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Valerio Contaldo tenor • Adamo (AD)

Luciana Mancini mezzo-soprano • Eva (EV)


Roberta Mameli soprano • Angelo di Giustizia (AG)
Alice Rossi soprano • Angelo di Misericordia (AM)

Peter Van Heyghen direction


(edition of the score; ornaments & cadenzas)

violin 1 Christophe Robert (concertmaster), Francesco Bergamini,


Noyuri Hazama, Jivka Kaltcheva
violin 2 Danuta Zawada, Birgit Goris, Michiyo Kondo, Marie Toriu
viola Kaat De Cock, Ingrid Bourgeois
cello Ira Givol, Phyllis Bartholomeus
double bass Frank Coppieters
harpsichord Kris Verhelst
flute Jan De Winne, Christine Debaisieux
oboe Marcel Ponseele, Lidewei De Sterck
bassoon Margreet Bongers
horn Bart Cypers, Mark De Merlier
trumpet Moritz Görg, Pavel Janeček
JOSEF MYSLIVEČEK (1737-1781)
ADAMO & EVA • oratorio for four voices (1771)
Libretto: Giovanni Granelli
CD 2
Part Two
CD 1
01 Recitativo (AD/EV/AG) Qui dove dianzi intesi 2:03
01 Ouvertur Allegro con brio 3:05 02 Aria (AD) Nò, che vano, o ingordo affetto 5:30
02 Ouvertur Andante 2:23 03 Recitativo (AG/EV) Male errasti, infedel 1:31
03 Ouvertur Presto 1:19 04 Aria (EV) Non so se il mio peccato 6:27
05 Recitativo (AM/AG) Pietà, Signor, Pietà 2:49
Part One 06 Aria (AM) Cara Speranza del Mondo afflitto 3:47
04 Recitativo (AD) Eva non è più questo 2:11 07 Recitativo (AG) Ma tu Donna 1:39
05 Aria (AD) Sente quest’alma oppressa 7:31 08 Aria (AG) Colla mano onnipossente 8:24
06 Recitativo (EV) Non più, Sposo, non più 1:14 09 Recitativo (AD) Signor nell’ira tua pietoso 0:57
07 Aria (EV) Non ti chieggo amor 9:15 10 Aria (AD) Amare lagrime 5:09
08 Recitativo (AD/EV/AG) Che parli di Serpente? 5:09 11 Recitativo (EV) Che medito, che penso 2:19
09 Duetto (AD/EV) Ahi formidabil suono! 1:42 12 Aria (EV) Se al Ciel miro! 8:39
10 Recitativo (AG) Fuggiro I Rei 1:11 13 Recitativo (AM/AD/AG) Sì che placato sia 2:57
11 Aria (AG) Quell’affanno e quel dolore 8:12 14 Duetto (AD/EV) Cara piaggia, almo soggiorno 2:41
12 Recitativo (AM/AG) Della Giustizia eterna 2:14 15 Recitativo (AM/AG) Ma di qual nuovo raggio 0:47
13 Aria (AM) Chi sa, se mentre gemono 2:22 16 Aria (AG) Toglierò le sponde al Mare 5:08
14 Recitativo (AG/AM) Poichè così tu speri 1:17 17 Recitativo (AM) Mentre tu questi avvolgi 0:49
15 Duetto (AG/AM) Non è crudel rigore 6:29 18 Aria (AM) Renderò le sponde al Mare 2:42
total time: 60:34 19 Coro (AG/AM/EV/AD) Se la serena fronte 4:16
total time: 68:34
Given that his father and his twin brother were millers, Josef Mysliveček had as one of the most talented composers active in late eighteenth-century Europe…
initially chosen to enter the same trade; after completing his apprenticeship in prodigious, successful, and resourceful.
1761, however, he decided to take a different career route and consequently devoted How can it be that a composer who enjoyed such a brilliant – although brief – career
himself entirely to music. He had considerable talent as a violinist, but his ambitions can be so little-known today? Why is Mysliveček’s name only familiar from his
went further than that: he wished to gain fame and honour as an opera composer, seven years of friendship with the Mozart family, or from the tragic and somewhat
and so completed the training that he needed in harmony and counterpoint with insalubrious fact that his nose was amputated as part of a treatment for tertiary
teachers in Prague in record time, composing a series of symphonies after only six syphilis in 1777? Although Mysliveček clearly deserved a better fate, there are
months of lessons. Mysliveček then realised that he needed to leave Prague and nonetheless a number of significant factors that led to his relative obscurity.
Bohemia and continue his studies in Italy, the birthplace of opera; to make this The first and most important of these was his early death at the age of forty-four.
project become reality, he exploited a second talent that would determine the course If the great Joseph Haydn, Mysliveček’s almost exact contemporary, had died
of his entire future career: he was highly skilled in winning over wealthy patrons to at the same age, not only would his body of work be significantly smaller than
his cause. It was thanks to the support of Count Waldstein of Bohemia amongst Mysliveček’s, but the greater part of the works that would later create his fame and
others that he was able to settle in Venice in 1763, where he studied for a certain renown would never have seen the light of day. If Haydn had died at the same age as
time with Giovanni Battista Pescetti. He then extended his network of contacts Mysliveček, he too would quite possibly have remained in obscurity, his great talent
to include patrons in the northern Italian cities of Parma, Florence and Bergamo; notwithstanding.
Semiramide riconosciuta, his first opera, received its premiere in Bergamo in 1766. He Secondly, it was to Mysliveček’s enormous disadvantage that he had not yet
had now become known in Italy as Il Boemo – the Bohemian; his real breakthrough completed his successful career at the moment that the brightest star in the
into the Italian scene came one year later with a much-praised performance of firmament of late 18th century musical life had begun to shine: the young genius
his second opera, Il Bellerofonte, in the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. Mysliveček’s Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Although Mysliveček had the merit of being a source
fame on the Italian peninsula was confirmed shortly afterwards when he received of inspiration for the young Mozart, it was to be Mozart himself, and rightly so,
a commission from the prestigious Teatro Regio in Turin. Except for three short who would come to be regarded as the summit of the Classical style. Mysliveček’s
visits to Prague, Vienna and Munich, he was to remain in Italy, his new adopted star, in other words, was not bright enough to remain visible when placed so close
homeland, for the rest of his life. He committed himself to the life of a freelance to Mozart’s.
composer, obstinately refusing to accept any type of employment in permanent Thirdly, when musicologists came to consider the years 1750-1760, their
service, and developed into one of the most successful and most productive opera attention was primarily directed to German and Austrian composers and to the
composers of his time. Within a period of fifteen years he composed no less than often experimental or even completely idiosyncratic developments in style that
twenty-six operas, some of which were performed far beyond Italy, in such cities as occurred in German and Austrian musical centres of the period. The undiminished
Lisbon and St. Petersburg. He wrote a number of oratorios and cantatas, but also international influence of the Italian centres of music and the absolute and
achieved distinction as a composer of instrumental music; this was highly unusual dominant role that Italian composers continued to play throughout Europe until
for composers who had achieved recognition primarily for their vocal works at that late in the 1770s and even beyond has been given very little attention, if at all.
time. Daniel Evan Freeman describes Mysliveček in his recent biography of him Josef Mysliveček worked practically only in Italy throughout his career; according

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to Freeman, his style depicts an Italian version of musical classicism that has not oratorio laid down after the reforms of Apostolo Zeno and Pietro Metastasio during
yet received full recognition, a style that was gracious, melodious, and diatonic and the 1720s and 1730s: a Biblical theme, no portrayal of divine characters on stage, and
less experimental in character, a style that remained connected to the transparent a strict observance of the Aristotelian unities of time, place and action.
and ‘natural’ homophonic idiom that had been developed in Italy during the 1730s Adamo ed Eva is completely consonant with the traditional Christian exegesis in which
and 1740s as a reaction to the more complex and weighty forms and techniques of events and characters from the Old Testament are interpreted as a prefiguration
the Baroque. from those in the New Testament. Here, though, both elements are presented as
We should not seek Mysliveček’s merits, therefore, in an individual, personal or clear mirror images of each other: the strict God who punishes in Genesis – here
innovative musical language; his great artistry lay much more in his sublime mastery personified by the Angel of Justice – who deprives the first humans of their
of all the forms and techniques current at that time, in the clearly inexhaustible immortality and bans them from the Earthly Paradise is the counterpart of the God
inventiveness revealed in his musical ideas and patterns in musical texture, and in of the Gospels who is loving and who suffers together with and for humanity – here
the unbelievable ease with which he connected and alternated these ideas in new personified by the Angel of Mercy – and who will finally grant eternal life after death
and frequently unexpected ways. to all the faithful. Eve, born from a man without any female participation and whose
Concerning oratorio, Freeman considers Mysliveček to have been indisputably guilt was the source of original sin, is reflected in the sinless Virgin Mary, who would
one of the leading masters of the genre in his day. He composed eight in total, give birth to the Redeemer without any masculine intervention. While Eve, the first
although only four of these have survived. His oratorio Adamo ed Eva – his third and woman, gave way to the temptations of Satan, the snake in the Genesis story, Satan,
the first that was composed for Florence – is unique amongst these, for only one now in the form of a dragon in Revelations, will finally be defeated and trampled
copy of the score has survived. It was first performed in the concert rooms of the underfoot by Mary, Queen of Heaven. Adam, the first man, who is condemned to
Accademia degl’Ingegnosi in the presence of the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo (later pour forth his sweat as the consequence of his sin, is complemented by the figure of
the Austrian emperor Leopold II) and his court on 24 March 1771. A number of Christ, who will pour forth his blood and so wash away the sins of the entire world.
vocal and instrumental soloists from the court were involved with the performance. Mysliveček provides accurate characterisations in the three arias allotted to each
The ensemble was led from the harpsichord by Salvadore Pazzaglia, the maestro character: the inner restlessness, the passionate love and deep mourning of Adam;
di cappella of the private orchestra of count George Nassau Clavering-Cowper, the great fragility, the internal insecurity and the bittersweet self-reproach of Eve;
an extremely wealthy British nobleman and lover of the arts who had settled in the grandeur, the harsh rigidity and the destructive power of the Angel of Justice; the
Florence; the count would act as Mysliveček’s patron on several later occasions also. sympathy, the encouraging force and the strength of purpose of the Angel of Mercy.
Adamo ed Eva would also be performed in Prague, Perugia, Milan, Bologna, Prato The three duets are closely related in terms of content, for each duet describes a
and Rimini before 1776. different aspect of the central theme: in two short duets Adam and Eve express their
The libretto was written by the Genoese Jesuit priest Giovanni Granelli (1703-1770), fear of God’s wrath and their trust in God’s mercy respectively. In another and much
who was widely known as an itinerant preacher and as an author of tragedies and longer duet that closes the Parte prima, the two Angels pointedly emphasise the
Bible commentaries. Baldassare Galuppi was the first musician to set Granelli’s text indissolubility of these two aspects, this being the theologically correct conception
in 1747; a year after Mysliveček had completed his setting, Pedro António Avondano of God. In the concluding coro the four characters sing of their belief in God and of
would compose one more version. Granelli’s tale observes the conventions of the their trust in his promises.

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Mysliveček makes use of recitativo accompagnato on two occasions only. Both of these Net zoals zijn vader en zijn tweelingbroer koos Josef Mysliveček aanvankelijk voor het
passages are given to Eve: in the first of these she gives a vivid description of how the vak van molenaar, maar meteen na het behalen van zijn meesterproef in 1761 besloot
serpent tempted her, whilst in the second she expresses her inner desperation, her hij om toch een andere weg in te slaan en zich voortaan volledig te wijden aan de muziek.
realisation of the suffering that her deed has inflicted upon the entire human race. Als violist bezat hij behoorlijk wat talent, maar zijn ambities lagen hoger: hij wou roem
Using different keys to characterise individual arias and ensembles, Mysliveček also en eer verwerven als operacomponist. In een recordtempo verschafte hij zich de nodige
clearly strives for balance as well as the necessary variation in his orchestrations: vorming in harmonie en contrapunt bij lokale leraars te Praag en na slechts een half
there are precisely as many arias and ensembles that involve the horns, oboes, jaar componeerde hij reeds een reeks symfonieën. Als volgende stap diende hij nu Praag
bassoon and strings as there are for strings alone; the trumpets, flutes and the en Bohemen te verlaten om zijn opleiding te voltooien in Italië, waar de opera geboren
solo oboe each make only one appearance. Almost all of the arias and ensembles was. Voor het verwezenlijken van dit project kon Mysliveček zich beroepen op een groot
as well as the first and third sections of the overture are in major keys, eight in bijkomend talent dat absoluut bepalend zou blijken voor zijn hele verdere carrière: zijn
total, and covering the keys in the circle of fifths between E flat and E. Mysliveček onwaarschijnlijke vaardigheid om vermogende mecenassen voor zijn zaak te winnen.
sets two introspective arias – one for Adam and one for Eve – as well as the second Dankzij de steun van onder meer de Boheemse graaf Waldstein vestigde hij zich in 1763 te
section of the overture in minor keys. Formally speaking, there are as many arias Venetië en ging een tijd lang in de leer bij Giovanni Battista Pescetti. Van daaruit bouwde
and ensembles in the customary dal segno structure of the period as there are in the hij verdere contacten uit met sponsoren in Noord-Italiaanse steden zoals Parma, Firenze
more modern and more compact sonata form; this latter form, however, becomes en Bergamo, waar in 1766 zijn eerste opera Semiramide riconosciuta werd uitgevoerd. De
more frequent as the oratorio progresses. The final duet of the Prima parte makes grote doorbraak echter voor ‘Il Boemo’ – zoals hij intussen in Italië genoemd werd –
use of Mysliveček’s characteristic ABAB structure; in the first duet of the oratorio, kwam er een jaar later met een bejubelde uitvoering van zijn tweede opera Il Bellerofonte
however, in which Adam and Eve give voice to their fear and insecurity, Mysliveček in het teatro S.Carlo te Napels. Toen kort daarna ook een opdracht volgde voor het
created a highly apposite irregular and unstable form that corresponds to no known prestigieuze teatro Regio te Turijn was Myslivečeks roem meteen gevestigd op het hele
model. Italiaanse schiereiland. Een drietal korte uitstappen naar Praag, Wenen en München niet
It is evident that nothing was left to chance in this masterpiece; the work gives clear te na gesproken zou hij zijn nieuwe adoptieve vaderland dan ook niet meer verlaten. Als
proof of the sure judgement and the skilled hand of a master who had a perfect overtuigd freelance artiest, halsstarrig weigerend om ooit ergens in vast dienstverband
mastery of the musical language of his time. te werken, ontwikkelde hij er zich tot één van de meest gevraagde en meest productieve
Adam and Eve fell from grace, but were granted a second chance; Josef Mysliveček operacomponist van zijn tijd. Binnen een tijdsbestek van nauwelijks 15 jaar componeerde
certainly deserves no less. hij niet minder dan 26 opera’s waarvan enkele tot ver buiten Italië werden uitgevoerd, in
steden zoals Lissabon en St-Petersburg. Hij schreef ook een aantal oratoria en cantates,
Peter Van Heyghen maar onderscheidde zich daarnaast tevens als begenadigd auteur van instrumentale
Translation: Peter Lockwood muziek, wat destijds behoorlijk uitzonderlijk was voor componisten die vooral bekendheid
genoten omwille van hun vocale oeuvre. In zijn recente biografie van Mysliveček noemt
Daniel Evan Freeman hem “één van de meest getalenteerde componisten die actief waren
in de herfstjaren van het 18de-eeuwse Europa… briljant, succesvol en vindingrijk.”

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Hoe kan het dan dat een componist die zo een schitterende – zij het kortstondige – Freeman is zijn stijl dan ook representatief voor “een Italiaanse versie van het muzikale
carrière wist neer te zetten, vandaag toch nog zo relatief onbekend is? Waarom duikt Classicisme die tot op heden nog geen volledige erkenning geniet”, een stijl die “gracieus,
Myslivečeks naam vrijwel uitsluitend op omwille van zijn zeven jaar lang durende melodieus, diatonisch” en minder experimenteel van karakter was, een stijl die veel
vriendschap met de familie Mozart, of omwille van het tragische en misschien langer is blijven aanknopen bij het transparante, “natuurlijke”, homofone idioom dat
inderdaad weinig tot zijn eer strekkende feit dat in 1777 zijn neus diende geamputeerd tijdens de jaren 1730-1740 in Italië was ontwikkeld als reactie op de complexere en
te worden in het kader van een behandeling voor tertiaire syfilis? Mysliveček verdient zwaarwichtigere vormen en technieken van de Barok.
duidelijk meer, maar er zijn inderdaad een aantal begrijpelijke redenen die tot zijn Myslivečeks verdienste moet dan ook niet op de eerste plaats gezocht worden in een
relatieve onbekendheid hebben geleid. eigen, persoonlijke of vernieuwende muzikale taal; zijn groot vakmanschap blijkt
Vooreerst het feit dat hij zo jong, met name op 44-jarige leeftijd reeds gestorven veeleer uit zijn sublieme beheersing van alle toen gangbare vormen en technieken, uit
is; indien de grote Joseph Haydn, bijna een perfecte tijdgenoot van Mysliveček, op zijn schijnbaar onuitputtelijke vindingrijkheid met betrekking tot melodische ideeën
dezelfde leeftijd zou zijn gestorven, dan zou zijn totale oeuvre niet alleen beduidend en patronen in muzikale textuur, en uit het ongelooflijk gemak waarmee hij deze ideeën
kleiner geweest zijn dan dat van onze Bohemer, maar dan zouden ook de meeste van en patronen steeds opnieuw op andere en vaak onverwachte manieren met elkaar
zijn werken aan dewelke hij later zijn roem zou ontlenen niet eens het daglicht hebben verbindt en laat afwisselen.
gezien. Een vroeg gestorven Haydn zou op die manier wellicht even onbekend gebleven Wat oratoria betreft, beschouwt Freeman Mysliveček als “onweerlegbaar één van de
zijn, ondanks zijn grote talent. toonaangevende meesters van dit genre in zijn tijd”. Hij schreef er in totaal acht, maar
Ten tweede valt Mysliveček het enorme nadeel te beurt dat zijn succesvolle carrière zelfs van slechts vier is ook de partituur bewaard gebleven. Adamo ed Eva – Myslivečeks derde
nog niet volledig voorbij was op het moment dat de helderste ster aan het firmament oratorium en het eerste dat geschreven werd voor Firenze – is in dit opzicht uniek,
van het laat-18de-eeuwse Europese muziekleven reeds volop was beginnen stralen: omdat slechts één afschrift van de partituur bewaard bleef. De première vond plaats op
die van het genie Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. En al komt Mysliveček de verdienste 24 Maart 1771 in de concertruimte van de Accademia degl’Ingegnosi in aanwezigheid
toe een belangrijke inspiratiebron te zijn geweest voor de jonge Mozart, toch zou het van groothertog Pietro Leopoldo (de latere Oostenrijkse keizer Leopold II) en diens
terecht Mozart zelf zijn, wiens oeuvre voortaan beschouwd zou worden als de absolute hofhouding. Bij de uitvoering waren ook een aantal vocale en instrumentale solisten
bekroning van het muzikale Classicisme. Myslivečeks ster, met andere woorden, was van het hof betrokken. Het ensemble werd geleid door klavecinist Salvadore Pazzaglia,
niet helder genoeg om zichtbaar te blijven, zo vlak naast die van Mozart. de kapelmeester van het privé orkest van graaf George Nassau Clavering-Cowper, een
Ten derde is de aandacht van de muziekwetenschap ook reeds met betrekking tot de zeer vermogend Brits edelman en kunstliefhebber die zich te Firenze gevestigd had
jaren 1750-1760 steeds op de eerste plaats uitgegaan naar Duitse en Oostenrijkse en later nog een paar keer zou optreden als mecenas voor Mysliveček. Vóór 1776 zou
componisten en naar de vaak experimentele of zelfs uitgesproken idiosyncratische Adamo ed Eva verder nog uitgevoerd worden te Praag, Perugia, Milaan, Bologna, Prato
stijlontwikkelingen die zich hadden voorgedaan aan Duitse en Oostenrijkse muzikale en Rimini.
centra. Volledig onderbelicht bleef daarbij de onverminderde internationale uitstraling Het libretto is van de hand van de Genuese jezuïet Giovanni Granelli (1703-1770) die
van Italiaanse muziekcentra en de absoluut dominante rol die Italiaanse componisten tijdens zijn leven algemene bekendheid genoot als ambulante prediker en als auteur van
overal in Europa zijn blijven spelen tot ver in de jaren 1770 en zelfs daarna. Josef tragedies en bijbelcommentaren. Baldassare Galuppi was in 1747 de eerste componist
Mysliveček was zijn hele carrière lang vrijwel uitsluitend werkzaam in Italië en volgens die deze tekst toonzette en een jaar na Mysliveček zou ook Pedro António Avondano

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nog een versie schrijven. Granelli’s verhaal is helemaal conform aan de conventies van onverbrekelijkheid van deze twee aspecten met het oog op een correct Godsbegrip. In
het Italiaanse oratorium na de hervormingen van Apostolo Zeno en Pietro Metastasio het afsluitende coro bezingen de vier personages samen hun geloof in de waarachtigheid
in de jaren 1720-1730: een Bijbels thema, geen Goddelijke dramatis personae, en strikte van God en Zijn beloften.
inachtneming van de Aristotelische eenheden van handeling, tijd en plaats. Slechts tweemaal introduceert Mysliveček een recitativo accompagnato; telkens betreft
Adamo ed Eva sluit ook helemaal aan bij de traditionele Christelijke exegese waarbij het een cruciaal moment waarop Eva aan het woord is: in het eerste fragment vertelt
gebeurtenissen en personages uit het Oude Testament worden geïnterpreteerd als ze op beeldende wijze hoe de listige slang haar wist te verleiden, in het tweede geeft ze
prefiguraties van die uit het Nieuwe Testament. Concreet vormen beide elementen uitdrukking aan haar innerlijke ontreddering omwille van de ellende die ze met haar
hier als het ware elkaars spiegelbeeld: de strenge, bestraffende God uit Genesis (hier daad aan de gehele mensheid berokkend heeft. Zowel op het gebied van orkestratie, het
gepersonifieerd door de Engel der Rechtvaardigheid) die de mens zijn onsterfelijkheid gebruik van toonaarden als de vormgeving van de individuele aria’s en ensemblestukken,
ontneemt en hem verbant uit het aards paradijs vormt de tegenhanger van de streeft Mysliveček duidelijk naar zowel voldoende evenwicht als de nodige variatie:
liefhebbende en letterlijk mede-lijdende God uit de evangelies (hier gepersonifieerd zo zijn er precies evenveel aria’s en ensemblestukken met hoorns, hobo’s, fagot en
door de Engel der Barmhartigheid) die alle gelovigen uiteindelijk het eeuwige leven na strijkers, als er zijn voor strijkers alleen; trompetten, fluiten en hobo solo komen elk
de dood zal schenken. Eva, geboren uit een man zonder tussenkomst van een vrouw, en slechts één keer voor. Vrijwel alle aria’s en ensemblestukken alsook het eerste en derde
de ultieme schuldige van de erfzonde, vindt haar spiegelbeeld in de zondenvrije Maagd deel van de ouverture zijn in majeur toonaarden gezet, acht verschillende in totaal,
Maria, die zonder tussenkomst van een man de Verlosser zal baren. En terwijl Eva, de netjes verspreid tussen Es en E; twee introspectieve aria’s – één voor Adam en één voor
allereerste vrouw, nog bezwijkt onder de verleidingen van Satan, de slang in Genesis, Eva – en het tweede deel van de ouverture schrijft Mysliveček echter in mineur. Qua
zal deze laatste, als draak in Openbaringen, uiteindelijk onderworpen en vertrappeld vormgeving van de aria’s en ensemblestukken is er een numeriek evenwicht tussen
worden door Maria, de Koningin van de Hemel. Voor Adam, tenslotte, de eerste mens, enerzijds de voor die periode gebruikelijke dal segno structuur en anderzijds de iets
die zijn zweet dient te vergieten als gevolg van zijn zonde, zal Jezus Christus in de modernere, compactere, van de sonatevorm afgeleide structuren, maar deze laatsten
plaats komen, die door het vergieten van Zijn bloed de zonden van de gehele mensheid worden wel steeds takrijker naarmate het oratorium vordert. Het slotduet van de Prima
zal wegwassen. Parte heeft een voor Mysliveček typische ABAB-structuur, maar aan het eerste duet
In de drie aria’s voor elk van de vier personages karakteriseert Mysliveček de van dit oratorium, waarin Adam en Eva hun angst en onzekerheid uitdrukken, heeft de
opeenvolgende affecten op accurate wijze: de innerlijke onrust, de passionele liefde en componist op zeer toepasselijke wijze een onregelmatige, onstabiele structuur gegeven
het diepe berouw van Adam; de grote breekbaarheid, de innerlijke onzekerheid en het dat aan geen enkel gangbaar model beantwoordt.
bittere zelfverwijt van Eva; de grootsheid, de hardvochtigheid en de vernietigingskracht Niets werd blijkbaar in dit meesterwerk blijkbaar aan het toeval overgelaten; uit alles
van de Engel der Rechtvaardigheid; het inlevingsvermogen, de bemoedigende kracht en blijkt groot oordeelsvermogen en de vakkundige hand van een meester die de taal van
de vastberadenheid van de Engel der Barmhartigheid. De drie duetten zijn inhoudelijk zijn tijd tot in de perfectie beheerste.
nauw met elkaar verwant; ze beschrijven telkens een ander aspect van hetzelfde, Adam en Eva vielen uit de gratie, maar kregen een tweede kans; Josef Mysliveček
centrale gegeven: in twee korte duetten drukken Adam en Eva respectievelijk hun verdient wellicht niet minder.
angst uit voor Gods wraak en hun vertrouwen in Gods mededogen; in het andere, veel
langere duet, dat tevens de Parte Prima afsluit, benadrukken de beide Engelen juist de Peter Van Heyghen

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Tout comme son père et son frère jumeau, Josef Mysliveček choisit d’abord le métier Comment se fait-il qu’un compositeur qui sut bâtir une aussi brillante carrière –
de meunier, mais dès la fin de son apprentissage en 1761, il décida d’emprunter même si elle fut de courte durée – soit aussi peu connu aujourd’hui  ? Pourquoi
une autre voie et de se consacrer entièrement à la musique. Il jouait du violon l’histoire n’a-t-elle retenu le nom de Mysliveček qu’en raison de son amitié avec la
avec talent, mais ses ambitions allaient au-delà : il voulait devenir un compositeur famille Mozart, longue de sept ans, ou de l’événement dramatique que constitua
d’opéra célèbre et reconnu. En un rien de temps, il s’assura la formation nécessaire l’amputation de son nez dans le cadre d’un traitement contre une syphilis tertiaire ?
en harmonie et en contrepoint auprès de professeurs praguois et après six mois Mysliveček mérite clairement mieux, même si les raisons qui ont conduit à son
seulement, il composait déjà une série de symphonies. Il lui fallut ensuite quitter relatif anonymat sont compréhensibles.
Prague et la Bohême pour compléter sa formation en Italie, berceau de l’opéra. Parmi ces raisons, citons tout d’abord son décès prématuré à l’âge de 44 ans ; si le
Pour réaliser son projet, Mysliveček put s’appuyer sur un autre de ses talents, qui grand Joseph Haydn, presque son exact contemporain, était mort au même âge, son
s’avérerait absolument décisif pour l’ensemble de sa carrière  : son extraordinaire œuvre entier aurait non seulement été considérablement plus petit que celui de notre
capacité à rallier de riches mécènes à sa cause. Grâce au soutien notamment du Bohémien, mais la plupart des pièces qui ont fait sa renommée n’auraient pas vu le
comte bohémien Waldstein, il s’installa à Venise en 1763 et fut pendant un temps jour. Un Haydn mort ainsi avant l’heure serait probablement resté aussi inconnu,
l’élève de Giovanni Battista Pescetti. Dès lors, il noua des contacts avec d’autres malgré son grand talent.
mécènes dans des villes du Nord de l’Italie comme Parme, Florence et Bergame, où Ensuite, Mysliveček souffre de l’énorme désavantage que l’apogée de sa carrière
son premier opéra, Semiramide riconosciuta, fut représenté en 1766. « Il Boemo », n’était pas encore derrière lui quand apparut la plus brillante étoile au firmament de
comme on l’appelait désormais en Italie, fit sa grande percée un an plus tard, la vie musicale européenne de la fin du XVIIIe siècle, celle du génie Wolfgang Amadeus
avec une représentation très applaudie de son deuxième opéra, Il Bellerofonte, Mozart. Et si Mysliveček a le mérite d’avoir été une source d’inspiration importante
au Teatro San Carlo à Naples. Quand, peu de temps après, arriva une commande pour le jeune prodige, c’est l’œuvre de ce dernier qui serait désormais considéré
pour le prestigieux Teatro Regio de Turin, la notoriété du compositeur s’établit comme le couronnement absolu du classicisme musical. Si proche de celle de Mozart,
immédiatement dans toute la péninsule italienne. Si l’on excepte trois courts l’étoile de Mysliveček ne brillait pas assez fort pour rester visible.
voyages à Prague, Vienne et Munich, il ne quitterait plus sa patrie d’adoption. Artiste En troisième lieu, l’attention de la musicologie s’est toujours en premier lieu portée
indépendant convaincu, refusant avec obstination tout poste fixe, il devint l’un des sur les compositeurs allemands et autrichiens et sur les développements stylistiques
compositeurs d’opéra les plus demandés et les plus productifs de son temps. En 15 idiosyncrasiques souvent expérimentaux qui s’opéraient dans ces centres musicaux
ans à peine, il composa pas moins de 26 opéras, dont certains furent représentés dans les années 1750-1760. L’attractivité internationale des centres italiens et
bien au-delà de l’Italie, dans des villes comme Lisbonne et Saint-Pétersbourg. Il le rôle absolument dominant que les compositeurs italiens continueraient à jouer
écrivit également de nombreux oratorios et cantates tout en se distinguant par son dans toute l’Europe jusqu’à la fin des années 1770 et au-delà restent aujourd’hui
habileté à composer de la musique instrumentale, ce qui, à cette époque, était tout totalement méconnus. Josef Mysliveček travailla durant toute sa carrière presque
à fait exceptionnel pour des compositeurs connus surtout pour leur production exclusivement en Italie et, selon Freeman, son style est donc représentatif d’une
vocale. Dans sa récente biographie de Mysliveček, Daniel Evan Freeman le qualifie « version italienne du classicisme musical qui n’a pas été pleinement reconnue à ce
de « l’un des compositeurs les plus talentueux actifs dans l’Europe de l’automne du jour », au style « gracieux, mélodique, diatonique » et au caractère moins expérimental,
XVIIIe siècle… Brillant, accompli et inventif ». un style resté attaché beaucoup plus longtemps à l’idiome transparent, « naturel »,

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homophonique développé en Italie durant les années 1730-1740 en réaction aux comme des préfigurations de ceux du Nouveau Testament. Ici, les deux éléments
formes plus complexes et pesantes du baroque. sont en négatif l’un par rapport à l’autre : le Dieu sévère et punitif de la Genèse
Le mérite du compositeur ne réside donc pas avant tout dans un langage musical (ici personnifié par l’Ange de la justice) qui prive l’homme de son immortalité et le
propre, personnel ou novateur ; son grand savoir-faire apparaît davantage dans sa bannit du paradis terrestre forme le pendant du Dieu d’amour et de compassion
sublime maîtrise de toutes les formes et techniques en usage à l’époque, dans son des évangiles (ici personnifié par l’Ange de la miséricorde) qui donnera finalement
ingéniosité apparemment sans limites en matière d’idées mélodiques et motiviques à tous les croyants la vie éternelle après la mort. Ève, née d’un homme sans
et dans son incroyable facilité à connecter et à alterner ces idées et ces motifs de l’intervention d’une femme et ultime coupable du péché originel, trouve son reflet
manière différente et souvent inattendue. dans la Vierge Marie immaculée, qui donnera naissance au Rédempteur sans
Dans le domaine de l’oratorio, Freeman considère Mysliveček comme l’intervention d’un homme. Et tandis qu’Ève, la toute première femme, succombe
« indéniablement l’un des plus grands maîtres du genre en son temps ». Il en écrivit encore aux tentations de Satan, le serpent dans la Genèse, ce dernier, comme un
huit, mais seules les partitions de quatre ont été conservées. Adamo ed Eva – son dragon dans l’Apocalypse, sera finalement soumis et piétiné par Marie, Reine des
troisième oratorio et le premier qu’il écrivit pour Florence – est unique à cet égard : Cieux. Jésus-Christ, qui, en versant son sang, lavera les péchés de l’humanité
il ne reste qu’une seule copie de la partition. L’œuvre fut créée le 24 mars 1771 dans entière, viendra enfin remplacer Adam, le premier homme, qui doit verser sa sueur
la salle de concert de l’Accademia degl’Ingegnosi en présence du grand-duc Pierre- à cause de son péché.
Léopold (le futur empereur Léopold II d’Autriche) et de sa cour. Un certain nombre de Dans les trois airs confiés à chacun des quatre personnages, Mysliveček caractérise
solistes vocaux et instrumentaux de la cour y participèrent. L’ensemble fut dirigé par avec précision les affects successifs : l’agitation intérieure, l’amour passionné et le
le claveciniste Salvadore Pazzaglia, maître de chapelle de l’orchestre privé du comte profond repentir d’Adam ; la grande fragilité, l’insécurité intérieure et le remords
George Nassau Clavering-Cowper, un très riche noble et amateur d’art britannique amer d’Ève ; la grandeur, l’intransigeance et la puissance destructrice de l’Ange de la
installé à Florence qui, à plusieurs reprises, soutiendrait Mysliveček financièrement. justice ; l’empathie, le pouvoir d’encouragement et la détermination de l’Ange de la
Avant 1776, Adamo ed Eva serait encore joué à Prague, Pérouse, Milan, Bologne, Prato miséricorde. Les trois duos sont étroitement liés par leur contenu, décrivant chacun
et Rimini. un aspect différent du même fait central  : dans deux courts duos, Adam et Ève
Le livret fut écrit par le jésuite génois Giovanni Granelli (1703-1770), très connu de expriment respectivement leur crainte de la vengeance de Dieu et leur confiance en
son vivant comme prédicateur itinérant et auteur de tragédies et de commentaires sa compassion ; dans le troisième, beaucoup plus long, qui clôt également la Parte
bibliques. Baldassare Galuppi fut le premier compositeur à mettre ce texte en musique Prima, les deux anges soulignent l’indissociabilité de ces deux aspects pour une
en 1747, et un an après Mysliveček, Pedro António Avondano en composerait juste compréhension de Dieu. Dans le coro final, les quatre personnages chantent
également une version. L’histoire de Granelli s’inscrit dans le droit fil des conventions ensemble leur foi en la sincérité de Dieu et en ses promesses.
de l’oratorio italien après les réformes d’Apostolo Zeno et de Pietro Metastasio dans Mysliveček introduit un recitativo accompagnato à deux reprises seulement  ; il
les années 1720-1730  : un thème biblique, pas de dramatis personae divine, une s’agit à chaque fois d’un moment crucial où Ève prend la parole : dans le premier,
stricte observance des unités aristotéliciennes d’action, de temps et de lieu. elle raconte de manière imagée comment le rusé serpent a su la séduire ; dans le
Adamo ed Eva s’inscrit aussi parfaitement dans l’exégèse chrétienne traditionnelle second, elle exprime son bouleversement intérieur à cause du malheur que ses actes
où les événements et les personnages de l’Ancien Testament sont interprétés ont infligé à toute l’humanité. Dans le domaine de l’orchestration, de l’utilisation

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des tonalités et de la forme des airs et des pièces d’ensemble, Mysliveček s’efforce Wie sein Vater und sein Zwillingsbruder entschied sich Josef Mysliveček zunächst für
clairement d’obtenir équilibre et variation  : il y a autant d’airs et de pièces den Beruf des Müllers, aber sofort nach seiner Meisterprüfung im Jahr 1761 beschloss
d’ensemble avec cors, hautbois, basson et cordes qu’il y en a pour cordes seules ; les er, einen anderen Weg einzuschlagen und sich ganz der Musik zu widmen. Er hatte ein
trompettes, les flûtes et le hautbois solo ne se produisent qu’une seule fois. Presque beachtliches Talent als Geiger, aber seine Ambitionen waren höher gesteckt: Er wollte
tous les airs et pièces d’ensemble ainsi que la première et la troisième partie de als Opernkomponist Ruhm und Ehre erlangen. In Rekordzeit erhielt er die notwendige
l’ouverture sont en majeur et couvrent les huit tonalités du cycle des quintes de Ausbildung in Harmonielehre und Kontrapunkt von lokalen Lehrern in Prag und
mi bémol à mi ; deux airs introspectifs – l’un pour Adam et l’autre pour Ève – et komponierte nach nur sechs Monaten eine Reihe von Symphonien. Im nächsten Schritt
la deuxième partie de l’ouverture sont en mineur. En ce qui concerne la forme des musste er nun Prag und Böhmen verlassen, um seine Ausbildung in Italien fortzusetzen,
airs et des pièces d’ensemble, le compositeur établit un équilibre numérique entre dem Ursprungsland der Oper. Bei der Umsetzung dieses Unterfangens konnte sich
d’une part la structure dal segno habituelle pour cette époque et d’autre part les Mysliveček auf ein zusätzliches großes Talent verlassen, das für seine gesamte weitere
structures plus modernes et compactes dérivées de la forme sonate, mais celles-ci Laufbahn entscheidend sein sollte: die außergewöhnliche Fähigkeit, wohlhabende Gönner
se ramifient de plus en plus à mesure que l’oratorio progresse. Le dernier duo de la für seine Sache zu gewinnen. Unter anderem dank der Unterstützung des böhmischen
Prima Parte présente une structure ABAB typique du compositeur, mais de façon Grafen Waldstein konnte er sich 1763 in Venedig niederlassen und einige Zeit Unterricht
très appropriée, il donne une structure irrégulière et instable qui ne correspond à bei Giovanni Battista Pescetti nehmen. Von dort aus knüpfte er weitere Kontakte zu
aucun modèle commun au premier duo de l’oratorio, où Adam et Ève expriment Förderern in norditalienischen Städten wie Parma, Florenz und Bergamo, wo 1766 seine
leur peur et leur insécurité. erste Oper Semiramide riconosciuta aufgeführt wurde. Der große Durchbruch für „den
Rien ne semble avoir été laissé au hasard dans ce chef-d’œuvre ; tout témoigne d’un Böhmen“ – er wurde in Italien Il Boemo genannt - kam ein Jahr später mit der gefeierten
jugement sûr et de la main habile d’un maître qui connaît à la perfection le langage Aufführung seiner zweiten Oper Il Bellerofonte im Teatro San Carlo in Neapel. Kurz
de son temps. darauf, als ein Kompositionsauftrag für das prestigeträchtige Teatro Regio in Turin folgte,
Adam et Ève sont tombés en disgrâce mais ont reçu une seconde chance ; Josef festigte sich Myslivečeks Ruhm auf der gesamten italienischen Halbinsel. Abgesehen
Mysliveček n’en mérite sans doute pas moins. von drei kurzen Reisen nach Prag, Wien und München sollte er seine Wahlheimat nicht
mehr verlassen. Als überzeugter freischaffender Künstler, der sich hartnäckig weigerte,
Peter Van Heyghen jemals in einer Festanstellung zu arbeiten, entwickelte er sich zu einem der gefragtesten
Traduction : Catherine Meeùs und produktivsten Opernkomponisten seiner Zeit. Innerhalb von knapp 15 Jahren
komponierte er nicht weniger als 26 Opern, von denen einige weit über Italien hinaus
in Städten wie Lissabon und St. Petersburg aufgeführt wurden. Er schrieb auch eine
Reihe von Oratorien und Kantaten, zeichnete sich aber auch als begnadeter Komponist
von Instrumentalmusik aus, was damals ungewöhnlich für Musiker war, die vor allem
für ihr Vokalwerk bekannt waren. In seiner aktuellen Biographie über Mysliveček
nennt Daniel Evan Freeman ihn „einen der talentiertesten Komponisten, die im späten
18. Jahrhunderts in Europa tätig waren ... brillant, erfolgreich und fantasievoll.“

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Wie ist es dann möglich, dass ein Komponist, der in der Lage war, eine so brillante – weniger experimentell, ein Stil, der viel länger mit dem transparenten, „natürlichen“,
wenn auch kurze  - Karriere aufzubauen, heute so unbekannt ist? Warum taucht homophonen Idiom verbunden blieb, das in den Jahren 1730-1740 in Italien als
der Name Mysliveček fast ausschließlich im Zusammenhang seiner siebenjährigen Reaktion auf die komplexeren und gewichtigeren Formen und Techniken des Barock
Freundschaft mit der Familie Mozart auf oder wegen des tragischen und vielleicht auch entwickelt wurde.
wenig ehrenhaften Umstandes, dass seine Nase 1777 im Rahmen einer Behandlung Myslivečeks Verdienst sollte nicht in erster Linie in einer eigenständigen, persönlichen
des Tertiärstadiums der Syphilis amputiert werden musste? Mysliveček hätte eindeutig oder innovativen Musiksprache gesucht werden. Seine große Handwerkskunst zeigt sich
Besseres verdient, aber es gibt in der Tat eine Reihe von verständlichen Gründen, die vielmehr in der souveränen Beherrschung aller damals üblichen Formen und Techniken,
dazu geführt haben, dass er heute relativ unbekannt ist. in seinem scheinbar unerschöpflichen Einfallsreichtum in Bezug auf melodische Ideen
Der erste und wichtigste Grund liegt in der Tatsache, dass er im Alter von 44 Jahren und Muster in der musikalischen Textur sowie in der unglaublichen Leichtigkeit, mit
so jung starb. Wäre der große Joseph Haydn, der wenige Jahre vor Mysliveček geboren der er diese Ideen und Muster ständig verbindet und auf abwechslungsreiche und oft
wurde, im gleichen Alter gestorben, wäre sein Gesamtwerk nicht nur wesentlich kleiner unerwartete Weise abwechselt.
als das unseres Böhmen gewesen, sondern die meisten seiner Werke, auf denen sein Was die Oratorien betrifft, so hält Freeman Mysliveček „zweifellos für einen der
Ruhm später fußen sollte, wären nie entstanden. Ein früh verstorbener Haydn wäre führenden Meister dieses Genres seiner Zeit.“ Mysliveček komponierte insgesamt
wahrscheinlich trotz seines großen Talents ebenfalls unbekannt geblieben. acht Oratorien, aber nur vier dieser Partituren sind erhalten geblieben. Adamo ed Eva –
Zweitens hat Mysliveček den enormen Nachteil, dass er seine erfolgreiche Karriere noch Myslivečeks drittes Oratorium und das erste, das für Florenz geschrieben wurde - ist
nicht vollendet hatte, als der hellste Stern am Firmament der europäischen Musikwelt unter diesen Werken einzigartig, da nur eine einzige Abschrift der Partitur überliefert ist.
im späten 18.  Jahrhundert bereits zu leuchten begann: der des Genies Wolfgang Die Uraufführung fand am 24. März 1771 im Konzertsaal der Accademia degl‘Ingegnosi
Amadeus Mozart. Und obwohl Mysliveček das Verdienst zukommt, eine wichtige in Anwesenheit des Großherzogs Peter Leopold (des späteren österreichischen Kaisers
Inspirationsquelle für den jungen Mozart gewesen zu sein, ist es Mozart selbst, dessen Leopold II.) und seines Hofs statt. Eine Reihe von Gesangs- und Instrumentalsolisten
Werk fortan zurecht als die absolute Krönung der musikalischen Klassik gilt. Myslivečeks seines Hofes waren ebenfalls an der Aufführung beteiligt. Das Ensemble wurde
Stern leuchtete also nicht hell genug, um so nah an Mozarts Stern sichtbar zu bleiben. durch Salvadore Pazzaglia vom Cembalo aus geleitet, dem Kapellmeister des privaten
Drittens war die Aufmerksamkeit der Musikwissenschaft in Bezug auf die Jahre Orchesters von Graf George Nassau Clavering-Cowper, einem sehr wohlhabenden
1750-1760 immer primär auf deutsche und österreichische Komponisten und auf britischen Adligen und Kunstliebhaber, der sich in Florenz niedergelassen hatte und
die oft experimentellen oder sogar ausgeprägt idiosynkratischen Stilentwicklungen Mysliveček später einige Male als Mäzen fördern sollte. In den Jahren bis 1776 wurde
in deutschen und österreichischen Musikzentren gerichtet. Fast völlig unbeachtet Adamo ed Eva auch in Prag, Perugia, Mailand, Bologna, Prato und Rimini aufgeführt.
blieb dabei der unverminderte internationale Einfluss der italienischen Musikzentren Das Libretto wurde von dem Genueser Jesuiten Giovanni Granelli (1703-1770)
und die dominante Rolle, die italienische Komponisten in ganz Europa bis weit in die verfasst, der zu seinen Lebzeiten als Wanderprediger und Autor von Tragödien
1770er Jahre und sogar darüber hinaus spielen. Josef Mysliveček wirkte während seiner und Bibelkommentaren bekannt war. Baldassare Galuppi war der erste Komponist,
gesamten Karriere fast ausschließlich in Italien, und nach Freeman ist sein Stil daher der diesen Text 1747 vertonte, und ein Jahr nach Mysliveček sollte Pedro António
repräsentativ für „eine italienische Version der musikalischen Klassik, die noch keine Avondano eine weitere Version schreiben. Die Handlung in Granellis Libretto steht
volle Anerkennung gefunden hat.“ Dieser Stil war „anmutig, melodiös, diatonisch“ und im Einklang mit den Konventionen des italienischen Oratoriums nach den Reformen

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Apostolo Zenos und Pietro Metastasios in den Jahren 1720-1730: ein biblisches Thema, Gottesbegriff. Im abschließenden Chor besingen die vier Protagonisten gemeinsam
keine Darstellung göttlicher Figuren auf der Bühne und die strikte Einhaltung der drei ihren Glauben an die Wahrhaftigkeit Gottes und seiner Verheißungen.
aristotelischen Einheiten von Zeit, Raum und Handlung. Mysliveček setzt nur zwei Accompagnato-Rezitative ein, und zwar immer in den
Adamo ed Eva fügt sich auch perfekt in die traditionelle christliche Exegese ein, in entscheidenden Momenten, in denen Eva spricht: In der ersten Passage erzählt sie
der Ereignisse und Personen aus dem Alten Testament als Vorbilder für jene aus dem bildhaft, wie es der durchtriebenen Schlange gelang, sie zu verführen, und in der
Neuen Testament interpretiert werden. Hier werden diese beiden Elemente in Form zweiten drückt sie ihre innerliche Verzweiflung über das Elend aus, das sie durch ihre
von Spiegelbildern dargestellt: Der strenge, strafende Gott aus der Genesis (verkörpert Tat über die gesamte Menschheit gebracht hat. In den Bereichen der Orchestrierung,
durch den Engel der Gerechtigkeit), der den Menschen seiner Unsterblichkeit beraubt der Verwendung von Tonarten und der Gestaltung einzelner Arien und Ensembleszenen
und ihn aus dem irdischen Paradies vertreibt, bildet das Gegenstück zum liebenden und strebt Mysliveček eindeutig sowohl nach Ausgewogenheit als auch der notwendigen
buchstäblich mitleidenden Gott aus den Evangelien (verkörpert durch den Engel der Vielfalt: Es gibt genauso viele Arien und Ensembleszenen mit Hörnern, Oboen, Fagott
Barmherzigkeit), der letztlich allen Gläubigen nach dem Tod das ewige Leben schenken und Streichern wie ausschließlich mit Streicherbegleitung; Trompeten, Flöten und
wird. Eva, geboren von einem Mann ohne jede Mitwirkung einer Frau, deren Schuld Oboen solo kommen jeweils nur einmal vor. Fast alle Arien und Ensembleszenen
die Ursache für die Erbsünde bildet, findet ihr Spiegelbild in der sündenfreien Jungfrau sowie der erste und dritte Satz der Ouvertüre stehen in Durtonarten, insgesamt acht
Maria, die den Erlöser ohne das Zutun eines Mannes gebären wird. Und während Eva, verschiedene, die genau den Quintenzirkel zwischen Es und E abdecken. Mysliveček
die erste Frau, noch den Versuchungen des Satans erliegt, wird die Schlange aus der schreibt zwei introspektive Arien (eine für Adam und eine für Eva), die ebenso wie
Genesis, nun in Gestalt des Drachens aus der Offenbarung, schließlich von Maria, der der zweite Satz der Ouvertüre in Moll stehen. Bei der Gestaltung der Arien und
Königin des Himmels, unterworfen und zertreten werden. Adam schließlich, dem ersten Ensembleszenen besteht ein zahlenmäßiges Gleichgewicht zwischen der in dieser Zeit
Menschen, der wegen seiner Sünden dazu verurteilt ist im Schweiße seines Angesichts üblichen Dal-Segno-Struktur einerseits und den etwas moderneren, kompakteren, aus
zu leben, steht Jesus Christus gegenüber, der durch das Vergießen seines Blutes die der Sonatenform abgeleiteten Formen andererseits, die jedoch im Laufe des Oratoriums
Sünden der ganzen Menschheit reinwaschen wird. immer vielfältiger werden. Das letzte Duett im ersten Teil hat die für Mysliveček typische
In jeweils drei Arien für jede der vier Figuren charakterisiert Mysliveček die ABAB-Struktur, aber dem ersten Duett dieses Oratoriums, in dem Adam und Eva ihre
aufeinanderfolgenden Affekte: den inneren Aufruhr, die leidenschaftliche Liebe und Angst und Unsicherheit zum Ausdruck bringen, hat der Komponist passenderweise
tiefe Reue Adams; die große Zerbrechlichkeit, die innere Unsicherheit und die bitteren eine unregelmäßige, instabile Form gegeben, die keinem bekannten Vorbild entspricht.
Selbstvorwürfe Evas; die Größe, die Hartherzigkeit und die zerstörerische Kraft des In diesem Meisterwerk wurde scheinbar nichts dem Zufall überlassen; das Werk weist
Engels der Gerechtigkeit; das Mitgefühl, die ermutigende Kraft und die Entschlossenheit das sichere Urteilsvermögen und die geschickte Hand eines Meisters auf, der die Sprache
des Engels der Barmherzigkeit. Die drei Duette sind inhaltlich eng miteinander seiner Zeit perfekt beherrschte.
verbunden. Sie beschreiben jeweils einen anderen Aspekt derselben zentralen Tatsache: Adam und Eva fielen in Ungnade, erhielten aber eine zweite Chance; Josef Mysliveček
In zwei kurzen Duetten drücken Adam und Eva jeweils ihre Angst vor Gottes Rache verdient diese mit Sicherheit ebenfalls.
und ihr Vertrauen in Gottes Mitgefühl aus; im zweiten, wesentlich längeren Duett,
das den Abschluss des ersten Teils bildet, betonen die beiden Engel pointiert die Peter Van Heyghen
Unverbrüchlichkeit dieser beiden Aspekte in Hinblick auf einen theologisch korrekten Übersetzung: Susanne Lowien

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CD 1 E d’un’oscuro velo The sun and the sky seem to be covered
01 ouvertur Allegro con brio Parmi veder coperto il Sole, e il Cielo. With a dark veil.
02 ouvertur Andante E pur leggieri danni. These woes, Eve, are only trifles
Eva, son questi al paragon di quello, In comparison with
03 ouvertur Presto
Che in me medesmo io sento The barbarous and incurable torment
Barbaro immedicabile tormento: That I feel within me.
PARTE PRIMA PART ONE Come ridir potrei How can I express the inner war
04 recitativo Adamo recitative Adam L’interna guerra degli affetti miei? Being waged by my emotions?
Eva non è più questo Eve, this is no longer 05 aria Adamo air Adam
Il Regno della pace, il bel soggiorno A realm of peace nor a fair abode Sente quest’alma oppressa This oppressed soul feels
Del tranquillo piacer: Io cerco indarno Of quiet pleasure. I search for Della sua colpa il danno. The damage caused by its fault;
Nel Paradiso il Paradiso istesso: Paradise in this paradise in vain. Erra turbato il sangue, My blood runs haltingly,
Misero! Ti compiacqui, il frutto amaro I am wretched! I made you happy Palpita il core, e langue My heart beats and is then seized
Del vietato saper per te gustai: By tasting the bitter fruit of forbidden Per doglia, e per timore, By pain and fear
Or io non sò, nè veggio altro, che guai. knowledge, / And all that I now behold and feel Che ancor non sà spiegar. That it cannot yet explain.
La Terra, il Ciel, le Piante e l’Erbe, e turns to gall.
Tu stessa, Eva, tu stessa You yourself, Eve, you yourself
l’Acque, Everything that pleased me beforehand –
M’empi di nuovo affanno, Fill me with new torment.
E quanto pria mi piacque, Earth, sky, plants and trees, rivers and seas –
Ardo, gelo, e sospiro, I burn, I freeze, and I sigh:
Tutto mi noia, e tutto parmi avverso. Now troubles my spirit and seems set against
Forse per te deliro, You have possibly driven me mad,
Erro lungo le sponde me. / I wander along the banks
Ma non ti sò più amar. But I can love you no longer.
Di bell’argenteo Fiume. Of the fair silver stream
Che queste piaggie di dolcezza inonda, That softly and sweetly moistens these shores; 06 recitativo Eva recitative Eve
E da qual parte io miro Wherever I look, plants and flowers wilt Non più, Sposo, non più, ch’io sento No more, husband, for my heart
Langue ogni erba, ogni fior, si turba And the waters are restless. appieno understands
l’onda. The mild-mannered beasts L’infelice tuo stato in questo seno, Your unhappy state all too well.
Le mansuete Fiere Seem to become suspicious and wrathful Poichè da me partito When you set off
Al mio funesto aspetto When they behold my dismal countenance. Quì mi lasciasti sola; a questa Fonte You left me here alone; a she-bear
Sembrano armarsi d’ira, e di sospetto: The air itself that I breathe Vidi venir per dissetarsi un’Orsa: Came to quench her thirst at the spring.
L’istess’aria, che spiro, Feels heavy and laboured in my breast, Seco venia secura With her, unmolested,
Fammisi grave, ed affannosa in petto, Una Cerva leggiera, e dove pria Came a timid doe; whereas before
Faceami vezzi intorno, ora non m’ebbe She would walk around me affectionately,
Veduta appena, che fuggendo ratta Now, on seeing me, she feared me. Vieppiù gravato ha il primo fallo: My silence has exacerbated my
Mostrò paura, e orror degli occhi miei. She shunned my gaze and fled. ascolta. initial fault.
Io ne stupii; ma tosto io vidi appresso I was astonished, but soon saw Era all’alto meriggio il Sole asceso, Listen: the sun had reached its apogee
Nella sua fuga il mio timore espresso. Its flight as an expression of my own fear. Ed io per mio diletto And I was lying gladly
Poichè l’Orsa ver me volgendo un guardo The she-bear then looked at me Giaceva all’ombra della bella pianta. In the shade of a fine tree.
Fuor del costume usato With unwonted dark and Molle, fresca, fiorita, e folta erbetta The grass supported my resting body
Torbido, insanguinato, bloody eyes Facea sostegno al riposato fianco. And was soft, fresh, thick, and full of flowers.
Temei, questa non forse And I was afraid. Thinking that Gli occhi tenea levati I was looking upwards
Mi togliesse la vita, Perhaps she might kill me, Nei bei rami frondosi: Into the fair leafy branches,
E fuggendo gridai: Adamo, aita. I fled, and cried out “Adam, help!” In mezzo, a cui scherzando In the midst of which the sun’s rays
07 aria Eva air Eve La tremul’aura, e il Sol co’ raggi suo And the errant breezes played,
Non ti chieggo amor, nè fede, I do not ask for love or faithfulness Quando scopriva, e quando When I saw that the branches’ shadows
Ma pietà Sposo, e consiglio: From you, husband, but for sympathy and Ombrava alcun di quei frutti vietati. Concealed a few of the forbidden fruits.
Se tu muovi altrove il piede, counsel. / If you were to go elsewhere, Misera! Io confesso, Woe is me! I confess
Non ho scampo al mio periglio I could not escape these perils, Lor leggiadra vaghezza il cor m’avea, That their shining beauty ravished,
Non mi fido a questo cor. For I cannot trust my heart. Il cor non già, ma gli occhi innamorati, If not my heart, then my lovestruck eyes;
S’eri all’ora al fianco mio, If only you had been at my side E in quel soave porporin colore Their fine crimson colour
Che mi avvolse il rio Serpente, When the evil serpent approached me, Pensando immaginava Led my mind to imagine
Io sarei forse innocente, Perhaps I might still be innocent La mente alcun dolcissimo sapore. How sweet their taste might be.
Tu fedele, e giusto ancor. And you faithful and just. Adamo Ahimè, che reo consiglio Adam Alas, how culpable an idea was this,
Eva scherzare intorno al tuo periglio. O Eve, to toy with such danger.
08 recitativo recitative
Eva Quando tra fronda, e fronda Eve Then, amongst the branches,
Adamo Che parli di Serpente? Adam Why do you talk about a snake?
Vidi apparir di color mille ornato I spied the fairest of serpents,
Forse t’offese col nimico dente? Did one bite you with its cruel fangs?
Vaghissimo Serpente, A thousand colours bejewelling his skin.
Eva Nò, ma de’ morsi suoi più Eve No; his malign deceit has
Il qual di larghi tortuosi giri He encircled the tree’s fair trunk
crudel danno caused me
II bel tronco cingea, With his broad convoluted coils,
Mi recò certo il suo maligno inganno. Greater woe than his fangs.
E dir seco parea: Io sono assiso As if saying “I am seated on
Adamo Io non comprendo ancor Adam I do not understand
Sul miglior seggio, ch’abbia il Paradiso! The finest throne that Paradise possesses!”
i detti tuoi; your words.
Guattomi, e in un dipinse He looked at me and his expression
Discolpati se puoi. Explain yourself, if you can.
Di pietade il sembiante, e la trisulca Seemed sympathetic; his triple-forked tongue
Eva Tacqui sinora, e forse il tacer mio Eve Until today I have remained silent; perhaps Lingua sciogliendo in voce umana, Was loosened and uttered human speech:
Donna, perchè? mi disse, “Woman”, he said, “why did 09 duetto duet
II Signor vi prescrisse The Lord forbid you Adamo Ahi fomidabil suono! Adam Ah, what a terrifying sound!!
Di non gustar alcun frutto di tante, To taste any of the fruits of all the fine tree Eva Parmi di chiara tromba, Eve It is like a brazen trumpet
Che son nel Paradiso, amene piante? That Paradise contains?” Che di lontan rimbomba. That echoes in the distance.
Nò, gli risposi; ogni altra è a noi “No”, I replied, “we may eat from all Adamo Benchè lontana affretta Adam Although it be distant, this foreboding of
concessa, of the trees, Foriera di vendetta, vengeance / Hastens towards us;
Sola vietata è questa, Except this one, which is forbidden to us; a 2. Come sperar pietà. Adam & Eve How can we hope for mercy?
Che dal toccarla, o dal gustarne forse To touch it or to eat of its fruit Eva Andianne, andianne altrove. Eve Let us leave and go elsewhere.
A noi verrebbe morte. Could well cause our deaths.” Adamo Fuggiam, fuggiam, ma dove? Adam We may flee, but to where?
Semplici, ripigliò, nò, non morrete. “No, simple fools”, he replied, “you will not die. a 2 Da quella luce immensa; What darkness or what cave
Ma ben sà Dio, che in quel felice But God knows well that your eyes will be Ch’entro di noi s’interna, Could hide us
giorno, opened Qual notte, o qual caverna From that brilliant light
Quando ne gustarete, On the happy day that you eat of it Nasconder ci potrà? That reveals itself around us?
Vi siano gli occhi aperti, e al par di Lui And, like Him, you will then know both good 10 recitativo Angelo di Giustizia reicitative Angel of Justice
Il ben, il mal, siccome Dei, saprete, and evil”. Fuggiro i Rei, ma indarno: il lor delitto The guilty flee, but in vain: their crime
Un guardo al Pomo, un’altro al Serpe I gazed first at the apple, and then at Segue i lor passi, e li circonda, e serra: Dogs their heels, surrounds and hems them in.
alzai, the serpent; Questo incatena il piè, stringe la mano, It chains their feet, weighs on their hands,
L’uno pieno d’accortezza; The latter seemed filled with shrewd cunning, Imprigiona i pensier, lega gli affetti: Imprisons their thoughts and binds their
L’altro mi parve saporoso, e adorno The former to be delicious and Quelli d’idee funeste, e questi sparge emotions.
D’insolita bellezza, Of exceptional beauty. Di tormentoso affanno The torturer and tyrant of souls
Stesi la mano ardita, e ne gustai: I grasped it courageously and tasted it: Carnefice dell’Alma, anzi Tiranno. Fills their thoughts with death
Quinci, o Sposo, il mio fallo, e Hence, husband, my error and Ma questa sola pena And their emotions with tormented worry.
i nostri guai… our unhappiness. Troppo è pietosa, ed a punir non basta This punishment alone
Adamo Deh perchè?... ma qual suono Adam But why? … But what L’umano orgoglio: anzi potrebbe Is too light and is not enough
ascolto? è questo do I hear? ancora To punish human pride;
Il calpestio sovrano Is it the Lord’s sovereign footsteps Lusingarlo vieppiù: profonda Adamo It could even flatter it.
Del Signore; che muove a questo loco. That I hear approaching? Ebbe da Dio la mente: assai ragiona The mind that God gave Adam is profound:
Trema ai suoi piè la Terra: The earth trembles beneath his feet; Sopra se stesso; e ragionando forse He thinks deeply and, if he considers
Nascondermi vorrei Would that I could hide, Del suo tormento acerbo His bitter torment, one day
Per sino agli occhi miei. Even from my own sight. Andar potrebbe un dì vano, e superbo. He might become proud and vain.
Angelo di Giustizia Adamo dove sei? Angel of Justice Adam, where are you?
11 aria Angelo di Giustizia air Angel of Justice E pure eccelsi Spirti And yet these were lofty spirits,
Quell’affanno, e quel dolore, This torment and grief Erano quelli, e del celeste Regno The greatest jewels of the heavenly realm.
Che nell’alma un fallo accende, That his error has caused in his heart Ornamento primiero. Remember the haughty
Fa, che senta lo splendore Ensures that he realises the splendour Di Lucifero altero Lucifer, and his
De i natali, che sortì. Of his origins and situation. Ben ti rammenta, che tra noi spiegava High and fair manifestation amongst us,
Se men chiari avesse i rai If the rays of the sun L’alta sembianza, e bella, How he appeared as the morning star
Di quel sol, di cui discende, From which he is descended were less brilliant, Qual nasce in Ciel la matutina Stella. in the heavens.
Non potrebbe un’Alma mai Then he could never Angelo di Misericordia Angel of Mercy
Le sue macchie odiar così. Hate his sins so much. Chi sà se il primo esempio Who can know if this first example
12 recitativo Angelo di Misericordia reicitative Angel of Mercy Di severo rigor, non abbia aperto Of firm justice might not have opened
Della Giustizia eterna O faithful executor of eternal justice, A un altro di clemenza un maggior Another and greater path
Esecutor fedele, alto Ministro High minister of God’s wrath, varco? to clemency?
Dello sdegno di Dio, dal sommo Cielo The Almighty Father Forse però, che l’Uomo è men perfetto Perhaps, since mankind is less than perfect,
L’Onnipotente Padre a te m’invia Sends me to you from heaven on high Sia dell’alta pietà più degno obietto. He is more worthy of high pardon.
Apportator, io spero, As a bearer, I hope, 13 aria Angelo di Misericordia air Angel of Mercy
Di perdono, e di pace. Of pardon and peace. Chi sa, se mentre gemono While the proud spirits groan
La meritata pena all’Uom sospendi, Suspend this deserved punishment of mankind Gli spiriti superbi: And cry out in desperation
Finchè più chiari i suoi decreti intendi. Until you understand His decrees more clearly. E disperati fremono Amidst the bitter waves
Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice In mezzo ai flutti acerbi Of an implacable sea,
Bench’io del giusto sdegno Although I am the inexorable D’un implacabil Mar Who can know whether man,
Inesorabil sia fedel Ministro, And faithful minister of divine wrath, L’Uomo, ch’è terra, e cenere Who is but dust and ashes,
Pietoso Angel, tu sai You, pious angel, arrange matters Non trovi un porto, un legno, Might find no harbour or vessel
Che crudeltà non sento; e questa destra So that I commit no brutality; my right hand Che il basso, ed umil genere Except of the lowest type,
Tanto sol roterà sù I’infelice Will strike the unfortunate only as hard Dal procelloso sdegno And yet still save himself
Quanto giusta sarà, la spada ultrice. As the avenging sword is righteous. Forse potrà campar. From the wrath of the storm.
Ma se i diritti intendo But if I understand the rules 14 recitativo Angelo di Giustizia recitative Angel of Justice
Della Giustizia eterna, onde potrìa Of eternal justice aright, how can Poichè così tu speri, andianne a lui, Since you hope this, let us go to Him,
L’Uomo sperar perdono? Il Cielo ancora Mankind hope for forgiveness? Heaven Ch’arbitro sia tra noi giusto, e pietoso. For He must be a just and forgiving arbiter
Suona dell’aspra guerra, Still echoes with the sound of the bitter war Ciascun le parti a se commesse between us. / Each of us shall fulfil the role that
Che gli Angeli superbi That the haughty angels lost; adempia. he has taken for his own.
Perdè, sconfisse, e sepellì sotterra. In defeat they were buried far under the earth. Io l’immutabil Legge I shall defend the immutable law
Legge di presta morte a‘ rei prescritta That prescribes immediate death for the guilty. CD 2
Sostenere dovrò: tu qual ti piaccia You, as you see fit, PARTE SECONDA PART TWO
Ragion migliore di pietà dirai, Will voice better reasons for pardon. 01 recitativo Adamo recitative Adam
Tu Ministro di pace, io di vendetta. You are the minister of peace, and I of vengeance. Qui dove dianzi intesi Why does an inner force
Ma ne’ contrari uffici Despite our opposite tasks, Del mio Signor la voce, interna forza Bring me back here, where
Non però mai nemici We are never enemies. Come mi riconduce? I so recently heard the voice of my Lord?
Stringaci eterno amore May eternal love hold us in its bonds, Cieca ho la mente, il cor gelato, e lasso, My mind is blind, my heart frozen and
Qual di noi resti vinto, o vincitore. Notwithstanding who wins or who is defeated. Le membra inferme, e vacillante exhausted.
Angelo di Misericordia Angel of Mercy il passo. My limbs are weak, I stagger as I walk.
Andianne, io già le rapid’ali impenno Let us depart; my swift wings are already Eva Non ha la Morte ancora Eve We have not yet been punished
Pieno di dolce speme. deployed, / Full of tender hope. Punito il fallo nostro, e pur smarrita By death for our error, but it seems
Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice Parmi aver gia la vita. Ohimè che Our lives are already lost. Alas, what do
Andianne, Angel pietoso Let us depart, holy angel ascolto? I hear?
a 2. Andianne insieme. Both Angels Let us depart together. Ecco il Signor, che riede, Behold the Lord as he returns,
15 duetto Angelo di Giustizia duet Angel of Justice E del nostro fallir ragion ci chiede. And comes to ask the reason for our fault.
Non è crudel rigore, Neither cruel severity Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice
Fierezza in Dio non è. Nor haughty pride exists in God. Io ti riveggio, Adamo, e perchè dianzi Once more I see you, Adam;
Angelo di Misericordia Angel of Mercy Fuggisti il mio cospetto? Why, just now, did you avoid my glance?
Non è debol timore, Neither spineless fear Dove da me lontano Where, far from me, did you hope
Mollezza in Dio non è. Nor weakness exists in God. Sperasti ritrovar scudo, o ricetto? To find protection or defence?
Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice Adamo Fuggii, Signor, non per trovare Adam I fled, Lord, not to seek protection
Vendicator costante. A steadfast avenger, altrove Against you or shelter,
Angelo di Misericordia Angel of Mercy Da te ricetto, o scudo, But out of shame at appearing naked
Perdonator amante. A loving forgiver Ma per rossor di comparirti ignudo. before you.
a 2. Lo fa la sua pietà. Both Angels Who displays his pity. Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice
Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice E d’onde un tal rossore, What was the source of this shame?
Bontà condanna i rei; Goodness condemns the guilty. Se non perchè dell’Albero vietato Could it be that you have tasted
Angelo di Misericordia Angel of Mercy Gustasti il reo sapore? The guilty fruits of the forbidden tree?
Bontà così gli assolve: Goodness sets the guilty free. Adamo Troppo il gustai, ma fu la mia Adam I have tasted too much of them, although
a 2. Sono divini in lei Both Angels Its divine aspects Consorte, it was my wife, / She whom you yourself gave
Lo sdegno, e la pietà. Are wrath and pardon. Quella, che da te stessa ebbi compagna. me as my companion,
Di sua mano porgendo, Who with her hand, with her dear hand, L’accorto ingannatore What did he lead me to hope for,
Di sua sì cara mano, a me quel frutto. Offered me this fruit. Che non mi fè sperar? Che non mi That cunning deceiver? How many things did
Essa mi pervertì: che non ingorda She led me astray: neither greedy desire disse? he tell me?
Voglia, ne ambiziosa Nor ambition could have conquered Qual arte non oprò? Qual ragion What ruses did he not try? What did he not
Vinto avria questo cor, forza maggiore. This heart with greater force. tacque? mention?
Lo vinse, e debellò, forza d’amore. The power of love conquered and overcame it. Il pomo in fin mi piacque. In the end, I enjoyed the apple:
02 aria Adamo air Adam Sola, confusa, incerta, intimorita, I was alone, confused, unsure, fearful,
Nò, che vano, o ingordo affetto No vain or greedy emotion Ingannata, ed ardita, Betrayed and filled with daring.
Il mio cor non vinse allora: Overwhelmed my heart at that moment. Nò ch’io stessa ridir ben non saprei I myself cannot precisely remember
Altra forza, ed altro oggetto Another power, another desire L’ordin de’ falli miei. The exact events of my fault.
La vittoria riportò. Gained the victory. 04 aria Eva air Eve
Quella man, che m’innamora, Her hand, with which I fell in love, Non so se il mio peccato I do not know if my sin
Che nell’alma ho sempre impressa; And which is imprinted in my very soul, Fù voglia ingorda, o altiera, Was one of greed or of pride.
Solo armata di se stessa With no other weapon but itself, La Serpe lusinghiera That flattering serpent
Quella fù, che trionfò. Was triumphant. Mi avvolse e mi tradì. Seduced me and betrayed me.
03 recitativo Angelo di Giustizia recitative Angel of Justice So, che a quel fier momento I know that I was terrified
Male errasti, infedel, e mal ti scusi, You have erred gravely, faithless man, and Inorridii, gelai, And that I froze at that intrepid moment.
Ami adunque, ed accusi? defend yourself badly. / How can you love and So, che a turbati rai I know that daylight seemed to vanish,
Ma tu Donna, perchè di tanto fallo yet accuse the object of your love? /But you, Parve fuggir il dì. So disturbed were the sun’s rays.
Colpevole ti festi, woman, why are you guilty / Of such a great 05 recitativo Angelo di Misericordia recitative Angel of Mercy
Ed il tuo Sposo, e Te stessa perdesti? crime? / Why have you damned your husband Pietà, Signor, Pietà: questi infelici Mercy, Lord, have mercy on these
and yourself? Per inganno peccar; deh non isdegna unfortunates, / For their betrayal has caused
Eva Fù il maligno Serpente, Eve It was the evil serpent, Lor timide discolpe: e se ineguali them to sin. Do not / Disdain their timid
Signor, che m’ingannò, mentr’io giacea Lord, that did deceive me, whilst I Sono al delitto, sia gloria maggiore defences; if these are unequal / To their crime,
All’ombra non vietata Lay in the innocent shade of the forbidden tree; De i misteri profondi it is to the greater glory / Of the profound
Della vietata pianta, e de’ suoi frutti The colour of those fruits charmed me. Ch’ove colpa abbondò, la grazia mysteries / That grace is abundant where guilt
Vagheggiava il color, frutti bugiardi, Those fruits are lying and deceitful, abbondi. first abounded.
Che infinita amarezza For they conceal infinite bitterness Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice
Cuoprono sotto il velo Beneath a veil of Tu certo non ignori You, kindly minister of sovereign mercy,
Di soave, ed amabile dolcezza; Soft and fragrant sweetness. Della pietà sovrana almo Ministro, Are surely not ignorant of
Qual mi fidò sentenza il Sommo Padre The mission the Father on High entrusted 06 aria Angelo di Misericordia air Angel of Mercy
Alta misteriosa to me: Cara speranza Dear hope
Giustissima, e pietosa. Lofty, mysterious, Del mondo afflitto, Of this afflicted world,
Al par di me comprendi Most righteous and holy. Il suo delitto You redeem
Gli arcani, che nasconde, e assai gl’ You, like I, understand L’alta sembianza Her crime through
intendi. His hidden secrets and grasp them well. Che in te s’asconde The divine features
Serpente ingannator; tu maledetto You, deceiving serpent, shall be cursed Vince per tè. That you conceal.
Tra le belve sarai: su quella terra, Amongst the beasts: on your belly you shall go Amore, e Fede Her face displays
Che morderai t’inchina, e quella pasci. And shall bite the earth and feed upon it. Il volto spira. Love and faith;
E senza alzarti mai You shall never stand upright In van s’adira The guilty serpent
Striscia sul piano immondo And shall drag your venomous breast Il rio serpente. Rages in vain
Il velenoso petto. through the filth of earth. Sotto quel piede, Under the foot
Odio immortal, ed implacabil guerra There shall be undying hate and implacable war Che non mordè. That he cannot bite.
Tra te, e la Donna sia, tu a piedi suoi Between you and the woman; you shall not cease 07 recitativo Angelo di Giustizia recitative Angel of Justice
Non cesserai d’ordire insidie, e inganni. To create envy and deceit at her feet. Ma tu Donna, che fosti But you, woman,
Ma di lei cotal seme From her seed, one day, one will appear Cagion di tanti danni Who caused such harm,
Uscirà un dì, che ti sia danno, e scorno Who will attack you with scorn and mockery. Crescer vedrai sopra di te gli affanni, I will multiply your pain in childbirth;
L’averla offesa: Ella col piede intatto His unwounded foot will break your head; D’aspro dolore i parti, In pain shall you bear children.
Ti schiaccerà la testa, e sia I’eletta He will be the chosen one and will Il nodo Marital ti sia servaggio: Marriage for you shall be servitude
A far di te l’estrema alta vendetta. Wreak high and ultimate vengeance upon you. E del superbo core And your husband shall be
Angelo di Misericordia Angel of Mercy L’Uomo sarà Signore. Master of your proud heart.
Dolce speranza: al tuo parlar si sgombra Sweet hope: your words lift Adamo perchè udisti Adam, because you listened
Il tenebroso velo, The shadowy veil La voce lusinghiera To the seductive voice
Che l’avvenir nasconde: i detti tuoi That conceals the future. Della tua rea Consorte, e della Pianta Of your guilty wife, and through her
Parmi veder compiuti: Ecco la bella Your words are fulfilled. Ch’io vietata t’avea, per lei gustasti, Tasted the fruit of the tree I had forbidden you,
Vergine avventurosa: ecco la Donna Behold the fair and brave maiden, Per te la terra sia For you the earth shall ever be
Alla Battaglia armata Behold the woman armed for battle. Maledetta, e restìa Cursed and intractable.
Pugna, e trionfa, e nella sua vittoria Fight and be victorious; humility and glory Al faticoso tuo lungo lavoro. You will see tough branches, sharp thorns and
Del par và cinta d’Umiltà, e di Gloria. Will adorn her triumph equally. Duri sterpi, aspre spine, erbe selvagge weeds
Crescer vedrai tra i solchi, Grow within the furrows that
Che colle stanche braccia avrai rivolti. Your weary arms had ploughed.
Il pane, onde vivrai, The bread from which you shall live 10 aria Adamo air Adam
Sempre largo sudore a la tua fronte Shall always cost you sweat, Amare lagrime Bitter tears,
Costar dovrà, spesso travaglio, e pianto. Hard work, and tears. Ite a’ torrenti: Flow in torrents.
Infin la pena estrema Hear now and fear the final punishment Sospir dolenti Sorrowful sighs,
Ch’io già ti minacciai, ascolta, e trema. That I have already threatened: Aprite un varco Open a path
08 aria Angelo di Giustizia air Angel of Justice Al mio dolor. For my pain.
Colla mano onnipossente With my almighty hand I formed you Io Padre barbaro I, an appalling father,
Terren corpo io ti formai. From the dust of the earth; Sposo crudele, A cruel husband,
Col mio fiato t’animai With my breath I gave you life, Servo infedele And a servant unfaithful
D’uno spirito vivente. With a living soul Al mio Signor. To his Lord.
Che t’avea reso immortal. That made you immortal. 11 recitativo Eva recitative Eve
Ora il nodo ch’io tessei, Now, in vengeance, I break Che medito, che penso, egra, dolente! What can I think and consider, ill and regretful
Troncherò per mia vendetta. The bonds that I myself forged. Io della Stirpe Umana as I am?
Terra sei: terra sarai, You are but earth, and to earth you shall return. Prima Madre infelice, I, the first and unhappy mother
Sempre ignora, e sempre aspetta You shall never know, and shall always await Anzi condannatrice! Oh Figli miei Of the human race
Il momento a te fatal. The moment of your death. Tardi Nipoti rei And now its condemner! O my sons,
09 recitativo Adamo recitative Adam Del paterno delitto, anzi del mio, My future grandchildren, you too are guilty
Signor nell’ira tua pietoso, e giusto, Lord, in your righteous and just wrath, A chi di voi potrò donar la vita, Of the crime your father and I committed;
Ma più pietoso assai, alto dolore Righteous indeed, great pain and sorrow A cui non abbia pria data la Morte? How can I give you life,
Il cor mi preme, il respirar m’affanna Weigh on my heart; I cannot draw breath Empia, ribelle a Dio When I have already given you death?
Troncami il favellar: ma non la pena And words fail me. But it is not your punishment Sedutrice dello sposo mio: I was impious, a rebel against God,
E’ che m’incresce: il mio fallir m’è grave. That grieves me: it is my own fault that Figli, Sposo, Signor perdei, offesi, And seducer of my own husband.
Di questo l’Alma pave, wounds me. E l’alto sdegno io prima I have offended and lost my sons, my husband
Questo soffrir non può: di questo My soul shrinks in fear Deh perchè non contro me fola accesi? and my Lord.
(oh Dio!) And I cannot bear it. For this (o God) Misera! dove, o donde Why, then has divine wrath
Inconsolabil sono There is no consolation. Trar conforto potrò? Se ovunque io Not been visited on me alone?
Ma non chieggo pietà, chieggo per- I do not beg for mercy, but for volga Wretched woman! Where, from where
dono. forgiveness. Gli occhi languenti, ed il pensiero Shall I find comfort? Wherever I turn
afflitto? My tired eyes and grieving mind,
Tutto spira l’orror del mio delitto? The horror of my crime is made manifest.
12 aria Eva air Eve E la Prosapia vostra, Your descendants,
Se al Ciel miro! lo veggo sdegnato, I look upon the heavens and behold their wrath; Del vostro fallo erede Inheritors of your sin,
Se allo Sposo, sospiro; e tradito. I look upon my husband and sigh; Che infedeltà perdè, salvi la fede. Doomed by lack of faith, will be saved by faith.
Ogni figlio mi sembra ferito Every son I see is betrayed and wounded Adamo Tanta pietà, che mi prometti, Adam I implore this great mercy that you
Dalla Madre, che in sen Io portò. By the mother who bears him in her womb. imploro, promise me.
Giusto Dio: se di farti placato Righteous God: may hope accompany E il Redentor, che credo And I invoke and adore the Redeemer,
Al desio, accompagni la pene My desire to assuage you; Spero da questo punto, invoco, e adoro. In whom I believe and hope from this moment.
Tanto sangue non ho nelle vene, I have not enough blood in my veins Angelo di Giustizia L’ultime parti Angel of Justice I must yet fulfil
Quanto pianto a tuoi piè verserò. To pour out all my grief at your feet! a me commesse io deggio the last task
13 recitativo Angelo di Misericordia recitative Angel of Mercy Adempiere non men: Da questo loco, Entrusted to me. From this place,
Sì che placato sia, di tanto sdegno Yes, he shall be assuaged; your sin Loco delle due Piante The place of the twin trees,
Il peccar vostro non l’accese, quanto Has not aroused so great a wrath in him; L’una della scienza One of wisdom and the other of life,
Di pietà l’infinito amor lo strinse. Greater still is his infinite love of mercy. E l’altra della vita: You, who to my displeasure
Il vostro pianto stesso Your tears themselves Voi, che malgrado mio quella gustaste, Did taste of one
Di quest’alta pietade è frutto, e pegno. Are the fruit and pledge of high piety, Questa demeritaste, And are not deserving of the other,
Che non si piange mai For one cannot weep over a sin Fate l’irrevocabil partita. You must now depart for ever.
Colpa, che Dio di perdonar non curi. That God is not able to forgive. Io colla spada ardente I shall remain here with a sword of fire
Ma perchè giusto sia, But since his divine pardon Da rei di giusta morte To guard the gates of life
Quanto è pietoso il suo divin perdono Must be as just as it is merciful, Della vita a serbar resto le porte. From those who deserve death.
Udite alto consiglio Hear now the high counsel Angelo di Misericordia lo sulle terre Angel of Mercy I shall go, filled with pity,
Di sapienza eterna, Of eternal wisdom, del dolor, del pianto to the lands of sorrow
Che ristori ‘l dolor del vostro esiglio. Which may lessen the pain of your exile. N’andrò pietoso agl’infelici accanto. And of weeping, alongside these unhappy ones.
Un Redentor Divino A divine Redeemer 14 duetto Adamo & Eva duet Adam and Eve
La meritata pena Shall take the deserved punishment Cara piaggia, almo soggiorno O beloved country, kindly resting-place
Del fallir vostro sosterrà per voi. For your sins on himself. D’innocenza, e di piacer, Of innocence and pleasure,
Sopra una terra stessa Onto the same earth you shall Ti verremo errando intorno As we wander we shall gaze upon you
Pianto, e sudor voi verserete, ei sangue, Spill tears and sweat: he will spill blood, Col desio, e col pensier. With desire and thoughtful remembrance.
Sangue, che terga il sudor vostro, e il Blood that your sweat and tears shall wash Dure Terre, avari Lidi, You hard lands, miserly shores,
pianto. away. Soffriremo il vostro orror: We will suffer your terrors;
Questa speranza sia Let this knowledge be passed down Spargeremo i solchi insidi We will seed your faithless furrows:
Tramandata per voi di Padre in Figlio, From generation to generation; Eva Io di pianto. Eve I with tears,
Adamo Io di sudor. Adam And I with sweat.
15 recitativo Angelo di Misericordia recitative Angel of Mercy Di più liete promesse, With more pleasant promises.
Ma di qual nuovo raggio, Angel possente, But, o mighty angel, what new rays Nò, dice ch’io non penso It is not that I do not have thoughts
Ti veggio accesi i lumi, Cause your eyes to flame Pensier di stragi, di dolor, di pena: Of bloodshed, pain and punishment,
E sfavillar la minacciosa fronte? And your threatening visage to sparkle? Più mi diletta, e piace But I am delighted by and prefer to cherish
Angelo di Giustizia Su‘l tuo volto non Angel of Justice Angel of mercy, Volger’ altri pensier, pensier di pace. Other thoughts, thoughts of peace.
meno, Angel pietoso, I too see 18 aria Angelo di Misericordia air Angel of Mercy
Parmi veder temprato The kindly splendour of shining rays Renderò le sponde al Mare, I shall return the shores to the seas,
Di pietade novella On your countenance, Salverò Cittadi, e Genti I shall save cities and peoples
L’almo splendor de’ scintillanti rai. Tempered with new compassion. Dal furor di fiamme ardenti From the anger of the burning flames.
Io per me veggio la giustizia eterna, I myself behold eternal justice, Dall’orror di piaghe amare I shall save my faithful people
Che I’opre sue dell’avvenir mi fida. Which entrusts me with its future tasks. I miei fidi camperò. From the horrors of bitter wounds.
Angelo di Misericorida Angel of Mercy Quando poi del Divin sangue When later your sword shall be red
Io la pietà superna, I behold the supreme mercy and compassion La tua spada andrà vermiglia. With divine blood,
Che per gli oscuri secoli mi guida. That will lead me through the dark centuries. A l’Altar su cui le ciglia At the altar on which
16 aria Angelo di Giustizia air Angel of Justice Chiuderà quell’Ostia esangue, The lifeless Host closes his eyes,
Toglierò le sponde al Mare, I shall tear away the shores from their seas, Qual trofeo l’appenderò. I shall seize it as a trophy.
Perderò Cittadi, e Genti, I shall destroy cities and peoples. 19 Coro Se la serena fronte Chorus If we shall see the serene
Acque pria, poi fiamme ardenti First I shall cast floods upon the earth, Vedrem di Dio placato And untroubled face of God,
Alti danni, e piaghe amare Then burning flames, E alla Pietade a lato With compassion at his side,
Sulla terra spargerò. Fearsome disasters and bitter wounds. Venir la verità. Then truth will come.
Ahi mia spada, e di qual sangue Ah, my sword, whose blood Adamo & Eva Adam and Eve
Finalmente andrai vermiglia? Will finally colour you red? Riposerem sul Monte We shall rest on the mountain
Vela, o Luna, al Sol le ciglia, Veil, o Moon, the brows of the Sun; Al Sagrifizio eletto. Set aside for sacrifices.
Trema, o Terra, estinto esangue Tremble, o Earth, extinguished and lifeless; Angelo di Misericordia Angel of Mercy
Mira il Dio, che ti creò. Cast your eyes on the God who created you. Affretta gli anni, aspetto May the years hurry forward, for I wait
17 recitativo Angelo di Misericordia recitative Angel of Mercy Angelo di Giustizia Angel of Justice
Mentre tu questi avvolgi Whilst you conjure up these grave thoughts Gli amplessi tuoi colà. For your embrace above.
Pensier di sdegno, e di vendetta gravi Of blood and of vengeance, Coro Se la etc. Chorus If we shall see ...
Parmi, che Dio le chiavi I see that God proffers me
Della Pietà mi porga, e la sovrana The keys of compassion IL FINE THE END
Voce temprando a suono And softens his sovereign voice

Orthography of the Italian text according to the printed libretto: Adamo… Perugia, 1772 [Sartori 257]
VALERIO CONTALDO TENOR
Born in Italy, Valerio Contaldo grew up In 2017 he performed Monteverdi’s
in Switzerland. He studied with Gary Orfeo (title role) with Concerto
Magby at the Lausanne Conservatory Italiano (Alessandrini) in Barcelona,
where he obtained a Master’s degree then touring China and Australia, and
in singing performance. Finalist of the with Cappella Mediterranea (García
Leipzig Bach Competition in 2008, he Alarcón) in Brussels, Rotterdam, Paris,
attended masterclasses with Christa Ambronay, Bruges and touring South
Ludwig, David Jones and Julius Drake. America (Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro,
His concert repertoire includes works São Paulo), Monteverdi’s Incoronazione
from all periods, amongst many others: di Poppea at Carnegie Hall in New York
Monteverdi’s Vespers, Bach’s Passions, with Concerto Italiano (Alessandrini).
Christmas Oratorio, B minor Mass and In past seasons, he sung Jupiter in
numerous cantatas, Handel’s Messiah, Haendel’s Semele at Nice Opera, Lucano
Mozart’s Requiem, Haydn’s Creation and in L’Incoronazione di Poppea at Opéra
The Seasons, Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis, Garnier, Ferrando in Così fan Tutte at
Rossini’s Petite Messe Solenelle… Nice Opera, Acis in Acis and Galatea,
He performs in major European festivals at Mozartwoche Salzburg with Les
and opera houses such as Festivals of Musiciens du Louvre (Minkowski).
Flanders, Ambronay, at the Folles Journées He works with conductors such as: M.
in Nantes and Tokyo, at the Resonanzen Minkowski, R. Alessandrini, M. Corboz,
Festival in Vienna, Mozartwoche in J. Nelson, W. Christie, G. Garrido, L.
Salzburg and at the Opéra National de García Alarcón, P. Pierlot, S. MacLeod...
Paris, Théâtre des Champs-Elysées, Opéra
de Nice, Teatro La Fenice in Venice, as well
as at the Edinburgh and Aix-en-Provence
Festivals.

46 47
LUCIANA MANCINI MEZZO-SOPRANO
Luciana Mancini studied voice and Jacobs; Amastris in Handel’s Serse at extraordinary staging of Dido & Aeneas
performance practice at The Royal Theater an der Wien, conducted by at Festival O/Modernt at Confidencen in
Conservatoire of The Hague in Holland Jean-Christophe Spinosi and with Il Stockholm.
where she received a master’s degree Pomo d’Oro and Maxim Emelyanychev; Other notable appearances were Smeton
in Historical Interpretation. Her great Annio in Mozart’s La Clemenza di in Donizetti’s Anna Bolena in Buenos
versatility has led her to interpret a wide Tito at Drottningholms Slottsteater Aires; Haydn’s Die sieben letzten Worte
range of music with important orchestras in Stockholm; Volupia and Didone in unseres Erlösers am Kreuze with the Bergen
and ensembles in festivals and theatres of Cavalli’s L’Egisto at the Opéra-Comique Filharmonien and Juanjo Mena; Rossini
a rich international platform. in Paris with Le Poème Harmonique; arias at Festival Classique in The Hague
Recent appearances include the title Galatea in Handel’s Aci, Galatea e Polifemo with the Residentie Orkest conducted by
role in Handel’s Serse at Theater Bonn at the Händelfestspiele Halle; Panthalis in Neeme Järvi; Handel’s Messiah with the
conducted by Rubén Dubrovsky, Boito’s Mefistofele at Festspielhaus Baden- Orchestra of the 18th Century in Spain
Proserpina at Berlin State Opera in Baden with Münchner Philharmoniker and Portugal, and with the Melbourne
Sasha Waltz’s production of L’Orfeo by and Stefan Soltesz; María in Piazzolla’s and Queensland Symphony Orchestra
Monteverdi, Second Woman in Purcell’s Maria de Buenos Aires at Theater Bonn, in Australia; and a production by Sasha
Dido & Aeneas staged by Sasha Waltz at Theater Halle, Opéra de Limoges and Waltz to mark the pre-opening of the
the Teatro Real de Madrid, Berio’s Folk Opéra d’Avignon; Messaggiera, Speranza Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg with
Songs with the Melbourne Symphony and Proserpina in Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo works by Gubaidulina, Cage and Nørgård.
Orchestra at the annual Sidney Myer with various ensembles and at venues Special interest has been given to a
Music Bowl and at the Musikfestspiele such as the Teatro Communale di recording (Sony) of Latinamerican music
Sansoucci in Potsdam, music from Purcell Ferrara, Gulbenkian in Lisbon, the with Christina Pluhar and her ensemble
to Britten together with O/Modernt Warsaw Philharmonic and in the staging L’Arpeggiata which led to stages like
and Hugo Ticciati at the Wigmore Hall by Sasha Waltz with the Freiburger the Carnegie Hall in New York. Luciana
and a tango programme with the Oslo Barockorchester and Pablo Heras- has previously worked with Peter van
Filharmonien. Casado at the Dutch National Opera Heyghen on numerous occasions and has
Earlier enriching experiences include in Amsterdam, the Grand Théâtre de made a tour to South Korea together with
the roles of Vita Mondana in Cavalieri’s Luxembourg, Baden-Baden, Bergen, Il  Gardellino and Ryo Terakado, singing
Rappresentatione di Anima et di Corpo at Opera de Lille and Staatsoper Berlin; Händel and Vivaldi arias.
Staatsoper Berlin, conducted by René also both Dido and The Witch in an

48 49
ROBERTA MAMELI SOPRANO
Born in Rome, Roberta Mameli Jean-Luc Tingaud, Leonardo García Sardelli; La scola de’ gelosi (Ernestina) by
graduated in singing and in violin at Alarcón, Jeffrey Tate, Claudio Abbado. A. Salieri with L’Arte del Mondo; Il Re
the Nicolini Conservatory in Piacenza, Much in demand for the baroque pastore (Title role) and La Clemenza di
followed by master classes with repertoire, Roberta Mameli works with Tito (Vitellia) by W.A.Mozart in Venice
Bernadette Manca di Nissa, Ugo Benelli, several ensembles on period instruments and Florence with F.M.Sardelli among
Konrad Richter, Claudio Desderi, Enzo as Cappella Cracoviensis, Accademia others.
Dara. She’s actually studying with Bizantina, Le Concert des Nations, Among many others Roberta Mameli
Fernando Cordeiro Opa. She is currently La  Venexiana, Modo Antiquo, Europa recorded the following CDs: Teuzzone by
regarded as one of the most outstanding Galante, Stuttgarter Kammerorchester, Vivaldi (Naïve); L’incoronazione di Poppea,
singers of the Baroque repertoire for her I  Barocchisti, Cappella Mediterranea, Il Ritorno d’Ulisse in patria by Monteverdi
versatility, her crystalline voice as well Akademie für Alte Musik. and Artemisia by Cavalli (Glossa); Orlan-
as for her great interpretative and acting Highlights of her career include: L’incoro- do Furioso (1714) by Vivaldi (Näive); the
qualities. nazione di Poppea (Nerone and Poppea), solo albums Lacrime Amorose and Round
Roberta Mameli is a regular guest on Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria (Minerva) M: Monteverdi meets Jazz (Glossa); L’in-
the most important opera and concert and Orfeo (Musica ed Euridice) by C. coronazione di Dario by Vivaldi (Näive);
stages such as: Konzerthaus and Theater Monteverdi con La Venexiana, Teuzzone La scola de’ gelosi by A.  Salieri for Sony
an der Wien in Vienna, Concertgebouw (Cino) by A.Vivaldi with Le Concert des (DHM); L’incoronazione di Dario (DVD
in Amsterdam, Cité de la Musique in Nations and J. Savall, Così fan tutte (Dor- and CD) for Dynamic. Her solo album
Paris, Teatro Comunale in Bologna, abella), Le Nozze di Figaro (Susanna) and Anime Amanti (Alpha) won the prestig-
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino and Teatro Don Giovanni (Donna Elvira) by W. A. ious Diapason d’or 2017.
Verdi in Florence, Auditorium of Lyon, Mozart with R. Terakado; Orlando (An-
Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, gelica) by G.  F. Händel, Catone in Utica
Teatro Regio in Turin, Victoria Hall (Cesare) by A. Vivaldi with Il Comples-
in Geneva. Roberta works with so Barocco and A. Curtis; Armida (title
famous conductors as Claudio Cavina, role) by T. Traetta with I Barocchisti and
Christopher Hogwood, Fabio Biondi, Diego Fasolis; Alcina (Morgana) by G. F.
Jordi Savall, Daniele Callegari, Federico Händel and L’incoronazione di Dario by A.
Maria Sardelli, Ottavio Dantone, Ryo Vivaldi with Ottavio Dantone; Dido and
Terakado, Alan Curtis, Diego Fasolis, Aeneas (Belinda) by H. Purcell with F. M.

50 51
ALICE ROSSI SOPRANO
Alice Rossi was born in Varese in 1992. she interpreted Euridice in Orfeo by C.
She received her master’s degree in Monteverdi at the Teatro Comunale
pedagogy at the Conservatorio della C. Abbado of Ferrara. In 2017, she
Svizzera Italiana in Lugano. At the end of took part in the opening concert of
her studies there, she was selected as one the Early Music Festival of Utrecht, at
of the best students of the conservatory Trivoliredenburg, Grote Zaal, where she
and was awarded the privilege to perform performed cantatas by Bach, Buxtehude
with the Orchestra della Svizzera Italiana and Lübeck.
under the direction of Enrico Dindo. As performer of contemporary music she
In 2018, she completed a Master of took part to many prestigious festivals:
Advanced Studies in Contemporary Sir Herry’s Songs in Hannover, where
Music with Luisa Castellani. She is she performed Songs By Myself and
presently attaining a Master in Opera Nenia: the Death of Orpheus by Harrison
at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik Birtwistle, in collaboration with Das
und darstellende Kunst in Stuttgart with Neue Ensamble under the direction
Turid Karlsen. of Stefan Asbury; »Prima! Le Parole«,
She made her operatic debut in 2013 at NDR Landesfunkhaus in Hannover
playing the role of Lucia in Benjamin where she interpreted Aventures and
Britten’s opera The Rape of Lucretia with Nouvelles Aventures by G. Ligeti; Acht
musical director Arturo Tamayo at the Brücken Festival in Cologne at the Kölner
Palazzo dei Congressi in Lugano. She Philarmonie, where she premiered
interpreted the role of Regina in the the cycle Songs of the Holy Forest by
oratorio S.  Giovanni Nepomuceno by A. H. Birthwistle; 900ePresente in Lugano at
Caldara, in collaboration with La Divina Palazzo dei Congressi in Lugano, where
Armonia directed by Lorenzo Ghielmi she premiered the opera Il Giardino della
at the Salzburger Bachgesellschaft; Vita by J. M. Sánchez Verdú.

52 53
PETER VAN HEYGHEN specializes in the historically informed performance
practice of music between roughly 1500 and 1800. He performs worldwide as
a recorder player, singer and conductor and holds teaching positions at the Royal
Conservatories of Brussels and The Hague and the Conservatory of Amsterdam.

was founded these, they are currently exploring a vast


by oboist Marcel Ponseele and flautist repertoire of other more familiar works
Jan De Winne in 1988. The heart of the as well as compositions that appear to
ensemble is made up of musicians who have been unjustly forgotten.
specialise in historical performance Il Gardellino has appeared to great
practice and whose work has received acclaim in many festivals and concert
international acclaim; their mastery halls throughout Europe, including
of the subtleties of this repertoire Utrecht, Bruges, Antwerp, Prague,
is complete and immediate. They Innsbruck and Leipzig, as well as more
endeavour as an ensemble to distinguish recent and continuing successes in the
themselves from similar groups through United States, Israel, Latin America,
a combination of technical perfection South Korea and Japan.
with innovative interpretation. The
works and the creative spirit of J.S. Bach
are central to the ensemble; alongside

54 55
Recording | Chapel of PZ Onzelievevrouw Bruges (Belgium) | 7-10 August 2018
Artistic supervision and mastering | Jean-Daniel Noir
Executive producer | Jan De Winne, Musurgia BVBA
Photos| Alina Antoniou (p. 49), Richard Dumas (p. 50), Daniel Vass (p. 53),
Mario Leko (p. 54), Bart Vandewege (p. 55)
Artwork | Lucia Ghielmi
Editorial supervision | Susanne Lowien
Made in the Netherlands
Ⓟ 2019 Passacaille | © 2019 Passacaille | PAS 1053 passacaille.be
ilgardellino.be

We would like to thank in particular the staff and personnel of PZ Onzelievevrouw Brugge
and the staff and volunteers of MAfestival Brugge