the stepping motor is 125. (a) How closely can the position
of the table be controlled, assuming there are no mechanical errors in the positioning system? (b) What are the
required pulse train frequencies and corresponding rotational speeds of each stepping motor in order to drive the
table at 275 mm/min in a straight line from point (x = 0, y = 0) to point (x = 130 mm, y = 220 mm)?
3mm
Solution: (a) table position can be controlled to = 0.024 mm.
125
(b) Travel rate of the table vt = 275 mm/min from (x = 0, y = 0) to (x = 130 mm, y = 220 mm).
Angle = tan-1(220/130) = 59.42
Travel rate for x-axis = 275 cos 59.42 = 139.9 mm/min
139.9mm / min.
x-axis motor speed N = = 46.63 rev/min
3mm / rev.
125pulse / rev( 46.63rev / min)
Pulse rate fp = = 97.15 Hz
60s / min.
Travel rate for y-axis = 275 sin 59.42 = 236.7 mm/min
236.7mm / min.
y-axis motor speed N = = 78.92 rev/min
3mm / rev.

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125pulse / rev( 78.92rev / min)
Pulse rate fp = = 164.41 Hz
60s / min.
Example 4
A stepping motor with 200 step angles is coupled to a lead screw through a gear reduction of 5:1 (5 rotations of
the motor for each rotation of the lead screw). The lead screw has 2.4 threads/cm. The worktable driven by the
lead screw must move a distance = 25.0 cm at a feed rate = 75 cm/min. Determine (a) the number of pulses
required to move the table, (b) required motor speed, and (c) pulse rate to achieve the desired table speed.
1
Solution: (a) Pitch p = = 4.1667 mm/rev. and  = 360/200 = 1.8
2.4thrds / cm
360 xrg
np = = = 60,000 pulses
p

750mm / min.
(b) Leadscrew N = = 180 rev/min
4.1667mm / rev.
Motor speed Nm = 5(180) = 900 rev/min
ns N m 200( 900)
(c) fp = = = 3000 pulses/s
60 60
Example 5
A component insertion machine takes 2.0 sec to put a component into a printed circuit (PC) board, once the
board has been positioned under the insertion head. The x-y table that positions the PC board uses a stepper
motor directly linked to a lead screw for each axis. The lead screw has a pitch = 5.0 mm. The motor step angle =
7.2 degrees and the pulse train frequency = 400 Hz. Two components are placed on the PC board, one each at
positions (25, 25) and (50, 150), where coordinates = mm. The sequence of positions is (0,0), (25, 25), (50,
150), (0,0). Time required to unload the completed board and load the next blank onto the machine table = 5.0
sec. Assume that 0.25 sec. is lost due to acceleration and deceleration on each move. What is the hourly
production rate for this PC board?
360
Solution: ns = = 50 steps/rev
7.2
vt ns rg fp p ( 400puls / s)(5.0mm / rev)
fp = . Given rg = 1.0 and rearranging the equation, vt =  = 40 mm/s
60 p ns 50puls / rev.
25mm
Time for move from (0, 0) to (25, 25) = = 0.625 s
40mm / s
150  25
Time for move from (25, 25) to (50, 150) = = 3.125 s
40
150
Time for move from (50, 150) to (0, 0) = = 3.75 s
40
Cycle time Tc = 5.0 + (0.625 + 0.25 + 2.0) + (3.125 + 0.25 + 2.0) + (3.75 + 0.25) = 17.25 s
60x60
Cycle rate (assumed equal to production rate) Rc = = 208.7 units/hr.
17.25
Analysis of Closed Loop Positioning Systems
Example 6
A dc servomotor is used to drive one of the table axes of an NC milling machine. The motor is coupled directly
to the lead screw for the axis, and the lead screw pitch = 5 mm. The optical encoder attached to the lead screw
emits 500 pulses per revolution of the lead screw. The motor rotates at a normal speed of 300 rev/min.
Determine (a) control resolution of the system, expressed in linear travel distance of the table axis, (b) frequency
of the pulse train emitted by the optical encoder when the servomotor operates at full speed, and (c) travel rate
of the table at normal rpm of the motor.

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5mm / rev
Solution: (a) CR = = 0.01 mm
500pulse / rev
500pulse / rev (300rev / min)
(b) fp = nsNm = = 2500 pulse/s = 2500 Hz
60s / min.
5mm / rev(2500pulse / s)(60s / min)
(c) vt = 60pfp/ns = = 1500 mm/min
500pulse / rev
Example 7
The worktable of an NC machine is driven by a closed-loop positioning system which consists of a servomotor,
leadscrew, and optical encoder. The lead screw pitch = 4 mm and is coupled directly to the motor shaft (gear
ratio = 1:1). The optical encoder generates 225 pulses per leadscrew revolution. The table has been programmed
to move a distance of 200 mm at a feed rate = 450 mm/min. (a) How many pulses are received by the control
system to verify that the table has moved the programmed distance? What are (b) the pulse rate and (c) motor
speed that correspond to the specified feed rate?
pn p xns 200mm(225pulse / rev)
Solution: (a) x = . Rearranging, np =  = 11,250 pulses
ns rge p 4 mm / rev

## (450mm / min)( 225pulse / rev)

(b) fr = = 421.875 pulse/s = 421.875 Hz
(60s / min)( 4mm / rev)
450mm / min
(c) N = fr/p = = 112.5 rev/min
4 mm / rev
Example 8
pitch = 5.0 mm and is connected to the motor shaft with a gear ratio of 16:1 (16 turns of the motor for each turn
of the lead screw). The optical encoder is connected directly to the lead screw and generates 200 pulses/rev of
the lead screw. The table must move a distance = 100 mm at a feed rate = 500 mm/min. Determine (a) the pulse
count received by the control system to verify that the table has moved exactly 100 mm; and (b) the pulse rate
and (c) motor speed that correspond to the feed rate of 500 mm/min.
Solution: (a) x = p np/ns Rearranging, np = xns/p = 100(200)/5 = 4000 pulses.
(b) fp = fr ns /60p = 500(200)/60(5) = 333.3 Hz
(c) N = rg fr /p = 16 x 500/5 = 1600 rev/min

Example 9
Solve the previous problem assuming the optical encoder is directly coupled to the motor shaft rather than to the
Solution:(a) x = p np/rg ns Rearranging, np = rg x ns/p = 16(100)(200)/5 = 64,000 pulses.
(b) fp = rg fr ns /60p = 16(500)(200)/60(5) = 5333.3 Hz
(c) N = rg fr /p = 16 x 500/5 = 1600 rev/min

Example 10
A lead screw coupled directly to a dc servomotor is used to drive one of the table axes of an NC milling
machine. The lead screw has 2.5 threads/cm. The optical encoder attached to the lead screw emits 100
pulses/rev of the lead screw. The motor rotates at a maximum speed of 800 rev/min. Determine (a) the control
resolution of the system, expressed in linear travel distance of the table axis, (b) frequency of the pulse train
emitted by the optical encoder when the servomotor operates at maximum speed; and (c) travel speed of the
table at maximum motor speed.

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1
Solution: (a) p = = 0.4 cm = 4.0 mm, CR = p/ns = 4.0/100 = 0.04 mm
(b) fp = Nns/60 = 800 rev/min(100 pulse/rev))/(60 s/min) = 1333.3 Hz
(c) vt = Np = 800 rev/min(4.0 mm/rev.) = 3200 mm/min

## Resolution and Accuracy of Positioning Systems

Example 11
A two-axis NC system used to control a machine tool table uses a bit storage capacity of 16 bits in its control
memory for each axis. The range of the x-axis is 600 mm and the range of the y-axis is 500 mm. The
mechanical accuracy of the machine table can be represented by a Normal distribution with standard deviation =
0.002 mm for both axes. For each axis of the NC system, determine (a) the control resolution, (b) accuracy, and
(c) repeatability.
600 600
Solution: (a) x-axis: CR2 = = = 0.0091 mm
16
2 1 65,536  1
y-axis: CR2 = = 0.0076 mm
CR 0.0091
(b) x-axis: Accuracy =  3 = + 3(0.002) = 0.0106 mm
2 2
0.0076
y-axis: Accuracy = + 3(0.002) = 0.0098 mm
2
(c) Repeatability =  3 =  3(0.002) =  0.006 mm
Example 12
The two axes of an x-y positioning table are each driven by a stepping motor connected to a lead screw with a
10:1 gear reduction. The number of step angles on each stepping motor is 20. Each lead screw has a pitch = 4.5
mm and provides an axis range = 300 mm. There are 16 bits in each binary register used by the controller to
store position data for the two axes. (a) What is the control resolution of each axis? (b) What are the required
rotational speeds and corresponding pulse train frequencies of each stepping motor in order to drive the table at
500 mm/min in a straight line from point (30,30) to point (100,200)? Ignore acceleration and deceleration.
Solution: (a) CR1 = p/rgns = 4.5/(10 x 20) = 0.0225 mm
L 300 300
CR2 = B = 16 = = 0.00458 mm
2 1 2 1 65,535
CR = Max{0.0225, 0.00458} = 0.0225 mm
(b) vt = 500 mm/min from (30, 30) to (100, 200)
x = 100 - 30 = 70 mm, y = 200 - 30 = 170 mm, Angle A = tan-1(170/70) = 67.62
vtx = 500 cos 67.62 = 190.38 mm/min, Nx = rgvtx/p = 10(190.38)/4.5 = 423.06 rev/min
fpx = Nx ns/60 = 423.06(20)/60 = 141.02 Hz
vty = 500 sin 67.62 = 462.34 mm/min, Ny = rgvty/p = 10(462.34)/4.5 = 1027.42 rev/min
fpx = Ny ns /60 = 1027.42(20)/60 = 342.47 Hz

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